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Sample records for utilization by-product processing

  1. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  2. Utilization of citrus crops processing by-products in the preparation of tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available After processing of citrus fruits (e.g. lemon, orange, grapefruit, mandarin for juice and essential oils production, approximately 50% of the original fruit mass is left as waste material. Citrus crops processing by-products are valuable components as they contain nutrients such as pectins, saccharides, carotenoids, some vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and substances with antioxidant activity. Utilisation of these kind of side products in the recipe of various cereal product led to enhancement of final product nutritional value and better sensory attributes as well as improvement of product functional properties. In this work was studied the effect of orange and mandarin dietary fibre application at level 5 and 10% (w/w in tarhana preparation and the influence on tarhana fermentation process. Chemical analysis showed, that dietary fibre preparations reached higher concentration of ash, fat and total dietary fibre compared to wheat flour. Wheat flour exhibited higher moisture content and protein concentration than citrus dietary fibre preparations. Orange and mandarin dietary fibre preparations showed higher values of water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity and least gellation concentration compared to wheat flour. Application of fruit dietary fibre preparations to tarhana recipe caused a rapid decrease in pH from 4.70 - 5.02 to values 4.31 - 4.51 during fermentation process. Reducing saccharides served as an available source of energy for fermenting microbiota and their concentration decreased from 24.5 - 32.8 to 2.2 - 0.2 g/kg after 144 h incubation. Fermentation also led to lactic acid (1.67 - 2.09 g/kg and acetic acid (1.91 - 2.53 g/kg production as a consequence of present microorganisms metabolic activity. Sensory evaluation of samples showed, that higher proportion of citrus dietary fibre preparations (10% negatively affected taste, odour, consistency and sourness. Among all prepared tarhana samples with proportion of citrus

  3. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i

  4. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  5. The utilization of waste by-products for removing silicate from mineral processing wastewater via chemical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianhua; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Zhang, Qingpeng; Liu, Hang; Meng, Xiangsong

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates an environmentally friendly technology that utilizes waste by-products (waste acid and waste alkali liquids) to treat mineral processing wastewater. Chemical precipitation is used to remove silicate from scheelite (CaWO 4 ) cleaning flotation wastewater and the waste by-products are used as a substitute for calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ). A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to explain the removal of silicate and the characterization and formation mechanism of calcium silicate. The results show that silicate removal reaches 90% when the Ca:Si molar ratio exceeds 1.0. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the characterization and formation of calcium silicate. The pH is the key factor for silicate removal, and the formation of polysilicic acid with a reduction of pH can effectively improve the silicate removal and reduce the usage of calcium. The economic analysis shows that the treatment costs with waste acid (0.63 $/m 3 ) and waste alkali (1.54 $/m 3 ) are lower than that of calcium chloride (2.38 $/m 3 ). The efficient removal of silicate is confirmed by industrial testing at a plant. The results show that silicate removal reaches 85% in the recycled water from tailings dam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilization of a by-product produced from oxidative desulfurization process over Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonjoo; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Do Heui; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the use of Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts to upgrade a by-product of oxidative desulfurization (ODS). Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts were characterized through N2 adsorption, XRD, CO2-temperature-programmed desorption, and XRF. Cs-mesoporous silica prepared by the direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance than a Cs/MCM-41 catalyst by impregnation method for the catalytic decomposition of sulfone compounds produced from ODS process.

  7. The Airborne Process{sup TM} : advancement in multi-pollutant emissions control technology by product utilization and the commercialization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortson, M. [Airborne Clean Energy LLC, Terrace Park, OH (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described research and development programs conducted to develop a pollution abatement technology called the Airborne process. The Airborne process is comprised of 3 stages: (1) sodium flue gas purification; (2) sodium bicarbonate regeneration; and (3) a patented granulation process in which ammonia byproducts are transformed into fertilizer. A research program conducted by CANMET developed a new technique to remove heavy metals from sodium sulfate scrubbing solutions, and tested the scrubbing of mixed flue gas in a bench-scale reaction chamber. Pilot tests were conducted to scrub the flue gas in a 0.3 MW coal-fired combustor. The removal of heavy metals and particulates prior to fertilizer production resulted in fertilizer purity that exceeds all global standards. A total of 11 combustion trials were conducted with 11 different types of coal. Results of vertical combustor tests showed that both sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) decreased rapidly after injection started. The scrubber was effective in removing oxidized states of NO as well as 75 per cent of mercury (Hg) capture. The technology was adopted by the Kentucky Utilities Generating Station 6 MW regeneration plant, which developed an automated operation of a scaled down version of the CANMET system. Sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and sulfite (SO{sub 3}) reduction at the plant was almost 100 per cent. NO{sub x} reduction to date was approximately 92 per cent, while Hg reduction was 70 per cent. An advanced mercury and NO{sub x} program was developed to examine the chemical effects of oxidants as well as to examine methods of total mercury and NO{sub x} removal. A simplified process schematic of the system was provided. The 3 proven technologies were then integrated to form the Airborne system. It was concluded that full-scale systems are now in operation in power plants across North America. A case study of the Airborne process used at the Mustang generating station in New

  8. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An integrated bio-process for production of functional biomolecules utilizing raw and by-products from dairy and sugarcane industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2018-04-21

    The study investigated an integrated bioprocessing of raw and by-products from sugarcane and dairy industries for production of non-digestible prebiotic and functional ingredients. The low-priced feedstock, whey, molasses, table sugar, jaggery, etc., were subjected to transglucosylation reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. HPLC analysis approximated production of about 11-14 g L -1 trisaccharide i.e. 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose (4-galactosyl-kojibiose) from the feedstock prepared from table sugar, jaggery, cane molasses and liquid whey, containing about 30 g L -1 sucrose and lactose each. The trisaccharide was hydrolysed into the prebiotic disaccharide, kojibiose, by employing recombinant β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The enzyme β-galactosidase achieved about 90% conversion of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose into kojibiose. The D-fructose generated by catalytic reactions of dextransucrase was targeted for catalytic transformation into rare sugar, D-allulose (or D-psicose), by treating the samples with Smt3-D-psicose 3-epimerase. The catalytic reactions resulted in the conversion of ~ 25% D-fructose to D-allulose. These bioactive compounds are known to exert a plethora of benefits to human health, and therefore, are preferred ingredients for making functional foods.

  10. Comparative Phytonutrient Analysis of Broccoli By-Products: The Potentials for Broccoli By-Product Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengpei; Zhang, Lihua; Ser, Suk Lan; Cumming, Jonathan R; Ku, Kang-Mo

    2018-04-13

    The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues. Broccoli florets had higher concentrations of amino acids, glucoraphanin, and neoglucobrassicin compared to other tissues, whereas leaves were higher in carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Leaves were also good sources of calcium and manganese compared to other tissues. Stems had the lowest nitrile formation from glucosinolate. Each tissue exhibited specific core gene expression profiles supporting glucosinolate metabolism, with different gene homologs expressed in florets, stems, and leaves, which suggests that tissue-specific pathways function to support primary and secondary metabolic pathways in broccoli. This comprehensive nutrient and bioactive compound profile represents a useful resource for the evaluation of broccoli by-product utilization in the human diet, and as feedstocks for bioactive compounds for industry.

  11. Comparative Phytonutrient Analysis of Broccoli By-Products: The Potentials for Broccoli By-Product Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengpei Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues. Broccoli florets had higher concentrations of amino acids, glucoraphanin, and neoglucobrassicin compared to other tissues, whereas leaves were higher in carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Leaves were also good sources of calcium and manganese compared to other tissues. Stems had the lowest nitrile formation from glucosinolate. Each tissue exhibited specific core gene expression profiles supporting glucosinolate metabolism, with different gene homologs expressed in florets, stems, and leaves, which suggests that tissue-specific pathways function to support primary and secondary metabolic pathways in broccoli. This comprehensive nutrient and bioactive compound profile represents a useful resource for the evaluation of broccoli by-product utilization in the human diet, and as feedstocks for bioactive compounds for industry.

  12. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  13. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolesárová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered.

  14. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  15. Utilization of steam treated agricultural by -product as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, M.; Rajput, N.; Lili, Z.; Su, Z.; Rui, Y.; Tian, W.

    2014-01-01

    Shortage of animal food is a burning issue of the recent time, whereas the agricultural by -products are readily available to be used as ruminants feed. However, the low protein and digestibility are the hindrances in utilization of these low quality crop residues as a feed. In order to utilize rice straw as animal feed this study was conducted to investigate the influence of steam explosion treatment on its composition and in vitro degradability. The samples, I (untreated rice straw), II (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/ sub2/ steam pressure for 90 sec) and III (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/steam pressure for 120 sec) were prepared. The results revealed that the crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents of rice straw were improved after treatment with steam explosion in time dependent manner (P<0.05). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and organic matter (OM) were higher, while dry matter (DM) and ash contents were lower (P<0.05) in II as compared to group I and III; however, after increasing the time at same pressure these parameters decreased. Furthermore, group III showed higher concentration of propionate, acetate, butyrate, and total VFA (P<0.05). While, group I exhibited higher concentration of iso-butyrate and iso-valerate (P<0.05). The concentration of valeric acid and acetate to propionate ratio were not affected by steam explosion treatment. Moreover, group III showed the higher in vitro DM degradability, OM degradability, DNDF and gas production (P<0.05); while, lower DADF and pH (P<0.05) compared with groups I and II. These findings suggest that the steam explosion treatment at 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/ pressure for 120 sec, may be used to enhance the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw. (author)

  16. CONSIDERATIONS IN UTILIZING BY-PRODUCT CARBOHYDRATES IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    By-product feeds provide a variety of carbohydrates that can vary greatly in their content, digestibility, and physical effects. Variation in the composition and quality of by-product feeds needs to be evaluated to assess whether the variation poses an acceptable risk for inclusion of small or larg...

  17. Utilization of by-products in ruminant diets in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economides, S.; Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1987-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out with the objective of studying the nutritive value of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products, either alone or in combination with non-protein nitrogen, and the use of these by-products in ruminant diets. The intake and nutritive value of poor quality roughages and other by-products (cereal straw, peanut hulls and waste paper) were improved considerably by supplements that provide nitrogen (soybean meal or urea) and energy (barley grain). Partial replacement of soybean meal in diets of fattening lambs by urea was possible and dry mature sheep could be maintained on cereal straw diets supplemented with small quantities of barley grain, urea, minerals and vitamins. Silage was made from citrus peels or grape marc and poultry litter. It replaced successfully part of the concentrate mixture in the diets of lactating cows and growing heifers. (author)

  18. UN-ECE task force: 'by-product utilization from stationary installations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, A. E.; Zehetner, G.

    1996-09-01

    The task force has concluded as followed: Major sources of by-products considered in this report from stationary installations are large scale firing installations, waste incineration, upgrading processes and utilization in iron and steel, aluminium and copper industry, and the pulp and paper industry. The share of each sector source to the total amount of by-products generated differs significantly in the participating countries. State of the art processes as described in the report take account of the need for integrated pollution prevention and control. In particular the requirements set out in the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution can still be satisfied when applying these state of the art processes. The report shows that a number of techniques for avoidance, reduction and/or utilization of by-products are in commercial operation in the branches discussed. They can therefore be considered to be best available. For some special by-products technical processes for the treatment are still in development and are not yet state-of-the-art. The implementation of the already proven techniques varies considerably in the different ECE-countries. This is mainly due to the following circumstances: differences in the design and stringency of legal regulations, availability of landfilling sites, costs of disposal, differences in industrial structure. Problems with by-product utilization originate mainly from: a) from a loss of international competitiveness of the respective industrial sector, if the reduction of the amount of by-products or their utilization leads to higher costs than conventional processes; b) from quality standards for materials which are inadequate for secondary raw materials thus creating acceptance problems of these materials. C) In some cases incineration and/or thermal recycling processes generate PCDD/F. quantities produces may be capable of reduction by means of process modification. If, however PCDD/F is released to the

  19. Utilization of whey powder as substrate for low-cost preparation of β-galactosidase as main product, and ethanol as by-product, by a litre-scale integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shengping; Chang, Hongxing; Yin, Qingdian; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2017-12-01

    Whey powder, a by-product of dairy industry, is an attractive raw material for value-added products. In this study, utilization of whey powder as substrate for low-cost preparation of β-galactosidase as main product and ethanol as by-product were investigated by a litre-scale integrated strategy, encompassing fermentation, isolation, permeabilization and spray drying. Firstly, through development of low-cost industrial culture and fed-batch strategies by Kluyveromyces lactis, 119.30U/mL β-galactosidase activity and 16.96mg/mL by-product ethanol were achieved. Afterward, an up-dated mathematic model for the recycling permeabilization was established successfully and 30.4g cells sediment isolated from 5L fermentation broth were permeabilized completely by distilled ethanol from broth supernatant. Then β-galactosidase product with 5.15U/mg from protection of gum acacia by spray drying was obtained. Furthermore, by-product ethanol with 31.08% (v/v) was achieved after permeabilization. Therefore, the integrated strategy using whey powder as substrate is a feasible candidate for industrial-scale implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The production and utilization of by-product agricultural fertilizer from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.W.; Hirano, S.

    1992-01-01

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods for removing SO 2 and NO X from industrial flue gases and producing a usable by-product. This paper surveys the potential for production and consumption of alternative, usable, commercial by-products, in conjunction with major reductions in the inventory of emissions of SO 2 and NO X . An examination is made of the important limitations in the annual consumptive use or price of and/or net revenues from commonplace, electric utility, by-product types such as gypsum, sulfuric acid, etc. A principal focus of the work is an analysis and quantification of the major large-scale, growing and profitable markets for utility solid wastes that can be generated in agricultural fertilizer forms, including ammonium sulfate and other compounds that are available through stack-gas cleaning operations at large, coal-fired boilers. Cost study data is arranged to define the impact of commercial by-product yield and revenue on the economics of full scale SO 2 and NO X emission reduction activity. (author)

  1. Utilization of agro-based industrial by-products for biogas production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoc, U.N.; Schnitzer, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology, (Austria). Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems; Berghold, H. [Joanneum Research Inst. for Sustainable Techniques and Systems (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid rates of urbanization occurring in many countries in the world, the importance of an efficient and effective solid waste management system and the utilization/reuse of waste are more critical than ever before, especially for agricultural residues and agro-based industrial by-products. Over the past decade, the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily. Numbers are predicted to continue to increase as well. There is significant potential to use the large amount of wastes for biogas conversion processes and for further production of commercial energy. This paper presented starts with estimation and analysis of the amounts of organic waste, agricultural residues, and agro-based industrial by-products generated from food industrial processes using general data sources for Vietnam. A laboratory study examined the use of agro-based industrial by-products and agricultural residues from cassava, sweet potato, pineapple residues, organic wastes, manures as input materials for biogas production in the anaerobic process. This paper provided an overview of Vietnam as a country, as well as a general overview of the amount of organic waste generated in the country. It also discussed the fermentation tests that were conducted to find out the potential of biogas production from some residues. It was concluded that a significant portion of waste could be reused as an environmentally sound source of energy. The utilization of agricultural residues and industrial byproducts as input materials for biogas production will not only reduce the quantity of organic waste thrown into landfills, but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. The production and utilization of by-product agricultural fertilizer from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.W.; Hirano, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods for removing SO 2 and NO x from industrial flue gases and producing a usable by-product. This flue gas treatment consists of adding a small amount of ammonia to the flue gas and irradiating the gas by means of an electron beam. This causes reactions which convert SO 2 and NO x to ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. These salts are then collected from the flue gas by conventional collectors, such as a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator. This paper will describe the potential for production of the fertilizer and will analyze the market potential and consumption of the by-product. A principal focus of the work is an analysis and quantification of the major large-scale, growing and profitable markets for utility solid wastes that can be generated in the form of agricultural fertilizer. Cost study data is arranged to define the impact of commercial by-product field and revenue on the economics of full scale SO 2 and NO x emission reduction activity

  3. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, T.R.; Parra, R.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  4. Characterization of by-products from the Coolside process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Thomas, G.A.; Schram, W.H.; Givens, E.N.; Robertson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Coolside is a flexible dry flue gas desulfurization process for removal of SO 2 from coal fired power plants emissions. Hydrated lime is pneumatically injected dry into the power plant duct work on the cool side of the air preheater. The flue gas stream is then humidified to within about 20--30 F of adiabatic saturation by spraying atomized water. A critical component of the Coolside process is the addition of a promoter to the water spray to enhance SO 2 capture efficiency. In general, sodium based compounds have been found to be the most effective promoters, although chloride salts have also been shown to be effective if added during lime hydration. The Coolside technology was successfully demonstrated at the Ohio Edison Edgewater Plant as part of a US DOE supported US EPA demonstration program. The test lasted from July 1989 through February 1990 and had two primary goals. First, to achieve overall SO 2 reductions of 30%, 50%, and 70%. Second, to achieve reliable process operations at 20 and 25 F approach to adiabatic saturation. The demonstration was considered successful. The Coolside solids differ from other dry scrubber wastes in that the residual lime is hydrated and from other low temperature scrubbing wastes in that the sorbent activator, NaOH in this case, introduces significant quantities of sodium compounds in the waste. Sixty-five tons of the waste were collected during the demonstration runs in February 1990 in order to assess the environmental impact of the by-product through a series of field lysimeter and laboratory column leaching studies. In the first phase of this assessment, approximately 400 samples of the by-product material have been analyzed for the major, minor, and trace elements by the ultimate and proximate analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and PIXE/PIGE analysis. The results of these analyses and the unique chemistry of the Coolside solids as a function of processing variables is presented in this paper

  5. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Lobster processing by-products as valuable bioresource of marine functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Barber, Andrew R; Corbin, Kendall; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide annual production of lobster was 165,367 tons valued over $3.32 billion in 2004, but this figure rose up to 304,000 tons in 2012. Over half the volume of the worldwide lobster production has been processed to meet the rising global demand in diversified lobster products. Lobster processing generates a large amount of by-products (heads, shells, livers, and eggs) which account for 50-70% of the starting material. Continued production of these lobster processing by-products (LPBs) without corresponding process development for efficient utilization has led to disposal issues associated with costs and pollutions. This review presents the promising opportunities to maximize the utilization of LPBs by economic recovery of their valuable components to produce high value-added products. More than 50,000 tons of LPBs are globally generated, which costs lobster processing companies upward of about $7.5 million/year for disposal. This not only presents financial and environmental burdens to the lobster processors but also wastes a valuable bioresource. LPBs are rich in a range of high-value compounds such as proteins, chitin, lipids, minerals, and pigments. Extracts recovered from LPBs have been demonstrated to possess several functionalities and bioactivities, which are useful for numerous applications in water treatment, agriculture, food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical products, and biomedicine. Although LPBs have been studied for recovery of valuable components, utilization of these materials for the large-scale production is still very limited. Extraction of lobster components using microwave, ultrasonic, and supercritical fluid extraction were found to be promising techniques that could be used for large-scale production. LPBs are rich in high-value compounds that are currently being underutilized. These compounds can be extracted for being used as functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals in a wide range of commercial applications

  7. Non-protein and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tareque, A.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments were designed to (1) investigate mixtures of locally available feedstuffs, particularly agro-industrial by-products with or without non-protein nitrogen supplementation as production rations for local and imported breeds of ruminants, (2) formulate rations based on locally available feedstuffs which can be compounded either on a large scale or at the village level for local animals, (3) determine the nutritive value of some non-conventional feedstuffs in terms of their digestibility and their ability to promote microbial synthesis. Rice straw, constituting about 85% of the total available feed dry matter in Bangladesh, is considered a basal, or sometimes the sole, feed for ruminant animals. The efficiency of utilization of rice straw could be improved by adding non-conventional feed resources, such as azolla, banana plant, sweet potato leaves and other legumes and grasses. Rates of growth and feed efficiency by local animals were found to be higher in those fed with urea treated rice straw or bagasse, with or without the addition of concentrates, than in animals fed untreated straw. Rations were also found to be satisfactory when rice straw was fed in combination with urea, legumes such as cowpea hay, azolla and sweet potato leaves or concentrates. It is concluded that the utilization of rice straw by ruminants can be improved by suitable supplementation with non-conventional feed resources. Research is needed to evaluate the use of molasses as a feed ingredient for ruminants in Bangladesh. (author)

  8. Regional softwood sawmill processing variables as influenced by productive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. H. Steele; F. G. Wagner; K. E. Skog

    The relationship between annual softwood sawmill production and lumber processing variables was examined using data from Sawmill Improvement Program (SIP) studies of 650 softwood mills. The variables were lumber recovery factor (LRF); headrig and resaw kerf width; total sawing variation, rough green size, and oversizing-undersizing for 4/4 and 8/4 lumber; planer...

  9. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  10. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kevin [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beeghly, Joel H. [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  11. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  12. Investigation of coal combustion by-product utilization for oyster reef development in Texas bay waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.B. Jr.; Ray, S.M.; Landry, A.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Houston Lighting and Power Company (HL and P), Texas A and M University at Galveston and JTM Industries, Inc. initiated research in May 1988 and coordinated it with state and federal resource protection agencies to investigate the use of certain HL and P coal combustion by-products (CCBP) for enhancing and creating oyster reefs. Initial research involved determining and optimum mix design based on compressive strength, leaching potential, biofouling success, and cost. CCBP material was found to exceed compressive strength criterion (300 psi for at sign 14 days) and was not a significant leaching source. Candidate mix designs and oyster shell controls were exposed to hatchery-reared oyster larvae to determine spat setability and biofouling success. Larvae setting on CCBP substrate developed into spat and grew at a rate comparable to that for larvae on controls. Since all candidate mix designs exhibited excellent biofouling, an optimum design was chosen based on strength and material cost factors. Chemical analyses conducted to determine materials did not significantly contribute to the trace element load in oysters. Development of oyster cultch material was initiated with input from commercial 2.5 to 7.6 cm (1 to 3 inch) diameter pellets which are irregularly shaped and rough textured. These pellets greatly enhance water circulation, provide maximum setting potential for oyster larvae, and maximize the surface area to volume potential of the CCBP material

  13. Coal combustion by-product (CCB) utilization in turfgrass sod production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, M.J.; Miller, W.P. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop & Soil Science

    2004-04-01

    Coal combustion by-products (CCB) are produced nationwide, generating 101 Mg of waste annually. Though varied, the majority of CCB are crystalline alumino-silicate minerals. Both disposal costs of CCB and interest in alternative horticultural/agricultural production systems have increased recently. Field studies assessed the benefit of CCB and organic waste/product mixtures as supplemental soil/growth media for production of hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) sod. Growth media were applied at depths of 2 to 4 cm (200 to 400 m{sup 3}{center_dot}ha{sup -1}) and vegetatively established by sprigging. Cultural practices typical of commercial methods were employed over 99- or 114-day growth periods. Sod was monitored during these propagation cycles, then harvested, evaluated, and installed offsite in a typical lawn-establishment method. Results showed mixtures of CCB and biosolids as growth media increased yield of biomass, with both media and tissue having greater nutrient content than the control media. Volumetric water content of CCB-containing media significantly exceeded that of control media and soil included with a purchased bermudagrass sod. Once installed, sod grown on CCB-media did not differ in rooting strength from control or purchased sod. When applied as described, physicochemical characteristics of CCB-media are favorable and pose little environmental risk to soil or water resources.

  14. Utilization of by-products and locally available feedstuffs in buffalo rations in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, M.A.; Tareque, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to investigate methods of urea incorporation into rice straw based rations, and to determine the optimum level of wheat bran, rice polishings, fish meal and/or broken rice supplementation of rice straw/urea based diets for growing buffaloes. The results indicate that the utilization of rice straw can be improved by ensiling with urea, soaking with urea-water, or supplementing with urea/molasses blocks, fish meal, rice polishings, or a combination of other bypass protein and energy feeds. For example, ensiling with urea increased the dry matter (DM) intake and body weight gain by 25 and 45%, respectively, compared with untreated straw. Fish meal, in combination with wheat bran, rice polishings or broken rice as supplementary sources of protein and energy, gave varying levels of body weight gain and DM intake, although, in general, all supplements improved straw utilization. Soaking of straw in urea-water is an easy and suitable method of incorporating urea into straw based rations. Supplementation of soaked straw with fish meal or rice polishings increased the live weight gain in buffalo heifers. However, the economic feasibility of using fish meal and broken rice as supplementary sources of protein and energy should be considered before these results are extended to the small farmers. (author). 12 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Defense by-products production and utilization program: noble metal recovery screening experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, R.F.; Jensen, G.A.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Isotopes of the platinum metals (rutheium, rhodium, and palladium) are produced during uranium fuel fission in nuclear reactors. The strategic values of these noble metals warrant considering their recovery from spent fuel should the spent fuel be processed after reactor discharge. A program to evaluate methods for ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium recovery from spent fuel reprocessing liquids was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the work reported in this docuent was to evaluate several recovery processes revealed in the patent and technical literature. Beaker-scale screening tests were initiated for three potential recovery processes: precipitation during sugar denitration of nitric acid reprocessing solutions after plutonium-uranium solvent extraction, adsorption using nobe metal selective chelates on active carbon, and reduction forming solid noble metal deposits on an amine-borane reductive resin. Simulated reprocessing plant solutions representing typical nitric acid liquids from defense (PUREX) or commercial fuel reprocessing facilities were formulated and used for evaluation of the three processes. 9 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Utilization of agro-industrial by-products by swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelan, Z.A.; Jalaludin, S.; Vijchulata, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the factors affecting the utilization of palm press fibre (PPF) by swamp buffaloes. The nutritive values, fermentation and rumen kinetics, intake and growth responses to a PPF based diet with or without protein and energy supplementation were studied. Palm press fibre was considered a poor quality feed as it is low in crude protein (about 6%) and high in lignin content (about 21%). Dry matter (DM) disappearance from nylon bags at 48 h was low (about 40%) as compared with grass (47%), oaten hay (49%) and lucerne (64%). Sodium hydroxide (8% solution) was most effective as a treating agent as the DM disappearance of PPF from the nylon bags at 48 h was increased by 14%. Dry matter loss from the bags was greater in swamp buffaloes than in cattle. Rumen fluid volume and flow rate were not significantly (P>0.05) increased with fish meal supplementation, but the total dry matter intake (DMI) increased significantly (P<0.05) when 360 g DM/d fish meal was supplemented. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were low in unsupplemented animals and the molar proportions of the VFAs were typical of those seen in the rumen fluid of ruminants fed a fibre based diet. Rumen ammonia-nitrogen was high (40-70 mg/L) in fish meal supplemented animals. When urea treated PPF was supplemented with fish meal and cassava, the animals showed significant increases (P<0.05) in average daily gain and in both total DMI and in the DMI of a basal diet. The study concludes that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein and an energy source are essential to a PPF based diet and that untreated PPF is not a suitable basal diet for swamp buffaloes. (author)

  17. By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Djilas

    Full Text Available The processing of fruits results in high amounts of waste materials such as peels, seeds, stones, and oilseed meals. A disposal of these materials usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Thus new aspects concerning the use of these wastes as by-products for further exploitation on the production of food additives or supplements with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest because these are high-value products and their recovery may be economically attractive. It is well known that by-products represent an important source of sugars, minerals, organic acid, dietary fibre and phenolics which have a wide range of action which includes antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cardioprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review discusses the potential of the most important by-products of apple, grape and citrus fruits processing as a source of valuable compounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a number of references.

  18. Processing and utilization of metallurgical slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pribulová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy and foundry industry create a huge amount of slags that are by-products in production of pig iron, steel and cast iron. Slag is produced in a very large amount in pyrometallurgical processes, and is a huge source of waste if not properly recycled and utilized. With rapid growth of industrialization, land available for land-filling of large quantity of metallurgical slag is being reduced all over the world and disposal cost is becoming increasingly higher. Metallurgical slag from different metallurgical processes treated and utilized in different ways based on different slag characteristics. The most economic and efficient option for reducing metallurgical waste is through recycling, which is a significant contribution to saving natural resources and reducing CO2 emissions. Characteristic of slags as well as its treatment and utilization are given in the paper. Slag from pig iron and steel production is used most frequently in building industry. From experiments using blast furnace slag and granulated blast furnace slag as gravel, and water glass as binder it can be concluded that that the best results – the best values of compression strength and tensile strength were reached by using of 18% of water glass as a solidification activating agent. According to cubic compression strength, mixture from 50% blast furnace gravel, 50% granulated blast furnace slag and 18% water glass falls into C35/45 class of concrete. Such concrete also fulfils strength requirements for road concrete, moreover, it even exceeds them considerably and, therefore, it can find an application in construction of road communications or in production of concrete slabs.

  19. HPLC evaluation of the minor lipid components of by-products resulting from edible oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL-Shami, Safinaz Mohamed M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical evaluation of some by-products resulting from edible oil refining processing steps has been carried out. By-product samples were taken from four different local refineries that apply chemical refining technology. Pretreatment of the representative samples of the by-products were done prior to analysis followed by chromatographic isolation and derivatization of the minor components, namely, free and acylated sterol (FS and AS as well as free and acylated sterylglycosides (FSG and ASG. However, tocopherols were directly determined in the pretreated samples. HPLC, using different detectors, was carried out for the determination of these minor components. Several authors have focused on the analysis of sterols and sterol esters, as well as tocopherols in the refining byproducts; however sterylglycosides, as biologically important components, have not been dealt with. This study throws light on the by – products enriched with certain minor components to be possibly utilized as sources for such components. Also, the role of the conditions of the refining steps followed in removing these valuable minor components from oils was discussed. It was found that soapstock samples contained various amounts of total tocopherols ranging from 80 to 230ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 240 to 4000 mg/100g while total FSG and ASG ranged from 1120 to 6375 mg/100g. In the case of deodorization distillate samples total tocopherols ranged from 960 to 7360ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 1020 to 4160 mg/100g and total FSG, ASG ranged from 395 to 880 mg/100g.El trabajo realiza una evaluación analítica de algunos subproductos resultantes del la refinación de aceites comestibles. Las muestras procedieron de 4 plantas que aplicaban refinación química. Después de un pretratamiento de las muestras estas se sometieron a un análisis cromatográfico para el aislamiento y derivatización de los siguientes componentes minoritarios: esteroles libres y

  20. Disinfection by-products/precursor control using an innovative treatment process -- high energy electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawal, K.; Millington, B.; Slifker, R.A.; Cooper, W.J.; Nickelsen, M.G.; Kurucz, C.N.; Waite, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    When waters containing naturally occurring humic substances, precursors, are chlorinated, reaction (disinfection) by-products (DBPs) that may compromise the chemical water quality of the drinking water are formed. Two options exist for the treatment of THMs and other DBPs, removal of precursor material prior to chlorination, or destruction of the by-products once they are formed. The authors have initiated a study using an innovative process, high energy electron beam irradiation, as an alternative treatment for the destruction of toxic organic compounds. Preliminary studies indicated that the process would also be effective in the removal of precursors. An added advantage of this process is that is would serve as a primary disinfectant, destroying any toxic compounds in the source water and may assist in the removal of algae and cyanobacteria toxins. This paper discusses studies in precursor removal and control of THMs

  1. Biogas production from potato-juice, a by-product from potato-starch processing, in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/gVS-added. Ana......In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/g...

  2. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product".

  3. Extrusion Processing of Raw Food Materials and by-products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Vivian; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Falade, Kolawole O

    2018-05-22

    Extrusion technology has rapidly transformed the food industry with its numerous advantages over other processing methods. It offers a platform for processing different products from various food groups by modifying minor or major ingredients and processing conditions. Although cereals occupy a large portion of the extruded foods market, several other types of raw materials have been used. Extrusion processing of various food groups, including cereals and pseudo cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and animal products, as well as structural and nutritional changes in these food matrices are reviewed. Value addition by extrusion to food processing wastes and by-products from fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat and seafood, cereals and residues from starch, syrup and alcohol production, and oilseed processing are also discussed. Extrusion presents an economical technology for incorporating food processing residues and by-products back into the food stream. In contemporary scenarios, rising demand for extruded products with functional ingredients, attributed to evolving lifestyles and preferences, have led to innovations in the form, texture, color and content of extruded products. Information presented in this review would be of importance to processors and researchers as they seek to enhance nutritional quality and delivery of extruded products.

  4. A review of lipid extraction from fish processing by-product for use as a biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeoti, Ibraheem A.; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Fish processing facilities generate a significant amount of fish by-products that could be an important source of energy, food, or industrial feedstock. While fish oil is a natural source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) used in nutritional supplements, the ability to extract, refine, and get to market of these oils may be challenging at processing facilities where there is limited infrastructure and plants are remotely located. Under these conditions, extraction of oil from fish by-product for use as an in-house or regional fuel may be both economically and environmentally be a more sustainable approach. Processes to extract and refine fish oil for fuel are less energy intensive than the processes for nutritional quality oils and do not require the stringent product specifications and approval process as in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Unlike food crops, extraction of oil from fish residue does not negatively impact food production. This paper presents an overview of developments made in fish oil extraction methodologies including physical, chemical and biological processes. - Highlights: • We have reviewed various lipid extraction methods from fish residue. • Low grade fish oils for fuel applications can be beneficial to facility and region. • The environmental impacts and safety issues can be reduced using SFE method

  5. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  6. Collection and application of by-product formed in e-b flue gas treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Tokunaga, O.; Machi, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the e-b process SO 2 and NO x are converted into ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate, which condenses from gas phase in the form of submicrone particles. These salts are a valuable fertilizer and should be removed from cleaned gas. Bag filter, ESP and wet gravel bed filter were applied for collecting of salt particles in pilot plant facilities. Up to now ESP is considered to be the best filtration method of aerosols formed after irradiation of flue gas. Collected salts after granulation may be used as a fertilizer enriching soil in nitrogen and sulphur or as a component of mixed fertilizer. Analysis of by-products from different e-b pilot plants confirms that it does not contain any harmful substances like heavy metals and fulfill all standards for commercial fertilizers. Also field experiments show that the by-products have the same properties as a commercial fertilizer

  7. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  8. Research of Environmental and Economic Interactions of Coke And By-Product Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir; Kiseleva, Tamara; Bugrova, Svetlana; Muromtseva, Alina; Mikhailova, Yana

    2017-11-01

    The issues of showing relations between environmental and economic indicators (further - environmental and economic interactions) of coke and by-product process are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is to reveal the regularities of the functioning of the local environmental and economic system on the basis of revealed spectrum of environmental and economic interactions. A simplified scheme of the environmental and economic system "coke and by-product process - the environment" was developed. The forms of the investigated environmental-economic interactions were visualized and the selective interpretation of the tightness of the established connection was made. The main result of the work is modeling system of environmental and economic interactions that allows increasing the efficiency of local ecological and economic system management and optimizing the "interests" of an industrial enterprise - the source of negative impact on the environment. The results of the survey can be recommended to government authorities and industrial enterprises with a wide range of negative impact forms to support the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at sustainable environmental and economic development of the region or individual municipalities.

  9. Removal of disinfection by-product precursors by coagulation and an innovative suspended ion exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, David; Rockey, Chris; Jefferson, Bruce; Judd, Simon; Jarvis, Peter

    2015-12-15

    This investigation aimed to compare the disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBPFPs) of three UK surface waters (1 upland reservoir and 2 lowland rivers) with differing characteristics treated by (a) a full scale conventional process and (b) pilot scale processes using a novel suspended ion exchange (SIX) process and inline coagulation (ILCA) followed by ceramic membrane filtration (CMF). Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection analysis highlighted clear differences between the organic fractions removed by coagulation and suspended ion exchange. Pretreatments which combined SIX and coagulation resulted in significant reductions in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance (UVA), trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential (THMFP, HAAFP), in comparison with the SIX or coagulation process alone. Further experiments showed that in addition to greater overall DOC removal, the processes also reduced the concentration of brominated DBPs and selectively removed organic compounds with high DBPFP. The SIX/ILCA/CMF process resulted in additional removals of DOC, UVA, THMFP, HAAFP and brominated DBPs of 50, 62, 62, 62% and 47% respectively compared with conventional treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Functional properties and dietary fiber characterization of mango processing by-products (Mangifera indica L., cv Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Magaña, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo S; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; de Oca, Miguel Mata-Montes

    2013-09-01

    Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42%, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content.

  11. Rational use of by-products in the processing of turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A man's life, his health and work is impossible without full of food. According to the theory of balanced nutrition in the human diet should contain not only proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the required quantity, but also substances such as essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals in certain, beneficial to human proportions. In the organization of proper nutrition the primary role of the meat products. Turkey is the largest after the ostrich poultry are grown in Russia on an industrial scale. Undoubtedly, the leading positions on the market of poultry meat is chicken products, but in recent years Turkey meat is becoming increasingly popular. The processed by-products include liver, heart, gizzard, neck, feet, head, and corals. The highest mass fraction of Turkey offal is the liver, heart, gizzard. It was established experimentally that the output of the liver is of 1.23%, the output of the heart 0,45%, muscular stomach of 1.87%. The article presents data on the study of the chemical composition of the offal of turkeys, fractional composition of proteins, the assessment of the nutritional and biological value of byproducts. The objects of study are: offal (liver, heart, gizzard broiler turkeys received at home as a result of slaughter and primary processing. Despite the fact that Turkey sufficiently studied in terms of nutritional and biological value, however, information information on evaluation of properties of by-products is not enough. However, according to our estimates, they have considerable potential in the development of innovative products for food, feed and medical purposes on the basis of deep processing of all resources.

  12. In Vitro Characterization of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fruit Processing By-Products as Potential Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-08-23

    Nine wild Lactobacillus strains, namely Lactobacillus plantarum 53, Lactobacillus fermentum 56, L. fermentum 60, Lactobacillus paracasei 106, L. fermentum 250, L. fermentum 263, L. fermentum 139, L. fermentum 141, and L. fermentum 296, isolated from fruit processing by-products were evaluated in vitro for a series of safety, physiological functionality, and technological properties that could enable their use as probiotics. Considering the safety aspects, the resistance to antibiotics varied among the examined strains, and none of the strains presented hemolytic and mucinolytic activity. Regarding the physiological functionality properties, none of the strains were able to deconjugate bile salts; all of them presented low to moderate cell hydrophobicity and were able to autoaggregate, coaggregate with Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and antagonize pathogenic bacteria. Exposure to pH 2 sharply decreased the survival of the examined strains after 1- or 2-h exposure; variable decreases were noted after 3-h exposure to pH 3. Overall, exposure to pH 5 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.3, and 1%) did not decrease the strains' survival. Examined strains presented better ability to survive from the exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions in laboratorial media and milk than in grape juice. Considering the technological properties, all the strains were positive for proteolytic activity and EPS and diacetyl production, and most of them had good tolerance to 1-4% NaCl. These results indicate that wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from fruit processing by-products could present performance compatible with probiotic properties and technological features that enable the development of probiotic foods with distinct characteristics.

  13. Green remediation of contaminated sediment by stabilization/solidification with industrial by-products and CO2 utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Liang; Tsang, Daniel C W; Li, Jiang-Shan; Yeung, Tiffany L Y; Ding, Shiming; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-08-01

    Navigational dredging is an excavation of marine/freshwater sediment to maintain channels of sufficient depth for shipping safety. Due to historical inputs of anthropogenic contaminants, sediments are often contaminated by metals/metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other contaminants. Its disposal can present significant environmental and financial burdens. This study developed a novel and green remediation method for contaminated sediment using stabilization/solidification with calcium-rich/low-calcium industrial by-products and CO 2 utilization. The hydration products were evaluated by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. The incorporation of calcium carbide residue (CCR) facilitated hydration reaction and provided relatively high 7-d strength. In contrast, the addition of Class-F pulverized fly ash (PFA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) was beneficial to the 28-d strength development due to supplementary pozzolanic and hydration reactions. The employment of 1-d CO 2 curing was found to promote strength development (98%) and carbon sequestration (4.3wt%), while additional 7-d air curing facilitated cement rehydration and further carbonation in the sediment blocks. The leachability tests indicated that all studied binders, especially CCR binder, effectively immobilized contaminants in the sediments. The calcium-rich CCR and GGBS were regarded as promising candidates for augmenting the efficacy of CO 2 curing, whereas GGBS samples could be applicable as eco-paving blocks in view of their superior 28-d strength. This study presents a new and sustainable way to transform contaminated sediment into value-added materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of Smartphone Literacy In Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Yuniati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of smartphones is increasingly developing among the students. It causes various modifications of attitude and behavior, that media literacy nowadays becomes highly important. Therefore, media literacy shall become the priority for related parties specifically parents and teachers. In addition to helping to find information and to conduct fast communication, smartphone is also functions in formal learning process among the students.The aim of this research is to acknowledge the utilization of smartphones in formal learning process. This study uses qualitative descriptive method which makes serious efforts in describing and depicting utilization of smartphones in learning process among Junior High School students in Bandung. The research result shows that smartphones may function as a device to channel messages and to stimulate the mind, feeling and desire of the students which may encourage learning process in them and to give positive values and to bridge media literacy among the students.

  15. Integral process of obtaining glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiesel is obtained from about 10 years ago in Europe, and now that it has taken hold as fuel for diesel engines, it is expected a clear increase in the production of this class of fuels in a the near future. The biodiesel is derived from the transesterification reaction of castor oil with methanol, which is the main by-product the glycerol with an approximate content of 10%. Besides catalyst residuals, soaps, methanol traces, mono and diglycerides in small percentages are presented. This study proposes the separation, purification and characterization of the glycerol obtained from the transesterificación reaction of the castor oil, in order to be able to market it in the national or international market, so that it fulfills the standards of quality, which means getting a pure glycerol and the appropriate physico-chemical characteristics and techniques. The glycerin-methyl esters separation is carried out by decantation being obtained a percentage of around 70% glycerol. This percentage is subsequently increased through the purification process, using hydrochloric acid. Glycerol characterization was carried out by physicochemical and organoleptic tests. The purification process allowed us to obtain a glycerol with a percentage of purity close to 98%. It was also tested by comparison with theoretical data that remnants influenced in the physiochemical properties

  16. Biodegradation of CuTETA, an effluent by-product in mineral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Alexander M L; Kelebek, Sadan; Yue, Siqing; Ramsay, Juliana A

    2018-04-13

    Polyamines such as triethylenetetramine (TETA) and other amine chelators are used in mineral processing applications. Formation of heavy metal complexes of these reagents as a by-product in effluent water is a recent environmental concern. In this study, Paecilomyces sp. was enriched from soil on TETA as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen and was found to degrade > 96 and 90% CuTETA complexes at initial concentrations of 0.32 and 0.79 mM respectively, following 96-h incubation. After destabilization, most of the copper (> 78%) was complexed extracellularly and the rest was associated with the cell. Mass spectroscopy results provided confirmation that copper re-complexed with small, extracellular, and organic molecules. There are no reports in the literature that Paecilomyces or any other organism can grow on TETA or CuTETA. This study is the first to show that biological destabilization of CuTETA complexes in mineral processing effluents is feasible.

  17. Utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. Part 2: Potential value of Agave tequilana Weber azul leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Díaz-Teres, R; Sanjuan-Dueñas, R; Anzaldo-Hernández, J; Rowell, R M

    2001-04-01

    The leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. Different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. The usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. Of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. The fractions with higher total reducing sugars (TRS) content were the fresh fraction of partially dry leaves stuck to the head and the leaf bases with a TRS content of 16.1% and 13.1%, respectively. The highest TRS concentration (16-28%) is in the agave head which is used for tequila production. The leaves are 90-120 cm long and 8-12 cm wide and contain fiber bundles that are 23-52 cm long and 0.6-13 mm wide. The ultimate fiber length is approximately 1.6 mm with an average width of 25 microns. There are several types of leaf fibers that can be utilized depending on what part of the plant they come from and what product is desired. Agave leaf fibers were pulped using a soda pulping process and the pulp was hand formed into test sheets. Test sheets made from pulped agave leaf fibers had a breaking length comparable to paper made from both pine and eucalyptus fibers, but the tear index and burst index were lower than the other two papers.

  18. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  19. Impact of residual by-products from tungsten film deposition on process integration due to nonuniformity of the tungsten film

    CERN Document Server

    Sidhwa, A; Gandy, T; Melosky, S; Brown, W; Ang, S; Naseem, H; Ulrich, R

    2002-01-01

    The effects of residual by products from a tungsten film deposition process and their impact on process integration due to the nonuniformity of the tungsten film were investigated in this work. The tungsten film deposition process involves three steps: nucleation, stabilization, and tungsten bulk fill. Six experiments were conducted in search for a solution to the problem. The resulting data suggest that excess nitrogen left in the chamber following the tungsten nucleation step, along with residual by products, causes a shift in the tungsten film uniformity during the tungsten bulk fill process. Data reveal that, due to the residual by products, an abnormal grain growth occurs causing a variation in the tungsten thickness across the wafer during the bulk fill step. Although several possible solutions were revealed by the experiments, potential integration problems limited the acceptable solutions to one. The solution chosen was the introduction of a 10 s pumpdown immediately following the nucleation step. Thi...

  20. CONCEPT OF IN-OIL PROJECT BASED ON BIOCONVERSION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czekała

    2017-09-01

    The main assumption of the project is based on the introduction of by-products from the food processing industry to feeding with larvae of H. illucens. Biomass of insect larvae will then be processed into products that will be used for feed and energy purposes.

  1. Isotope aided studies on non-protein nitrogen and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication reports the results of a five year Co-ordinated Research Programme aimed at (1) evaluating locally available resources, in particular agro-industrial by-products as feeds for ruminant animals and (2) formulating rations using these resources to improve the level of animal production in developing countries. The Programme was executed by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development and involved 13 participants from 12 countries. The papers published here are those presented by the participants of the Programme at the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 24 to 26 March 1986

  2. Optimization of aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from shrimp processing by-products using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WENWEI

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE of oil from shrimp processing by-products was investigated. Four kinds of proteases, including alkaline protease, neutral protease, flavor protease and compound protease, were applied to hydrolysis shrimp processing by-products. The results showed that flavor protease was the best hydrolysis enzyme for shrimp processing by-products to obtain high oil recovery. The influences of four factors, including enzyme amount, liquid/solid ratio, hydrolysis time and hydrolysis temperature, on shrimp oil extraction yield were also studied. The flavor enzyme hydrolysis condition was optimized as following: enzyme amount of 2.0% (w/w, liquid/solid ratio of 9.0ml/g, hydrolysis time of 2.6 h and hydrolysis temperature of 50 °C. Under these optimum hydrolysis conditions, the experimental oil extraction yield was 88.9%.

  3. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  4. Fortification of Sardine Fish Oil from By-product of Canning Processing into Beef Meatball and Chicken Nugget

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih; Endang Trowulan; Widya Dwi Rukmi

    2017-01-01

    One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification.  Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification.  In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w).  Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle...

  5. Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    The following conclusions are drawn from the information presented in this report: (1) Joint efforts by industry and government focused on meeting RTC recommendations for reduction/removal of barriers have met with some success. The most notable of these are the changes in regulations related to CCB utilization by individual states. Regionally or nationally consistent state regulation of CCB utilization would further reduce regulatory barriers. (2) Technology changes will continue to be driven by the CAAA, and emission control technologies are expected to continue to impact the type and properties of CCBs generated. As a result, continued RD and D will be needed to learn how to utilize new and changing CCBs in environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically advantageous ways. Clean coal technology CCBs offer a new challenge because of the high volumes expected to be generated and the different characteristics of these CCBs compared to those of conventional CCBs. (3) Industry and government have developed the RD and D infrastructure to address the technical aspects of developing and testing new CCB utilization applications, but this work as well as constant quality control/quality assurance testing needs to be continued to address both industry wide issues and issues related to specific materials, regions, or users. (4) Concerns raised by environmental groups and the public will continue to provide environmental and technical challenges to the CCB industry. It is anticipated that the use of CCBs in mining applications, agriculture, structural fills, and other land applications will continue to be controversial and will require case-by-case technical and environmental information to be developed. The best use of this information will be in the development of generic regulations specifically addressing the use of CCBs in these different types of CCB applications. (5) The development of federal procurement guidelines under Executive Order 12873 titled &apos

  6. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  7. Toluene decomposition performance and NOx by-product formation during a DBD-catalyst process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufang; Liao, Xiaobin; Fu, Mingli; Huang, Haibao; Ye, Daiqi

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of toluene decomposition and formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by-products were investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with/without catalyst at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Four kinds of metal oxides, i.e., manganese oxide (MnOx), iron oxide (FeOx), cobalt oxide (CoOx) and copper oxide (CuO), supported on Al2O3/nickel foam, were used as catalysts. It was found that introducing catalysts could improve toluene removal efficiency, promote decomposition of by-product ozone and enhance CO2 selectivity. In addition, NOx was suppressed with the decrease of specific energy density (SED) and the increase of humidity, gas flow rate and toluene concentration, or catalyst introduction. Among the four kinds of catalysts, the CuO catalyst showed the best performance in NOx suppression. The MnOx catalyst exhibited the lowest concentration of O3 and highest CO2 selectivity but the highest concentration of NOx. A possible pathway for NOx production in DBD was discussed. The contributions of oxygen active species and hydroxyl radicals are dominant in NOx suppression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Thin layer drying kinetics of by-products from olive oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order.

  9. Combining the catalytic enantioselective reaction of visible-light-generated radicals with a by-product utilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Luo, Shipeng; Burghaus, Olaf; Webster, Richard D; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2017-10-01

    We report an unusual reaction design in which a chiral bis-cyclometalated rhodium(iii) complex enables the stereocontrolled chemistry of photo-generated carbon-centered radicals and at the same time catalyzes an enantioselective sulfonyl radical addition to an alkene. Specifically, employing inexpensive and readily available Hantzsch esters as the photoredox mediator, Rh-coordinated prochiral radicals generated by a selective photoinduced single electron reduction are trapped by allyl sulfones in a highly stereocontrolled fashion, providing radical allylation products with up to 97% ee. The hereby formed fragmented sulfonyl radicals are utilized via an enantioselective radical addition to form chiral sulfones, which minimizes waste generation.

  10. Fluorimetric analysis of gallium in bauxite, by-products, products from gallium processing and its control solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C.A.M.; Medeiros, V.

    1987-01-01

    The gallium processing since raw material analysis until end-products analysis is studied. Gallium presence in by-products and products, as well as the fluorimetric method is analyzed. Equipments and materials used in laboratory, reagents and chemical solutions are described. (M.J.C.) [pt

  11. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein concentrate from by-product of coconut processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodsamran, Pattrathip; Sothornvit, Rungsinee

    2018-02-15

    Coconut cake, a by-product from milk and oil extractions, contains a high amount of protein. Protein extraction from coconut milk cake and coconut oil cake was investigated. The supernatant and precipitate protein powders from both coconut milk and oil cakes were compared based on their physicochemical and functional properties. Glutelin was the predominant protein fraction in both coconut cakes. Protein powders from milk cake presented higher water and oil absorption capacities than those from oil cake. Both protein powders from oil cake exhibited better foaming capacity and a better emulsifying activity index than those from milk cake. Coconut proteins were mostly solubilized in strong acidic and alkaline solutions. Minimum solubility was observed at pH 4, confirming the isoelectric point of coconut protein. Therefore, the coconut residues after extractions might be a potential alternative renewable plant protein source to use asa food ingredient to enhance food nutrition and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Guava by-Product, Enzyme Supplementation and Gamma Irradiation on Performance and Digestive Utilization of Fattening Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.; El-Faramawy, A.A.; Zakaria, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A total number of 32 New Zealand white rabbits weighing about 850 g were used to study the influence of guava by-product (GBP)on growth, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass dressing percentage, blood parameters and digestive efficiency. Four diets were formulated to provide about 17% crude fiber (CF). Control diet, diet with 16% (GBP), diet with the same percent of (GBP) supplemented with enzyme supplement and the last one also the same with the third diet in addition to treatment by gamma irradiation (3 kGy). The results indicated that there were no significant differences (P<0.05) between the experimental groups and control in growth, feed consumption, feed efficiency and carcass dressing percentage. Blood parameters (total protein, albumin, globulin, total lipids, and alkaline phosphatase) were within normal range through out the groups. Apparent digestibility coefficient of nutrients ( OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE) were significantly higher in rabbits fed the diet of (GBP) and enzyme supplementation. Our data indicate that (GBP) can replace 16% of alfalfa hay without decreasing growth performance of rabbits

  13. New advances in the integrated management of food processing by-products in Europe: sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing by-products with the production of new food products (NAMASTE EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Fabio; Zanaroli, Giulio; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra; Viaggi, Davide; Robertson, Jim; Waldron, Keith; Bald, Carlos; Esturo, Aintzane; Talens, Clara; Tueros, Itziar; Cebrián, Marta; Sebők, András; Kuti, Tunde; Broeze, Jan; Macias, Marta; Brendle, Hans-Georg

    2013-09-25

    By-products generated every year by the European fruit and cereal processing industry currently exceed several million tons. They are disposed of mainly through landfills and thus are largely unexploited sources of several valuable biobased compounds potentially profitable in the formulation of novel food products. The opportunity to design novel strategies to turn them into added value products and food ingredients via novel and sustainable processes is the main target of recently EC-funded FP7 project NAMASTE-EU. NAMASTE-EU aims at developing new laboratory-scale protocols and processes for the exploitation of citrus processing by-products and wheat bran surpluses via the production of ingredients useful for the formulation of new beverage and food products. Among the main results achieved in the first two years of the project, there are the development and assessment of procedures for the selection, stabilization and the physical/biological treatment of citrus and wheat processing by-products, the obtainment and recovery of some bioactive molecules and ingredients and the development of procedures for assessing the quality of the obtained ingredients and for their exploitation in the preparation of new food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement of color and physiological properties of tuna-processing by-product by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Chun, Byeong-Soo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Although the by-products from fishery industry had many nutrients, it is being wasted or only used as bacteria media. In this study, the effect of a gamma irradiation on the cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (CDT) was investigated to examine the possible use of the cooking drips as a functional material for food and cosmetic composition. Total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts/molds from CDT were detected at the level of 2.79 and 2.58 Log CFU/mL, respectively. But, CDT was efficiently sterilized by a gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy. The Hunter L* value of the gamma-irradiated ethanol extract of CDT was increased, and the a* and b* values were decreased compared to the non-irradiated extract, showing color improvement. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of CDT was increased by a gamma irradiation depending on the irradiation dose. The increased contents of polyphenolic compounds and proteins in CDT extract by gamma irradiation may be the reason of the increased biological activity. These results suggested that the wasted cooking drips can be successfully used as functional components with gamma irradiation treatment.

  15. Utilization of fermented animal by-product blend as fishmeal replacer in the diet of Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Samaddar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to evaluate efficiency of Labeo rohita to utilize fermented animal protein blend containing slaughter house blood (SHB and fish offal (FO as dietary fishmeal (FM replacer. Five isoproteic (30%, isolipidic (8% and isoenergitic (15.00 kJ g−1 feed were prepared by replacing 0 (T1, 25 (T2, 50 (T3, 75 (T4 and 100% (T5 FM protein with the fermented blend and fingerlings of L. rohita (mean weight 2.07 g were fed each of these feed in triplicate groups. The results showed that apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of protein significantly increased in T3–T5, while ADC of lipid and total amino acid absorption rate increased in T2–T5 as compared to control (T1. Among the essential amino acids (EAA, arginine exhibited maximum absorption followed by histidine, phenylalanine, valine and lysine while aspartic acid showed a high absorption among the non-essential amino acids (NAA. Fish fed up to 75% of replacement level (T4 did not show any significant difference (P < 0.05 in weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU between the dietary groups (T1–T4. But FCR was increased and other growth parameters were significantly reduced in 100% replacement group (T5, while body muscle protein was significantly reduced in both T4 and T5. Deposition of EAA (except histidine and methionine in T4 and NAA (except cystine in both T4 and T5 in the muscle of fish were also significantly reduced as compared to control (T1. Multi-objective optimization programming technique was used to determine FM replacement level that optimized all the growth parameters (WG, SGR, FCR and PER simultaneously. By using Global Criterion method, it was obtained that 21.11% replacement of FM by the fermented blend was ideal for optimum growth of L. rohita.

  16. Exposure Characteristics of Nanoparticles as Process By-products for the Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Sick; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the exposure properties of nanoparticles (NPs; semiconductor manufacturing processes. The measurements of airborne NPs were mainly performed around process equipment during fabrication processes and during maintenance. The number concentrations of NPs were measured using a water-based condensation particle counter having a size range of 10-3,000 nm. The chemical composition, size, and shape of NPs were determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The resulting concentrations of NPs ranged from 0.00-11.47 particles/cm(3). The concentration of NPs measured during maintenance showed a tendency to increase, albeit incrementally, compared to that measured during normal conditions (under typical process conditions without maintenance). However, the increment was small. When comparing the mean number concentration and standard deviation (n ± σ) of NPs, the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process was the highest (3.45 ± 3.65 particles/cm(3)), and the dry etch (ETCH) process was the lowest (0.11 ± 0.22 particles/cm(3)). The major NPs observed were silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) particles, which were mainly spherical agglomerates ranging in size from 25-280 nm. Sampling of semiconductor processes in CMP, chemical vapor deposition, and ETCH reveled NPs were particle size exceeded 100 nm in diffusion, metallization, ion implantation, and wet cleaning/etching process. The results show that the SiO2 and TiO2 are the major NPs present in semiconductor cleanroom environments.

  17. Biomass utilization for the process of gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Spěvák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as one of the renewable resources of energy has bright future in utilization, especially in obtaining various forms of energy (heat, electrical energy, gas.According to the conception of energy policy of the Czech Republic and according to the fulfillment of the indicators of renewable resources using until the year 2010, the research of thermophysical characteristics of biofuels was realized.There were acquired considerable amount of results by combustion and gasification process on the basis of three-year project „Biomass energy parameters.” By means of combustion and gasification tests of various (biomass fuels were acquired the results which were not published so far.Acquired results are published in the fuel sheets, which are divided into four parts. They consist of information on fuel composition, ash composition, testing conditions and measurand overview. Measurements were realized for the process of combustion, fluidized-bed gasification and fixed-bed gasification. Following fuels were tested: Acacia, Pine, Birch, Beech, Spruce, Poplar, Willow, Rape, Amaranth, Corn, Flax, Wheat, Safflower, Mallow, and Sorrel.

  18. Utilization of whey with microbiological processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, M

    1981-08-01

    Besides biogas production, the following processes and technologies are available in practice for microbiological processing: 1) Lactic acid Using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus, the procedure is economically performed at 45-50/sup 0/C. Since the bacteria are sensitive to high lactate concentrations, buffering with CaCO/sub 3/ or lime-milk is necessary. 2) Ethanol Using lactose-fermenting yeasts, such as Kluyvermyces fragilis, alcohol production is easily performed at 25/sup 0/C and at pH-values between 4 and 6, the dry matter contents varying between 5 and 15% (concentrated whey or permeate). Addition of ammonium sulphate is necessary. 3) Single Cell Protein One-stage production of single cell protein (SCP) is possible using lactose-fermenting aerobic yeasts (K. fragilis, Candida utilis etc.). The yeast procuced and utilized in animal feeding (as Milke replacement in calf rearing) is currently offered in the Federal Republic of Germany at a price of approximately DM 1.40/kg. Two-stage fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following lactic acid fermentation and addition of enzymatically hydrolyzed starch can be performed effluent-free.

  19. Process for production of a carbide by-product with microwave energy and aluminum by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.E.; Finell, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    Means and method for utilizing radiated electromagnetic energy to elevate at least one of two or more reactants to a temperature at which a chemical reaction will take place so as to provide a desired reaction product. In practice, at least one of reactants must be, or be made, susceptible to heating when radiated with electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic energy source provides sufficient power to raise the temperature of said at least one reactant to cause that reactant to further raise the temperature of associated reactant materials making them further susceptible to heating under the influence of the impinging electromagnetic energy waves. The electromagnetic energy is provided at sufficient power to raise the temperature to the point at which reactants will react chemically to produce a desired reaction product. Since the heating action is localized, little or no energy is wasted in raising the wall temperatures of the reaction vessel in which the material is radiated. The use of a temperature sensitive sphincter output of reactor vessel provides means for recovering the desired chemical reaction product and for controlling the active time of microwave energy source and the injection of new reactant material when the product of the reaction is drawn off

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from first generation ethanol derived from wheat and sugar beet in Germany – Analysis and comparison of advanced by-product utilization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ethanol production from sugar beet and wheat is investigated. ► Instead of feed production from residues by-products are used for energy production. ► Ethanol from sugar beet with biogas co-production shows lowest GHG emissions. ► For wheat pathways bran and gluten separation generates lowest GHG emissions. ► An allocation method is recommended involving co-produced fertilizer. -- Abstract: In state of the art ethanol production, by-products like vinasse from sugar beet or distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGSs) from wheat grains are usually used as animal feed. The drying process consumes a significant amount of energy that could be reduced by producing other valuable materials or energy carriers from these by-products. Besides resulting higher overall conversion rates and improved process efficiencies, by-products, which can be extracted or are automatically created during the various conversion steps, should be used to reduce environmental impacts as well. In this analysis, advanced pathways for the recovery and use of by-products from bio-chemical ethanol production like gluten separation from wheat starch, biogas production from stillage or vinasse and combustion of bran for electricity generation are analyzed with regard to their contribution to the greenhouse effect. Therefore, different methodological approaches are applied and compared. The analysis shows among others that ethanol from sugar beet generates less greenhouse gases (GHGs) compared to the ethanol production from wheat. The biogas production from residues and especially the use of bran for heat and electricity generation shows significant GHG reduction compared to the state of the art application. However, the methodological approach for the treatment of by-products highly influences the results. For the reproducibility of the results an energy equivalent allocation method involving the specific application of the respective co-product is recommended.

  1. Proteomic analysis of processing by-products from canned and fresh tuna: identification of potentially functional food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, Esther; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Iloro, Ibon; Escuredo, Kepa; Elortza, Felix; Moreno, F Javier

    2012-09-15

    Proteomic approaches have been used to identify the main proteins present in processing by-products generated by the canning tuna-industry, as well as in by-products derived from filleting of skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna. Following fractionation by using an ammonium sulphate precipitation method, three proteins (tropomyosin, haemoglobin and the stress-shock protein ubiquitin) were identified in the highly heterogeneous and heat-treated material discarded by the canning-industry. Additionally, this fractionation method was successful to obtain tropomyosin of high purity from the heterogeneous starting material. By-products from skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna were efficiently fractionated to sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions, prior to the identification based mainly on the combined searching of the peptide mass fingerprint (MALDI-TOF) and peptide fragment fingerprinting (MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF) spectra of fifteen bands separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Thus, the sarcoplasmic fraction contained myoglobin and several enzymes that are essential for efficient energy production, whereas the myofibrillar fraction had important contractile proteins, such as actin, tropomyosin, myosin or an isoform of the enzyme creatine kinase. Application of proteomic technologies has revealed new knowledge on the composition of important by-products from tuna species, enabling a better evaluation of their potential applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A review of radiological hazards associated with tin by-product mineral processing industry in the SEATRAD centre member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udompornwirat, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with the tin by-product mineral processing industry has recently become an issue of concern in the SEATRAD Centre member countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The SEATRAD Centre, with the assistance of a United Nations Development Program consultant, carried out an investigation on radioactivity problems at twelve tin by-product mineral processing plants in Malaysia and Thailand. The investigation included a survey of external gamma radiation levels and dust sampling for internal dose estimation as well as characterising the potential sources of radiation exposure in the plants. This paper reviews the nature of the tin by-product mineral processing industry and the general levels of associated radiological hazards. In addition, data provided by the government organisations in the member countries are reviewed. Typical annual effective doses experienced by the industry's workers are estimated on the basis of existing information, and possible measures to reduce exposure are discussed. It is concluded that the estimated median effective dose experienced by the workers is about 18 to 19 mSv per annum. Maximum exposures may exceed 200 mSv per annum. The important exposure pathways are external gamma radiation and internal radiation arising through intake of radioactive dust. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Measurements of the radioactivity of power plant by-products processed into construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, S.A.; Dudelewski, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of the recycling of residual products comprising, inter alia, fly ash and slags accuring from the combustion of black and brown coal in modern coal dust boilers in the power industry has been topical for a number of years. Numerous discussions and articles in technical periodicals and the daily press have revolved around the problem of the radioactivity of construction materials or construction elements obtained from fly ash or slags of power plant. In Poland, this was a forbidden subject until the publication in 1980 by the Warsaw institute of construction technology of standard no. 234 entitled: 'Recommendations for establishing the natural radioactivity of products processed into construction materials'. (orig.) [de

  4. Integrated systems for biopolymers and bioenergy production from organic waste and by-products: a review of microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Giorgia; Ventorino, Valeria; Panico, Antonio; Pepe, Olimpia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, issues concerning the sustainable and harmless disposal of organic solid waste have generated interest in microbial biotechnologies aimed at converting waste materials into bioenergy and biomaterials, thus contributing to a reduction in economic dependence on fossil fuels. To valorize biomass, waste materials derived from agriculture, food processing factories, and municipal organic waste can be used to produce biopolymers, such as biohydrogen and biogas, through different microbial processes. In fact, different bacterial strains can synthesize biopolymers to convert waste materials into valuable intracellular (e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates) and extracellular (e.g., exopolysaccharides) bioproducts, which are useful for biochemical production. In particular, large numbers of bacteria, including Alcaligenes eutrophus , Alcaligenes latus , Azotobacter vinelandii , Azotobacter chroococcum , Azotobacter beijerincki , methylotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Rhizobium spp., Nocardia spp., and recombinant Escherichia coli , have been successfully used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates on an industrial scale from different types of organic by-products. Therefore, the development of high-performance microbial strains and the use of by-products and waste as substrates could reasonably make the production costs of biodegradable polymers comparable to those required by petrochemical-derived plastics and promote their use. Many studies have reported use of the same organic substrates as alternative energy sources to produce biogas and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion as well as dark and photofermentation processes under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, concurrently obtaining bioenergy and biopolymers at a reasonable cost through an integrated system is becoming feasible using by-products and waste as organic carbon sources. An overview of the suitable substrates and microbial strains used in low-cost polyhydroxyalkanoates for biohydrogen and biogas

  5. By-product from decoction process of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces as a source of polyphenols and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Velázquez-López, Carolina; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; Goñi, Isabel

    2014-03-30

    Dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidant compounds are widely used as functional ingredients. The market in this field is competitive and the search for new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is intensifying. The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition and antioxidant activity of by-products generated during the decoction of calyces of four Mexican Hibiscus sabdariffa L. cultivars ('Criolla', 'China', 'Rosalis' and 'Tecoanapa') in order to assess them as a source of functional ingredients. Some calyx components were partially transferred to the beverage during the decoction process, while most were retained in the decoction residues. These by-products proved to be a good source of DF (407.4-457.0 g kg⁻¹ dry matter) and natural antioxidants (50.7-121.8 µmol Trolox equivalent g⁻¹ dry matter). The decoction process extracted some soluble carbohydrates, ash and some extractable polyphenols. The DF content changed in the dried residues, which could be considered as high-DF materials with a high proportion of soluble DF (∼20% of total DF) and considerable antioxidant capacity. These by-products could be used as an antioxidant DF source. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Chemical and functional properties of the different by-products of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) from industrial canning processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; Frutos, María José; Arnao, Marino B; Espinosa, Cristóbal; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Castillo, Julián; Zamora, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the basic chemical composition and functional properties of six by-product fractions collected from different steps of artichoke industrial processing were evaluated. Fractions differed in thermal treatment, the bract position in the artichoke head and the cutting size. Contents of moisture, ash, protein, fat, dietary fibre, inulin, total phenolics, total flavonoids, caffeoyl derivatives and flavones were analysed. Antioxidant activity values were also determined. All assessed artichoke by-product fractions contained high-dietary fibre (53.6-67.0%) and low fat (2.5-3.7%). Artichoke by-product fractions contained high levels of inulin, especially in the boiled inner bracts (30%). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity (153-729 μmol gallic acid equivalents, 6.9-19.2 μmol quercetin equivalents and 85-234 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of dry matter, respectively) varied widely with the bract positions in the artichoke head and the thermal treatments. The more interesting fractions for use as functional ingredients were those situated closer to the artichoke heart and thermally treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2015-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92–17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46–13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33–33.53 and 5.30–11.53 fold increase in the ...

  8. Utilization of coal fired power plant by-products. Utilization of coal ash; Sekitan karyoku ni okeru fukusanbutsu no yuko riyo gijutsu. Sekitanbai no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, K. [The Federation of Electric Power Companies, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, M. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-05

    The paper introduced the present situation and future task of the tackling with effective use of coal ash discharged from coal thermal power plants. Making the use of the characteristics, coal ash is mostly used in the fields of cement/concrete, civil engineering/construction, and agriculture/forestry/fisheries. In the case of using fly ash to concrete, the effects are the heightening of long-term strength, increase in workability, decrease in hydration heat, control of alkali aggregate reaction, etc. In the civil engineering/construction field, coal ash is allowed to be used for road bed material and mixed civil engineering material as road materials, for revetment back-filling material, soft ground surface layer treatment, soft ground/soil improvement materials, FGC deep layer mixing treatment process, SPC (sand compaction pile) material, etc. as earth work materials. Besides, it is used for light coarse aggregate, light sand, etc., as construction materials, for material substituting ceramics products, etc. as building materials, and for agricultural material, potassium silicate fertilizer and ocean structure in the agriculture/forestry/fisheries field. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Utilization of biodiesel by-product as substrate for high-production of β-farnesene via relatively balanced mevalonate pathway in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shengping; Yin, Qingdian; Zhang, Jianye; Zhang, Chengyu; Qi, Wei; Gao, Lan; Tao, Zhiping; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2017-11-01

    Farnesene has been identified as suitable jet fuel substitutes and metabolic engineering for microbial production of farnesene is an alternative and attractive route. In this study, due to accumulation of toxic intermediate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), an engineered Escherichia coli strain harboring heterologous mevalonate pathway produced only 4.11mg/L β-farnesene. Through higher-level expression of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase to minimize the accumulated IPP, another engineered strain with relatively balanced mevalonate pathway was constructed and had the highest production of β-farnesene to date (8.74g/L) by Escherichia coli in a lab bioreactor. Furthermore, this is the first report on utilization of biodiesel by-product (simple purification) as substrate for high-production of β-farnesene by the engineered strain optimized and β-farnesene concentration reached 2.83g/L in a lab bioreactor. Therefore, the engineered strain optimized could be used as a platform host for high-production of other terpenoids using biodiesel by-product as substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New possibilities for the utilization of slaughter-house by-products as protein sources in the nutrition of broiler chicks. [In Serbo-Crotian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperlovic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Bezbradica, L.

    1977-01-01

    Blood, rumen contents, and intestinal offal were dried after mixing with an organic carrier (bran or maize meal). Wheat bran was a good carrier for blood, simplifying its drying, and the resulting material had a high concentration of protein with good amino acid composition. The adsorptive qualities of maize meal were not as good as those of bran, but due to its higher level of energy, and lower crude fiber it was more convenient as a carrier for some by-products (i.e. rumen contents). The produced premixtures containing blood (dried with maize or bran), rumen content, and intestinal offal (combined with maize), were included in the diets for broilers, replacing fish meal and part of the soybean meal from the standard control diets. Diets containing 30% of blood-bran combination (supplying approx. 33% of total dietary protein) supported good final body weights of chicks (1.62 kg at 8 weeks of age), providing the diet contained sufficient protein and energy. The blood-maize premixtures, at 50% of the diet and supplemented with soybean meal and sunflower meal, also gave good results (1.68 kg finabody weight). Feeding diets containing 30 to 60% maize-rumen content premixtures (7 to 16% dry rumen content) gave lower final body weights of broiler chicks ( approx. 1.5 kg). Thus slaughter house by-products when dried as proposed could be successfully utilized in the nutrition of broiler chicks.

  11. Fortification of Sardine Fish Oil from By-product of Canning Processing into Beef Meatball and Chicken Nugget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification.  Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification.  In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w.  Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle difference test were analyzed. The results showed that oxidation level of nugget was higher than meatball.  Free fatty acid content increased in nugget by increasing fortification level, but it was decrease in meatball. Texture of both was relatively unchanged, with a tendency to increase in nugget and decrease in meatball. Lightness (L of meatball surface was higher than nugget surface. Lightness did not significantly change by increasing fortification level. Redness (+a and yellowness (+b of meatball and nugget changed significantly by fortification. Difference test showed that fortification level of 2% was the highest level of fortification that taste and odor could not be distinguished with control by panelists. Best level of fish oil fortification was 2%. At 2% fortification, EPA was 2.85% for meatball, and 2.22% for nugget.  Sharp decline was occured in EPA and the decrease washigher in nugget than meatball.

  12. Biomarkers of metabolism disturbance in bivalve molluscs induced by environmental pollution with processed by-products of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sukharenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Processed by-products of oil are the most common pollutants in all river and sea water. The increase in oxidative stress in bivalve molluscs was studied in both tissues of the hepatopancreas and the gill. The model for artificial treatment with processed by-products of oil was performed in a laboratory experiment with the river mollusc Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771. The exposure of the molluscs over 28 days to mazut 50 mg/l induced significant increase of both final product of lipid peroxidation (LPO and antioxidant enzime activity. A significant increase in LPO was observed in the hepatopancreas and gill of D. polymorpha treated with mazut compared to the control group. Antioxidant enzyme activity of cartalase, supeoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a greater increase (by almost 1.5 times in the hepatopancreas than in the gill of D. polymorpha. A similar LPO growth and modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity were determined in the hepatopancreas and gill of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1879 collected in an area polluted with resins, hydrocarbons and asphaltenes, Donuzlav lake in the Kerch gulf. Varied cellular reactivation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the hepatopancreas rather than the gill was observed in both kinds of mollusc Dreissena and Mytilus. The obtained results are evidence of the higher sensitivity of the hepatopancreas cells of bivalve molluscs to organic pollutants compared to the gill cells.

  13. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  14. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  15. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 2, Product development of magnesium hydroxide, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kevin [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beeghly, Joel H. [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  16. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  17. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92-17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46-13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33-33.53 and 5.30-11.53 fold increase in the phenolics and antioxidant activity in the enriched snack products. The effects of feed moisture content, screw speed, and barrel temperature on expansion and nutritional properties of the extruded products were investigated by using response surface methodology. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the product responses were obtained. The snacks extruded with feed moisture 13-15 % (wb) and extrusion temperature at 160-180 °C indicated the products with high preference in terms of expansion ratio between insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber balance. The results showed that the by-products could be successfully used for nutritional supplemented expanded snacks.

  18. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  19. Process heat utilization from HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Work performed by the Special Research Unit 163 to supplement industrial development projects in the subject field was devoted to specific problems. The major goal was to analyse available industrial developments for potential improvements in terms of process design and engineering in line with the latest know-how, in order to enhance the economic efficiency of available techniques and methods. So research into coal gasification by nuclear processes concentrated on the potentials of a method allowing significantly higher gasification temperatures due to the use of a so-called high-temperature heat pump operating on the basis of the gas turbine principle. Exergetic analyses were made for the processes using nuclear heat in order to optimise their energy consumption. Major steps in these processes are gas purification and gas separation. Especially for the latter step, novel techniques were studied and tested on lab scale, results being used for development towards technical scale application. One novel technique is a method for separating hydrogen from methane and carbon monoxide by means of a gas turbine process step, another research task resulted in a novel absorption technique in the liquid phase. Further, alternative solutions were studied which, other than the conventional gasification processes, comprise electrochemical and other chemical process steps. The important research topic concerned with the kinetics of coal gasification was made part of a special research program on the level of fundamental research. (orig./GL) [de

  20. CO2 utilization: Developments in conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Alper

    2017-03-01

    The potential utilization of CO2, captured at power plants, should also been taken into consideration for sustainability. This CO2 source, which is potentially a raw material for the chemical industry, will be available at sufficient quality and at gigantic quantity upon realization of on-going tangible capture projects. Products resulting from carboxylation reactions are obvious conversions. In addition, provided that enough supply of energy from non-fossil resources, such as solar [1], is ensured, CO2 reduction reactions can produce several valuable commodity chemicals including multi-carbon compounds, such as ethylene and acrylic acid, in addition to C1 chemicals and polymers. Presently, there are only few developing technologies which can find industrial applications. Therefore, there is a need for concerted research in order to assess the viability of these promising exploratory technologies rationally.

  1. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (2012) P. biglobosa has important socio-economic and cultural values .... It is a common knowledge that Parkia bean processing is a chain activity which is ... that P. biglobosa trees are not productive even when found in the study area.

  2. Improving engineering performance by utilizing process indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the work discussed in this paper was to develop engineering performance indicators used to facilitate improvement to the technical quality, cost-effectiveness, and delivery of engineering products and service. This work was specifically tailored for engineering support products and service associated with operating Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) nuclear plants. The engineering process for the development of plant change packages was reviewed to identify critical in-process activities. Because each engineering project usually deals with a specific component or plant system, the different tasks are usually technically unique and of varying magnitudes. Although each engineering product may employ different analytical techniques or industry code requirements, several activities in documenting the engineering design process are generic. The quality of performance in these activities can be monitored analogously to the steps in a manufacturing process. This concept builds quality concepts into the package in lieu of inspecting package quality at the end of the process. The work has resulted in a valuable self-assessment tool that serves as a basis for engineering process improvements. The indicators are published in a semi-yearly performance report for FP and L contractors as well as FP and L in-house engineering work. Contracts have been set up to base fees on meeting targets established for the performance report. The ability to meet performance targets continues to improve

  3. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  4. Biostimulants from food processing by-products: agronomic, quality and metabolic impacts on organic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Al Chami, Ziad; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Biostimulants have recently gained increased attention due to their multiple benefits for sustainable agriculture. In this study, three food processing by-products - fennel processing residues (FPR), lemon processing residues (LPR) and brewer's spent grain (BSG) - were investigated as potential sources of biostimulants. Their aqueous extracts as individual and associated applications were assessed for their effects on agronomic, quality and metabolic performance of organic tomato in comparison to extract of humic substances (HS) and untreated control (CTRL). Only FPR extracts stimulated shoot growth and tomato dry matter content, whereas all candidates improved tomato yield. FPR and BSG increased fruit mineral content and BSG-FPR-LPR in combination enhanced titratable acidity. FPR-treated fruits had also 20% more vitamin C than CTRL, and higher phenol content was obtained in those of BSG-LPR. Fruit metabolomic profile showed the tendency of all extracts, except BSG-LPR, to increase tomato citric acid and to decrease β-glucose and methanol concentrations. The analysis revealed accordingly the indispensable role of FPR in combined applications for inducing an HS-like response in fruits. The results were indicative of the biostimulant activity of these extracts and demonstrated them, particularly FPR, as promising candidates for enhancing plant productivity and fruit quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Investigation of soil potentially contaminated by monazite processing by-products: case study and suggestion for protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briquet, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This work describes a characterization of soil potentially contaminated by monazite chemical processing residues. For case study it was selected a country area of Sao Paulo State, containing a monazite processing by-product depository. The main objective was to evaluate the soil contamination in an area of approximately 18,000 m 2 and esteem the total effective dose equivalent. During the development of this work, it was verified necessity of an investigation protocol, in order to standardize actions of regulatory authorities. A survey of the applicable legislation was carried out, as a tool to support decision making process. The methodology was based on the 'Manual de Gerenciamento de Areas Contaminadas' of CETESB (2001 a), a national document to guide studies of contaminated areas. It was also considered the 'Multi Agency Radiation Survey and Site Manual Investigation - MARSSIM' (2000), a U.S. government document that provides a nationally consensus approach to conduct investigations at potentially contaminated sites. The developed activities had been divided in three general stages: data-collecting and information on the place, identification of soil contamination and its distribution until the depth of 3 meters and evaluation of the associated dose. The evaluation of the radiological impact was carried out considering the worst-case use scenario (most restrictive future use), standing out that the final decision fits to the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. CNEN's scope of responsibility includes determining the site release criteria and the cleanup necessity. (author)

  6. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  8. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  9. Utility-based early modulation of processing distracting stimulus information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2014-12-10

    Humans are selective information processors who efficiently prevent goal-inappropriate stimulus information to gain control over their actions. Nonetheless, stimuli, which are both unnecessary for solving a current task and liable to cue an incorrect response (i.e., "distractors"), frequently modulate task performance, even when consistently paired with a physical feature that makes them easily discernible from target stimuli. Current models of cognitive control assume adjustment of the processing of distractor information based on the overall distractor utility (e.g., predictive value regarding the appropriate response, likelihood to elicit conflict with target processing). Although studies on distractor interference have supported the notion of utility-based processing adjustment, previous evidence is inconclusive regarding the specificity of this adjustment for distractor information and the stage(s) of processing affected. To assess the processing of distractors during sensory-perceptual phases we applied EEG recording in a stimulus identification task, involving successive distractor-target presentation, and manipulated the overall distractor utility. Behavioral measures replicated previously found utility modulations of distractor interference. Crucially, distractor-evoked visual potentials (i.e., posterior N1) were more pronounced in high-utility than low-utility conditions. This effect generalized to distractors unrelated to the utility manipulation, providing evidence for item-unspecific adjustment of early distractor processing to the experienced utility of distractor information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416720-06$15.00/0.

  10. Processing and utilization of soyabean in Toro local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing and utilization of soyabean in Toro local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... from the farmers on their socio-economic characteristics, information sources and adoption of soybean ...

  11. Extraction by Dry Rendering Methode and Characterization Fish Oil of Catfish Viscera Fat by Product of Smooked Fish Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kamini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source of rawmaterial for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metal contentand fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oil extracted bydry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stove heating toobtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysis were conductedfor characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry rendering in varioustemperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemicalcharacteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat content of catfishfat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fatty acidprofile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fish oilquality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin, andTOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.

  12. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Chemical Process on Gas Production Parameters of some Agricultural By-products in in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhanirad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating the effect of gamma irradiation and NaOH treatment of some agricultural by products (tomato pulp, orange pulp, pistachio hull and wheat straw on fermentation parameters and gas production test. Treatments of gamma irradiation (50, 100 and 200 kGy and %5 NaOH was done on each source of by products. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 200 kGy numerically and %5 NaOH increased (P

  13. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability...

  14. The removal process of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product, in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhou, Dongju; Yu, Shilin; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The removal process of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product (DBP) in conventional drinking water treatment plant (C-DWTP) and advanced DWTP (ADWTP) was studied with newly maximum formation potential (MFP) process. It was demonstrated that the advanced treatment displayed greater removal efficiency towards DCAcAm formation potential (MFP) than the conventional treatment. The hydrophilic natural organic matter and natural organic matter with molecular weight 10 kDa leaded to more DCAcAm formation, and the aromatic protein was inferred as one part of DCAcAm precursor. DCAcAm was found to cause delayed development and malformation to zebrafish embryos at embryonic growth stage. Compared with heart toxicity, it caused a significant neuron toxicity. It also could cause the acute DNA damage to adult zebrafish, which should be extremely cautioned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decomposition Characteristics of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene in an Atmospheric Pressure DC Corona Discharge II. Characteristics of Deposited By-products and Decomposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAI, Seiji; TAKAHASHI, Kazuhiro; SATOH, Kohki; ITOH, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous by-products and deposited material obtained from the decomposition of benzene, toluene and xylene in an atmospheric pressure DC corona discharge were minutely investigated by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry and infrared absorption spectroscopy, and the decomposition processes of benzene, toluene and xylene were estimated. It was found that carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH) and formic anhydride ((CHO)2) were the major gaseous by-products from benzene, ...

  16. Processes Utilized by High School Students Reading Scientific Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinger, Alicia Farr

    2014-01-01

    In response to an increased emphasis on disciplinary literacy in the secondary science classroom, an investigation of the literacy processes utilized by high school students while reading scientific text was undertaken. A think-aloud protocol was implemented to collect data on the processes students used when not prompted while reading a magazine…

  17. Adding value to the by-products of cereal processing by fungal production of highly unsaturated fatty acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available not only lead to economic losses for the industry, but constitute an environmental hazard. Currently cereal by-products are mainly utilised as animal and fish feeds. This application is limited by the high fibre and low protein levels generally present...

  18. PNRA Process for Utilizing Experience Feedback for Enhancing Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the elements essential for any organization to become a learning organization is to learn from its own and others experience. The importance of utilizing experience feedback for enhancing operational safety is highlighted in nuclear industry again and again and this has resulted in establishment of several national and international forums. In addition, IAEA action plan on nuclear safety issued after Fukushima accident further highlighted the importance of experience sharing among nuclear community to enhance global nuclear safety regime. PNRA utilizes operating experience feedback gathered through different sources in order to improve its regulatory processes. During the review of licensing submissions, special emphasis is given to utilize the lessons learnt from experience feedback relating to nuclear industry within and outside the country. This emphasis has gradually resulted in various safety improvements in the facilities and processes. Accordingly, PNRA has developed a systematic process of evaluation of international operating experience feedback with the aim to create safety conscious approach. This process includes collecting information from different international forums such as IAEA, regulatory bodies of other countries and useful feedback of past accidents followed by its screening, evaluation and suggesting recommendations both for PNRA and its licensees. As a result of this process, several improvements concerning regulatory inspection plans of PNRA as well as in regulatory decision making and operational practices of licensees have been highlighted. This paper will present PNRA approach for utilizing experience feedback in its regulatory processes for enhancing / improving nuclear safety. (author)

  19. Utilization of protein-rich residues in biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Venus, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    A drawback of biotechnological processes, where microorganisms convert biomass constituents, such as starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lipids, and proteins, into wanted products, is the economic feasibility. Particularly the cost of nitrogen sources in biotechnological processes can make up a large fraction of total process expenses. To further develop the bioeconomy, it is of considerable interest to substitute cost-intensive by inexpensive nitrogen sources. The aim of this mini-review was to provide a comprehensive insight of utilization methods of protein-rich residues, such as fish waste, green biomass, hairs, and food waste. The methods described include (i) production of enzymes, (ii) recovery of bioactive compounds, and/or (iii) usage as nitrogen source for microorganisms in biotechnological processes. In this aspect, the utilization of protein-rich residues, which are conventionally considered as waste, allows the development of value-adding processes for the production of bioactive compounds, biomolecules, chemicals, and materials.

  20. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary...

  1. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  2. Utilization of process TEG for fabrication of HTS circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hato, T.; Okada, Y.; Maruyama, M.; Suzuki, H.; Wakana, H.; Adachi, S.; Kawabe, U.; Tanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    We improved the fabrication process of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sampler circuits with multilayer structures by utilizing a test elements group (TEG). Among a lot of difficulties in the HTS circuit fabrication process, loss of oxygen is one of the most significant problems. Since the film transition temperature (T c ) has a strong relationship with the resistance at room temperature, we fabricated a test pattern on the same wafer of the circuits and measured the resistance at room temperature by using a prober to estimate the T c of each layer. By introducing the measurement of the normal resistance after each process, we found better process conditions without a T c drop. Moreover, we constructed a low-temperature probing system, in which we can measure the junction TEG. The system enabled feedback of the fabrication condition soon after the junction process. The utilization of the process TEG contributed to reproducible fabrication of HTS circuits and that is a promising advance of the HTS circuit technology

  3. Successful process management for public utilities; Erfolgreiches Prozessmanagement fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipprath, Daniel [projekt:unternehmensberatungsgesellschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany); Schaefer, Anke [Dr. Schaefer PR- und Strategieberatung, Rostock (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    As a result of regulatory cuts in their revenue structure, public utilities are increasingly compelled to improve their cost efficiency. Furthermore, they have to deal with altered framework conditions of energy procurement as well as the necessity of sustainable customer loyalty management. The example of a regional supplier is used here to show how goal-oriented process management can contribute to securing a sustainable, promising position in the market.

  4. Sustainable wine supply chain and entrepreneurship. The exploitation of by-products in a waste management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Malindretos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability issue has been acknowledged as a universal contemporary challenge within an entirely new, unprecedented and irreversible global economic, social, cultural and physical contemporary environment. Critical role plays the interdisciplinary Supply Chain Management (SCM and its advance to sustainable SCM and more recently to green SCM. The field of sustainability in the wine industry appears as a breeding ground for the development of multidisciplinary collaborations, as well as for the application of innovative practices in the framework of entrepreneurship, in both forward and reverse agrifood chains. In such a context, this paper studies the exploitation of the opportunities derived from the wine production and waste management, within the totally new business, economic, social and physical environment. More specifically, it presents a start-up business plan conducted by Agricultural University in collaboration with the Harokopio University of Athens, Greece; it regards a wine waste management company in the island of Crete, Greece, highlighting the transformation of challenges to opportunities for innovation to more efficient use of by-products and wastes. It is noticed that this industry has shown historically exceptional innovative capability and flexibility, for climate privileged quality products in East Mediterranean region. The conclusions and recommendations drawn in this study, provide useful insights and directions for future research that are expected to enrich the available knowhow in the wine industry which is particularly suitable for research on sustainability and in any way, must proceed to commitment for protecting the environment. The empirical case study in the island of Crete is expected to facilitate the attempts to transform the crisis to continuing sustainability performance of wine industry under contemporary world market conditions, along with potential broader managerial implications towards

  5. Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products and slaughterhouse waste: main process limitations and microbial community interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Palatsi Civit, Jordi; Viñas, Marc; Guivernau, Miriam; Fernández García, Belén; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Fresh pig/cattle slaughterhouse waste mixtures, with different lipid-protein ratios, were characterized and their anaerobic biodegradability assessed in batch tests. The resultant methane potentials were high (270–300 LCH4 kg 1 COD) making them interesting substrates for the anaerobic digestion process. However, when increasing substrate concentrations in consecutive batch tests, up to 15 gCOD kg 1, a clear inhibitory process was monitored. Despite the reported severe inhibition, related to l...

  6. A novel process for enhancing oil production in algae biorefineries through bioconversion of solid by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Hernandez, Ernesto; Webb, Colin

    2012-07-01

    This paper focuses on a novel process for adding value to algae residue. In current processes oleaginous microalgae are grown and harvested for lipid production leaving a lipid-free algae residue. The process described here includes conversion of the carbohydrate fraction into glucose prior to lipid extraction. This can be fermented to produce up to 15% additional lipids using another oleaginous microorganism. It was found that in situ enzymes can hydrolyze storage carbohydrates in the algae into glucose and that a temperature of 55 °C for about 20 h gave the best glucose yield. Up to 75% of available carbohydrates were converted to a generic fermentation feedstock containing 73 g/L glucose. The bioconversion step was found to increase the free water content by 60% and it was found that when the bioconversion was carried out prior to the extraction step, it improved the solvent extractability of lipids from the algae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  8. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  9. Impact of HMO ownership on management processes and utilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, M; Molinari, C

    2001-05-01

    To examine the effects of health maintenance organization (HMO) ownership characteristics on selected utilization outcomes and management processes affecting utilization. We used 1995 HMO data from the American Association of Health Plans. Using regression analysis, we examined the relation between HMO utilization (hospital discharges, days, and average length of stay; cardiac catheterization procedures; and average cost of outpatient prescriptions) and the structural characteristics of HMOs: ownership type (insurance company, hospital, physician, independent, and national managed care company), HMO size, for-profit status, model type, geographic region, and payer mix. HMO ownership type is significantly associated with medical management processes, including risk sharing by providers, risk sharing by consumers, and other management strategies. Relative to hospital-owned HMOs, insurance company-owned HMOs have fewer hospital discharges, fewer hospital days, and longer lengths of stay. National managed care organization-owned HMOs have fewer cardiac catheterizations and lower average outpatient prescription costs. Independently owned HMOs have more cardiac catheterizations. For-profit HMOs have lower prescription costs. Relative to hospital-owned HMOs, insurance company-owned HMOs are more likely to use hospital risk sharing and provider capitation and less likely to use out-of-pocket payments for hospital use and a closed formulary. National managed care organization-owned HMOs are less likely to use provider capitation, out-of-pocket payments for hospital use, catastrophic case management, and hospital risk sharing. Physician-hospital-owned HMOs are less likely to use catastrophic case management. For-profit HMOs are more likely to use hospital risk sharing and catastrophic case management. HMO ownership type affects utilization outcomes and management strategies.

  10. New emissions targeting strategy for site utility of process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manesh, Mohamamd Hasan Khoshgoftar; Amidpour, Majid; Hamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Abadi, Sajad Khamis; Ghalami, Hooman

    2013-01-01

    A new procedure for environmental targeting of co-generation system is presented. The proposed method is based on the concepts of pinch technology for total site targeting of fuel, power, steam, environmental impacts and total annualized cost with considering emissions taxes. This approach provides a consistent, general procedure for determining mass flow rates and efficiencies of the applied turbines. This algorithm utilizes the relationship of entropy with enthalpy and isentropic efficiency. Also, the life cycle assessment (LCA) as a well-known tool for analyzing environmental impacts on a wide perspective with reference to a product system and the related environmental and economic impacts have been applied. In this regard, a damage-oriented impact analysis method based on Eco-indicator 99 and footprints analysis was considered. In addition, the present work demonstrates the effect of including both sensible and latent heating of steam in the extended Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (ESUGCC). It is shown that including sensible heating allows for better thermal matching between the processes. Furthermore, the other representation YSUGCC as the other form of Site Utility Grand Composite has been proposed. Two case studies were used to illustrate the usefulness of the new environmental targeting method

  11. Decomposition mechanism of trichloroethylene based on by-product distribution in the hybrid barrier discharge plasma process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang-Bo [Industry Applications Research Laboratory, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, Kyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Oda, Tetsuji [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    The hybrid barrier discharge plasma process combined with ozone decomposition catalysts was studied experimentally for decomposing dilute trichloroethylene (TCE). Based on the fundamental experiment for catalytic activities on ozone decomposition, MnO{sub 2} was selected for application in the main experiments for its higher catalytic abilities than other metal oxides. A lower initial TCE concentration existed in the working gas; the larger ozone concentration was generated from the barrier discharge plasma treatment. Near complete decomposition of dichloro-acetylchloride (DCAC) into Cl{sub 2} and CO{sub x} was observed for an initial TCE concentration of less than 250 ppm. C=C {pi} bond cleavage in TCE gave a carbon single bond of DCAC through oxidation reaction during the barrier discharge plasma treatment. Those DCAC were easily broken in the subsequent catalytic reaction. While changing oxygen concentration in working gas, oxygen radicals in the plasma space strongly reacted with precursors of DCAC compared with those of trichloro-acetaldehyde. A chlorine radical chain reaction is considered as a plausible decomposition mechanism in the barrier discharge plasma treatment. The potential energy of oxygen radicals at the surface of the catalyst is considered as an important factor in causing reactive chemical reactions.

  12. Feasibility study on the utilization of high sulfur pet. coke as a by-product at SINOPEC Fujian Petrochemical Company Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was conducted for the project on the effective utilization of high-sulfur petroleum coke at Fujian Petrochemical Co., Fujian Province, China. In the project, IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) power generation facilities are introduced to the refinery of Fujian Petrochemical Co. By gasifying the residues produced from the refinery as raw material, the gas clean the same as natural gas is produced and is used as power generation use fuel. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 94,300 toe/y, and was 1,414,500 toe in cumulative amount during 15 years. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 291,600 t-CO2/y, and was 4,374,000 t-CO2 in cumulative amount during 15 years. The construction cost of the project is approximately 29.7 billion yen. The annual profit to be obtained from the project is approximately 8.66 billion yen, which is indicated by difference between before and after the implementation of the project. The calculated years required for return of investment were 3.4. (NEDO)

  13. Catalytic Processes for Utilizing Carbohydrates Derived from Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Yamaguchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high productivity of oil biosynthesized by microalgae has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Due to the application of such oils in jet fuels, the algal biosynthetic pathway toward oil components has been extensively researched. However, the utilization of the residue from algal cells after oil extraction has been overlooked. This residue is mainly composed of carbohydrates (starch, and so we herein describe the novel processes available for the production of useful chemicals from algal biomass-derived sugars. In particular, this review highlights our latest research in generating lactic acid and levulinic acid derivatives from polysaccharides and monosaccharides using homogeneous catalysts. Furthermore, based on previous reports, we discuss the potential of heterogeneous catalysts for application in such processes.

  14. The Digital Microscope and Its Image Processing Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Supardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many institutions, including high schools, own a large number of analog or ordinary microscopes. These microscopes are used to observe small objects. Unfortunately, object observations on the ordinary microscope require precision and visual acuity of the user. This paper discusses the development of a high-resolution digital microscope from an analog microscope, including the image processing utility, which allows the digital microscope users to capture, store and process the digital images of the object being observed. The proposed microscope is constructed from hardware components that can be easily found in Indonesia. The image processing software is capable of performing brightness adjustment, contrast enhancement, histogram equalization, scaling and cropping. The proposed digital microscope has a maximum magnification of 1600x, and image resolution can be varied from 320x240 pixels up to 2592x1944 pixels. The microscope was tested with various objects with a variety of magnification, and image processing was carried out on the image of the object. The results showed that the digital microscope and its image processing system were capable of enhancing the observed object and other operations in accordance with the user need. The digital microscope has eliminated the need for direct observation by human eye as with the traditional microscope.

  15. Production of stable isotopes utilizing the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Tarallo, F. J.; Stevenson, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    A plasma separation process (PSP) is being operated at Theragenics Corporation's®, Oak Ridge, TN, facility for the enrichment of stable isotopes. The PSP utilizes ion cyclotron mass discrimination to separate isotopes on a relatively large scale. With a few exceptions, nearly any metallic element could be processed with PSP. Output isotope enrichment factor depends on natural abundance and mass separation and can be fairly high in some cases. The Theragenics™ PSP facility is believed to be the only such process currently in operation. This system was developed and formerly operated under the US Department of Energy Advanced Isotope Separation program. Theragenics™ also has a laboratory at the PSP site capable of harvesting the isotopes from the process and a mass spectrometer system for analyzing enrichment and product purity. Since becoming operational in 2002, Theragenics™ has utilized the PSP to separate isotopes of several elements including: dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, molybdenum and nickel. Currently, Theragenics™ is using the PSP for the separation of 102Pd, which is used as precursor for the production of 103Pd. The 103Pd radioisotope is the active ingredient in TheraSeed®, which is used in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer and being investigated for other medical applications. New industrial, medical and research applications are being investigated for isotopes that can be enriched on the PSP. Pre-enrichment of accelerator or reactor targets offers improved radioisotope production. Theragenics operates 14 cyclotrons for proton activation and has access to HFIR at ORNL for neutron activation of radioisotopes.

  16. A three-prong strategy to develop functional food using protein isolates recovered from chicken processing by-products with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Sivanandan, Litha; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Skin-on bone-in chicken drumsticks were processed with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation to recover muscle proteins. The drumsticks were used as a model for dark chicken meat processing by-products. The main objective of this study was conversion of dark chicken meat processing by-products to restructured functional food product. An attempt was made to develop functional food product that would resemble respective product made from boneless skinless chicken breast meat. A three-prong strategy to address diet-driven cardiovascular disease (CVD)with a functional food was used in this study. The strategy included addition of three ingredients with well-documented cardiovascular benefits: (i) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oil (flaxseed-algae, 9:1); (ii) soluble fiber; and (iii) salt substitute. Titanium dioxide, potato starch, polyphosphate, and transglutaminase were also added. The batters were formulated and cooked resulting in heat-set gels. Color (L*a*b*), texture (torsion test, Kramer shear test, and texture profile analysis), thermal denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry), and gelation (dynamic rheology) of chicken drumstick gels and chicken breast gels were determined and compared. Chicken drumstick gels generally had comparable color and texture properties to the gels made from chicken breast meat. The endothermic transition (thermal denaturation) of myosin was more pronounced and gelation properties were better for the drumstick gels. This study demonstrated a feasibility to develop functional food made of muscle proteins recovered with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation from low-value dark chicken meat processing by-products. The functional food developed in this study was enriched with CVD-beneficial nutrients and had comparable instrumental quality attributes to respective products made of chicken breast meat. Although the results of this study point towards the potential for a novel, marketable functional food product, sensory

  17. Material Processing Opportunites Utilizing a Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Many properties of photocathode-driven Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are extremely attractive for material processing applications. These include: 1) broad-band tunability across the IR and UV spectra which permits wavelength optimization, depth deposition control and utilization of resonance phenomena; 2) picosecond pulse structure with continuous nanosecond spacing for optimum deposition efficiency and minimal collateral damage; 3) high peak and average radiated power for economic processing in quantity; and 4) high brightness for spatially defined energy deposition and intense energy density in small spots. We discuss five areas: polymer, metal and electronic material processing, micromachining and defense applications; where IR or UV material processing will find application if the economics is favorable. Specific examples in the IR and UV, such as surface texturing of polymers for improved look and feel, and anti-microbial food packaging films, which have been demonstrated using UV excimer lamps and lasers, will be given. Unfortunately, although the process utility is readily proven, the power levels and costs of lamps and lasers do not scale to production margins. However, from these examples, application specific cost targets ranging from 0.1=A2/kJ to 10=A2/kJ of delivered radiation at power levels from 10 kW to 500 kW, have been developed and are used to define strawman FEL processing systems. Since =46EL radiation energy extraction from the generating electron beam is typically a few percent, at these high average power levels, economic considerations dictate the use of a superconducting RF accelerator with energy recovery to minimize cavity and beam dump power loss. Such a 1 kW IR FEL, funded by the US Navy, is presently under construction at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This dual-use device, scheduled to generate first light in late 1997, will test both the viability of high-power FELs for shipboard self-defense against cruise

  18. Space Situational Awareness Data Processing Scalability Utilizing Google Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, D.; Duncan, M.; Wysack, J.; Flores, F.

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is a fundamental and critical component of current space operations. The term SSA encompasses the awareness, understanding and predictability of all objects in space. As the population of orbital space objects and debris increases, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows and prompts the need for accurate and timely process measures. The SSA mission continually evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis demanding the need for higher processing capabilities. By conventional methods, meeting these demands requires the integration of new hardware to keep pace with the growing complexity of maneuver planning algorithms. SpaceNav has implemented a highly scalable architecture that will track satellites and debris by utilizing powerful virtual machines on the Google Cloud Platform. SpaceNav algorithms for processing CDMs outpace conventional means. A robust processing environment for tracking data, collision avoidance maneuvers and various other aspects of SSA can be created and deleted on demand. Migrating SpaceNav tools and algorithms into the Google Cloud Platform will be discussed and the trials and tribulations involved. Information will be shared on how and why certain cloud products were used as well as integration techniques that were implemented. Key items to be presented are: 1.Scientific algorithms and SpaceNav tools integrated into a scalable architecture a) Maneuver Planning b) Parallel Processing c) Monte Carlo Simulations d) Optimization Algorithms e) SW Application Development/Integration into the Google Cloud Platform 2. Compute Engine Processing a) Application Engine Automated Processing b) Performance testing and Performance Scalability c) Cloud MySQL databases and Database Scalability d) Cloud Data Storage e) Redundancy and Availability

  19. Modeling of ultrasonic processes utilizing a generic software framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, P.; Twiefel, J.; Wallaschek, J.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of ultrasonic processes is typically characterized by a high degree of complexity. Different domains and size scales must be regarded, so that it is rather difficult to build up a single detailed overall model. Developing partial models is a common approach to overcome this difficulty. In this paper a generic but simple software framework is presented which allows to coupe arbitrary partial models by slave modules with well-defined interfaces and a master module for coordination. Two examples are given to present the developed framework. The first one is the parameterization of a load model for ultrasonically-induced cavitation. The piezoelectric oscillator, its mounting, and the process load are described individually by partial models. These partial models then are coupled using the framework. The load model is composed of spring-damper-elements which are parameterized by experimental results. In the second example, the ideal mounting position for an oscillator utilized in ultrasonic assisted machining of stone is determined. Partial models for the ultrasonic oscillator, its mounting, the simplified contact process, and the workpiece’s material characteristics are presented. For both applications input and output variables are defined to meet the requirements of the framework’s interface.

  20. Process technology of luwak coffee through bioreactor utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.

  1. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  2. Peptide Fractions Obtained from Rice By-Products by Means of an Environment-Friendly Process Show In Vitro Health-Related Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Maura; Graen-Heedfeld, Jürgen; Bretz, Karlheinz; Guillon, Fabien; Michelini, Elisa; Calabretta, Maria Maddalena; Lamborghini, Matteo; Gruarin, Nicolò; Roda, Aldo; Kraft, Axel; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the isolation of new health-related bioactive molecules derived from agro-food industrial by-products by means of environment-friendly extraction processes has become of particular interest. In the present study, a protein by-product from the rice starch industry was hydrolysed with five commercial proteolytic enzymes, avoiding the use of solvents or chemicals. The digestion processes were optimised, and the digestates were separated in fractions with four different molecular weight ranges by using a cross-flow membrane filtration technique. Total hydrolysates and fractions were tested in vitro for a wide range of biological activities. For the first time rice-derived peptides were assayed for anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity and irritation capacities. Antioxidant and anti-hypertensive activities were also evaluated. Protamex, Alcalase and Neutrase treatments produced peptide fractions with valuable bioactivities without resulting cytotoxic or irritant. Highest levels of bioactivity were detected in Protamex-derived samples, followed by samples treated with Alcalase. Based on the present results, a future direct exploitation of isolated peptide fractions in the nutraceutical, functional food and cosmetic industrial fields may be foreseen.

  3. Peptide Fractions Obtained from Rice By-Products by Means of an Environment-Friendly Process Show In Vitro Health-Related Bioactivities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ferri

    Full Text Available Recently, the isolation of new health-related bioactive molecules derived from agro-food industrial by-products by means of environment-friendly extraction processes has become of particular interest. In the present study, a protein by-product from the rice starch industry was hydrolysed with five commercial proteolytic enzymes, avoiding the use of solvents or chemicals. The digestion processes were optimised, and the digestates were separated in fractions with four different molecular weight ranges by using a cross-flow membrane filtration technique. Total hydrolysates and fractions were tested in vitro for a wide range of biological activities. For the first time rice-derived peptides were assayed for anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity and irritation capacities. Antioxidant and anti-hypertensive activities were also evaluated. Protamex, Alcalase and Neutrase treatments produced peptide fractions with valuable bioactivities without resulting cytotoxic or irritant. Highest levels of bioactivity were detected in Protamex-derived samples, followed by samples treated with Alcalase. Based on the present results, a future direct exploitation of isolated peptide fractions in the nutraceutical, functional food and cosmetic industrial fields may be foreseen.

  4. Synthesis of CdS Nanocrystals by Employing the By-Products of the Anaerobic Respiratory Process of Desulfovibrio alaskensis 6SR Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Rangel-Chávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology for the direct synthesis of CdS nanoparticles, using a biological agent that avoids the extracellular processing, and the results of the characterization of CdS nanocrystals are presented. The by-products of the anaerobic respiratory process of Desulfovibrio alaskensis 6SR along with aqueous solutions of Cd salts were successfully employed to produce CdS nanocrystals with mixed cubic and hexagonal phases. Nanocrystal size has a narrow size distribution with little dependence on the Cd concentration. Both the presence of the crystallographic cubic phase and the crystalline order decrease as Cd concentration increases. The band gap values obtained from optical transmission measurements are lower than those of the bulk crystal. Raman spectroscopy characterization agrees with electron transmission microscopy images and X-ray diffraction results indicating that the method promotes the formation of high structural quality nanocrystals when low concentrations of the Cd salt are used.

  5. 25 CFR 175.62 - Utility actions pending the appeal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility actions pending the appeal process. 175.62 Section 175.62 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Appeals § 175.62 Utility actions pending the appeal process. Pending an appeal, utility...

  6. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  7. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/nonconventional processes/technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2018-05-24

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. In addition, nonconventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  8. Estimating Bird / Aircraft Collision Probabilities and Risk Utilizing Spatial Poisson Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    ESTIMATING BIRD/AIRCRAFT COLLISION PROBABILITIES AND RISK UTILIZING SPATIAL POISSON PROCESSES GRADUATE...AND RISK UTILIZING SPATIAL POISSON PROCESSES GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...COLLISION PROBABILITIES AND RISK UTILIZING SPATIAL POISSON PROCESSES Brady J. Vaira, BS, MS Major, USAF Approved

  9. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  10. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 5, A laboratory greenhouse study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 2 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

    1997-01-31

    The Clean Air Act, as revised in 1992, has spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have resulted in large volumes of wet scrubber sludges. In general, these sludges must be dewatered, chemically treated, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives must be found. Wet scrubbing with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has emerged as an efficient, cost effective technology for SO2 removal. When combined with an appropriate oxidation system, the wet scrubber sludge can be used to produce gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use. Product value generally increases with purity of the by-product(s). The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati produces gypsum by products that can be formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2. Such materials may have agricultural value as soil conditioners, liming agents and sources of plant nutrients (Ca, Mg, S). This report describes a greenhouse study designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg gypsum from the Zimmer Station pilot plant as amendments for improving the quality of agricultural soils and mine spoils that are currently unproductive because of phytotoxic conditions related to acidity and high levels of toxic dissolved aluminum (Al). In particular, the technical literature contains evidence to suggest that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone in modifying soil chemical conditions below the immediate zone of application. Representative samples of by-product gypsum and Mg(OH)2 from the Zimmer Station were initially characterized. The gypsum was of high chemical purity and consisted of well crystalline, lath-shaped particles of low specific surface area. By contrast, the by-product Mg(OH)2 was a high surface area material (50 m2 g

  11. Modeling a Packed Bed Reactor Utilizing the Sabatier Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay G.; Meier, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is being developed using Python which characterizes the conversion and temperature profiles of a packed bed reactor (PBR) that utilizes the Sabatier process; the reaction produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. While the specific kinetics of the Sabatier reaction on the RuAl2O3 catalyst pellets are unknown, an empirical reaction rate equation1 is used for the overall reaction. As this reaction is highly exothermic, proper thermal control is of the utmost importance to ensure maximum conversion and to avoid reactor runaway. It is therefore necessary to determine what wall temperature profile will ensure safe and efficient operation of the reactor. This wall temperature will be maintained by active thermal controls on the outer surface of the reactor. Two cylindrical PBRs are currently being tested experimentally and will be used for validation of the Python model. They are similar in design except one of them is larger and incorporates a preheat loop by feeding the reactant gas through a pipe along the center of the catalyst bed. The further complexity of adding a preheat pipe to the model to mimic the larger reactor is yet to be implemented and validated; preliminary validation is done using the smaller PBR with no reactant preheating. When mapping experimental values of the wall temperature from the smaller PBR into the Python model, a good approximation of the total conversion and temperature profile has been achieved. A separate CFD model incorporates more complex three-dimensional effects by including the solid catalyst pellets within the domain. The goal is to improve the Python model to the point where the results of other reactor geometry can be reasonably predicted relatively quickly when compared to the much more computationally expensive CFD approach. Once a reactor size is narrowed down using the Python approach, CFD will be used to generate a more thorough prediction of the reactors performance.

  12. Development and Utilization of Technology on Indian Mango Fruit Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenda A. Bronce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This project aimed to develop and utilize technology on Indian mango fruit processing. Chemical properties of matured unripe and ripe Indian mangoes were determined in terms of total sugar, reducing sugar, starch, titratable acidity and pH. Fermentation parameters investigated in the study were amount of sugar added (20 and 25% fermentation medium, acidity of fermentation medium (addition of 1.33 and 1.66 grams of citric acid for ripe and dilution of water for unripe, degree of ripening of Indian mango fruits (ripe and unripe and ageing period (3 and 4 months. Sixteen treatments were done in triplicates and a composite sample was taken from each treatment for sensory evaluation. Results of the preference test were subjected to statistical analysis. The physicochemical properties of Indian mango wine produced using best fermentation parameters were determined. Appropriate packaging material was selected and packaging design was developed for Indian mango wine. Project cooperators were selected and the technology was transferred through training and production runs. Results of preference test showed that the wine with best sensory properties was prepared using matured unripe Indian mango diluted with water and added with 25% sugar. According to the panel of sensory experts, the taste of Indian mango wine was strong with proper blending of sweetness and sourness, its mouth feel was smooth and good balance, aroma was hot pungent and its color and appearance was clear and light yellow. Its titratable acidity was 0.622%, pH was 5, alcohol content was 11% and brix was 5°.

  13. Clean recovery of antioxidant compounds from plant foods, by-products and algae assisted by ultrasounds processing. Modeling approaches to optimize processing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Galanakis, Charis M.; Brnčić, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound treatment is an alternative affordable, effective and reproducible method for the improved recovery of bioactive compounds from various processing streams. The objective of this review is to discuss the impact of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the recovery of polyphenols, carotenoid...

  14. Caracterização de subprodutos da industrialização do maracujá-aproveitamento das sementes Characterization of by-products of passion fruit industrialization utilization of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Aparecida Ferrari

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá (Passiflora edulis é originário da América Tropical, muito cultivado no Brasil, rico em vitamina C, cálcio e fósforo. Cascas e sementes de maracujá, provenientes do processo de corte e extração da fruta para obtenção do suco, são ainda, atualmente, em grande parte descartadas. Como este descarte representa inúmeras toneladas, agregar valor a estes subprodutos é de interesse econômico, científico e tecnológico. Neste trabalho, realizou-se um estudo para caracterizar e verificar um melhor aproveitamento das sementes excedentes do processamento do suco do maracujá na alimentação humana. Procedeu-se, para tanto, à separação das partes da fruta, com posterior quantificação gravimétrica. As sementes obtidas foram secas em estufa, e posteriormente moídas para a obtenção de um farelo. O óleo do farelo obtido foi extraído em soxhlet e caracterizado através da metodologia oficial da AOCS (1995. O farelo desengordurado obtido foi também caracterizado por métodos físico-químicos, através da determinação do teor de umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, fibras, cinzas e carboidratos por metodologia oficial AOAC (1984. O óleo extraído das sementes apresentou elevado teor de ácidos graxos insaturados (87,54%, com predominância do ácido linoléico, com índice de iodo de 136,5g I2/100g. O farelo desengordurado obtido apresentou teor da 10,53% de umidade; 15,62% de proteínas; 0,68% de lipídeos; 1,8% de cinzas, um elevado teor de fibras de 58,98 e 12,39% de carboidratos.The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis is originary from Tropical America and has been growing largely in Brazil, being a crop very rich in vitamin C, calcium and phosphorus. Peels and seeds of Passion fruit that come from the cut and extraction process of fruit in order to extract juice are still throw out in large amounts. As such amounts depict lots tons, ascribing values to the by-products is of great economical, scientific and technological

  15. Stability of Chokeberry Bioactive Polyphenols during Juice Processing and Stabilization of a Polyphenol-Rich Material from the By-Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Behsnilian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa are nowadays believed to exhibit potential cardioprotective and antidiabetic effects principally due to their high content in bioactive phenolic compounds. The stability of the phenolic compounds was studied during different stages of a juice production line and a method for the valorization of pomace was evaluated. Samples were taken from a commercial juice production plant, extracted and analyzed for phenolic constituents and antioxidant potential. Prototypes of functional food ingredients were produced from the pomace by wet milling and micro-milling. Alongside juice processing, the contents of phenolic berry constituents did not vary to a great extent and the overall antioxidant activity increased by about 34%. A high quality juice and a by-product still rich in polyphenols resulted from the process. The phenolic compounds content and the overall antioxidant activity remained stable when milling and micro-milling the pomace. During coarse milling, extractability of total phenolic compounds increased significantly (40% to 50%. Nanosized materials with averaged particle sizes (x50,0 of about 90 nm were obtained by micro-milling. These materials showed significantly enhanced extractability of total phenolic compounds (25% and total phenolic acid (30%, as well as antioxidant activity (35%, with unchanged contents of total procyanidins and anthocyanins contents.

  16. pH neutralization of the by-product sludge waste water generated from waste concrete recycling process using the carbon mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Shin, Hee-young; Bang, Jun Hwan; Ahn, Ji-Whan

    2017-04-01

    About 44 Mt/year of waste concrete is generated in South Korea. More than 95% of this waste concrete is recycled. In the process of regenerating and recycling pulmonary concrete, sludge mixed with fine powder generated during repeated pulverization process and water used for washing the surface and water used for impurity separation occurs. In this way, the solid matter contained in the sludge as a by-product is about 40% of the waste concrete that was input. Due to the cement component embedded in the concrete, the sludge supernatant is very strong alkaline (pH about 12). And it is necessary to neutralization for comply with environmental standards. In this study, carbon mineralization method was applied as a method to neutralize the pH of highly alkaline waste water to under pH 8.5, which is the water quality standard of discharged water. CO2 gas (purity 99%, flow rate 10ml/min.) was injected and reacted with the waste water (Ca concentration about 750mg/L) from which solid matter was removed. As a result of the experiment, the pH converged to about 6.5 within 50 minutes of reaction. The precipitate showed high whiteness. XRD and SEM analysis showed that it was high purity CaCO3. For the application to industry, it is needed further study using lower concentration CO2 gas (about 14%) which generated from power plant.

  17. By-products of the serpentinization process on the Oman ophiolite : chemical and isotopic composition of carbonate deposits in alkaline springs, and associated secondary phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissmann, O.; Martinez, I.; Deville, E.; Beaumont, V.; Pillot, D.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chaduteau, C.; Agrinier, P.; Guyot, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic compositions (d13C, d18O) of natural carbonates produced by the alteration of basic and ultrabasic rocks on the Oman ophiolite have been measured in order to better understand their formation mechanisms. Fossil carbonates developed on altered peridotitic samples, mostly found in fractures, and contemporary carbonates were studied. The samples bear a large range of d13C. Those collected in veins are magnesian (magnesite, dolomite) and have a carbon signature reflecting mixing of processes and important fractionation (-11‰ to 8‰). Their association with talc and lizardite suggests they are by-products of a serpentinization process, that must have occurred as a carbon-rich fluid was circulating at depth. On the other hand, the carbonates are mostly calcic when formed in alkaline springs, most of which are located in the vicinity of lithological discontinuities such as the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Aragonite forms a few meters below the surface of the ponds in Mg-poor water, and is systematically associated with brucite (Mg(OH)2). This suggests most of the Mg dissolved at depth has reprecipitated during the fluid's ascension through fractures or faults as carbonates and serpentine. Further up, on the surface waters of the ponds (depleted in Mg and D.I.C.), thin calcite films precipitate and reach extremely negative d13C values (-28‰), which could reflect either a biological carbon source, or kinetic fractionation from pumping atmospheric CO2. Their formation represent an efficient and natural process for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. The d18O signature from all samples confirm the minerals crystallized from a low-temperature fluid. The hyperalkaline conditions (pH between 11 and 12) allowing for these fast precipitation kinetics are generated by the serpentinization process occurring at depth, as indicated by the measured associated H2-rich gas flows (over 50%) seeping out to the surface.

  18. Utility and infrastructure needs for private tank waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document supports the development of the Draft TWRS Privatization RFP. The document provides summaries of a wide variety of utility infrastructure and support services that are available at the Hanford Site. The needs of the privatization contractors are estimated and compared to the existing infrastructure. Recommendations are presented on the preferred and alternate routes of supplying the identifies requirements

  19. The Selection of Bridge Materials Utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1997-01-01

    Effective decisions on the use of natural resources often require the input of many individuals. Determining how specific criteria affect the selection of materials can lead to better utilization of raw materials. Concrete, steel, and timber represent over 98% of the materials used for bridge construction in the United States. Highway officials must often consider...

  20. Utilization of data processing as a tool in mineral extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a system for the reduction and utilization of gamma log data for uranium ore bodies is described. This system, available from Western Nuclear, Inc., on a source license basis, has proved to be extremely effective for the reduction of gamma log data. Highlights of a new system which is being developed by Phelps Dodge's corporate regional data center are also discussed. This new system designed to more heavily utilize geostatistical concepts and hexagonal prisms for block modeling, will also provide the necessary interface to the mine haulage equipment dispatching systems developed by Phelps Dodge. This will allow for load by load analyses of material profitability, which will significantly enhance the economic benefits of the dispatching systems

  1. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Utilizing today's technology to improve the procedure development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.A.; White, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the systematic approach being utilized by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Managing and Operating (M ampersand O) Contractor to electronically connect geographically-separated organizational work units for the common goal of developing, reviewing, and approving Quality Administrative Procedures. The Board members were equipped with a common electronic network access. The results of establishing a GRB and an electronic network have proven to be very cost effective

  3. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R L; Fernandes, L; Sun, X [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Methods utilized in evaluating the profitability of commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H. L.; Schmitt, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Profitability analysis is applied to commercial space processing on the basis of business concept definition and assessment and the relationship between ground and space functions. Throughput analysis is demonstrated by analysis of the space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices. The paper describes a financial analysis model for space processing and provides key profitability measures for space processed isoenzymes.

  5. Liquid radwaste processing, operational experience utilizing Duratek Mobile Process System (MPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunkele, W.; Jensen, C.E.; Duratek Corp., Beltsville, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The use of Duratek's Mobile Process System (MPS) employing sluiceable pressure vessels and improved operational techniques generates operational efficiencies including volume reduction (VR), reduced personnel labor and exposure and higher flowrates for cleanup of liquid radwaste streams in an operating nuclear power plant (Salem Generating Station). Significant additional VR is achievable based on laboratory and on-site experience utilizing Durasil 70. Under high conductivity, actual waste stream conditions, this proprietary media has demonstrated through-puts of a magnitude 15 times higher than organic cation resin. A long-term problem, cobalt species removal, is mitigated by this media

  6. Anaerobic digestion of organic by-products from meat-processing industry. The effect of pre-treatments and co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luste, S.

    2011-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a multi-beneficial biological treatment during which micro-organisms degrade organic material producing biogas (i.e. methane) and stabilised end-product (i.e. digestate). Methane is a versatile renewable energy source and digestate can be used as an organic fertiliser and/or soil improver. Because of the increasing consumption and tightening environment and health legislation, production of organic wastes suitable for anaerobic digestion increases. Animal by-products (ABP) from the meat-processing industry are often rendered (contaminated material), used as feedstock (in fur breeding), or composted. However, ABPs studied could not be utilised in fodder or in animal food production and have currently been rendered or directed to composting, despite being mostly considered unsuitable for composting. Many ABPs are energy-rich, wet and pasty materials and suitable for the anaerobic digestion process. Moreover, suitable pre-treatment to hydrolyse solid materials and/or co-digestion of two or several materials may improve the anaerobic digestion with ultimate goal to increase the methane production, stabilisation and reusability of digestate. The case chosen for more detailed research was that of a middle-sized Finnish meat-processing industry. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of different ABPs presently available for treatment as raw material for anaerobic digestion. Another objective was to enhance the anaerobic digestion process via specific pre-treatments and co-digestion cases with the ultimate aim to increase the methane production and the quality of the digestate. The general goal was to observe the overall process from the perspective of real-circumstances in Finland to rise to needs in practice and to produce exploitable information for adopting sustainable development locally and case-specifically into practice via versatile anaerobic digestion technology. The ABPs studied were highly bio-degradable and especially

  7. Energy Utilization and Environmental Aspects of Rice Processing Industries in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahiduzzaman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the energy utilization and environmental aspects of the rice processing industries in Bangladesh was analyzed. Rice husk, a milling by-product of rice, is used as a source of thermal energy to produce steam for parboiling of raw rice. The rice is mostly dried on a concrete floor under the sunshine. In mechanical drying, rice husks are used as a source of primary energy. In Bangladesh, the annual estimated energy used in 2000 for the drying of rice by sunshine was 10.7 million GJ and for drying and parboiling by rice husks it was 48.2 million GJ. These amounts will increase to 20.5 and 92.5 million GJ in 2030, respectively. Electrical energy consumption for mechanical drying and milling of rice was calculated as 1.83 million GJe and 3.51 million GJe in 2000 and in 2030, respectively. Biogenic carbon dioxide emission from burning of rice husk is renewed every year by the rice plant. Both the biogenic and non-biogenic carbon dioxide emissions in 2000 were calculated as 5.7 and 0.4 million tonnes, respectively, which will increase to 10.9 and 0.7 million tonnes in 2030. The demand of energy for rice processing increases every year, therefore, energy conservation in rice processing industries would be a viable option to reduce the intensity of energy by increasing the efficiency of rice processing systems which leads to a reduction in emissions and an increased supply of rice husk energy to other sectors as well.

  8. Energy utilization and environmental aspects of rice processing industries in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiduzzaman, M.; Sadrul Islam, A. K. L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the energy utilization and environmental aspects of the rice processing industries in Bangladesh was analyzed. Rice husk, a milling by-product of rice, is used as a source of thermal energy to produce steam for parboiling of raw rice. The rice is mostly dried on a concrete floor under the sunshine. In mechanical drying, rice husks are used as a source of primary energy. In Bangladesh, the annual estimated energy used in 2000 for the drying of rice by sunshine was 10.7 million GJ and for drying and parboiling by rice husks it was 48.2 million GJ. These amounts will increase to 20.5 and 92.5 million GJ in 2030, respectively. Electrical energy consumption for mechanical drying and milling of rice was calculated as 1.83 million GJ e and 3.51 million GJ e in 2000 and in 2030, respectively... Biogenic carbon dioxide emission from burning of rice husk is renewed every year by the rice plant. Both the biogenic and non-biogenic carbon dioxide emissions in 2000 were calculated as 5.7 and 0.4 million tonnes, respectively, which will increase to 10.9 and 0.7 million tonnes in 2030. The demand of energy for rice processing increases every year, therefore, energy conservation in rice processing industries would be a viable option to reduce the intensity of energy by increasing the efficiency of rice processing systems which leads to a reduction in emissions and an increased supply of rice husk energy to other sectors as well. (author)

  9. Energy utilization and environmental aspects of rice processing industries in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahiduzzaman, M. [Farm Machinery and Postharvest Technology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur-1701 (Bangladesh); Sadrul Islam, A. K. L. [Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704 (Bangladesh)

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the energy utilization and environmental aspects of the rice processing industries in Bangladesh was analyzed. Rice husk, a milling by-product of rice, is used as a source of thermal energy to produce steam for parboiling of raw rice. The rice is mostly dried on a concrete floor under the sunshine. In mechanical drying, rice husks are used as a source of primary energy. In Bangladesh, the annual estimated energy used in 2000 for the drying of rice by sunshine was 10.7 million GJ and for drying and parboiling by rice husks it was 48.2 million GJ. These amounts will increase to 20.5 and 92.5 million GJ in 2030, respectively. Electrical energy consumption for mechanical drying and milling of rice was calculated as 1.83 million GJ{sub e} and 3.51 million GJ{sub e} in 2000 and in 2030, respectively... Biogenic carbon dioxide emission from burning of rice husk is renewed every year by the rice plant. Both the biogenic and non-biogenic carbon dioxide emissions in 2000 were calculated as 5.7 and 0.4 million tonnes, respectively, which will increase to 10.9 and 0.7 million tonnes in 2030. The demand of energy for rice processing increases every year, therefore, energy conservation in rice processing industries would be a viable option to reduce the intensity of energy by increasing the efficiency of rice processing systems which leads to a reduction in emissions and an increased supply of rice husk energy to other sectors as well. (author)

  10. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  11. RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN THE DESIGN DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes findings from a national survey of interior design practitioners in the United States (N=366.  The study explored interior design practitioners' current preferences for conducting project research including: activities conducted and sources used, attraction to and recall from sources, and ideas for communicating research findings. Responses suggest that interior designers do value research, yet have little time to utilize research. While cross-tabulation analyses indicate no major differences in research activities between the study’s demographic groups, collectively, only 12% of the sample indicated they utilized academic journals and, at times, even incorrectly identified those sources. Open-ended responses allowed designers to offer ideas for communicating research and four key themes emerged, including: topic selection and relevancy, ideas for new dissemination methods, ideas for presentation style, and perceptions of the written language used.  It is hoped that this study’s findings may help design researchers better communicate their own findings to design practitioners.

  12. Extraction by Dry Rendering Methode and Characterization Fish Oil of Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus Viscera Fat by Product of Smooked Fish Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kamini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The catfish viscera fat, is cathfish processing by-products, has potential to be used as a source ofraw material for production of fish oil. This study aimed to analyze the value of proximate, heavy metalcontent and fatty acid profile of catfish viscera fat (Pangasius hypopthalmus and characterized fish oilextracted by dry rendering in various temperature and time than compared it to fish oil extracted by stoveheating to obtain the best treatment. Proximate, heavy metal residue, and the fatty acid profile analysiswere conducted for characterizing catfish viscera fat. Fish oil extraction was conducted by dry renderingin various temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 °C for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Fish oil quality was determined by thechemical characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, anisidin and TOTOX. The results of the study showed that fat contentof catfish fat viscera was 88.19 %, the heavy metals content was below SNI standart to be consumed, and fattyacid profile composition was SFA>MUFA>PUFA. The highest fatty acid content was oleic acid. The best fishoil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 50°C for 2 hours with yield value, PV, FFA, anisidin,and TOTOX were 45.17 %, 2.77 meq/kg, 0.83 %, 2.86 meq/kg, 8.39 meq/kg respectively. This result was notsignificantly different with fish oil extracted by the stove heating expect for yield and PV were 80.11% and6.52 meq/kg, respectively.

  13. Solid biofuels production from agricultural residues and processing by-products by means of torrefaction treatment: the case of sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use. Their standardisation is going to be a key aspect to get good quality biofuels from those residues. Torrefaction is an interesting process to improve the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks, husks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of these materials has been studied at first by thermogravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Afterwards, different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been tested in a bench top torrefaction reactor. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the treatment. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range reduces making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60%, 80% and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64%, 85% and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by the results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks due to their different original characteristics. Untreated oil press cake and husks, in fact, already show a good high heating value and, for this reason, their torrefaction should be mild to avoid an excessive ash concentration. On the contrary, for sunflower stalks the treatment is more useful and could be more severe.

  14. Sustainable process design with process intensification - Development and implementation of a framework for sustainable carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca

    . The developed framework adopts a 3-stage approach for sustainable design, which is comprised of: (1) synthesis, (2) design, and (3) innovation. In the first stage, the optimal processing route is obtained from a network via a superstructure-based approach. This stage incorporates a structured database...... and are designed and simulated in detail: 1. Dimethyl ether from methanol via combined reforming 2. Dimethyl ether from methanol via direct hydrogenation 3. Dimethyl carbonate via ethylene carbonate and methanol from combined reforming 4. Dimethyl carbonate via ethylene carbonate and methanol from direct...... hydrogenation. Through the analysis of the processes, it can be seen that the methanol distillation and the dimethyl carbonate downstream separation contribute to largeamounts of the utility consumption and therefore costs. Therefore, the reductionof the utility consumption of the methanol distillation...

  15. Modified Smith-predictor multirate control utilizing secondary process measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Ergon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Smith-predictor is a well-known control structure for industrial time delay systems, where the basic idea is to estimate the non-delayed process output by use of a process model, and to use this estimate in an inner feedback control loop combined with an outer feedback loop based on the delayed estimation error. The model used may be either mechanistic or identified from input-output data. The paper discusses improvements of the Smith-predictor for systems where also secondary process measurements without time delay are available as a basis for the primary output estimation. The estimator may then be identified also in the common case with primary outputs sampled at a lower rate than the secondary outputs. A simulation example demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of the suggested control structure.

  16. Utilization of electron beam accelerators for polymer processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, electron beam processing has been amply demonstrated to the Indian cable industry by BARC using 2 MeV/20 kW electron beam (EB) accelerator (ILU-6 EBA facility) located at BARC-BRIT complex, Vashi. The electron beam accelerator is a machine producing high energy electrons which are made to impinge on the materials for inducing physical, chemical and biological modifications. The process is carried out at room temperature and in ambient atmospheric conditions. Lately, quite a few numbers of accelerators have been installed by the private cable industry and carrying out cross-linking of cable insulations for high performance viz. high temperature stability, good flame retardancy, lesser solvent-swelling, thinner insulations etc. The indigenously made accelerators at EB centre, particularly the 3 MeV/30 kW accelerator will be of much help for Indian industry for polymer processing as the market is poised to grow by adapting the technology

  17. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  18. Use of indigenous technology in processing and utilization of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information used for this paper came from both primary and secondary sources. Ten (10) respondents were interviewed from each secondary source of information. The use of indigenous technology to process these forest products to forest foods is currently limited by use of crude methods, inability to expand production ...

  19. By-products by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Some mining by-products that are currently stockpiled or disposed of could be put to use preventing nutrients from entering river systems, helping reduce the potential for algal blooms. A joint project between CSIRO and the Western Australia (WA) Department of Water investigated a range of spent materials from mining and industry to determine their ability to filter nutrients from natural waters or to treat wastewater. “The largely unexploited by-product materials we generate in Western Australia could be developed as 'designer' contaminant adsorbents,” said CSIRO project leader Dr Grant Douglas. The use of abundant, low-cost wastes generated from mineral processing, in particular, offers a potentially cost- effective and environmentally-friendly strategy for removing nutrients. “The productive use of the by-products also has the potential to reduce the environmental footprint of mining and mineral processing industries by lowering by-product stockpiles,” he said. But the key benefits are in water; not only improving the health of surface waters but, by facilitating reuse, also easing the competition for water resources in an increasingly climate constrained part of the country. Re-use of industrial by-products in WA is currently considered on a case-by-case basis rather than regulated according to established standards. The project aimed to inject some rigour by characterising for the first time the nutrient, trace element uptake and acid neutralising capacity of a range of low-cost by-products (see Fact File). It also underpinned the development of a draft protocol for screening similar by-products in the future. The comprehensive characterisation included identification and procurement, and basic characterisation of by-products included major and trace element geochemistry, mineralogy, radioactivity, geochemical modelling and leachate chemistry and toxicity. These inherent properties and suitability of by-products for potential environmental

  20. UTILITY OF ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUICAN LILIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Process knowledge of the financial situation of the economic entity presupposes the use of analysis and synthesis, as indispensable tools of investigation. Financial management of the economic entity have to belong to the basic role in strategic financial decisions that would solve the problem of effective management of the process optimal growth, balanced and proportionate entity. That is why it becomes necessary and imperative objective analysis of the implications of the current financial management in economic entities familiarize managers with the basic tools with which they operate, acquiring knowledge about planning and financial control, evaluation techniques of investment projects, about how to conduct financial and economic diagnosis and management control of the entity, the key issues in its orientation towards performance.

  1. Utilizing Domain Knowledge in End-to-End Audio Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tax, Tycho; Antich, Jose Luis Diez; Purwins, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    to learn the commonly-used log-scaled mel-spectrogram transformation. Secondly, we demonstrate that upon initializing the first layers of an end-to-end CNN classifier with the learned transformation, convergence and performance on the ESC-50 environmental sound classification dataset are similar to a CNN......-based model trained on the highly pre-processed log-scaled mel-spectrogram features....

  2. Computerized simulation of sintering process through single geometric arrangements utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1995-01-01

    In materials science and engineering, microstructure is of crucial importance in determining the properties and therefore the performance of the designed products. However, the parameters and processes which control microstructural evolution in multi-phase polycrystalline systems have not been systematically examined yet. This is specially true in the case of powder processing of ceramics, where the final microstructure is related not only to the densification process, but also to the characteristics of the green compact, such as particle size distribution and packing density. One way to carry out the study of this problem with the of a computer is to consider the green compact as a periodic arrangement of mono-sized hard spheres, e.g., the simple cubic, the body-centered cubic (b.c.) and the face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) arrays. That simplification allows to foresee the resultant morphology when the array is sintered to full density through a simulation algorithm that allows the spheres to penetrate one another and conserve their mass. Typical powder compacts have a random, rather than regular, structures. An element of randomness is introduced and various parameters for this case (e.g. density, coordination number, morphology) are compared with the simple ones. Thermodynamic features of the simulated microstructures which may reveal which one resembles a more realistic equilibrium configuration are also included. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. The SALP process - What does it mean to utilities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The systematic assessment of licensee performance (SALP) program is an integrated agency effort to periodically evaluate licensee performance based on a review of the results of licensee/U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) interfaces in a 12- to 18-month period. The program is supplemental to the normal regulatory processes used to ensure compliance with NRC rules and regulations. The SALP process is used by NRC to synthesize its observations of and insights into a licensee's performance and to identify common themes or symptoms. As such, the NRC attempts to recognize and understand the reasons for a licensee's strengths and weaknesses. The SALP process is a means of expressing NRC management's conclusions and judgments on licensee performance. Emphasis is placed on considering the reasons for a licensee's performance in identified functional areas and on sharing this information with the licensee and the public. Licensee activities are broken down into functional areas, each of which is evaluated separately. The seven functional areas of operating reactors are plant operations, maintenance/surveillance, engineering technical support, safety assessment/quality verification, radiological controls, emergency preparedness, and security

  4. Options and processes for spent catalyst handling and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafi, M; Stanislaus, A

    2003-07-18

    The quantity of spent hydroprocessing catalysts discarded as solid wastes in the petroleum refining industries has increased remarkably in recent years due to a rapid growth in the hydroprocessing capacity to meet the rising demand for low-sulfur fuels. Due to their toxic nature, spent hydroprocessing catalysts have been branded as hazardous wastes, and the refiners are experiencing pressure from environmental authorities to handle them safely. Several alternative methods such as reclamation of metals, rejuvenation and reuse, disposal in landfills and preparation of useful materials using spent catalysts as raw materials are available to deal with the spent catalyst problem. The technical feasibility as well as the environmental and economic aspects of these options are reviewed. In addition, details of two bench-scale processes, one for rejuvenation of spent hydroprocessing catalysts, and the other for producing non-leachable synthetic aggregate materials that were developed in this laboratory, are presented in this paper.

  5. Process for hydroprocessing heavy oils utilizing sepiolite-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auden, C.A.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1986-04-15

    A process is described for demetallizing and desulfurizing a hydrocarbon oil comprising contacting the hydrocarbon oil in the presence of hydrogen and a sepiolite-based catalyst composition under conditions of pressure and temperature sufficient to effect demetallization and desulfurization. The sepiolite-based catalyst composition has been prepared by first contacting the sepiolite with an aqueous solution of a first metal salt, then contacting the resultant metal ion-exchanged sepiolite with an aqueous solution of a compound of a second metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium, and finally contacting the resultant metal-exchanged sepiolite product with an aqueous solution of a magnesium compound, thereby effecting a magnesium ion-exchange with the metal-exchanged sepiolite product and neutralizing acid sites on the sepiolite product.

  6. Good manufacturing practices (GMP utilized on human blood irradiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Boghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease, a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for immunocompetent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25Gy to 50Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO4: Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation.

  7. Development of processes for the utilization of Brazilian coal using nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamert, H.; Niessen, H.F.; Walbeck, M.; Wasrzik, U.; Mueller, R.; Schiffers, U.; Strauss, W.

    1980-01-01

    Status of the project: End of the project definition phase and preparation of the planned conceptual phase. Objective of the project: Development of processes for the utilization of nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam for the gasification of coal with high ash content, in particular coal from Brazil. Results: With the data of Brazilian coal of high ash content (mine Leao/ 43% ash in the mine-mouth quality, 20% ash after preparation) there have been worked out proposals for the mine planning and for a number of processes. On the basis of these proposals and under consideration of the main data specified by the Brazilian working group there have been choosen two processes and worked out in a conceptual design: 1) pressurized water reactor + LURGI-pressure gasifier/hydrogasification for the production of SNG and 2) high temperature reactor steam gasification for the production of town gas. The economic evaluation showed that the two processes are not substantially different in their cost efficiency and they are economical on a long-term basis. For more specific design work there has been planned the implementation of an experimental programme using the semi-technical plants 'hydrogasification' in Wesseling and 'steam gasification' in Essen as the conceptual phase. (orig.) [de

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  9. A generic methodology for the design of sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes using superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    , including as an extractive agent or raw material. Chemical conversion, an important element of utilization, involves the use of carbon dioxide as a reactant in the production of chemical compounds [2]. However, for feasible implementation, a systematic methodology is needed for the design of the utilization......, especially chemical conversion, processes. To achieve this, a generic methodology has been developed, which adopts a three-stage approach consisting in (i) process synthesis, (ii) process design, and (iii) innovative and sustainable design [3]. This methodology, with the individual steps and associated...... methods and tools, has been developed and applied to carbon dioxide utilization networks. This work will focus on the first stage, process synthesis, of this three-stage methodology; process synthesis is important in determining the appropriate processing route to produce products from a selection...

  10. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Application of a systematic methodology for sustainable carbon dioxide utilization process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    than carbon capture and storage. To achieve this a methodology is developed to design sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes. First, the information on the possible utilization alternatives is collected, including the economic potential of the process and the carbon dioxide emissions...... emission are desired in order to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. Using this estimated preliminary evaluation, the top processes, with the most negative carbon dioxide emission are investigated by rigorous detailed simulation to evaluate the net carbon dioxide emissions. Once the base case design...

  12. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi; Nagai, Hideo; Runggaldier, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  13. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  14. Decision-making impairments in Parkinson's disease as a by-product of defective cost-benefit analysis and feedback processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryterska, Agata; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Osman, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining decision-making in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impaired performance on a variety of tasks. However, there are also demonstrations that patients with PD can make optimal decisions just like healthy age-matched controls. We propose that the reason for these mixed findings is that PD does not produce a generalized impairment of decision-making, but rather affects sub-components of this process. In this review we evaluate this hypothesis by considering the empirical evidence examining decision-making in PD. We suggest that of the various stages of the decision-making process, the most affected in PD are (1) the cost-benefit analysis stage and (2) the outcome evaluation stage. We consider the implications of this proposal for research in this area.

  15. Removal of antibiotics in a parallel-plate thin-film-photocatalytic reactor: Process modeling and evolution of transformation by-products and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkal, Can Burak; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Meriç, Süreyya

    2017-10-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotic has been studied under recycling batch and homogeneous flow conditions in a thin-film coated immobilized system namely parallel-plate (PPL) reactor. Experimentally designed, statistically evaluated with a factorial design (FD) approach with intent to provide a mathematical model takes into account the parameters influencing process performance. Initial antibiotic concentration, UV energy level, irradiated surface area, water matrix (ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater) and time, were defined as model parameters. A full of 2 5 experimental design was consisted of 32 random experiments. PPL reactor test experiments were carried out in order to set boundary levels for hydraulic, volumetric and defined defined process parameters. TTIP based thin-film with polyethylene glycol+TiO 2 additives were fabricated according to pre-described methodology. Antibiotic degradation was monitored by High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis while the degradation products were specified by LC-TOF-MS analysis. Acute toxicity of untreated and treated SMX solutions was tested by standard Daphnia magna method. Based on the obtained mathematical model, the response of the immobilized PC system is described with a polynomial equation. The statistically significant positive effects are initial SMX concentration, process time and the combined effect of both, while combined effect of water matrix and irradiated surface area displays an adverse effect on the rate of antibiotic degradation by photocatalytic oxidation. Process efficiency and the validity of the acquired mathematical model was also verified for levofloxacin and cefaclor antibiotics. Immobilized PC degradation in PPL reactor configuration was found capable of providing reduced effluent toxicity by simultaneous degradation of SMX parent compound and TBPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  17. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  18. Progress and safety aspects in process heat utilization from nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1995-01-01

    Report about the Status and the Progress in the Various Programs and Projects in the Federal Republic of Germany in Process Heat Utilization from the High Temperature Reactor and on Recent Changes of the Atomic Law in the Federal Republic of Germany with Big Influence on the Safety of Nuclear Energy Technology. (author)

  19. Benefits from remote sensing data utilization in urban planning processes and system recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, H. J.; Howard, J. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The benefits of utilizing remote sensor data in the urban planning process of the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments are investigated. An evaluation of sensor requirements, a description/ comparison of costs, benefits, levels of accuracy, ease of attainment, and frequency of update possible using sensor versus traditional data acquisition techniques are discussed.

  20. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  1. Studies on the utilization of PETROSIX process pyrolysed oil shale for pozzolans production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, M C; Souza Santos, P de; Schmal, M

    1984-08-01

    It was studied the possibility of utilization the PETROSIX Process pyrolised oil-shale as a raw material in the production of cementing materials emphasizing its use as pozzolan. Analysis of X-ray diffraction and spectrophotometry were used to determine the pozzolanic characteristics of the pyrolysed oil-shale. (Author).

  2. Utilizing High Pressure Processing to Induce Structural Changes in Dairy and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlien, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    High pressure (HP) is capable of modifying the functional properties of milk and meat proteins by pressure-induced changes of the molecular structure. Therefore, HP treatment of milk and meat has been extensively investigated to understand, clarify, and utilize HP processing in the food industry....

  3. An Extract from Shrimp Processing By-Products Protects SH-SY5Y Cells from Neurotoxicity Induced by Aβ25–35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased evidence suggests that marine unsaturated fatty acids (FAs can protect neurons from amyloid-β (Aβ-induced neurodegeneration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography (GC assays showed that the acetone extract 4-2A obtained from shrimp Pandalus borealis industry processing wastes contained 67.19% monounsaturated FAs and 16.84% polyunsaturated FAs. The present study evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-2A in Aβ25–35-insulted differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were measured by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to study the expression of neurotrophins, pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis-related genes. Administration of 20 μM Aβ25–35 significantly reduced SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF and its tyrosine kinase TrkA receptor, as well as the level of glutathione, while increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its TrkB receptor. Aβ25–35 also increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression. Treatment with 4-2A significantly attenuated the Aβ25–35-induced changes in cell viability, ROS, GSH, NGF, TrkA, TNF-α, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, except for nitric oxide, BDNF and TrKB. In conclusion, 4-2A effectively protected SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis/death by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress and up-regulating NGF and TrKA expression.

  4. Development of the spent fuel disassembling process by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. K.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Yun, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    For developing the spent fuel disassembling process, the 3D graphic simulation has been established by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology which is widely used in the industry. The spent fuel disassembling process consists of a downender, a rod extraction device, a rod cutting device, a pellet extracting device and a skeleton compaction device. In this study, the 3D graphical design model of these devices is implemented by conceptual design and established the virtual workcell within kinematics to motion of each device. By implementing this graphic simulation, all the unit process involved in the spent fuel disassembling processes are analyzed and optimized. The 3D graphical model and the 3D graphic simulation can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process

  5. Utility regulation and the legislative process in Oregon: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This case study discusses the strategies employed by the Public Utility Commissioner and the Oregon Department of Energy in the design, passage and implementation of a set of energy conservation bills. Information is included on the development of new legislation for energy conservation and management, on developing public acceptance of such legislation, and the cooperation received from utility companies to affect implementation. The lessons in strategy and tactics and the skillful use of the legislative process to get the package of bills enacted should have immediate value for those about to undertake a similar effort in their state. (LCL)

  6. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  7. Status of Utilizing Social Media Networks in the Teaching-Learning Process at Public Jordanian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneera Abdalkareem Alshdefait

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at finding out the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian Universities. To achieve the goal of the study, the descriptive developmental method was used and a questionnaire was developed, consisting of (35 statements. The questionnaire was checked for its validity and reliability. Then it was distributed to a sample of (382 male and female students from the undergraduate and graduate levels. The study results showed that the participants gave a low score to the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian universities. The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences between the participants of the study according to the academic rank attributed to the graduate students, and according to gender attributed to male students at the instrument macro level and on all dimensions of the two variables. In light of these results, the study recommended that public universities should utilize modern technology in the educational process, urge and encourage the teaching staff members to use the social media networks in the teaching-learning process and raise the students' awareness about the benefits of using social media networks. Keywords: Social media networks, Teaching-learning process, Public Jordanian Universities

  8. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  10. Supply chain process collaboration and Internet utilization: an international perspective of business to business relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Valadares de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compiles the findings of an international study which primary objective was to investigate the relationships between Internet utilization in business-to-business relationships, collaborative efforts and their impact over supplier and customer-oriented processes performance. It highlights the Internet as an important enhancer of collaboration in supply chains and addresses the effects of such efforts on companies’ overall performance. As a conclusive-descriptive and quantitative study, data from a survey of 788 companies from the USA, China, Canada, United Kingdom, and Brazil were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics, reliability evaluation of the research model’s internal scales, path analysis and structural equation modeling to evaluate supply chain processes collaboration, both up- and down-stream. Internet utilization in supplier and customer-oriented processes was found positively related to collaborative practices in business-to-business relationships. Collaborative practices in supplier and customer-oriented processes, in turn, showed potential effects on performance. Also, supplier-oriented processes performance was found positively associated with customer-oriented process performance. Both internet use and collaborative practices are even more important in a high-context country like Brazil. The paper helps clarify the impact of internet use on business-to-business collaborative relationships. In this sense, practitioners can take this impact to redraw the organizational landscape and business processes amongst supply chain participants.

  11. Use of sugarcane and other by-products in ruminant nutrition. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided studies on non-protein nitrogen and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants with particular reference to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti Marcondes, D.M.S.S.

    1985-01-01

    It was found that: 1 - Molasses was better energy source for rumen microorganisms than glucose or saccharose. 2 - Untreated bagasse was not a good roughage source and some treatment is necessary to improve its value. 3 - The treatment with NaOH did not improve significantly the digestibility of bagasse. 4 - The addition of an aromatizing substance did not improve the acceptability of bagasse by ruminants. 5 - The fermentation process caused only a slight modification of digestibility of bagasse (10%). 6 - The nutritional value of bagasse can be improved by treatment with steam under pressure, but the increase in apparent phenolic content may limit the pressure and treatment time to be applied

  12. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions...... giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm(-3) and 7 gN dm(-3) respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 degrees C, sterilization: 133 degrees C, and alkali...

  13. Technology for recovery of by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuy, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Products of conventional nuclear fuel processing plants are uranium and plutonium, and any other recovered material is considered to be a by-product. Some by-products have been recovered from past nuclear fuel processing operations, either as a normal mode of operation or by special campaigns. Routing recovery over an extended period has been limited to neptunium, but extended campaigns were used at Hanford to recover strontium for radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Krypton is recovered at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on a campaign basis, and isotope separation of krypton is done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Past campaigns at Hanford PUREX have recovered cesium, promethium, amercium, cerium, and technetium. Past by-product recovery efforts were usually severely constrained by the status of flowsheet development and availability of existing facilities at the time decisions wee made to recover the by-products. Additional processes were developed to accommodate other unit operations and in response to changes in waste management objectives or user requirements. Now an impressive variety of recovery technology is available for most potential by-products, with varying degrees of demonstration under conditions which satisfy today's environmental protection and waste management constraints

  14. Apparatus and method for materials processing utilizing a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Angelini, Joseph A.; Murphy, Bart L.; Wilgen, John B.

    2017-04-11

    An apparatus for materials processing utilizing a rotating magnetic field comprises a platform for supporting a specimen, and a plurality of magnets underlying the platform. The plurality of magnets are configured for rotation about an axis of rotation intersecting the platform. A heat source is disposed above the platform for heating the specimen during the rotation of the plurality of magnets. A method for materials processing utilizing a rotating magnetic field comprises providing a specimen on a platform overlying a plurality of magnets; rotating the plurality of magnets about an axis of rotation intersecting the platform, thereby applying a rotating magnetic field to the specimen; and, while rotating the plurality of magnets, heating the specimen to a desired temperature.

  15. A high sensitivity process variation sensor utilizing sub-threshold operation

    OpenAIRE

    Meterelliyoz, Mesut; Song, Peilin; Stellari, Franco; Kulkarni, Jaydeep P.; Roy, Kaushik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel low-power, bias-free, high-sensitivity process variation sensor for monitoring random variations in the threshold voltage. The proposed sensor design utilizes the exponential current-voltage relationship of sub-threshold operation thereby improving the sensitivity by 2.3X compared to the above-threshold operation. A test-chip containing 128 PMOS and 128 NMOS devices has been fabri...

  16. Status of Utilizing Social Media Networks in the Teaching-Learning Process at Public Jordanian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Muneera Abdalkareem Alshdefait; Mohammad . S. Alzboon

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at finding out the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian Universities. To achieve the goal of the study, the descriptive developmental method was used and a questionnaire was developed, consisting of (35) statements. The questionnaire was checked for its validity and reliability. Then it was distributed to a sample of (382) male and female students from the undergraduate and graduate levels. The study results showed tha...

  17. A methodology for the sustainable design and implementation strategy of CO2 utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Nguyen, Tuan B. H.

    2016-01-01

    design and analysis is discussed as only limited amounts of process data is available for determining the optimal processing path and in the third stage the issue of implementation strategy is considered. As examples, two CO2 utilization methods for methanol production, combined reforming and direct...... synthesis are considered. Methanol plants employing such methods are developed using synthesis-design and simulation tools and their evaluation indicators are calculated under various implementation strategies. It is demonstrated that integrating or replacing an existing conventional methanol plant...

  18. Systematic methods and tools for design of sustainable chemical processes for CO2 utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongpanna, Pichayapan; Babi, Deenesh K.; Pavarajarn, Varong

    2016-01-01

    A systematic computer-aided framework for sustainable process design is presented together with its application to the synthesis and generation of processing networks for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production with CO2 utilization. The framework integrated with various methods, tools, algorithms......-stage involves selection and analysis of the identified networks as a base case design in terms of operational feasibility, economics, life cycle assessment factors and sustainability measures, which are employed to establish targets for improvement in the next-stage. The innovation-stage involves generation...

  19. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant

  20. Improved processes of light hydrocarbon separation from LNG with its cryogenic energy utilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ting; Lin Wensheng; Gu Anzhong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose two new light hydrocarbon separation processes utilizing LNG cold energy. → Both processes produce liquefied ethane and LPG with high ethane recovery rate. → CH 4 -riched gas from the high pressure process is compressed to final pressure. → Re-liquefied CH 4 -riched gas from the low pressure one is pumped to final pressure. → Both processes have good performance; the low pressure one is economically better. -- Abstract: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) often consists of some kinds of light hydrocarbons other than methane, such as ethane, propane and butane, which are of high additional value. By efficiently utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, these light hydrocarbons (C 2 + ) can be separated from LNG with low power consumption and LNG is gasified meanwhile. Two novel light hydrocarbon separation processes are proposed in this paper. The first process uses a demethanizer working at higher pressure (about 4.5 MPa). The methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer can be compressed to pipeline pressure with low power consumption. The other one uses a demethanizer working at lower pressure (about 2.4 MPa). By cascade utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, the methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer is entirely re-liquefied. Then the liquid product is pressurized to pipeline pressure by pumps instead of compressors, reducing the power consumption greatly. By both of the two processes, liquefied ethane and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, i.e. C 3 + ) at atmosphere pressure can be obtained directly, and high ethane recovery rate can be gained. On the basis of one typical feed gas composition, the effects of the ethane content and the ethane price to the economics of the light hydrocarbon separation plants are studied, and the economics are compared for these two processes. The results show that recovering light hydrocarbons from LNG can gain great profits by both of the two processes, and from the view of economics, the

  1. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  2. Energy utilization, carbon dioxide emission, and exergy loss in flavored yogurt production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorgüven, Esra; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of food production processes on the environment in terms of energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission. There are three different energy utilization mechanisms in food production: Utilization of solar energy by plants to produce agricultural goods; feed consumption by herbivores to produce meat and milk; fossil fuel consumption by industrial processes to perform mixing, cooling, heating, etc. Production of strawberry-flavored yogurt, which involves these three mechanisms, is investigated here thermodynamically. Analysis starts with the cultivation of the ingredients and ends with the transfer of the final product to the market. The results show that 53% of the total exergy loss occurs during the milk production and 80% of the total work input is consumed during the plain yogurt making. The cumulative degree of perfection is 3.6% for the strawberry-flavored yogurt. This value can rise up to 4.6%, if renewable energy resources like hydropower and algal biodiesel are employed instead of fossil fuels. This paper points the direction for the development of new technology in food processing to decrease waste of energy and carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere. -- Highlights: ► Energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during strawberry-flavored yogurt production. ► Cumulative degree of perfection of strawberry-flavored yogurt is 3.6%. ► 53% of the total exergy loss occurs during the milk production. ► 80% of the total work input is consumed during the plain yogurt making.

  3. Utilization of the Nursing Process to Foster Clinical Reasoning During a Simulation Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lambie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nursing practice includes complex reasoning and multifaceted decision making with minimal standardized guidance in how to evaluate this phenomenon among nursing students. Learning outcomes related to the clinical reasoning process among novice baccalaureate nursing students during a simulation experience were evaluated. Nursing process records were utilized to evaluate and foster the development of clinical reasoning in a high-fidelity medical-surgical simulation experience. Students were unable to describe and process pertinent patient information appropriately prior to the simulation experience. Students’ ability to identify pertinent patient cues and plan appropriate patient care improved following the simulation. The learning activity afforded a structured opportunity to identify cues, prioritize the proper course of nursing interventions, and engage in collaboration among peers. The simulation experience provides faculty insight into the students’ clinical reasoning processes, while providing students with a clear framework for successfully accomplishing learning outcomes.

  4. Expanding the printable design space for lithography processes utilizing a cut mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, Jerome; Salama, Mohamed; Wilkinson, William; Curtice, Mark; Feng, Jui-Hsuan; Gao, Shao Wen; Asthana, Abhishek

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of a cut-mask in semiconductor patterning processes has been in practice for logic devices since the inception of 32nm-node devices, notably with unidirectional gate level printing. However, the microprocessor applications where cut-mask patterning methods are used are expanding as Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) processes become mainstream for 22/14nm fin diffusion, and sub-14nm metal levels. One common weakness for these types of lithography processes is that the initial pattern requiring the follow-up cut-mask typically uses an extreme off-axis imaging source such as dipole to enhance the resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) for critical dense patterns. This source condition suffers from poor process margin in the semi-dense (forbidden pitch) realm and wrong-way directional design spaces. Common pattern failures in these limited design regions include bridging and extra-printing defects that are difficult to resolve with traditional mask improvement means. This forces the device maker to limit the allowable geometries that a designer may use on a device layer. This paper will demonstrate methods to expand the usable design space on dipole-like processes such as unidirectional gate and SADP processes by utilizing the follow-up cut mask to improve the process window. Traditional mask enhancement means for improving the process window in this design realm will be compared to this new cut-mask approach. The unique advantages and disadvantages of the cut-mask solution will be discussed in contrast to those customary methods.

  5. Emergy Evaluation of a Production and Utilization Process of Irrigation Water in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp. and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems’ products (1.72E+05 sej/J and 1.42E+05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R, emergy yield ratio (EYR, emergy investment ratio (EIR, environmental load ratio (ELR, and environmental sustainability index (ESI. The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  6. Emergy evaluation of a production and utilization process of irrigation water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  7. Experimental investigation of ice and snow melting process on pavement utilizing geothermal tail water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huajun; Zhao Jun; Chen Zhihao

    2008-01-01

    Road ice and snow melting based on low temperature geothermal tail water is of significance to realize energy cascading utilization. A small scale ice and snow melting system is built in this work. Experiments of dynamic melting processes of crushed ice, solid ice, artificial snow and natural snow are conducted on concrete pavement. The results show that the melting process of ice and snow includes three phases: a starting period, a linear period and an accelerated period. The critical value of the snow free area ratio between the linear period and the accelerated period is about 0.6. The physical properties of ice and snow, linked with ambient conditions, have an obvious effect on the melting process. The difference of melting velocity and melting time between ice and snow is compared. To reduce energy consumption, the formation of ice on roads should be avoided if possible. The idling process is an effective pathway to improve the performance of melting systems. It is feasible to utilize geothermal tail water of about 40 deg. C for melting ice and snow on winter roads, and it is unnecessary to keep too high fluid temperatures during the practical design and applications. Besides, with the exception of solid ice, the density and porosity of snow and ice tend to be decreasing and increasing, respectively, as the ambient temperature decreases

  8. The effects of ergonomic stressors on process tool maintenance and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.

    1998-03-31

    This study examines ergonomic stressors associated with front-end process tool maintenance, relates them to decreased machine utilization, and proposes solution strategies to reduce their negative impact on productivity. Member company ergonomists observed technicians performing field maintenance tasks on seven different bottleneck tools and recorded ergonomic stressors using SEMaCheck, a graphics-based, integrated checklist developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The top ten stressors were prioritized according to a cost formula that accounted for difficulty, time, and potential errors. Estimates of additional time on a task caused by ergonomic stressors demonstrated that machine utilization could be increased from 6% to 25%. Optimal solution strategies were formulated based on redesign budget, stressor cost, and estimates of solution costs and benefits

  9. Accurate Identification of Fatty Liver Disease in Data Warehouse Utilizing Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Joseph S; Natarajan, Yamini; Hou, Jason K; Wang, Jingqi; Hanif, Muzammil; Feng, Hua; Kramer, Jennifer R; Desiderio, Roxanne; Xu, Hua; El-Serag, Hashem B; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2017-10-01

    Natural language processing is a powerful technique of machine learning capable of maximizing data extraction from complex electronic medical records. We utilized this technique to develop algorithms capable of "reading" full-text radiology reports to accurately identify the presence of fatty liver disease. Abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging reports were retrieved from the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse from a random national sample of 652 patients. Radiographic fatty liver disease was determined by manual review by two physicians and verified with an expert radiologist. A split validation method was utilized for algorithm development. For all three imaging modalities, the algorithms could identify fatty liver disease with >90% recall and precision, with F-measures >90%. These algorithms could be used to rapidly screen patient records to establish a large cohort to facilitate epidemiological and clinical studies and examine the clinic course and outcomes of patients with radiographic hepatic steatosis.

  10. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  11. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  12. Integrated design and optimization of technologies for utilizing low grade heat in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Dong-Hun; Binns, Michael; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a modeling and design framework for the utilization of low grade heat. • Application of process simulator and optimization techniques for the design of technologies for heat recovery. • Systematic and holistic exploitation for the recovery of industrial low grade heat. • Demonstration of the applicability and benefit of integrated design and optimization framework through a case study. - Abstract: The utilization of low grade heat in process industries has significant potential for improving site-wide energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the techno-economic analysis of key technologies for energy recovery and re-use, namely: Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), boiler feed water heating, heat pumping and absorption refrigeration in the context of process integration. Process modeling and optimization in a holistic manner identifies the optimal integrated configuration of these technologies, with rigorous assessment of costs and technical feasibility of these technologies. For the systematic screening and evaluation of design options, detailed process simulator models are evaluated and optimization proceeds subject to design constraints for the particular economic scenarios where technology using low grade heat is introduced into the process site. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed modeling and optimization framework can be useful and effective in practice, in terms of providing design guidelines and conceptual insights for the application of technologies using low grade heat. From the case study, the best options during winter are the ORC giving a 6.4% cost reduction for the ideal case with low grade heat available at a fixed temperature and boiler feed water heating giving a 2.5% cost reduction for the realistic case with low grade heat available at a range of temperatures. Similarly during summer boiler feed water heating was found to be the best option giving a 3.1% reduction of costs considering a

  13. Utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp CH1 in biological carbon dioxide mitigation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, C.L.; Lee, C.M.; Chen, P.C. [Hungkuang University, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2011-05-15

    Before switching totally to alternative fuel stage, CO{sub 2} mitigation process has considered a transitional strategy for combustion of fossil fuels inevitably. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} mitigation options, such as oceanic or geologic injection, the biological photosynthetic process would present a far superior and sustainable solution under both environmental and social considerations. The utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. CH1 in carbon dioxide mitigation processes is analyzed in our research. It was found that an original developed photobioreactor with internal light source exhibits high light utilization. Anabaena sp. CH1 demonstrates excellent CO{sub 2} tolerance even at 15% CO{sub 2} level. This enables flue gas from power plant to be directly introduced to Anabaena sp. CH1 culture. Double light intensity and increased 47% CO{sub 2} bubble retention time could enhance CO{sub 2} removal efficiencies by 79% and 67%, respectively. A maximum CO{sub 2} fixation rate of 1.01 g CO{sub 2} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} was measured experimentally.

  14. Integrating utilization-focused evaluation with business process modeling for clinical research improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Rosas, Scott; Trochim, William M K

    2010-10-01

    New discoveries in basic science are creating extraordinary opportunities to design novel biomedical preventions and therapeutics for human disease. But the clinical evaluation of these new interventions is, in many instances, being hindered by a variety of legal, regulatory, policy and operational factors, few of which enhance research quality, the safety of study participants or research ethics. With the goal of helping increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research, we have examined how the integration of utilization-focused evaluation with elements of business process modeling can reveal opportunities for systematic improvements in clinical research. Using data from the NIH global HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks, we analyzed the absolute and relative times required to traverse defined phases associated with specific activities within the clinical protocol lifecycle. Using simple median duration and Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis, we show how such time-based analyses can provide a rationale for the prioritization of research process analysis and re-engineering, as well as a means for statistically assessing the impact of policy modifications, resource utilization, re-engineered processes and best practices. Successfully applied, this approach can help researchers be more efficient in capitalizing on new science to speed the development of improved interventions for human disease.

  15. Aproveitamento da casca de citros na perspectiva de alimentos: prospecção da atividade antibacteriana Utilization of citrus by-products in food perspective: screening of antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Gerhardt

    2012-05-01

    export of orange juice. The State of Rio Grande Do Sul is an important producer of citrus. During farming and processing of citrus, tons of residues are generated, with low commercial value and great potential for use in the field of food production. These residues possess many nutrients, pigments and bioactive compounds, as well as low toxicity and cost. There is evidence that the peel of citrus have antibacterial and antifungal activity. In this work, we aim to determine the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of citrus peels in the perspective of disinfection and preservation of food, presenting sustainable and natural alternatives directed at consumers concerned with health. Ethanolic extracts of crude peel of ripe ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco, pomelo (Citrus maxima (Burm. Merr. and rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck were obtained from ecological family farms. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated regarding Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC against five different bacterial strains. The rangpur lime extract presented the best antibacterial activity, with about 24 mg.mL-1 MIC and 42 mg.mL-1 MBC for the most resistant strain. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive strain. All ethanolic extracts inhibited or inactivated all tested strains, indicating they could be used as natural alternatives in food disinfection and preservation.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 o C and for some experiments also at 37 o C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm 3 kg -1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm -3 and 7 g N dm -3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 o C, sterilization: 133 o C, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 o C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  18. Anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge process as an effective nutrient removal process utilizing denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Naohiro; Kim, Juhyun; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Sudo, Ryuichi

    2006-07-01

    In a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process, the utilization of denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) has many advantages such as effective use of organic carbon substrates and low sludge production. As a suitable process for the utilization of DNPAOs in BNR, an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge (AOAGS) process was proposed in this study. In spite of performing aeration for nitrifying bacteria, the AOAGS process can create anaerobic/anoxic conditions suitable for the cultivation of DNPAOs because anoxic zones exist inside the granular sludge in the oxic phase. Thus, DNPAOs can coexist with nitrifying bacteria in a single reactor. In addition, the usability of DNPAOs in the reactor can be improved by adding the anoxic phase after the oxic phase. These characteristics enable the AOAGS process to attain effective removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When acetate-based synthetic wastewater (COD: 600 mg/L, NH4-N: 60 mg/L, PO(4)-P: 10 mg/L) was supplied to a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor under the operation of anaerobic/oxic/anoxic cycles, granular sludge with a diameter of 500 microm was successfully formed within 1 month. Although the removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus was almost complete at the end of the oxic phase, a short anoxic period subsequent to the oxic phase was necessary for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. As a result, effluent concentrations of NH(4)-N, NO(x)-N and PO(4)-P were always lower than 1 mg/L. It was found that penetration depth of oxygen inside the granular sludge was approximately 100 microm by microsensor measurements. In addition, from the microbiological analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization, existence depth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms was further than the maximum oxygen penetration depth. The water quality data, oxygen profiles and microbial community structure demonstrated that DNPAOs inside the granular sludge may be responsible for denitrification in the

  19. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    information-data on various carbon dioxide emission sources and available capture-utilization technologies; the model and solution libraries [2]; and the generic 3-stage approach for determining more sustainable solutions [3] through superstructure (processing networks) based optimization – adopted for global...... need to provide, amongst other options: useful data from in-house databases on carbon dioxide emission sources; mathematical models from a library of process-property models; numerical solvers from library of implemented solvers; and, work-flows and data-flows for different benefit scenarios...... to be investigated. It is useful to start by developing a prototype framework and then augmenting its application range by increasing the contents of its databases, libraries and work-flows and data-flows. The objective is to present such a prototype framework with its implemented database containing collected...

  20. Utilization of Integrated Process Control, Data Capture, and Data Analysis in Construction of Accelerator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnie Madre; Charles Reece; Joseph Ozelis; Valerie Bookwalter

    2003-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed a web-based system that integrates commercial database, data analysis, document archiving and retrieval, and user interface software, into a coherent knowledge management product (Pansophy). This product provides important tools for the successful pursuit of major projects such as accelerator system development and construction, by offering elements of process and procedure control, data capture and review, and data mining and analysis. After a period of initial development, Pansophy is now being used in Jefferson Lab's SNS superconducting linac construction effort, as a means for structuring and implementing the QA program, for process control and tracking, and for cryomodule test data capture and presentation/analysis. Development of Pansophy is continuing, in particular data queries and analysis functions that are the cornerstone of its utility

  1. Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass with Emphasis of Wheat Straw Utilization. Analysis of Strategies for Process Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Green and Blue Technologies Strategies in HORIZON 2020" has increased the attention of scientific society on global utilization of renewable energy sources. Agricultural residues can be a valuable source of energy because of drastically growing human needs for food. The goal of this review is to show the current state of art on utilization of wheat straw as a substrate for ethanol production. The specifics of wheat straw composition and the chemical and thermodynamic properties of its components pre-determined the application of unit operations and engineering strategies for hydrolysis of the substrate and further its fermentation. Modeling of this two processes is crucially important for optimal overall process development and scale up. The authors gave much attention on main hydrolisis products as a glucose and xylose (C6 and C5 sugars, respectivelly and on the specifics of their metabolization by ethanol producing microorganisms. The microbial physiology reacting on C6 and C5 sugars and mathematical aproaches describing these phenomena are discussing, as well.

  2. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  3. Study of the Utilization BWR Type Nuclear Power Reactor for Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu Karliana; Sumijanto; Dhandhang Purwadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The needs of fresh water increased by rapid population growth and industrials expansion, but these demands can not be prepared naturally. Following this case, seawater desalination becomes the primer option which can fulfill the need through the nuclear desalination technology. The coupled nuclear power reactor enables to supply thermal energy for auxiliary equipment and pumps operation. The utilization study of power reactor type BWR coupled with desalination process has been performed. The goal of study is to obtain characteristic data of desalted water specification which desalination system coupling with nuclear power plant produced energy for desalination process. The study is carried out by browsing data and information, and comprehensive review of thermal energy correlation between NPP with desalination process installation. According to reviewing are found that the thermal energy and electric power utilization from the nuclear power reactor are enable to remove the seawater to produce desalted water and also to operate auxiliary equipments. The assessment results is VK-300 reactor prototype, BWR type 250 MW(e) power are cogeneration unit can supplied hot steam temperature 285 °C to the extraction turbine to empower 150 MW electric power, and a part of hot steam 130 °C is use to operate desalination process and remind heat is distribute to the municipal and offices at that region. The coupled of VK-300 reactor power type BWR with desalination installation of MED type enable to produce desalted water with high quality distillate. Based on the economic calculation that the VK-300 reactor power of BWR type produced water distillate capacity is 300.000 m 3 /hour with cost US$ 0.58/m 3 . The coupling VK-300 reactor power type BWR with MED desalination plant is competitive economically. (author)

  4. Electron beam processing of materials-R and D and industrial utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The early sixties witnessed the beginning of Electron Beam (EB) processing of materials using high-energy electrons and has emerged as a well established technology, presently being adapted by the industry. The process and the processed materials showed definite and distinct advantages/characteristics over the available conventional methods. Even though the commercial exploitation started initially in polymer modifications for better (and suitable) performance through polymerization, cross-linking, degradation and grafting, the processing fields are now diverged to sterilization of health care, food irradiation, controlled defects in semiconductor devices and semi and/or precious stones, waste water/flue gas treatment etc. The availability of electron accelerators that operate as per the requirement of the industrial needs, easy maintenance, expertise availability etc brought the EB processing industry into a multi dollar business world wide. In USA and Japan there are more than 1200 accelerators currently operative in automobile tire, wire and cable and heat shrinkable industry. Output beam powers exceeding 400 kW with electron energy ranging from few hundred keV up to 10 MeV are made available to the industry. In BARC EB processing started with the 2MeV/20 kW electron accelerator and suitable processing techniques have been developed for applications like polymer cross linking (heat resistant LDPE O-rings, wire and cable insulation), color enhancement in precious stones (diamonds) on industrial scale and polymer curing, grafting, degradation on R and D/pilot scale. The commercial success of the process enabled the private cable industry to set up accelerators at their factories. On research and development front, the accelerator is being utilized to develop new polymer blends for high temperature applications, for solid and liquid waste treatment, polypropylene grafting experiments for uranium extraction from sea water, surface curing etc. This paper gives

  5. Practical utilization of modeling and simulation in laboratory process waste assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttle, T.W.; Smith, D.M.; Weinrach, J.B.; Burns, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), facility waste streams tend to be small but highly diverse. Initial characterization of such waste streams is difficult in part due to a lack of tools to assist the waste generators in completing such assessments. A methodology has been developed at LANL to allow process knowledgeable field personnel to develop baseline waste generation assessments and to evaluate potential waste minimization technology. This process waste assessment (PWA) system is an application constructed within the process modeling system. The Process Modeling System (PMS) is an object-oriented, mass balance-based, discrete-event simulation using the common LISP object system (CLOS). Analytical capabilities supported within the PWA system include: complete mass balance specifications, historical characterization of selected waste streams and generation of facility profiles for materials consumption, resource utilization and worker exposure. Anticipated development activities include provisions for a best available technologies (BAT) database and integration with the LANL facilities management Geographic Information System (GIS). The environments used to develop these assessment tools will be discussed in addition to a review of initial implementation results

  6. The utility of an online diagnostic decision support system (Isabel) in general practice: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily J; Rubin, Greg P

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of Isabel, an online diagnostic decision support system developed by Isabel Healthcare primarily for secondary medical care, in the general practice setting. Focus groups were conducted with clinicians to understand why and how they used the system. A modified online post-use survey asked practitioners about its impact on their decision-making. Normalization process theory (NPT) was used as a theoretical framework to determine whether the system could be incorporated into routine clinical practice. The system was introduced by NHS County Durham and Darlington in the UK in selected general practices as a three-month pilot. General practitioners and nurse practitioners who had access to Isabel as part of the Primary Care Trust's pilot. General practitioners' views, experiences and usage of the system. Seven general practices agreed to pilot Isabel. Two practices did not subsequently use it. The remaining five practices conducted searches on 16 patients. Post-use surveys (n = 10) indicated that Isabel had little impact on diagnostic decision-making. Focus group participants stated that, although the diagnoses produced by Isabel in general did not have an impact on their decision-making, they would find the tool useful if it were better tailored to the primary care setting. Our analysis concluded that normalization was not likely to occur in its current form. Isabel was of limited utility in this short pilot study and may need further modification for use in general practice.

  7. Utilization of Liquid Smoke from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches on Raw Rubber Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research utilization of liquid smoke from oil palm empty fruit bunches of raw rubber has been made to utilize solid waste from industrial processing of oil palm empty fruit bunches of oil palm so that it becomes economically valuable products. This research has been done by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at a temperature of 400oC for 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours. The results show that the pyrolysis liquid smoke oil palm empty fruit bunches for 8 hours give a high concentration of phenol and acetic acid, respectively 5% and 0.454%. Liquid smoke that has been obtained is used as a coagulant in raw rubber plantation crops of the people residing in the village of Ambawang, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan. Results of treatment of liquid smoke on raw rubber  show that the rubber products that have been frozen and dried are superior in terms of color, smell and drying time compared with the treatment of formic acid and water battery which has been added so far on raw rubber by the local rubber farmers.

  8. MARS-ORNL, Processing Program Collection for AMPX, CCCC, ANISN, DOT, MORSE Format Library. LINX, MINX Library Utility, Data Merge. BINX, MINX Utility and SPHINX Utility, BCD to BIN Library Conversion. CINX, MINX Utility and SPHINX Utility, Library Data Collapsing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Description of problem or function: MARS-ORNL is a selection of computer codes for the generation of problem-dependent multigroup cross section libraries. They are selected modules from the AMPX-2 system for AMPX interface format libraries, LASL codes for CCCC interfaces, and processing codes for libraries to be used by ANISN, DOT, or MORSE codes. The codes in the collection are used in connection with the following DLC data libraries: ZZ-LIB-IV (DLC-0040), ZZ-VITAMIN-C (DLC-0041), VITAMIN-4C (DLC-0053), ZZ-CLEAR/42B (DLC-0042), ZZ-CSRL/43B (DLC-0043), and EPRMASTER (DLC-0052). The functions of these processing codes are briefly described: A. AMPX Modules: AIM: Converts AMPX Master Interface Files from EBCDIC to binary form and back. AJAX: Merges, collects, assembles, re-orders, joins, and copies selected nuclides from AMPX Master Interfaces. BONAMI: Accesses Bondarenko factors from an AMPX Master Library and performs resonance self-shielding calculations. CHOX: Produces a coupled interface library in AMPX format by combining neutron libraries (generated by module XLACS), gamma libraries (generated by module SMUG), and photon production libraries (generated by module LAPHNGAS). CHOXM: Combines self-shielding factors as generated by the code SPHINX (PSR-0129) and an infinite dilution neutron master interface (generated by XLACS) to generate a self-shielded neutron AMPX Interface File. The interface produced by CHOXM is an input to the NITAWL module of AMPX. CHOXM is a modified version of CHOX. COMAND: Collapses ANISN cross section libraries. DIAL: Produces edits from AMPX Master Interfaces. ICE-II: Accepts cross sections from an AMPX working library and produces mixed cross sections in four formats: (1) AMPX working library format; (2) ANISN format; (3) group-independent ANISN format; (4) Monte Carlo processed cross section library format. NITAWL: Produces self-shielded and working cross section libraries in the formats required by the ANISN, DOT, or MORSE codes

  9. Comprehensive Utilization of Filter Residue from the Preparation Process of Zeolite-Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qin Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel utilization method of filter residue from the preparation process of zeolite-based catalysts was investigated. Y zeolite and a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC catalyst were synthesized from filter residue. Compared to the Y zeolite synthesized by the conventional method, the Y zeolite synthesized from filter residue exhibited better thermal stability. The catalyst possessed wide-pore distribution. In addition, the pore volume, specific surface area, attrition resistance were superior to those of the reference catalyst. The yields of gasoline and light oil increased by 1.93 and 1.48 %, respectively. At the same time, the coke yield decreased by 0.41 %. The catalyst exhibited better gasoline and coke selectivity. The quality of the cracked gasoline had been improved.

  10. Progress of data processing system in JT-60 utilizing the UNIX-based workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Shinya; Kiyono, Kimihiro; Oshima, Takayuki; Sato, Minoru; Ozeki, Takahisa

    2007-07-01

    JT-60 data processing system (DPS) possesses three-level hierarchy. At the top level of hierarchy is JT-60 inter-shot processor (MSP-ISP), which is a mainframe computer, provides communication with the JT-60 supervisory control system and supervises the internal communication inside the DPS. The middle level of hierarchy has minicomputers and the bottom level of hierarchy has individual diagnostic subsystems, which consist of the CAMAC and VME modules. To meet the demand for advanced diagnostics, the DPS has been progressed in stages from a three-level hierarchy system, which was dependent on the processing power of the MSP-ISP, to a two-level hierarchy system, which is decentralized data processing system (New-DPS) by utilizing the UNIX-based workstations and network technology. This replacement had been accomplished, and the New-DPS has been started to operate in October 2005. In this report, we describe the development and improvement of the New-DPS, whose functions were decentralized from the MSP-ISP to the UNIX-based workstations. (author)

  11. Cross-border shipment route selection utilizing analytic hierarchy process (AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeris Ammarapala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a member of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC, Thailand expects a growth of cross-border trade with neighboring countries, especially the agricultural products shipment. To facilitate this, a number of strategies are set, such as the utilization of single check point, the Asian Highway (AH route development, and the truck lane initiation. However, majority of agricultural products traded through the borders are transported using the rural roads, from growing area to the factory, before continuing to the borders using different highways. It is, therefore, necessary for the Department of Rural Roads (DRR to plan for rural road improvement to accommodate the growth of the cross-border trades in the near future. This research, thus, aims to select potential rural roads to support cross-border shipment utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Seven key factors affecting rural roads selection, with references from transport and other related literatures, are extracted. They include:1 cross-border trade value, 2 distance from border to rural road, 3 agriculture and processed agriculture goods transported across the border, 4 compatibility with national strategies, 5 area characteristics around the rural road, 6 truck volume, and 7 number of rural roads in the radius of 50 kilometers from the border. Interviews are conducted with the experts based on seven key factors to collect data for the AHP analysis. The results identify the weight of each factor with an acceptable consistency ratio. It shows that the cross-border trade value is the most important factor as it achieves the highest weight. The distance from border to rural road and the compatibility with national strategies are also found crucial when making rural road selection decision. The Department of Rural Roads could use the results to select suitable roads, and plan for road improvement to support the crossborder shipment when the AEC is fully implemented.

  12. Utilization of electromigration in civil and environmental engineering--processes, transport rates and matrix changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Christensen, Iben V; Rorig-Dalgård, Inge; Jensen, Pernille E; Hansen, Henrik K

    2008-07-01

    Electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) is utilized for supply or extraction of ions from various porous materials within both civil and environmental engineering. In civil engineering, most research has been conducted on the removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion while in environmental engineering remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is the issue most studied. Never the less, experiments have been conducted with utilization for several other materials and purposes within both engineering fields. Even though there are many topics of common interest in the use of electromigration for the two fields, there is no tradition for collaboration. The present paper is a review with the aim of pointing out areas of shared interest. Focus is laid on the purposes of the different processes, transport rates of various ions in different materials and on changes in the matrix itself. Desorption and dissolution of the target elements into ionic form is a key issue to most of the processes, and can be the limiting step. The removal rate is generally below 1 cm day(- 1), but it can be much less than 1 mm day(- 1) when desorption is slow and insufficient. Matrix changes occurs under the action of the applied electric field and it includes both physico-chemical and hydrological changes. Some of the solid phases is weathered and new can be formed. Increased fundamental understanding of the effects and side effects, when applying the electric field to a porous material, can lead to improvement of the known technologies and possibly to new applications.

  13. An intelligent approach to optimize the EDM process parameters using utility concept and QPSO algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmaya P. Mohanty

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although significant research has gone into the field of electrical discharge machining (EDM, analysis related to the machining efficiency of the process with different electrodes has not been adequately made. Copper and brass are frequently used as electrode materials but graphite can be used as a potential electrode material due to its high melting point temperature and good electrical conductivity. In view of this, the present work attempts to compare the machinability of copper, graphite and brass electrodes while machining Inconel 718 super alloy. Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been employed to collect data for the study and analyze effect of machining parameters on performance measures. The important performance measures selected for this study are material removal rate, tool wear rate, surface roughness and radial overcut. Machining parameters considered for analysis are open circuit voltage, discharge current, pulse-on-time, duty factor, flushing pressure and electrode material. From the experimental analysis, it is observed that electrode material, discharge current and pulse-on-time are the important parameters for all the performance measures. Utility concept has been implemented to transform a multiple performance characteristics into an equivalent performance characteristic. Non-linear regression analysis is carried out to develop a model relating process parameters and overall utility index. Finally, the quantum behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithms have been used to compare the optimal level of cutting parameters. Results demonstrate the elegance of QPSO in terms of convergence and computational effort. The optimal parametric setting obtained through both the approaches is validated by conducting confirmation experiments.

  14. Creation of a simple natural language processing tool to support an imaging utilization quality dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jordan; Koziatek, Christian; Theobald, Jason; Smith, Silas; Iturrate, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Testing for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with cost and risk to patients (e.g. radiation). To assess the appropriateness of imaging utilization at the provider level, it is important to know that provider's diagnostic yield (percentage of tests positive for the diagnostic entity of interest). However, determining diagnostic yield typically requires either time-consuming, manual review of radiology reports or the use of complex and/or proprietary natural language processing software. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to develop and implement a simple, user-configurable, and open-source natural language processing tool to classify radiology reports with high accuracy and 2) to use the results of the tool to design a provider-specific VTE imaging dashboard, consisting of both utilization rate and diagnostic yield. Two physicians reviewed a training set of 400 lower extremity ultrasound (UTZ) and computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) reports to understand the language used in VTE-positive and VTE-negative reports. The insights from this review informed the arguments to the five modifiable parameters of the NLP tool. A validation set of 2,000 studies was then independently classified by the reviewers and by the tool; the classifications were compared and the performance of the tool was calculated. The tool was highly accurate in classifying the presence and absence of VTE for both the UTZ (sensitivity 95.7%; 95% CI 91.5-99.8, specificity 100%; 95% CI 100-100) and CTPA reports (sensitivity 97.1%; 95% CI 94.3-99.9, specificity 98.6%; 95% CI 97.8-99.4). The diagnostic yield was then calculated at the individual provider level and the imaging dashboard was created. We have created a novel NLP tool designed for users without a background in computer programming, which has been used to classify venous thromboembolism reports with a high degree of accuracy. The tool is open-source and available for download at http

  15. Utilization and application of wet potato processing coproducts for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M L

    2010-04-01

    Wet coproducts fed to beef cattle include processing coproducts of the fruit, vegetable, juice, and brewing industries. Considerations for their utilization in beef cattle diets include quantity available, feeding value, quality of animal products produced, economics (e.g., transportation of water), storage and preservation, consumer perception, nuisance concerns, contaminants, and interactions with other diet ingredients. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) coproducts from processing for frozen food products may be quantitatively most important because the 11.3 million t of potatoes (fresh weight) processed in the United States and Canada in 2008 resulted in an estimated 4.3 million t (as-is basis) of coproduct. Chemical composition and feeding value of potato coproducts depends on the coproduct type. The names of coproducts vary among potato processors and some processors combine the different coproducts into one product commonly called slurry. The 4 main potato coproducts are 1) potato peels; 2) screen solids (small potatoes and pieces); 3) fried product (fries, hash browns, batter, crumbles); and 4) material from the water recovery systems (oxidation ditch, belt solids, filter cake). The coproducts, except the fried products, ensile rapidly, reaching pH 5 in 7 d or less. Dry matter content varies from 10 to 30% and on a DM basis varies in CP (5 to 27%), starch (3 to 56%), NDF (4 to 41%), and ether extract (3 to 37%) content among potato coproducts. Type of coproduct and frying greatly affect the energy value (0.6 to 1.6 Mcal of NE(g)/kg of DM). Composition, quality, and shelf life of beef was not affected by potato coproduct feeding in contrast to perceptions of some purveyors and chefs. Potato coproducts are quantitatively important energy sources in beef cattle diets, which, in turn, solve a potentially massive disposal problem for the food processing industry.

  16. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  17. Design and process integration of organic Rankine cycle utilizing biomass for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ependi, S.; Nur, T. B.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has high potential biomass energy sources from palm oil mill industry activities. The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used for generating electricity from rejected waste heat to the environment in industrial processes. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, and wood chip have been used as fuel for biomass to generate electricity based ORC with combustion processes. The heat from combustion burner was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC unit. Appropriate designs integration from biomass combustion unit to ORC unit have been analyzed and proposed to generate expander shaft-work. Moreover, the effect of recuperator on the total system efficiency has also been investigated. It was observed that the fuel consumption was increased when the ORC unit equipped recuperator operated until certain pressure and decreased when operated at high pressure.

  18. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Inactivation of viruses in bubbling processes utilized for personal bioaerosol monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, I E; Safatov, A S; Borodulin, A I; Pyankov, O V; Petrishchenko, V A; Sergeev, A N; Agafonov, A P; Ignatiev, G M; Sergeev, A A; Agranovski, V

    2004-12-01

    A new personal bioaerosol sampler has recently been developed and evaluated for sampling of viable airborne bacteria and fungi under controlled laboratory conditions and in the field. The operational principle of the device is based on the passage of air through porous medium immersed in liquid. This process leads to the formation of bubbles within the filter as the carrier gas passes through and thus provides effective mechanisms for aerosol removal. As demonstrated in previous studies, the culturability of sampled bacterium and fungi remained high for the entire 8-h sampling period. The present study is the first step of the evaluation of the new sampler for monitoring of viable airborne viruses. It focuses on the investigation of the inactivation rate of viruses in the bubbling process during 4 h of continuous operation. Four microbes were used in this study, influenza, measles, mumps, and vaccinia viruses. It was found that the use of distilled water as the collection fluid was associated with a relatively high decay rate. A significant improvement was achieved by utilizing virus maintenance fluid prepared by using Hank's solution with appropriate additives. The survival rates of the influenza, measles, and mumps viruses were increased by 1.4 log, 0.83 log, and 0.82 log, respectively, after the first hour of operation compared to bubbling through the sterile water. The same trend was observed throughout the entire 4-h experiment. There was no significant difference observed only for the robust vaccinia virus.

  20. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-01-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ''like for like'' replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants

  1. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity. (paper)

  2. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL

  3. Utilization of Black Tiger Shrimp Flesh Waste for Pop Shrimp Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Eko Irianto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the utilization of black  tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon flesh waste in the processing of pop shrimp has been carried out.  So far, shrimp flesh waste is used for the production of shrimp paste, and shrimp cracker.   The objective of this study was to develop a fomula for pop shrimp production using shrimp flesh waste. Experimental design applied in this study was three-variables mixture design, in which variables observed were shrimp flesh waste, surimi and tapioca flour. Pop shrimp obtained was evaluated for sensory properties. The best product processed using a selected formula was analysed chemically and microbiologically, particularly for proxymate composition and total plate count respectively. Selected formula of pop shrimp consisted of 50.91% shrimp flesh waste, 18.18% surimi, 3.64% tapioca flour, 10.91% onion, 2.18% garlic, 0.73% pepper powder, 1.45% sugar, 0.36% monosodium glutamate, 0.73% ginger, 1.45% salt, 4.44% butter mix, 1.38% corn flour (maizena and 3.64% bread crumb. Proxymate composition of the best pop shrimp was 70.52% moisture, 0.73% ash, 0.39% fat, and 7.44% protein, while microbiological load in terms of total plate count was 3.3x103 colonies/g.

  4. Energy and Resource Saving of Steelmaking Process: Utilization of Innovative Multi-phase Flux During Dephosphorization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Hamano, Tasuku; Zhong, Ming; Gao, Xu; Yang, Xiao; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-09-01

    An increase in the utilization efficiency of CaO, one of the major fluxing agents used in various steelmaking processes, is required to reduce the amount of discharged slag and energy consumption of the process. The authors have intensively focused on the development of innovative dephosphorization process by using so called "multi-phase flux" composed of solid and liquid phases. This article summarizes the research on the above topic done by the authors, in which the formation mechanisms of P2O5-containing phase during CaO or 2CaO·SiO2 dissolution into molten slag, the phase relationship between solid and liquid phases at equilibrium, and thermodynamic properties of P2O5-containing phase have been clarified. The reactions between solid CaO or 2CaO·SiO2 and molten CaO-FeO x -SiO2-P2O5 slag were observed by dipping solid specimen in the synthesized slag at 1573 K or 1673 K. The formation of the CaO-FeO layer and dual-phase layer of solid 2CaO·SiO2 and FeO x -rich liquid phase was observed around the interface from the solid CaO side toward the bulk slag phase side. Condensation of P2O5 into 2CaO·SiO2 phase as 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution was observed in both cases of CaO and 2CaO·SiO2 as solid specimens. Measurement of the phase relationship for the CaO-FeO x -SiO2-P2O5 system confirmed the condensation of P2O5 in solid phase at low oxygen partial pressure. The thermodynamics of 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution are to be clarified to quantitatively simulate the dephosphorization process, and the current results are also introduced. Based on the above results, the reduction of CaO consumption, the discharged slag curtailment, and energy-saving effects have been discussed.

  5. Prediction of Adequate Prenatal Care Utilization Based on the Extended Parallel Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Sepideh; Imani, Fatemeh; Riazi, Hedyeh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy complications are one of the major public health concerns. One of the main causes of preventable complications is the absence of or inadequate provision of prenatal care. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Extended Parallel Process Model's constructs can predict the utilization of prenatal care services. The present longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 192 pregnant women selected through the multi-stage sampling of health facilities in Qeshm, Hormozgan province, from April to June 2015. Participants were followed up from the first half of pregnancy until their childbirth to assess adequate or inadequate/non-utilization of prenatal care services. Data were collected using the structured Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale. The analysis of the data was carried out in SPSS-22 using one-way ANOVA, linear regression and logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Totally, 178 pregnant women with a mean age of 25.31±5.42 completed the study. Perceived self-efficacy (OR=25.23; Pprenatal care. Husband's occupation in the labor market (OR=0.43; P=0.02), unwanted pregnancy (OR=0.352; Pcare for the minors or elderly at home (OR=0.35; P=0.045) were associated with lower odds of receiving prenatal care. The model showed that when perceived efficacy of the prenatal care services overcame the perceived threat, the likelihood of prenatal care usage will increase. This study identified some modifiable factors associated with prenatal care usage by women, providing key targets for appropriate clinical interventions.

  6. Purificação do subproduto do processo de extração de esteviosídeo Purification of the by-product of the stevioside extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Malachini Miotto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O caramelo consiste no subproduto do processo de extração dos edulcorantes das folhas de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Esse subproduto apresenta teores significativos dos edulcorantes esteviosídeo e rebaudiosídeo A não extraídos no processo e grande quantidade de compostos das folhas que lhe conferem, respectivamente, sabor doce e coloração escura. Desta forma, a retirada dos compostos das folhas presentes no caramelo torna possível seu reaproveitamento como edulcorante. Portanto, o caramelo foi purificado por meio de adsorção em zeólitas modificadas, CaX e MgX. Foram realizados dois experimentos: um teste de saturação dos adsorventes para avaliar sua capacidade adsortiva e um teste de máxima clarificação para determinar a máxima purificação alcançada por adsorção em zeólitas. Os resultados mostraram que CaX é o adsorvente mais eficaz. As zeólitas podem ser reutilizadas por até duas vezes, necessitando regeneração em seguida. O teste de máxima clarificação apresentou soluções quase límpidas, com altos níveis de clarificação (80-90% dos compostos com maior afinidade, mas elevadas retenções dos edulcorantes (~70%, pois as zeólitas conseguem reter grande parte dos pigmentos da solução de caramelo, arrastando também esteviosídeo e rebaudiosídeo A, com baixo rendimento de recuperação dos edulcorantes, mas considerado satisfatório tendo em vista que o caramelo, apesar de rico em edulcorantes, não tem aplicação atualmente.Caramel is the by-product of the sweeteners extraction process of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves. This by-product shows significant contents of the sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A not extracted in the process and large quantity of leaf components, that give it, respectively, sweet flavor and dark color. Like this, the retreat of the leaf components of the caramel makes possible its reuse as a sweetener. Therefore, the caramel was purified by adsorption in modified zeolites

  7. NASA Supportability Engineering Implementation Utilizing DoD Practices and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.; Smith, John V.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I design and development program made the determination early in the System Design Review Phase to utilize DoD ILS and LSA approach for supportability engineering as an integral part of the system engineering process. This paper is to provide a review of the overall approach to design Ares-I with an emphasis on a more affordable, supportable, and sustainable launch vehicle. Discussions will include the requirements development, design influence, support concept alternatives, ILS and LSA planning, Logistics support analyses/trades performed, LSA tailoring for NASA Ares Program, support system infrastructure identification, ILS Design Review documentation, Working Group coordination, and overall ILS implementation. At the outset, the Ares I Project initiated the development of the Integrated Logistics Support Plan (ILSP) and a Logistics Support Analysis process to provide a path forward for the management of the Ares-I ILS program and supportability analysis activities. The ILSP provide the initial planning and coordination between the Ares-I Project Elements and Ground Operation Project. The LSA process provided a system engineering approach in the development of the Ares-I supportability requirements; influence the design for supportability and development of alternative support concepts that satisfies the program operability requirements. The LSA planning and analysis results are documented in the Logistics Support Analysis Report. This document was required during the Ares-I System Design Review (SDR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR) review cycles. To help coordinate the LSA process across the Ares-I project and between programs, the LSA Report is updated and released quarterly. A System Requirement Analysis was performed to determine the supportability requirements and technical performance measurements (TPMs). Two working groups were established to provide support in the management and implement the Ares-I ILS program, the Integrated Logistics

  8. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  9. Predicting Health Care Utilization After Behavioral Health Referral Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Roysden, Nathaniel; Wright, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient’s first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection ...

  10. Predicting Health Care Utilization After Behavioral Health Referral Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysden, Nathaniel; Wright, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient's first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection factor analysis.

  11. Prospects for utilization of Electron Beam Accelerators (EBAs) for processing of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation processing using gamma radiation and high energy electron beams has been in practice for more than three decades in the industry. Since gamma radiation has the ability of higher penetration in the material, large scale irradiators (mainly based on mega curies of 60 Co radioactive source) are successfully employed for treating bulk products in sterilization and food preservation applications. Electron beam, due to its low penetration, has been exploited exclusively for applications involving polymer modifications to irradiate thin finished end products like electrical cable insulations, heat shrinkable sheets, tubes, automobile tyres etc using high power EBAs (energies 0.5 MeV-4 MeV and powers around ∼100 kW). Out of around 2500 industrial EB units currently employed worldwide (with total installed power above 150 MWL 90% are in the low to medium energy range (0.5 MeV to 4 MeV) being used for polymer modifications. However, recent technological advances in the manufacturing sector of industrial high energy EBAs and product handling systems resulted in widening utilization of EB technology for applications involving bulk product irradiation

  12. Semi Automated Land Cover Layer Updating Process Utilizing Spectral Analysis and GIS Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L.; Keinan, E.; Yaniv, M.; Tal, Y.; Felus, A.; Regev, R.

    2018-04-01

    Technological improvements made in recent years of mass data gathering and analyzing, influenced the traditional methods of updating and forming of the national topographic database. It has brought a significant increase in the number of use cases and detailed geo information demands. Processes which its purpose is to alternate traditional data collection methods developed in many National Mapping and Cadaster Agencies. There has been significant progress in semi-automated methodologies aiming to facilitate updating of a topographic national geodatabase. Implementation of those is expected to allow a considerable reduction of updating costs and operation times. Our previous activity has focused on building automatic extraction (Keinan, Zilberstein et al, 2015). Before semiautomatic updating method, it was common that interpreter identification has to be as detailed as possible to hold most reliable database eventually. When using semi-automatic updating methodologies, the ability to insert human insights based knowledge is limited. Therefore, our motivations were to reduce the created gap by allowing end-users to add their data inputs to the basic geometric database. In this article, we will present a simple Land cover database updating method which combines insights extracted from the analyzed image, and a given spatial data of vector layers. The main stages of the advanced practice are multispectral image segmentation and supervised classification together with given vector data geometric fusion while maintaining the principle of low shape editorial work to be done. All coding was done utilizing open source software components.

  13. Development of functional extruded snacks by utilizing paste shrimp (Acetes spp.): process optimization and quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raushan; Xavier, Ka Martin; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Dhanabalan, Vignaesh; Thachil, Madonna T; Balange, Amjad K; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2018-04-01

    Functional extruded snacks were prepared using paste shrimp powder (Acetes spp.), which is rich in protein. The process variables required for the preparation of extruded snacks was optimized using response surface methodology. Extrusion temperature (130-144 °C), level of Acetes powder (100-200 g kg -1 ) and feed moisture (140-200 g kg -1 ) were selected as design variables, and expansion ratio, porosity, hardness, crispness and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value were taken as the response variables. Extrusion temperature significantly influenced all the response variables, while Acetes inclusion influenced all variables except porosity. Feed moisture content showed a significant quadratic effect on all responses and an interactive effect on expansion ratio and hardness. Shrimp powder incorporation increased the protein and mineral content of the final product. The extruded snack made with the combination of extrusion temperature 144.59 °C, feed moisture 178.5 g kg -1 and Acetes inclusion level 146.7 g kg -1 was found to be the best one based on sensory evaluation. The study suggests that use of Acetes species for the development of extruded snacks will serve as a means of utilization of Acetes as well as being a rich source of proteins for human consumption, which would otherwise remain unexploited as a by-catch. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. Thermal performance evaluation of a four pan jaggery processing furnace for improvement in energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardeshpande, Vishal R.; Shendage, D.J.; Pillai, Indu R. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2010-12-15

    The jaggery making from sugarcane is one of the traditional process industries contributing to the local employment and entrepreneurship opportunities to the rural population. Jaggery is a condensed form of sugarcane juice produced by evaporation of moisture. Bagasse which is internally generated during juice extraction from sugarcane is used as the fuel for evaporation in a jaggery furnace. Any efficiency improvement in the thermal performance of a jaggery furnace leads to bagasse saving which provides additional revenue for the jaggery manufacturer. A procedure for thermal evaluation using mass and energy balance for a jaggery furnace is proposed to establish furnace performance and loss stream analysis. The proposed method is used to investigate a four pan traditional jaggery furnace in India. The loss stream analysis indicates that the theoretical energy required for jaggery processing is only 29% of total energy supplied by bagasse combustion. The major loss is associated with heat carried in flue gas and wall losses. The air available for combustion depends upon the draft created by chimney in natural draft furnaces. The oxygen content in the flue gas is a measure of degree of combustion. A controlled fuel feeding based on the oxygen percentage in the flue gases is proposed and demonstrated. The traditional practice of fuel feeding rate is changed to control feeding rate leading to reduction in specific fuel consumption from 2.39 kg bagasse/kg jaggery to 1.73 kg bagasse/kg jaggery. This procedure can be used for evaluation of jaggery furnaces for identification and quantification of losses, which will help in improving thermal energy utilization. (author)

  16. Streamlining and integrating right-of-way and utility processes with planning, environmental, and design processes in Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Many transportation projects require acquisition of land and accommodation of utility facilities in the : right-of-way. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and : Transportation Officials, and National Cooperative...

  17. Engineering and economic analysis for the utilization of geothermal fluids in a cane sugar processing plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humme, J.T.; Tanaka, M.T.; Yokota, M.H.; Furumoto, A.S.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of geothermal resource utilization at the Puna Sugar Company cane sugar processing plant, located in Keaau, Hawaii. A proposed well site area was selected based on data from surface exploratory surveys. The liquid dominated well flow enters a binary thermal arrangement, which results in an acceptable quality steam for process use. Hydrogen sulfide in the well gases is incinerated, leaving sulfur dioxide in the waste gases. The sulfur dioxide in turn is recovered and used in the cane juice processing at the sugar factory. The clean geothermal steam from the binary system can be used directly for process requirements. It replaces steam generated by the firing of the waste fibrous product from cane sugar processing. The waste product, called bagasse, has a number of alternative uses, but an evaluation clearly indicated it should continue to be employed for steam generation. This steam, no longer required for process demands, can be directed to increased electric power generation. Revenues gained by the sale of this power to the utility, in addition to other savings developed through the utilization of geothermal energy, can offset the costs associated with hydrothermal utilization.

  18. Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakaya, Ahmet; Ozilgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy utilization increases almost twofold; processing the same amount into the peeled or diced-tomatoes increases the energy utilization seven times. In case of juice production, the increase is five times. The carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy used and is 189.4 kg/t of fresh tomatoes in the case of retail packaging, and did not change considerably when made into paste. The carbon dioxide emission increased twofold with peeled or diced-tomatoes, and increased threefold when juiced. Chemical fertilizers and transportation made the highest contribution to energy utilization and CO 2 emission. The difference in energy utilization is determined mainly by water to dry solids ratio of the food and increases with the water content of the final product. Environmentally conscious consumers may prefer eating fresh tomatoes or alternatively tomato paste, to minimize carbon dioxide emission. -- Highlights: → Energy utilization for producing one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes was 2412.8 MJ → Energy utilization was 2 folds with paste, 7 times with peeled or diced-tomatoes, 5 times with juice. → Energy utilization increases with water content of the final product. → Transportation, packaging, evaporation and chemicals are the major energy consumers. → Carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy.

  19. The application of utility analysis processes to estimate the impact of training for nuclear maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to test two utility analysis models, the Cascio-Ramos Estimate of Performance in Dollars (CREPID) model and Godkewitsch financial utility analysis model and to determine their appropriateness as tools for evaluating training. This study was conducted in conjunction with Philadelphia Electric Company's Nuclear Training Group. Job performance of nuclear maintenance workers was assessed to document the impact of the training program. Assessment of job performance covered six job performance themes. Additionally, front-line nuclear maintenance supervisors were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the nuclear maintenance training. A comparison of supervisor's perceptions and outcomes of the utility analysis models was made to determine the appropriateness of utility analysis as quantitative tools for evaluating the nuclear maintenance training program. Application of the CREPID utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training through utility analysis was $5,843,750 which represented only four of the job performance themes. Application of the Godkewitsch utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training was $3,083,845 which represented all six performance themes. A comparison of the outcomes indicated a sizeable difference between the dollar values produced by the models. Supervisors indicated training resulted in improved productivity, i.e., improved efficiency and effectiveness. Additionally, supervisors believed training was valuable because it provided nonmonetary benefits, e.g., improved self-esteem and confidence. The application of utility analysis addressed only monetary benefits of training. The variation evidenced by the difference in the outcome of the two models suggests that utility analysis open-quotes estimatesclose quotes may not accurately reflect the impact of training

  20. Emergy evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system based on water cycle process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Wu, Z.; Lv, C.

    2017-12-01

    The water utilization benefits are formed by the material flow, energy flow, information flow and value stream in the whole water cycle process, and reflected along with the material circulation of inner system. But most of traditional water utilization benefits evaluation are based on the macro level, only consider the whole material input and output and energy conversion relation, and lack the characterization of water utilization benefits accompanying with water cycle process from the formation mechanism. In addition, most studies are from the perspective of economics, only pay attention to the whole economic output and sewage treatment economic investment, but neglect the ecological function benefits of water cycle, Therefore, from the perspective of internal material circulation in the whole system, taking water cycle process as the process of material circulation and energy flow, the circulation and flow process of water and other ecological environment, social economic elements were described, and the composition of water utilization positive and negative benefits in water-ecological-economic system was explored, and the performance of each benefit was analyzed. On this basis, the emergy calculation method of each benefit was proposed by emergy quantitative analysis technique, which can realize the unified measurement and evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system. Then, taking Zhengzhou city as an example, the corresponding benefits of different water cycle links were calculated quantitatively by emergy method, and the results showed that the emergy evaluation method of water utilization benefits can unify the ecosystem and the economic system, achieve uniform quantitative analysis, and measure the true value of natural resources and human economic activities comprehensively.

  1. Cyanobacteria to Link Closed Ecological Systems and In-Situ Resources Utilization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    Introduction: A major goal for the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar sys-tem. With current technology, however, all required consumables for these missions (propellant, air, food, water) as well as habitable volume and shielding to support human explorers will need to be brought from Earth. In-situ pro-duction of consumables (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human ex-ploration and colonization of the solar system, especially by reducing the logistical overhead such as recurring launch mass. The production of oxygen from lunar materials is generally recognized as the highest priority process for lunar ISRU, for both human metabolic and fuel oxidation needs. The most challenging technology developments for future lunar settlements may lie in the extraction of elements (O, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, etc) from local rocks and soils for life support, industrial feedstock and the production of propellants. With few exceptions (e.g., Johannson, 1992), nearly all technology development to date has employed an ap-proach based on inorganic chemistry (e.g. Allen et al., 1996). None of these technologies include concepts for inte-grating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production systems. Bioregenerative life support efforts have recently been added to the Constellation ISRU development program (Sanders et al, 2007). Methods and Concerns: The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ad-vanced concept for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). However the MELiSSA system is a net consumer of ISRU products without a net return to in-situ technologies, e.g.. to extract elements as a result of complete closure of MELiSSA. On the other hand, the physical-chemical processes for ISRU are typically massive (relative to the rate of oxygen

  2. Power Generation Utilizing Process Gases to Avoid Flaring; Elkraftproduktion ur processgas som idag facklas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naesvall, Henrik; Larfeldt, Jenny

    2011-01-15

    There is an increasing awareness that process gases, such as associated gases in oil extraction and byproduct gases in liquidizing of natural gas, can be utilized for energy production. Efficient energy production through the use of a gas turbine is profitable both from economical and environmental point of view compared to simply getting rid of the process gas in flares. Gases with an elevated amount of heavier hydrocarbons generally speaking burns faster and more intense compared to standard natural gas. In gas turbines with so called premixed, low emitting combustor systems this might induce changes in flame stability and the combustion stability connected with this. This might in turn affect the emissions from the gas turbine, the operation life and ability to operate. This work aimed at proving the potential of running Siemens standard SGT-600 and SGT-700 engines on gas with elevated amount of heavy hydrocarbons. Pentane (C{sub 5}H{sub 12}) was used as a model substance for heavy hydrocarbons and a facility for feeding and mixing pentane with natural gas was designed and built at Siemens delivery test bed in Finspaang. The two engines were demonstrated to be able to operate on the mixed fuel at various loads. The results show that both engines are able to stable operation on fuels with up to 10% by volume pentane content. Stable in the sense that no change in combustion dynamics was noted and the control system worked as normal. There were no impact on the temperature distribution through the turbine that could be seen and a boroscope inspection after the test did not reveal anything unusual. A slight increase in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) was detected explained by a slightly more intense flame which also explains the simultaneous lowering of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Unexpected difficulties were faced by the external laboratories when the sampled gas samples should be analysed. If the difficulties in analysing the samples could have been

  3. Utilization of electromigration in civil and environmental engineering - Processes, transport rates and matrix changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2008-01-01

    Electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) is utilized for supply or extraction of ions from various porous materials within both civil and environmental engineering. In civil engineering, most research has been conducted on the removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder...... reinforcement corrosion while in environmental engineering remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is the issue most studied. Never the less, experiments have been conducted with utilization for several other materials and purposes within both engineering fields. Even though there are many topics of common...

  4. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  5. Performance Feedback Utility in a Small Organization: Effects on Organizational Outcomes and Managerial Decision Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin-Thuma, Beth C.; Boudreau, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the frequent but previously untested assertion that utility analysis can improve communication and decision making about human resource management programs by examining a performance feedback intervention in a small fast-food store. Results suggest substantial payoffs from performance feedback, though the store's owner-managers had…

  6. Different methods to define utility functions yield similar results but engage different neural processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of utility is fundamental to many economic theories, up to now a generally accepted method determining a subject’s utility function is not available. We investigated two methods that are used in economic sciences for describing utility functions by using response-locked event-related potentials in order to assess their neural underpinnings. For defining the certainty equivalent (CE, we used a lottery game with probabilities to win p=0.5, for identifying the subjects’ utility functions directly a standard bisection task was applied. Although the lottery tasks’ payoffs were only hypothetical, a pronounced negativity was observed resembling the error related negativity (ERN previously described in action monitoring research, but this occurred only for choices far away from the indifference point between money and lottery. By contrast, the bisection task failed to evoke an ERN irrespective of the responses’ correctness. Based on these findings we are reasoning that only decisions made in the lottery task achieved a level of subjective relevance that activates cognitive-emotional monitoring. In terms of economic sciences, our findings support the view that the bisection method is unaffected by any kind of probability valuation or other parameters related to risk and in combination with the lottery task can, therefore, be used to differentiate between payoff and probability valuation.

  7. Beyond Warmth and Conflict: The Developmental Utility of a Boundary Conceptualization of Sibling Relationship Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Translating relationship boundaries conceptualizations to the study of sibling relationships, this study examined the utility of sibling enmeshment and disengagement in predicting child adjustment difficulties in a sample of 282 mothers and adolescents (mean age = 12.7 years). Mothers completed a semistructured interview at the first measurement…

  8. Effects of heat stress on dynamic absorption process, tissue distribution and utilization efficiency of vitamin C in broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guohua; Chen Guosheng; Cai Huiyi

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat stress on ascorbic acid nutritional physiology of broilers with radioisotope technology. 3 H-Vc was fed to broilers and then the blood, liver, kidney, breast muscle, and excreta were sampled to determine the dynamic absorption process, the tissue distribution and the utilization efficiency of vitamin C. The results indicated that the absorption, metabolism and mobilization of supplemented vitamin C in broilers with heat stress was faster than that in broilers without heat stress. However, the utilization efficiency of supplemented vitamin C in broilers with heat stress was not higher than that of broilers without heat stress

  9. Solution of environmental protection problems and complex utilization of raw materials during mining and processing of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.G.; Savva, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the complex of measures taken in Priargunsky industrial mine-chemical association and directed to environment protection, complex utilization of raw materials during mining and processing of uranium ores. These measures include: 1) reduction of toxic chemical agent effluents into atmosphere due to introduction of new methods and gas cleaning systems; 2) rational use of water resources owing to application of circulating water supply systems, waste waters treatment and effective control of the state of water consumption by industrial enterprises; 3) utilization of gangue and industrial solid wastes

  10. An Investigation into the Possibilities of BIM and GIS Cooperation and Utilization of GIS in the BIM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tobiáš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coming years we will most probably watch a significant increase of the BIM (building information model utilization in the AEC (Architecture/Engineering/Construction sector even in the Czech Republic. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider possible utilization of the well-established geographic information systems within the building information modelling process. This paper is based on the currently existing literature and is focused on the interrelationship between BIM and GIS. The main goal is to reveal potential fields of cooperation and to find possible utilization of GIS in BIM. To provide a theoretical framework, this article briefly introduces and defines the term of BIM and deals with the most important semantic models in AEC and 3D GIS IFC and CityGML. The paper also contains examples of specific efforts recently dealing with the BIM and GIS collaboration.

  11. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-10-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create nine (9) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry FGD technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  12. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-04-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create eight (8) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  13. Beyond Warmth and Conflict: The Developmental Utility of a Boundary Conceptualization of Sibling Relationship Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Translating relationship boundaries conceptualizations to the study of sibling relationships, this study examined the utility of sibling enmeshment and disengagement in predicting child adjustment difficulties in a sample of 282 mothers and adolescents (Mean age = 12.7 years). Mothers completed a semi-structured interview at the first measurement occasion to assess sibling interaction patterns. Adolescents, mothers, and teachers reported on children’s adjustment problems across two annual waves of assessment. Supporting the incremental utility of a boundary conceptualization of sibling relationships, results of latent difference score analyses indicated that coder ratings of sibling enmeshment and disengagement uniquely predicted greater adolescent adjustment difficulties even after taking into account standard indices of sibling relationship quality (i.e., warmth, conflict) and sibling structural characteristics (e.g., sex). PMID:22862542

  14. Beyond Warmth and Conflict: The Developmental Utility of a Boundary Conceptualization of Sibling Relationship Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Translating relationship boundaries conceptualizations to the study of sibling relationships, this study examined the utility of sibling enmeshment and disengagement in predicting child adjustment difficulties in a sample of 282 mothers and adolescents (Mean age = 12.7 years). Mothers completed a semi-structured interview at the first measurement occasion to assess sibling interaction patterns. Adolescents, mothers, and teachers reported on children’s adjustment problems across two annual wav...

  15. On Representing, Purging, and Utilizing Change Logs in Process Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle, S.B.; Reichert, M.U.; Jurisch, M.; Kreher, U

    In recent years adaptive process management technolgy has emerged in order to increase the flexibility of business process implementations and to support process changes at different levels. Usually, respective systems log comprehensive information about changes, which can then be used for different

  16. INVESTIGATION ON UTILITY OF PLASTIC WASTE AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE USING WET PROCESS OF MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Virendra Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Plastic waste has become a major environmental issue of concern due to its exponential growth due to rapid urbanization. The paper investigates utility of plastic waste as an additive for bituminous concrete using wet process of mixing. Methodology. The methodology for the present paper has been designed with complex research consisting of Marshall mix design of the bituminous mix added with plastic waste for modifying bitumen using wet process of mixing, performing the tests on the samples and analyzing the results in the form of table and figures. In the present paper LDPE and HDPE type of plastic waste are used to modify the bitumen. Finding. The results show that addition of 6 percent of bitumen improves the Marshall properties of the mix. Use of plastic to modify the bitumen not only makes the road surface more durable but also it is an eco-friendly way of proper disposal of plastic waste. Originality. The processes used for mixing the plastic waste to the bitumen are dry process and wet process. Dry process of mixing the plastic waste to the bituminous mix is most common and lot of study is carried out on its application. In the present paper wet process of mixing has not yet been studied much. Practical Value. The practical application of utilizing the plastic waste to modify bitumen in the bituminous mix improves the stability values resulting in the more durable road surface. Also the method ensures the proper disposal of plastic waste in eco-friendly way.

  17. Does convenience matter in health care delivery? A systematic review of convenience-based aspects of process utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, A; Barnett, J; Meads, C; Singh, J; Longworth, L

    2014-12-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on the value associated with convenience in health care delivery, independent of health outcomes, and to try to estimate the likely magnitude of any value found. A systematic search was conducted for previously published studies that reported preferences for convenience-related aspects of health care delivery in a manner that was consistent with either cost-utility analysis or cost-benefit analysis. Data were analyzed in terms of the methodologies used, the aspects of convenience considered, and the values reported. Literature searches generated 4715 records. Following a review of abstracts or full-text articles, 27 were selected for inclusion. Twenty-six studies reported some evidence of convenience-related process utility, in the form of either a positive utility or a positive willingness to pay. The aspects of convenience valued most often were mode of administration (n = 11) and location of treatment (n = 6). The most common valuation methodology was a discrete-choice experiment containing a cost component (n = 15). A preference for convenience-related process utility exists, independent of health outcomes. Given the diverse methodologies used to calculate it, and the range of aspects being valued, however, it is difficult to assess how large such a preference might be, or how it may be effectively incorporated into an economic evaluation. Increased consistency in reporting these preferences is required to assess these issues more accurately. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of a computer-aided framework for the design of CO2 capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and utilization is a vital element of carbon dioxide emission reduction to address global warming. An integrated, computer-aided framework has been developed to achieve this. This framework adopts a three-stage approach to sustainable process synthesis-design: (i) process...... synthesis, (ii) process design and (iii) innovative design. In the first stage, reaction path synthesis is used to determine the reactions and products that are considered in processing route selection and/or generation. Various scenarios are then considered for the superstructure optimization. The selected...... steps. Then, the superstructure optimization is performed on a network containing 13 likely products giving 30 feasible processing routes, considering different scenarios and objectives. Stages 2 and 3 have been applied to the optimal solution of the first scenario, which selects the production...

  19. Utilization of process heat from the HTRM in the chemical and related industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Barnert, H.; Candeli, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lurgi investigated the feasibility of supplying industrial processes with heat and energy from a Module High Temperature Reactor in an extensive study. This study shows that there are several processes suitable for coupling with the HTRM almost immediately and only require that the layouts are tested. The most interesting process in this respect with high market potential are aluminium oxide production and crude oil refining. (author)

  20. The process and utility of classification and regression tree methodology in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Lisa; Page, Karen; Ward, John; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a discussion of classification and regression tree analysis and its utility in nursing research. Classification and regression tree analysis is an exploratory research method used to illustrate associations between variables not suited to traditional regression analysis. Complex interactions are demonstrated between covariates and variables of interest in inverted tree diagrams. Discussion paper. English language literature was sourced from eBooks, Medline Complete and CINAHL Plus databases, Google and Google Scholar, hard copy research texts and retrieved reference lists for terms including classification and regression tree* and derivatives and recursive partitioning from 1984-2013. Classification and regression tree analysis is an important method used to identify previously unknown patterns amongst data. Whilst there are several reasons to embrace this method as a means of exploratory quantitative research, issues regarding quality of data as well as the usefulness and validity of the findings should be considered. Classification and regression tree analysis is a valuable tool to guide nurses to reduce gaps in the application of evidence to practice. With the ever-expanding availability of data, it is important that nurses understand the utility and limitations of the research method. Classification and regression tree analysis is an easily interpreted method for modelling interactions between health-related variables that would otherwise remain obscured. Knowledge is presented graphically, providing insightful understanding of complex and hierarchical relationships in an accessible and useful way to nursing and other health professions. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  2. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  3. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangho Shin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE and low density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

  4. Fuel licensing process for an industrial use. ATF licensing process for an industrial use - Utility's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeckel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    To develop and license a breakthrough nuclear fuel technology for commercial use is becoming challenging. All the former safety analysis design limits (SAFDLs) defined in the 1970's for the standard UO 2 -Zr fuels, might no longer be applicable. Identification of the appropriate safety analysis design limits For each type of innovative fuel, the developers will have to identify and investigate all the possible failure/ruins scenarios (not only those related to severe accidents but also those related to normal operation). In order to save time and to focus on the best options, those failure scenarios (which could be 'killers' for the ATF concept) have to be determined early enough in the development process. Based on the above failure scenarios, the developers will have to propose the licensing limits (and the experimental protocol to determine and to justify them). As mentioned earlier, the licensing limits should not be defined against the accidental conditions only. For the operators, the (good) in-reactor fuel behaviour is crucial. As an example, in the case of the new fuel concepts coming with an outer coating, it is important to include the analysis of the consequences of the loss of this protective outer layer in the licensing process due to a manufacturing defect or an inevitable in-reactor fretting wear. Obviously, the new/specific SAFDLs will have to be endorsed by the regulators (which could be a long process by itself). Identification of a commercial reactor to irradiate the first ATF A commercial NPP is not a material test reactor (MTR); irradiating lead test fuel rods (LTFRs) or lead test assemblies (LTAs) implies strict requirements regarding the manufacturing processes [which should not include chemicals (additives or solvents) potentially incompatible with the nuclear technical specifications], the compatibility with the hosting fuel core (in terms of geometry, enrichment, thermal hydraulic performances, etc.) and the robustness and

  5. Navigating neurites utilize cellular topography of Schwann cell somas and processes for optimal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fagundo, Cristina; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Ramchal, Talisha D.; Dingle, Yu-Ting L.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The path created by aligned Schwann cells (SCs) after nerve injury underlies peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed geometric bioinspired substrates to extract key information needed for axon guidance by deconstructing the topographical cues presented by SCs. We have previously reported materials that directly replicate SC topography with micro- and nanoscale resolution, but a detailed explanation of the means of directed axon extension on SC topography has not yet been described. Here, using neurite tracing and time-lapse microscopy, we analyzed the SC features that influence axon guidance. Novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) materials, fabricated via photolithography, incorporated bioinspired topographical components with the shapes and sizes of aligned SCs, namely somas and processes, where the length of the processes were varied but the soma geometry and dimensions were kept constant. Rat dorsal root ganglia neurites aligned to all materials presenting bioinspired topography after a 5 days in culture and to bioinspired materials presenting soma and process features after only 17 hours in culture. Key findings of this study were: Neurite response to underlying bioinspired topographical features was time dependent, where at 5 days, neurites aligned most strongly to materials presenting combinations of soma and process features, with higher than average density of either process or soma features; but at 17 hours they aligned more strongly to materials presenting average densities of soma and process features and to materials presenting process features only. These studies elucidate the influence of SC topography on axon guidance in a time-dependent setting and have implications for the optimization of nerve regeneration strategies. PMID:23557939

  6. Method and apparatus for surface characterization and process control utilizing radiation from desorbed particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, L.C.; Kraus, J.S.; Tolk, N.H.; Traum, M.M.; Tully, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Emission of characteristic electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible, or UV from excited particles, typically ions, molecules, or neutral atoms, desorbed from solid surfaces by an incident beam of low-momentum probe radiation has been observed. Disclosed is a method for characterizing solid surfaces based on the observed effect, with low-momentum probe radiation consisting of electrons or photons. Further disclosed is a method for controlling manufacturing processes that is also based on the observed effect. The latter method can, for instance, be advantageously applied in integrated circuit-, integrated optics-, and magnetic bubble device manufacture. Specific examples of applications of the method are registering of masks, control of a direct-writing processing beam, end-point detection in etching, and control of a processing beam for laser- or electron-beam annealing or ion implantation

  7. Process improvement methods increase the efficiency, accuracy, and utility of a neurocritical care research repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sydney; Ayres, Alison; Cortellini, Lynelle; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosenthal, Eric; Kimberly, W Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Reliable and efficient data repositories are essential for the advancement of research in Neurocritical care. Various factors, such as the large volume of patients treated within the neuro ICU, their differing length and complexity of hospital stay, and the substantial amount of desired information can complicate the process of data collection. We adapted the tools of process improvement to the data collection and database design of a research repository for a Neuroscience intensive care unit. By the Shewhart-Deming method, we implemented an iterative approach to improve the process of data collection for each element. After an initial design phase, we re-evaluated all data fields that were challenging or time-consuming to collect. We then applied root-cause analysis to optimize the accuracy and ease of collection, and to determine the most efficient manner of collecting the maximal amount of data. During a 6-month period, we iteratively analyzed the process of data collection for various data elements. For example, the pre-admission medications were found to contain numerous inaccuracies after comparison with a gold standard (sensitivity 71% and specificity 94%). Also, our first method of tracking patient admissions and discharges contained higher than expected errors (sensitivity 94% and specificity 93%). In addition to increasing accuracy, we focused on improving efficiency. Through repeated incremental improvements, we reduced the number of subject records that required daily monitoring from 40 to 6 per day, and decreased daily effort from 4.5 to 1.5 h/day. By applying process improvement methods to the design of a Neuroscience ICU data repository, we achieved a threefold improvement in efficiency and increased accuracy. Although individual barriers to data collection will vary from institution to institution, a focus on process improvement is critical to overcoming these barriers.

  8. Utilization of process heat from the HTR in the chemical and related industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.; Didas, U.; Ebeling, F.; Kreutzkamp, G.; Renner, H.

    1988-12-01

    The wide introduction of the HTRI as heat and energy sources would be beneficial when the HTRI operating parameters were more suitable for flexible adaptation to the wide possible field of applications and requirements of the potential customer. Here of importance are: Guaranteed reliable, easily adaptable as well as effective process heat provision; a small HTRI size, under 100 MW if possible, for economic process plant operation never negatively influenced by the operational behaviour of the individual HTRI; avoidance of a secondary heat transfer circulation system for economic reasons by an extremely clean primary helium at all times and under all circumstances; greater flexibility in the HTRI helium inlet and outlet temperatures. Initially at least a helium inlet temperature of 300deg C or better 350deg C. At 250deg C too much heat is often offered in the low-temperature range which can in the main be used for domestic heating and power export only. The processes technically and economically interesting which could be provided with heat from the HTRI cover the field of mineral oil technology. Their process temperatures are below 600deg C, a temperature range demanding conventional technology. Thus, for this purpose it is only necessary to: Test the heat exchangers to be designed new; find the most effective combined plant concept in each case; carry out the necessary safety examinations into the combined operation of the two plant sections - HTRI and process plant. In addition, the market for the process heat supply in mineral oil technology has a considerable potential. (orig./GL)

  9. Utilization of cellulosic materials through enzymic hydrolysis. 11. Preliminary assessment of an integrated processing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C R; Cysewski, G R; Yang, R D

    1976-01-01

    An integrated processing scheme is described for the conversion of a cellulose waste (newsprint) to sugars by enzymic hydrolysis and then to ethanol and yeast by fermentation. The unconverted solids are burned to produce process energy requirements and surplus electric power. With the preliminary design at an estimate total capital investment of $33.4 x 10/sup 6/, 95% ethanol may be produced FOB (free on board) the plant for approx.61 cents/gal, assuming zero cost for cellulosic feed; taking into account interest rates and taxes and a cellulose feed cost of $20/ton the figure becomes $1.67/gal.

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of polymeric materials utilizing close proximity indirect exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Bonds, Truman

    2016-09-20

    A plasma treatment method that includes providing treatment chamber including an intermediate heating volume and an interior treatment volume. The interior treatment volume contains an electrode assembly for generating a plasma and the intermediate heating volume heats the interior treatment volume. A work piece is traversed through the treatment chamber. A process gas is introduced to the interior treatment volume of the treatment chamber. A plasma is formed with the electrode assembly from the process gas, wherein a reactive species of the plasma is accelerated towards the fiber tow by flow vortices produced in the interior treatment volume by the electrode assembly.

  11. Electron beam accelerator at BARC-BRIT complex - electron beam processing of materials and industrial utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khader, S.A.; Patkari, R.K.; Sharma, K.S.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the 2MeV/20kW electron beam (EB) accelerator located at BARC-BRIT complex, Vashi has been successfully utilised for non-thermal applications to develop speciality products useful for the industry. Polymer materials are exposed to high energy electrons to induce crosslinking and degradation reactions in a number of industrial products without the use of external chemicals and additives. Various EB crosslinked products viz. PE O-rings, automotive components, automobile tyres, electrical insulations, etc have been found to be much superior in quality compared to those produced conventionally. A process has been developed to enhance colours in the polished diamonds and gem stones using EB irradiation at the facility which has attracted much attention in the Indian diamond industry as a value-addition process. Recycling of polymer waste processed under EB to produce microfine PTFE powder, to reuse in automobile industry etc. has shown good potential for the industrial use. The process feasibility both in terms of economics and technology have been amply demonstrated on a technological scale by installing special conveyors at our facility for irradiating various industrial products. Around 100 km cable insulations, 1.5 million PE O-rings and more than 40000 carats of polished diamonds have been processed in our facility over a period of time on commercial scale. Encouraged with the results, Indian private entrepreneurs have set up dedicated EB machines in some of the most significant industries producing wire and cables, electrical gadgets based on polymer composites, automobile tyres and diamonds. The products are unique in properties and are in some cases, became import substitutes. The industry is now fully geared up to adapt the technology by realising the advantages viz ease in adaptability, convenient, safe and environmental-friendly nature. Encouraged by the process demonstrations, while five EB accelerators were setup and are in operation

  12. Reprogramming amino acid catabolism in CHO cells with CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing improves cell growth and reduces by-product secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2017-01-01

    CHO cells primarily utilize amino acids for three processes: biomass synthesis, recombinant protein production and catabolism. In this work, we disrupted 9 amino acid catabolic genes participating in 7 dierent catabolic pathways, to increase synthesis of biomass and recombinant protein, while red...... reducing production of growth-inhibiting metabolic by-products from amino acid catabolism....

  13. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y. L. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Dick, W. A. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

    1998-06-30

    combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  14. The study on the role of very high temperature reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Sigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Sato, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ueno, Seiichi

    1986-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results being made in the study on the role of Very High Temperature Reactor and nuclear process heat utilization in future energy system, which is aimed at zero emission. In the former part of the report, the modeling of the reference energy system, main characteristics of energy technologies, and scenario indicators as well as system behavioral objectives for optimization are explained. In the latter part, analytical results such as the time-period variation of overall energy utilization efficiency, energy supply/demand structure in long-terms, energy contribution and economic competition of new energy technologies, environmental effluents released through verious energy activities, impacts to and from national economy, and some sensitivity analyses, are reviewed. (author)

  15. Scalar utility theory and proportional processing: What does it actually imply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Tom; Wiesner, Karoline; Houston, Alasdair I

    2016-09-07

    Scalar Utility Theory (SUT) is a model used to predict animal and human choice behaviour in the context of reward amount, delay to reward, and variability in these quantities (risk preferences). This article reviews and extends SUT, deriving novel predictions. We show that, contrary to what has been implied in the literature, (1) SUT can predict both risk averse and risk prone behaviour for both reward amounts and delays to reward depending on experimental parameters, (2) SUT implies violations of several concepts of rational behaviour (e.g. it violates strong stochastic transitivity and its equivalents, and leads to probability matching) and (3) SUT can predict, but does not always predict, a linear relationship between risk sensitivity in choices and coefficient of variation in the decision-making experiment. SUT derives from Scalar Expectancy Theory which models uncertainty in behavioural timing using a normal distribution. We show that the above conclusions also hold for other distributions, such as the inverse Gaussian distribution derived from drift-diffusion models. A straightforward way to test the key assumptions of SUT is suggested and possible extensions, future prospects and mechanistic underpinnings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fixation and utilization of CO2 by biological and/or chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromichi, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the carbon dioxide fixation and utilisation by biological and/or chemical processes. It presents research objectives and program contents for the effective fixation of carbon dioxide by micro-organism and its hydrogenation. (TEC). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Integrating Process and Factor Understanding of Environmental Innovation by Water Utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, Marc; McIntosh, Brian S.; Seaton, Roger A.F.; Jeffrey, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in technology and organisations are central to enabling the water sector to adapt to major environmental changes such as climate change, land degradation or drinking water pollution. While there are literatures on innovation as a process and on the factors that influence it, there is

  18. Development of Portable Venturi Kiln for Agricultural Waste Utilization by Carbonization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, S. E.; Chasanah, N.; Eris, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Many types of kiln or carbonization equipment have been developed, but most of them were designed for big capacity and some also having low performance. This research aims to develop kiln, especially portable metal kiln, which has higher performance, more environmental- friendly, and can be used for several kinds of biomass or agricultural waste (not exclusive for one kind of biomass) as feeding material. To improve the kiln performance, a venturi drum type of portable kiln has been designed with an optimum capacity of 12.45 kg coconut shells. Basic idea of those design is heat flow improvement causing by venturi effect. The performance test for coconut shell carbonization shows that the carbonization process takes about 60-90 minutes to produce average yields of 23.8%., and the highest temperature of the process was 441 °C. The optimum performance has been achieved in the 4th test, which was producing 24% yield of highest charcoal quality (represented by LHV) in 65 minutes process at average temperature level 485 °C. For pecan shell and palm shell, design modification has been done by adding 6 air inlet holes and 3 ignition column to get better performance. While operation procedure should be modified on loading and air supply, depending on each biomass characteristic. The result of performance test showed that carbonization process of pecan shell produce 17 % yield, and palm shell produce 15% yield. Based on Indonesian Standard (SNI), all charcoal produced in those carbonization has good quality level.

  19. Implementation of a VLSI Level Zero Processing system utilizing the functional component approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianfei; Horner, Ward P.; Grebowsky, Gerald J.; Chesney, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A high rate Level Zero Processing system is currently being prototyped at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Based on state-of-the-art VLSI technology and the functional component approach, the new system promises capabilities of handling multiple Virtual Channels and Applications with a combined data rate of up to 20 Megabits per second (Mbps) at low cost.

  20. Utilization of respiratory energy in higher plants : requirements for 'maintenance' and transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of both photosynthesis and respiration is required to understand plant growth and resulting crop yield. However, especially the nature of the energy demanding processes that are dependent on dark respiration in full-grown tissues is largely unknown. The main objective

  1. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  2. Expanding the utility of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) process bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ARS Process for bleaching, biopolishing, and shrinkproofing wool is a novel alternative to chlorination and conventional bleaching. Consumer acceptance of domestic machine-washable, comfortable wool which can be worn next to the skin will lead to niche-market- potential and competitive, increas...

  3. Reverse pattern duplication utilizing a two-step metal lift-off process via nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sun-Sik; Kim, Eun-Uk; Jung, Hee-Soo; Kim, Ki-Seok; Jung, Gun-Young

    2009-01-01

    A two-step metal lift-off process using a selective etching recipe was demonstrated as a new technique for the reverse pattern fabrication of the features of a master stamp via a UV-based nanoimprint lithography technique. A transparent master stamp with repeated pillars (150 nm diameter at 300 nm pitch) was fabricated by using laser interference lithography and the subsequent dry-etching process. After nanoimprint lithography and the following gold (Au) lift-off process, the corresponding gold dots (20 nm height) were generated. A thin chromium layer (Cr, 5 nm) was then deposited and subjected to the aqua regia solution, which dissolved only Au dots. By using a selective wet etching recipe between gold (Au) and chromium (Cr) materials, a Cr layer with holes was reliably generated, which was used as an etching mask to transfer holes into the silicon substrate in the subsequent dry-etching process. Hole patterns with a diameter of 146 nm were inversely replicated faithfully from the master stamp with the corresponding pillars without a notable feature size distortion

  4. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  5. Effects of the conditions imposed by the environment and by utilities on the design of process engineering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernecker, G

    1976-09-01

    Conditions of environment and utilities have a great influence on the investment and operation costs of process engineering plants. If these conditions are taken into consideration in preliminary process engineering, the considerable amount of time spent in planning subsequent modifications could be saved. This publication from the seminar held with the topic 'planning and construction of process engineering systems' by the VDI-Bildungswerk shows how to facilitate problems of waste products already 'in statu nascendi'. The second part which will be published in the next edition will summarize the possibilities and the determining restrictions in the use of the available media for heating and cooling. Both essays are extended presentations of a chapter from a book in preparation by the VDI with the same title as the seminar.

  6. Characterization, treatment and utilization of rice husk ash in production processes of the industrial branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stracke, Marcelo Paulo; Schmidt, Julia Isabel; Steffen, Ana Cristina; Sokolovicz, Boris; Kieckow, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    The rice husk ash (CCA) is a black powder rich in silica (contents above 90%) with many industrial applications. The ash was obtained from a rice processing industry in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In this work the purpose is to characterize the rice husk ash and eliminate the residual carbon by methods such as acid leaching. The white ash is obtained by a chemical process followed by heating between 600 and 800 °C. The results were analyzed in DR-X, TGA and DSC. The DR-X analysis showed that the samples present high levels of silica in the crystalline form of quartz, cristobalite and tridymite. The white ash was obtained with high purity and presented a good result in the manufacture of paints. (author)

  7. Efficient utilization of renewable feedstocks: the role of catalysis and process design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, Regina; Delidovich, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Renewable carbon feedstocks such as biomass and CO2 present an important element of future circular economy. Especially biomass as highly functionalized feedstock provides manifold opportunities for the transformation into attractive platform chemicals. However, this change of the resources requires a paradigm shift in refinery design. Fossil feedstocks are processed in gas phase at elevated temperature. In contrast, biorefineries are based on processes in polar solvents at moderate conditions to selectively deoxygenate the polar, often thermally instable and high-boiling molecules. Here, challenges of catalytic deoxygenation, novel strategies for separation and opportunities provided at the interface to biotechnology are discussed in form of showcases. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'.

  8. Utilization of Paper Sludge Wastes for Treatment of Wastewater from Food Processing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industries usually produced large amount of wastewater containing fine and small particles. It takes long time for complete settlement of the fine and small particles in the wastewater. The coagulation method appears to become one of the useful treatments. New inorganic coagulant named “Agoclean‒P” has been developed from paper sludge ash. The treatment by coagulation and flocculation were carried out for the wastewater from three different food processing industries namely soup, tofu, and natto. “Hi‒Biah‒System”, which is an in‒situ solidification system, was used for the continuous treatment of wastewater. The parameters for the water quality were pH, five‒day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. These parameters after the treatment became much lower values relative to those obtained before the treatment.

  9. Complex processing and utilization of waste as the basis for sustainable economic development district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.М. Ilchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main environmental problems of Ukraine. The problems that are connected with complex processing and recycling, the example Dnieper economic paradise-one, which allows more detailed present environmental situation of the country at this stage. The article is used and analyzed recent environmental performance and the basic problems of on-disposal and recycling. Basic research methods: observation, analysis and comparison. The aim was to find ways to overcome the ecological crisis in Ukraine. As a result of the research, it was determined that most types of waste-tion prevail in Ukraine and found the best solutions to problems related to waste and their processing. It was possible to find the main problem that has caused serious environmental situation, and the main task for the country at this stage. The main problems and tasks Dnieper economic region. Also indicate how to save, due to complex processing waste. The article is very relevant and important because it is here that the basic problems and tasks of Ukraine concerning the ecological situation. It also focuses on eco-logical problems, which the government does not pay enough attention.

  10. Beyond the Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process: Cultivating Patient Care Practitioners by Utilizing the Pharmaceutical Care Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kolar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of a standard pharmacists’ patient care process (PPCP for the profession, and inclusion of the PPCP in the ACPE Standards 2016, are positive steps for pharmacy education and creates consistency among pharmacy practitioners, regardless of practice setting. The PPCP, and its implications for practice, needs to continue to be embraced by educators and emphasized with students. The PPCP should be the patient care process taught to students and integrated throughout didactic courses and experiential experiences. However, teaching the PPCP or a particular service, such as Medication Therapy Management (MTM or Comprehensive Medication Management (CMM, is not enough. The patient care process must be taught as one component of pharmaceutical care. Without also learning the philosophy of practice and practice management systems, student pharmacists will not be prepared for the realities of practice. Pharmacists are taking on new roles, getting paid in new ways, and in positions to take responsibility for a patient’s medication-related needs. Student pharmacists need to be in a position to take advantage of these opportunities as they progress throughout their careers. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Idea Paper

  11. Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspevik, Tone; Oterhals, Åge; Rønning, Sissel Beate; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Gildberg, Asbjørn; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Whitaker, Ragnhild Dragøy; Lindberg, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects of achieving optimal utilization of proteins in such residual raw materials, identifying those eligible for human consumption as co-products and for feed applications as by-products. Strict legislation regulates the utilization of various animal-based co- and by-products, representing a major hurdle if not addressed properly. Thorough understanding and optimization of all parts of the production chain, including conservation and processing, are important prerequisites for successful upgrading and industrial implementation of such products. This review includes industrially applied technologies such as freezing/cooling, acid preservation, salting, rendering and protein hydrolysis. In this regard, it is important to achieve stable production and quality through all the steps in the manufacturing chain, preferably supported by at- or online quality control points in the actual processing step. If aiming for the human market, knowledge of consumer trends and awareness are important for production and successful introduction of new products and ingredients.

  12. Utilizing Lean Six Sigma Methodology to Improve the Authored Works Command Approval Process at Naval Medical Center San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Michelle M; Liwanag, Maureen; Mount, Charles; Rodriguez, Rechell; Avalos-Reyes, Elisea; Smith, Andrew; Collette, David; Starsiak, Michael; Green, Richard

    2018-03-14

    Inefficiencies in the command approval process for publications and/or presentations negatively impact DoD Graduate Medical Education (GME) residency programs' ability to meet ACGME scholarly activity requirements. A preliminary review of the authored works approval process at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD) disclosed significant inefficiency, variation in process, and a low level of customer satisfaction. In order to facilitate and encourage scholarly activity at NMCSD, and meet ACGME requirements, the Executive Steering Council (ESC) chartered an interprofessional team to lead a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) Rapid Improvement Event (RIE) project. Two major outcome metrics were identified: (1) the number of authored works submissions containing all required signatures and (2) customer satisfaction with the authored works process. Primary metric baseline data were gathered utilizing a Clinical Investigations database tracking publications and presentations. Secondary metric baseline data were collected via a customer satisfaction survey to GME faculty and residents. The project team analyzed pre-survey data and utilized LSS tools and methodology including a "gemba" (environment) walk, cause and effect diagram, critical to quality tree, voice of the customer, "muda" (waste) chart, and a pre- and post-event value stream map. The team selected an electronic submission system as the intervention most likely to positively impact the RIE project outcome measures. The number of authored works compliant with all required signatures improved from 52% to 100%. Customer satisfaction rated as "completely or mostly satisfied" improved from 24% to 97%. For both outcomes, signature compliance and customer satisfaction, statistical significance was achieved with a p methodology and tools to improve signature compliance and increase customer satisfaction with the authored works approval process, leading to 100% signature compliance, a comprehensive longitudinal repository of all

  13. Economic and environmental impacts of the energy source for the utility production system in the HDA process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouattara, A.; Pibouleau, L.; Azzaro-Pantel, C.; Domenech, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Two energy sources – fuel oil, natural gas – for the utility production system of the HDA process are studied. • In each case the best solution is identified. • The choice is performed according to cost and environmental considerations. - Abstract: The well-known benchmark process for hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) to produce benzene is revisited in a multi-objective approach for identifying environmentally friendly and cost-effective operation solutions. The paper begins with the presentation of the numerical tools used in this work, i.e., a multi-objective genetic algorithm and a Multiple Choice Decision Making procedure. Then, two studies related to the energy source involved in the utility production system (UPS), either fuel oil or natural gas, of the HDA process are carried out. In each case, a multi-objective optimization problem based on the minimization of the total annual cost of the process and of five environmental burdens, that are Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Human Toxicity Potential and Eutrophication Potential, is solved and the best solution is identified by use of Multiple Choice Decision Making procedures. An assessment of the respective contribution of the HDA process and the UPS towards environmental impacts on the one hand, and of the environmental impacts generated by the main equipment items of the HDA process on the other hand is then performed to compare both solutions. This “gate-to-gate” environmental study is then enlarged by implementing a “cradle-to-gate” Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), for accounting of emission inventory and extraction. The use of a natural gas turbine, less economically efficient, turns out to be a more attractive alternative to meet the societal expectations concerning environment preservation and sustainable development

  14. Optimizing hippocampal segmentation in infants utilizing MRI post-acquisition processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanne K; Ahmadzai, Zohra M; Wood, Stephen J; Inder, Terrie E; Warfield, Simon K; Doyle, Lex W; Egan, Gary F

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to determine the most reliable method for infant hippocampal segmentation by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging post-acquisition processing techniques: contrast to noise ratio (CNR) enhancement, or reformatting to standard orientation. MR scans were performed with a 1.5 T GE scanner to obtain dual echo T2 and proton density (PD) images at term equivalent (38-42 weeks' gestational age). 15 hippocampi were manually traced four times on ten infant images by 2 independent raters on the original T2 image, as well as images processed by: a) combining T2 and PD images (T2-PD) to enhance CNR; then b) reformatting T2-PD images perpendicular to the long axis of the left hippocampus. CNRs and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. T2-PD images had 17% higher CNR (15.2) than T2 images (12.6). Original T2 volumes' ICC was 0.87 for rater 1 and 0.84 for rater 2, whereas T2-PD images' ICC was 0.95 for rater 1 and 0.87 for rater 2. Reliability of hippocampal segmentation on T2-PD images was not improved by reformatting images (rater 1 ICC = 0.88, rater 2 ICC = 0.66). Post-acquisition processing can improve CNR and hence reliability of hippocampal segmentation in neonate MR scans when tissue contrast is poor. These findings may be applied to enhance boundary definition in infant segmentation for various brain structures or in any volumetric study where image contrast is sub-optimal, enabling hippocampal structure-function relationships to be explored.

  15. Utilizing product configuration systems for supporting the critical parts of the engineering processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Engineering-To-Order (ETO) companies have to respond to increasing demands to provide highly customized and complex products with high quality at competitive prices. In order to respond to those challenges ETO companies have started to implement product configuration systems (PCS) to increase...... to be supported with the PCSs is not described in the current literature. This paper aims to pursue that research opportunity by presenting a framework, which aims to identifying the critical parts of the engineering processes in order to identify where it most beneficial to implement a PCSs and how to prioritize...

  16. A Method for Sustainable Carbon Dioxide Utilization Process Synthesis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Fjellerup, Kasper; Roh, Kosan

    As a result of increasing regulations and concern about the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are a primary focus for reducing emissions and improving global sustainability. One method to achieve reduced emissions, is the conversion of CO2 to useful...... compounds via chemical reactions. However, conversion is still in its infancy and requires work for implementation at an industrial level. One aspect of this is the development of a methodology for the formulation and optimization of sustainable conversion processes. This methodology follows three stages...

  17. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  18. Application of a computer-aided framework for the design of CO2 capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    , and (3) innovation, has been developed. In order to facilitate the implementation and ensure sustainability, this framework integrates a number of computer-aided methods and tools, that are important for carbon dioxide capture and utilization. Applying this framework helps to address the questions about...... opportunities and products are explored. Second, the selected processing route is designed and analyzed by using simulation software and sustainability (economic, environmental and LCA) analysis tools. From this stage, hot spotsand areas for improvement are also generated. Third, the targets for improvement...

  19. The Analysis of Electronic Journal Utilization In Learning Process: Technology Acceptance Model And Information System Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Zaky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to observe the behavior of electronic journal (e-journal among bachelor students of the Universitas Brawijaya by Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Information System Success (ISS as theoretical framework. The research samples are all bachelor students who have used e-journal in their learning process. The respondents are selected by convenience sampling method. The data are collected through survey and analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS with SmartPLS 3. The result of the study reveals that user satisfaction and intention to use have significant effect on actual use of e-journal among bachelor students at the Universitas Brawijaya. Those variables affect the actual use because they have been formed by other variables such as information quality, perceived easiness, perceived usefulness, and attitude towards behavior. Furthermore, information quality has significant influence on user satisfaction, while perceived usefulness and perceived usefulness do not have direct effect on the intention to use. The implication of this study is relevant for educators to recognize the reason factors to use e-journal in the learning process.

  20. Utilizing Stable Isotopes and Isotopic Anomalies to Study Early Solar System Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites contain a diversity of particle components, i.e., chondrules and calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs), that have survived since the formation of the Solar System. The chemical and isotopic compositions of these materials provide a record of the conditions present in the protoplanetary disk where they formed and can aid our understanding of the processes and reservoirs in which solids formed in the solar nebula, an important step leading to the accretion of planetesimals. Isotopic anomalies associated with nucleosynthetic processes are observed in these discrete materials, and can be compared to astronomical observations and astrophysical formation models of stars and more recently proplyds. The existence and size of these isotopic anomalies are typically thought to reflect a significant state of isotopic heterogeneity in the earliest Solar System, likely left over from molecular cloud heterogeneities on the grain scale, but some could also be due to late stellar injection. The homogenization of these isotopic anomalies towards planetary values can be used to track the efficiency and timescales of disk wide mixing,

  1. Utilizing Virtual Reality to Understand Athletic Performance and Underlying Sensorimotor Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kimura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral sports sciences, knowledge of athletic performance and underlying sensorimotor processing remains limited, because most data is obtained in the laboratory. In laboratory experiments we can strictly control the measurement conditions, but the action we can target may be limited and differ from actual sporting action. Thus, the obtained data is potentially unrealistic. We propose using virtual reality (VR technology to compensate for the lack of actual reality. We have developed a head mounted display (HMD-based VR system for application to baseball batting where the user can experience hitting a pitch in a virtual baseball stadium. The batter and the bat movements are measured using nine-axis inertial sensors attached to various parts of the body and bat, and they are represented by a virtual avatar in real time. The pitched balls are depicted by computer graphics based on previously recorded ball trajectories and are thrown in time with the motion of a pitcher avatar based on simultaneously recorded motion capture data. The ball bounces depending on its interaction with the bat. In a preliminary measurement where the VR system was combined with measurement equipment we found some differences between the behavioral and physiological data (i.e., the body movements and respiration of experts and beginners and between the types of pitches during virtual batting. This VR system with a sufficiently real visual experience will provide novel findings as regards athletic performance that were formerly hard to obtain and allow us to elucidate their sensorimotor processing in detail.

  2. Uniform lateral etching of tungsten in deep trenches utilizing reaction-limited NF3 plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Mori, Masahito; Nishida, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    The reaction-limited etching of tungsten (W) with NF3 plasma was performed in an attempt to achieve the uniform lateral etching of W in a deep trench, a capability required by manufacturing processes for three-dimensional NAND flash memory. Reaction-limited etching was found to be possible at high pressures without ion irradiation. An almost constant etching rate that showed no dependence on NF3 pressure was obtained. The effect of varying the wafer temperature was also examined. A higher wafer temperature reduced the threshold pressure for reaction-limited etching and also increased the etching rate in the reaction-limited region. Therefore, the control of the wafer temperature is crucial to controlling the etching amount by this method. We found that the uniform lateral etching of W was possible even in a deep trench where the F radical concentration was low.

  3. Molten salt hazardous waste disposal process utilizing gas/liquid contact for salt recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The products of a molten salt combustion of hazardous wastes are converted into a cooled gas, which can be filtered to remove hazardous particulate material, and a dry flowable mixture of salts, which can be recycled for use in the molten salt combustion, by means of gas/liquid contact between the gaseous products of combustion of the hazardous waste and a solution produced by quenching the spent melt from such molten salt combustion. The process results in maximizing the proportion of useful materials recovered from the molten salt combustion and minimizing the volume of material which must be discarded. In a preferred embodiment a spray dryer treatment is used to achieve the desired gas/liquid contact

  4. Elucidating potential utilization of Portuguese common bean varieties in rice based processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbas, Bruna; Pathania, Shivani; Castanho, Ana; Lourenço, Diana; Veiga, Isabel Mota; Patto, Maria Carlota Vaz; Brites, Carla

    2018-03-01

    The present study was aimed at studying the physico-chemical and functional properties of 31 Portuguese common bean varieties. In addition, the whole bean flours (WBF) and starch isolates (SI) of three representative bean varieties and their rice: bean blends (70:30; 50:50) were assessed for amylose content, thermal and pasting properties in view of supplementation in rice based processed foods. Bean varieties showed significant differences in protein content (20.78-27.10%), fat content (1.16-2.18%), hydration capacity (95.90-149.30%), unhydrated seeds (4.00-40.00%), γ tocopherol (3.20-98.05 mg/100 g fat), δ tocopherol (0.06-4.72 mg/100 g fat) and pasting behavior. Amylose content of WBF (11.4-20.2%) was significantly lower than rice flour (23.51%) whereas SI of beans (40.00-47.26%) had significantly higher amylose content than SI of rice (28.13%). DSC results showed that WBF (11.4-20.2 °C) had significantly broader and lower gelatinization temperature range (∆Tr) than corresponding SI (20.9-23.1 °C). WBF had significantly lower pasting viscosity due to low starch content and compositional matrix effect as compared to SI. Setback viscosities of WBF and rice: bean blends was lower than rice flour. Low setback viscosities of rice:bean blends may be used to prevent syneresis and stabilizing the quality of frozen foods in rice based processed foods.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - REMOVAL OF PRECURSORS TO DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER, PCI MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FYNE PROCESS MODEL ROP 1434 WITH AFC-30 NANOFILTRATON AT BARROW, AK - NSF 00/19/EPADW395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment testing and verification of PCI Membrane Systems Inc. Fyne Process nanofiltraton systems Model ROP 1434 equipped with a C10 module containing AFC-30 tubular membranes was conducted from 3/16-5/11/2000 in Barrow, AS. The source water was a moderate alkalinity, moderately...

  6. Utilization of residue from cassava starch processing for production of fermentable sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Reis Fontinelle SOUTO

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize and perform enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peeling residue (peel and inner peel, mainly composed of peels and small pieces. Residue was sanitized, dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and ground. The obtained flour showed pH of 4.85; 72.53 g 100 g–1 moisture; 5.18 mL 1M NaOH 100 g–1 acidity; 60.68 g 100 g–1 starch; 1.08 g 100 g–1 reducing sugar; 1.63 g 100g–1 ash; 0.86 g 100 g–1 lipid and 3.97 g 100 g–1 protein. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out by means of rotational central composite design, analyzing the effects of concentrations of α-amylase enzyme (10 to 50 U g starch–1, and the amyloglucosidase enzyme (80 to 400 U g starch–1 on variable responses: percent conversion of starch into reducing sugars (RSC and soluble solid content (SS. Highest values of RSC (110% and SS (12 °Brix were observed when using the maximum concentration of amyloglucosidase and throughout the concentration range of α-amylase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel is feasible and allows the use of hydrolysate in fermentation processes for the production of various products, such as alcoholic drinks, vinegar, among others.

  7. Utilization of residue from cassava starch processing for production of fermentable sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Reis Fontinelle SOUTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize and perform enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peeling residue (peel and inner peel, mainly composed of peels and small pieces. Residue was sanitized, dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and ground. The obtained flour showed pH of 4.85; 72.53 g 100 g–1 moisture; 5.18 mL 1M NaOH 100 g–1 acidity; 60.68 g 100 g–1 starch; 1.08 g 100 g–1 reducing sugar; 1.63 g 100g–1 ash; 0.86 g 100 g–1 lipid and 3.97 g 100 g–1 protein. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out by means of rotational central composite design, analyzing the effects of concentrations of α-amylase enzyme (10 to 50 U g starch–1, and the amyloglucosidase enzyme (80 to 400 U g starch–1 on variable responses: percent conversion of starch into reducing sugars (RSC and soluble solid content (SS. Highest values of RSC (110% and SS (12 °Brix were observed when using the maximum concentration of amyloglucosidase and throughout the concentration range of α-amylase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel is feasible and allows the use of hydrolysate in fermentation processes for the production of various products, such as alcoholic drinks, vinegar, among others.

  8. Clean recycle and utilization of hazardous iron-bearing waste in iron ore sintering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Min; Ji, Zhiyun; Fan, Xiaohui; Chen, Xuling; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Guojing; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Tao

    2018-04-18

    Applying recycled iron-bearing waste materials (RIM) into iron ore sintering process is the general disposal approach worldwide, while its use is still a thorny problem. Results showed that adding RIM increased contents of hazardous elements (K, Na, Pb, Zn, and Cl) in sinter product, and also enhanced emission concentration of PM 2.5 in flue gas; increasing reaction temperature, and contents of CaO & coke breeze in raw mixtures improved hazardous elements removal. Based on these features, a novel method through granulating natural iron ores and RIM separately and distributing granulated RIM in bottom sintering layers was proposed for clean RIM cycle. When recycling 5% RIM, granulating RIM separately with higher contents of CaO and coke breeze removed hazardous elements effectively, the contents of which in sinter were reduced to comparable level of the case without RIM. Moreover, distributing RIM in bottom sintering layer reached intensive release of hazardous elements and PM 2.5 during sintering, which reduced the flue gas volume needing purification by about 2/3. Through activated carbon purification, about 60% of PM 2.5 comprised high contents of hazardous elements was removed. Novel technique eliminated the negative impact of RIM and has the prospect to reach clean recycle in sinter-making plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Utilization of mixed adsorbents to extend frying oil life cycle in poultry processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Innawong, Bhundit; Siasakul, Chatchalai; Okafor, Christopher

    2018-05-15

    The effects were studied of two different adsorbent combinations (com I; bentonite: activated carbon: celite = 3:4:1 and com II; bentonite: activated clay: celite = 3:4:1 + 1% citric acid) on the physico-chemical changes of oil used continuously for deep-fat frying of chicken drumsticks. The results showed that the % FFA was reduced by 44.3, PV by 50.2, and FOS reading by 40.1% in com I whereas reductions of 41.6, 44.9, and 32.8%, respectively, were found in com II. The oil treated with com II exhibited a lighter color than with com I. The changes of oil color in com I were L ∗ 30.7, a ∗ 1.7, and b ∗ 31.9%; in com II they were 53.2, 19.1, and 39.5% respectively. The higher the L ∗ observed, the better the oil quality obtained because of the bleaching ability of adsorbents. Therefore, the use of such adsorbents is recommended for poultry processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3-Dimensional Microorifice Fabricated Utilizing Single Undercut Etching Process for Producing Ultrasmall Water and Chitosan Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Hsin Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reports a microfluidic device for producing small droplets via a microorifice and a T-junction structure. The orifice is fabricated using an isotropic undercut etching process of amorphous glass materials. Since the equivalent hydraulic diameter of the produced microorifice can be as small as 1.1 μm, the microdevice can easily produce droplets of the size smaller than 10 μm in diameter. In addition, a permanent hydrophobic coating technique is also applied to modify the main channel to be hydrophobic to enhance the formation of water-based droplets. Experimental results show that the developed microfluidic chip with the ultrasmall orifice can steadily produce water-in-oil droplets with different sizes. Uniform water-in-oil droplets with the size from 60 μm to 6.5 μm in diameter can be formed by adjusting the flow rate ratio of the continuous phase and the disperse phases from 1 to 7. Moreover, curable linear polymer of chitosan droplets with the size smaller than 100 μm can also be successfully produced using the developed microchip device. The microfluidic T-junction with a micro-orifice developed in the present study provides a simple yet efficient way to produce various droplets of different sizes.

  11. Utilization of Facebook by School Children in the Apprenticeship Seeking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sander

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for a practical apprenticeship place can be the first step in the business world for German students. The students have to apply for this placement, as Companies require applicants. Facebook is one of the most often used social networks among the younger generation in Germany, which can provide a direct communication channel between businesses and candidates. The research evaluates the reasons to use Facebook to identify a solid apprenticeship training platform for German students. Research methods applied: scientific publication analysis, survey (by paper-based questionnaire of German students of the ninth and tenth grade. Analysis of survey data by main indicators of descriptive statistics: arithmetic mean, mode, median, and standard deviations to get an impression of evaluations on analysed aspects by survey respondents. Analysis of variance – ANOVA – is applied to study the difference of the assessments between female and male school children and the differences between the ninth and tenth classes. The existence of correlations between the intensity of use of social network sites (SNS and the apprenticeship seeking process have been investigated. The results of the research have shown that there are differences in evaluations, on analysed aspects, between female and male school children in the analysed classes on the occasion career entry by the apprenticeship.

  12. Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

    2011-11-01

    This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

  13. Utility of optical heterodyne displacement sensing and laser ultrasonics as in situ process control diagnostic for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony J.; Helvajian, Henry

    2018-04-01

    An in situ process control monitor is presented by way of experimental results and simulations, which utilizes a pulsed laser ultrasonic source as a probe and an optical heterodyne displacement meter as a sensor. The intent is for a process control system that operates in near real time, is nonintrusive, and in situ: A necessary requirement for a serial manufacturing technology such as additive manufacturing (AM). We show that the diagnostic approach has utility in characterizing the local temperature, the area of the heat-affected zone, and the surface roughness (Ra ˜ 0.4 μm). We further demonstrate that it can be used to identify solitary defects (i.e., holes) on the order of 10 to 20 μm in diameter. Moreover, the technique shows promise in measuring properties of materials with features that have a small radius of curvature. We present results for a thin wire of ˜650 μm in diameter. By applying multiple pairs of probe-sensor systems, the diagnostic could also measure the local cooling rate on the scale of 1 μs. Finally, while an obvious application is used in AM technology, then all optical diagnostics could be applied to other manufacturing technologies.

  14. A Selection Approach for Optimized Problem-Solving Process by Grey Relational Utility Model and Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Kun Ke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In business enterprises, especially the manufacturing industry, various problem situations may occur during the production process. A situation denotes an evaluation point to determine the status of a production process. A problem may occur if there is a discrepancy between the actual situation and the desired one. Thus, a problem-solving process is often initiated to achieve the desired situation. In the process, how to determine an action need to be taken to resolve the situation becomes an important issue. Therefore, this work uses a selection approach for optimized problem-solving process to assist workers in taking a reasonable action. A grey relational utility model and a multicriteria decision analysis are used to determine the optimal selection order of candidate actions. The selection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive recommended solution. The worker chooses a reasonable problem-solving action based on the selection order. This work uses a high-tech company’s knowledge base log as the analysis data. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed selection approach is effective.

  15. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  16. Utilizing General Purpose Graphics Processing Units to Improve Performance of Computer Modelling and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, J.; Zhu, Y.; Koons, P. O.; Segee, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    With the introduction of the G8X series of cards by nVidia an architecture called CUDA was released, virtually all subsequent video cards have had CUDA support. With this new architecture nVidia provided extensions for C/C++ that create an Application Programming Interface (API) allowing code to be executed on the GPU. Since then the concept of GPGPU (general purpose graphics processing unit) has been growing, this is the concept that the GPU is very good a algebra and running things in parallel so we should take use of that power for other applications. This is highly appealing in the area of geodynamic modeling, as multiple parallel solutions of the same differential equations at different points in space leads to a large speedup in simulation speed. Another benefit of CUDA is a programmatic method of transferring large amounts of data between the computer's main memory and the dedicated GPU memory located on the video card. In addition to being able to compute and render on the video card, the CUDA framework allows for a large speedup in the situation, such as with a tiled display wall, where the rendered pixels are to be displayed in a different location than where they are rendered. A CUDA extension for VirtualGL was developed allowing for faster read back at high resolutions. This paper examines several aspects of rendering OpenGL graphics on large displays using VirtualGL and VNC. It demonstrates how performance can be significantly improved in rendering on a tiled monitor wall. We present a CUDA enhanced version of VirtualGL as well as the advantages to having multiple VNC servers. It will discuss restrictions caused by read back and blitting rates and how they are affected by different sizes of virtual displays being rendered.

  17. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  18. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, June 11, 1992--September 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO{sub 2}/No{sub x} removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O{sub 2} in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction. These inhibiting levels of O{sub 2} are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  19. Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO[sub 2]/No[sub x] removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O[sub 2] in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O[sub 2] partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction. These inhibiting levels of O[sub 2] are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  20. Process modeling of a reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) energy storage system utilizing commercially available SOC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghizadeh, Pegah; Santhanam, Srikanth; Heddrich, Marc P.; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electric energy storage system was developed based on a commercially available SOC reactor. • Heat generated in SOFC mode of r-SOC is utilized in SOEC operation of r-SOC using latent heat storage. • A round trip efficiency of 54.3% was reached for the reference system at atmospheric pressure. • An improved process system design achieved a round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar. - Abstract: The increase of intermittent renewable energy contribution in power grids has urged us to seek means for temporal decoupling of electricity production and consumption. A reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) enables storage of surplus electricity through electrochemical reactions when it is in electrolysis mode. The reserved energy in form of chemical compounds is then converted to electricity when the cell operates as a fuel cell. A process system model was implemented using Aspen Plus® V8.8 based on a commercially available r-SOC reactor experimentally characterized at DLR. In this study a complete self-sustaining system configuration is designed by optimal thermal integration and balance of plant. Under reference conditions a round trip efficiency of 54.3% was achieved. Generated heat in fuel cell mode is exploited by latent heat storage tanks to enable endothermic operation of reactor in its electrolysis mode. In total, out of 100 units of thermal energy stored in heat storage tanks during fuel cell mode, 90% was utilized to offset heat demand of system in its electrolysis mode. Parametric analysis revealed the significance of heat storage tanks in thermal management even when reactor entered its exothermic mode of electrolysis. An improved process system design demonstrates a system round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar.

  1. Effects of Secondary Task Modality and Processing Code on Automation Trust and Utilization During Simulated Airline Luggage Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rachel; Madhavan, Poornima

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of environmental distractions on human trust and utilization of automation during the process of visual search. Participants performed a computer-simulated airline luggage screening task with the assistance of a 70% reliable automated decision aid (called DETECTOR) both with and without environmental distractions. The distraction was implemented as a secondary task in either a competing modality (visual) or non-competing modality (auditory). The secondary task processing code either competed with the luggage screening task (spatial code) or with the automation's textual directives (verbal code). We measured participants' system trust, perceived reliability of the system (when a target weapon was present and absent), compliance, reliance, and confidence when agreeing and disagreeing with the system under both distracted and undistracted conditions. Results revealed that system trust was lower in the visual-spatial and auditory-verbal conditions than in the visual-verbal and auditory-spatial conditions. Perceived reliability of the system (when the target was present) was significantly higher when the secondary task was visual rather than auditory. Compliance with the aid increased in all conditions except for the auditory-verbal condition, where it decreased. Similar to the pattern for trust, reliance on the automation was lower in the visual-spatial and auditory-verbal conditions than in the visual-verbal and auditory-spatial conditions. Confidence when agreeing with the system decreased with the addition of any kind of distraction; however, confidence when disagreeing increased with the addition of an auditory secondary task but decreased with the addition of a visual task. A model was developed to represent the research findings and demonstrate the relationship between secondary task modality, processing code, and automation use. Results suggest that the nature of environmental distractions influence

  2. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  3. Utilization of a Clinical Trial Management System for the Whole Clinical Trial Process as an Integrated Database: System Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Koo, HaYeong; Yoo, Soyoung; Choi, Chang-Min; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Won

    2018-04-24

    Clinical trials pose potential risks in both communications and management due to the various stakeholders involved when performing clinical trials. The academic medical center has a responsibility and obligation to conduct and manage clinical trials while maintaining a sufficiently high level of quality, therefore it is necessary to build an information technology system to support standardized clinical trial processes and comply with relevant regulations. The objective of the study was to address the challenges identified while performing clinical trials at an academic medical center, Asan Medical Center (AMC) in Korea, by developing and utilizing a clinical trial management system (CTMS) that complies with standardized processes from multiple departments or units, controlled vocabularies, security, and privacy regulations. This study describes the methods, considerations, and recommendations for the development and utilization of the CTMS as a consolidated research database in an academic medical center. A task force was formed to define and standardize the clinical trial performance process at the site level. On the basis of the agreed standardized process, the CTMS was designed and developed as an all-in-one system complying with privacy and security regulations. In this study, the processes and standard mapped vocabularies of a clinical trial were established at the academic medical center. On the basis of these processes and vocabularies, a CTMS was built which interfaces with the existing trial systems such as the electronic institutional review board health information system, enterprise resource planning, and the barcode system. To protect patient data, the CTMS implements data governance and access rules, and excludes 21 personal health identifiers according to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy rule and Korean privacy laws. Since December 2014, the CTMS has been successfully implemented and used by 881 internal and

  4. Phase equilibrium in systems with ionic liquids: An example for the downstream process of the Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) process. Part I: Experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahandzhieva, Katya; Maurer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibrium for a downstream process in sustainable chemical technology. ► Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) Process. ► SLE, LLE, and SLLE of (NaCl + water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and its ternary subsystems. ► Experimental phase equilibrium data at temperatures between 298 K and 333 K. - Abstract: Experimental results are presented for the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria occurring in the downstream process of a typical example for the Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL)-processes. In a BASIL process an organic base is used to catalyze a chemical reaction and, at the same time, to scavenge an acid that is an undesired side product of that reaction. The particular example of a BASIL process treated here is the reaction of 1-butanol and acetylchloride to butylacetate and hydrochloric acid, where the acid is scavenged by the organic base 1-methyl imidazole (1-MIM) resulting in the ionic liquid 1-methyl imidazolium chloride. The reaction results in a two-phase system as butylacetate and the ionic liquid reveal a large liquid–liquid miscibility gap. The organic base has to be recovered. This is commonly achieved by treating the ionic liquid–rich liquid phase with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (i.e., converting the ionic liquid to the organic base) and extracting the organic base by an appropriate organic solvent (e.g., 1-propanol). The work presented here deals in experimental work with the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) phase equilibria that are encountered in such extraction processes. Experimental results are reported for temperatures between about 298 K and 333 K: for the solubility of NaCl in several solvents (1-propanol, 1-MIM), (water + 1-MIM), (1-propanol + 1-MIM), (water + 1-propanol), and (water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and for the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium as well as for the (solid + liquid

  5. Process and device integration for silicon tunnel FETs utilizing isoelectronic trap technology to enhance the ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takahiro; Asai, Hidehiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    A tunnel FET (TFET) is a candidate replacement for conventional MOSFETs to realize low-power LSI. The most significant issue with the practical application of TFETs concerns their low tunneling current. Si is an indirect-gap material with a low band-to-band tunneling probability and is not favored for the channel. However, a new technology has recently been proposed to enhance the tunneling current in Si-TFETs by utilizing isoelectronic trap (IET) technology. IET technology provides an innovative approach to realizing low-power LSI with TFETs. In this paper, state-of-the-art research on Si-TFETs with IET technology from the viewpoint of process and device integration is reviewed.

  6. Study on transfer-free graphene synthesis process utilizing spontaneous agglomeration of catalytic Ni and Co metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Makoto; Mizuno, Masaya; Banno, Kazuya; Kubo, Toshiharu; Egawa, Takashi; Soga, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Transfer-free graphene synthesis process utilizing metal agglomeration phenomena was investigated by using carbon films deposited on Ni or Co catalyst metals on SiO 2 /Si substrates. As a result of metal agglomeration at high temperatures, multilayer graphene films appeared to be formed directly on SiO 2 films. The microscopic Raman mapping study revealed that graphene films were preferentially synthesized around areas where metal films disappeared at an early stage of agglomeration, and that they finally covered almost the whole surface. It was also found that the synthesized graphene films tended to have better structural qualities and lower layer numbers with the increase in the starting metal thicknesses regardless of the kinds of catalyst metals. Raman study also showed that they had good two-dimensional uniformity in the structural quality. (paper)

  7. Utilizing time-frequency amplitude and phase synchrony measure to assess feedback processing in a gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Adreanna T M; Tootell, Anne V; Fix, Spencer T; Aviyente, Selin; Bernat, Edward M

    2018-04-29

    The neurophysiological mechanisms involved in the evaluation of performance feedback have been widely studied in the ERP literature over the past twenty years, but understanding has been limited by the use of traditional time-domain amplitude analytic approaches. Gambling outcome valence has been identified as an important factor modulating event-related potential (ERP) components, most notably the feedback negativity (FN). Recent work employing time-frequency analysis has shown that processes indexed by the FN are confounded in the time-domain and can be better represented as separable feedback-related processes in the theta (3-7 Hz) and delta (0-3 Hz) frequency bands. In addition to time-frequency amplitude analysis, phase synchrony measures have begun to further our understanding of performance evaluation by revealing how feedback information is processed within and between various brain regions. The current study aimed to provide an integrative assessment of time-frequency amplitude, inter-trial phase synchrony, and inter-channel phase synchrony changes following monetary feedback in a gambling task. Results revealed that time-frequency amplitude activity explained separable loss and gain processes confounded in the time-domain. Furthermore, phase synchrony measures explained unique variance above and beyond amplitude measures and demonstrated enhanced functional integration between medial prefrontal and bilateral frontal, motor, and occipital regions for loss relative to gain feedback. These findings demonstrate the utility of assessing time-frequency amplitude, inter-trial phase synchrony, and inter-channel phase synchrony together to better elucidate the neurophysiology of feedback processing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Farr, L.L.; Loghry, S.L.; Pitt, W.W.; Gibson, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new, low-temperature (50 to 60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 to 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted. In this process, aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid which might function as its own waste form. The process may actually be able to utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nearly nitrate-free ceramic-like product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 55% were obtained for the waste form produced, compared to an expected 35 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data extracted from bench-top studies indicate that the process will be very economical to operate, and data were used to cost a batch, 1,200-kg NO 3 /h plant for working off Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Their total process cost analysis presented in the appendix, indicates that between $2.01 to 2.66 per kilogram of nitrate converted will be required. Additionally, data on the fate of select radioelements present in solution are presented in this report as well as kinetic, operational, and control data for a number of experiments. Additionally, if the ceramic product functions as its own waste form, it too will offer other cost savings associated with having a smaller volume of waste form as well as eliminating other process steps such as grouting

  9. Cocoa Shell: A By-Product with Great Potential for Wide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panak Balentić, Jelena; Ačkar, Đurđica; Jokić, Stela; Jozinović, Antun; Babić, Jurislav; Miličević, Borislav; Šubarić, Drago; Pavlović, Nika

    2018-06-09

    Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics. This paper gives an overview of published results related to the cocoa shell, mostly on important bioactive compounds and possible applications of the cocoa shell in different areas. The cocoa shell, due to its nutritional value and high-value bioactive compounds, could become a desirable raw material in a large spectrum of functional, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic products, as well as in the production of energy or biofuels in the near future.

  10. Cocoa Shell: A By-Product with Great Potential for Wide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Panak Balentić

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics. This paper gives an overview of published results related to the cocoa shell, mostly on important bioactive compounds and possible applications of the cocoa shell in different areas. The cocoa shell, due to its nutritional value and high-value bioactive compounds, could become a desirable raw material in a large spectrum of functional, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic products, as well as in the production of energy or biofuels in the near future.

  11. Shortcomings in safety management: symptoms, examples and recovery processes. Omission of Operational Culture can be fatal for the power utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezoucky, F.; )

    2006-01-01

    During recent years, many utilities and their nuclear branches have undergone substantial change. The effectiveness of management in handling the change varies considerably from utility to utility. At the extreme, the way the change is managed and nuclear safety and operational performance aspects are integrated can either help lead a plant to operational excellence or destroy what was once an effective organisation. (author)

  12. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper

  13. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  14. Interview from anywhere: feasibility and utility of web-based videoconference interviews in the gastroenterology fellowship selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daram, Sumanth R; Wu, Ruonan; Tang, Shou-Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Traditional personal interviews are subject to limitations imposed by geographic, financial, and scheduling constraints. Web-based videoconferencing (WVC) has the potential to simplify the interview process. This study was intended to evaluate the feasibility and utility of WVC using standard tablets/computers with videoconferencing capability in gastroenterology (GI) fellowship interviews. At a single institution, 16 GI fellowship applicants participated in WVC with one interviewer, who was present at a remote location 750 miles away. In addition, each of the candidates underwent traditional interviews with four faculty members at the program site. All study interviewees used an iPad2 (Apple, iOS 5.1; Apple) with a videoconferencing application (Facetime). The interviewer (SRD) used Facetime on a MacBook Pro (Apple, Mac OS X 10.7.3). Each candidate completed a voluntary paper survey after completion of all assigned faculty interviews. The average age of the candidates was 30 years (range, 27-37 years). Fourteen candidates were native English speakers. Candidates expressed a high level of satisfaction, with 13 candidates (81%) stating that their WVC experience met or exceeded their expectations, and 87% of candidates stating that WVC should be an option in fellowship interviews. In addition, 25% of candidates felt that their WVC experience was equivalent to or better than their traditional interview experience on the same day. WVC can be an effective and useful tool in the fellowship interview process. It affords candidates increased flexibility, cost saving, convenience, and provides an option for participating in the selection process at more programs. For the programs and faculty, WVC has a potential to be an effective screening tool, can help minimize loss of clinical revenue and can also be an acceptable alternative to in-person interviews.

  15. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  16. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  17. Predicting Health Care Utilization After the First Behavioral Health Visit Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Roysden, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient’s first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection ...

  18. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  19. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  20. Improvements in anatomy knowledge when utilizing a novel cyclical "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Hutchinson, Joseph; Thandi, Charankumal S; Keenan, Iain D

    2017-01-01

    Innovative educational strategies can provide variety and enhance student learning while addressing complex logistical and financial issues facing modern anatomy education. Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat (ORDER), a novel cyclical artistic process, has been designed based on cognitivist and constructivist learning theories, and on processes of critical observation, reflection and drawing in anatomy learning. ORDER was initially investigated in the context of a compulsory first year surface anatomy practical (ORDER-SAP) at a United Kingdom medical school in which a cross-over trial with pre-post anatomy knowledge testing was utilized and student perceptions were identified. Despite positive perceptions of ORDER-SAP, medical student (n = 154) pre-post knowledge test scores were significantly greater (P learning methods (3.26, SD = ±2.25) than with ORDER-SAP (2.17, ±2.30). Based on these findings, ORDER was modified and evaluated in the context of an optional self-directed gross anatomy online interactive tutorial (ORDER-IT) for participating first year medical students (n = 55). Student performance was significantly greater (P  0.05) to those students without these characteristics. These findings will be of value to anatomy instructors seeking to engage students from diverse learning backgrounds in a research-led, innovative, time and cost-effective learning method, in the context of contrasting learning environments. Anat Sci Educ 10: 7-22. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Amino acid utilization and body composition of growing pigs fed processed soybean meal or rapeseed meal with or without amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2017-07-01

    Feed ingredients used in swine diets are often processed to improve nutritional value. However, (over-)processing may result in chemical reactions with amino acids (AAs) that decrease their ileal digestibility. This study aimed to determine effects of (over-)processing of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) on post-absorptive utilization of ileal digestible AAs for retention and on body AA composition of growing pigs. Soybean meal and RSM were processed by secondary toasting in the presence of lignosulfonate to obtain processed soybean meal (pSBM) and processed rapeseed meal (pRSM). Four diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM or pRSM as sole protein source. Two additional diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to similar standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA level as the SBM or RSM diet. These diets were used to verify that processing affected AA retention by affecting ileal AA digestibility rather than post-absorptive AA utilization. The SID AA levels of the protein sources were determined in a previous study. In total, 59 pigs were used (initial BW of 15.6±0.7 kg) of which five were used to determine initial body composition at the start of the experiment. In total, 54 pigs were fed one of six experimental diets and were slaughtered at a BW of 40 kg. The organ fraction (i.e. empty organs plus blood) and carcass were analyzed separately for N and AA content. Post-absorptive AA utilization was calculated from AA retention and SID AA intake. An interaction between diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, and protein source was observed for CP content in the organ fraction, carcass and empty body and for nutrient retention. Processing reduced CP content and nutrient retention more for SBM than for RSM. Moreover, processing reduced (P<0.001) the lysine content in the organ fraction for both protein sources. Supplementing crystalline AA ameliorated the effect of processing on these variables. Thus

  2. Experimental cancer studies of chlorinated by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komulainen, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    Chlorinated drinking water contains a number of different by-products formed during the chlorination process from organic matter. The carcinogenicity of only a fraction of them have been evaluated in experimental animals. The focus has been on compounds and groups of compounds that are most abundant in chlorinated drinking water or the in vitro toxicity data have suggested genotoxic potential. From trihalomethanes, chloroform causes liver tumors in mice and female rats and renal tumors in male mice and rats. Tumor formation by chloroform is strongly associated with cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation in tissues and that has been considered to be one determinant of its carcinogenicity. From halogenic acetic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichlotoacetic acid (TCA) are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and DCA in male rats. Their genotoxicity is equivocal and nongenotoxic mechanisms, such as peroxisome proliferation and hypomethylation of DNA in the liver, likely contribute to tumor development. From chlorinated furanones (CHFs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) is a multisite carcinogen in rats (e.g. in thyroid glands and liver) and it has caused DNA damage in vivo. MX may be a complete carcinogen because it also has promoter properties in vitro. Chlorinated drinking water may also contain brominated by-products providing the raw water contains bromide. At least some of them (bromodichloromethane, bromoform) have been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Altogether, although several by-products have been shown to have carcinogenic potential in laboratory animals, it not yet possible to state which compounds or groups of by-products cause the cancer risk in chlorinated drinking water. The cellular mechanisms of their effects and these effects at low concentrations are still poorly understood. The few studies with mixtures of these by-products suggest that the mixture effects may be complex and unpredictable (inhibitory

  3. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  4. Biomass by-product from crystal sugar production: A comparative study between Ngadirejo and Mauritius sugar mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan; Bantacut, T.; Romli, M.; Noor, E.

    2018-03-01

    Sugarcane has been used as raw material in crystal sugar industry. Sugar cane that contains high sugar will be utilized into crystals sugar. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane is large enough in 2016 approximately 360 713 tons/year. Crystal sugar itself is a daily necessity for its use in the food and beverage industry. Problem that occurs in Indonesia is the energy consumption. The sugar mills supposed to be an independent energy source which means it can produce its own energy by utilization the material that is available in the sugar mills such as by-product (bagasse, molasses, filter cake, etc.), the by product in every production stage are quite a lot in sugar industry especially in Indonesia. In this paper, a comparison between two sugar mills was examined between Ngedirejo sugar mill and Mauritius sugar mill which has the same geological state as Indonesia. The results of comparison between the two sugar factories demonstrated the difference in terms of productivity of the sugar that has been produced and the effectiveness of the production process in a sugar mill seen from the amount of waste and the by product.

  5. The Utility of the Health Action Process Approach Model for Predicting Physical Activity Intentions and Behavior in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research is needed to develop evidence-based behavioral interventions for preventing and treating obesity that are specific to the schizophrenia population. This study is the precursor to such intervention research where we examined the utility of the social cognitions outlined within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA model for predicting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA intentions and behavior among individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A prospective cohort design [baseline (T1, week 2 (T2, and week 4 (T3] was used to examine the HAPA constructs and MVPA across a sample of 101 adults (Mage = 41.5 ± 11.7 years; MBMI = 31.2 ± 7.8 kg/m2; 59% male. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted controlling for age, gender, BMI, and previous self-reported MVPA. In the first regression, intentions at T1 were regressed onto the T1 motivational HAPA constructs (risk perception, affective attitudes, task self-efficacy and social support; MVPA status (meeting vs. not meeting the MVPA guidelines assessed via accelerometry at T3 was regressed onto T1 social support and intentions followed by T2 action and coping planning, and maintenance self-efficacy in the second analysis. Overall, the motivational and social support variables accounted for 28% of the variance in intentions, with affective attitudes (β = 0.33, p < 0.01 and task self-efficacy (β = 0.25, p < 0.05 exhibiting significant, positive relationships. For MVPA status, the model as a whole explained 39% of the variance, with the volitional HAPA constructs explaining a non-significant 3% of this total variance. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting self-efficacy and affective attitudes within this clinical population.

  6. Prioritizing Roads Safety Based on the Quasi-Induced Exposure Method and Utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad rezaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Safety analysis of the roads through the accident rates which is one of the widely used tools has been resulted from the direct exposure method which is based on the ratio of the vehicle-kilometers traveled and vehicle-travel time. However, due to some fundamental flaws in its theories and difficulties in gaining access to the data required such as traffic volume, distance and duration of the trip, and various problems in determining the exposure in a specific time, place, and individual categories, there is a need for an algorithm for prioritizing the road safety so that with a new exposure method, the problems of the previous approaches would be resolved. In this way, an efficient application may lead to have more realistic comparisons and the new method would be applicable to a wider range of time, place, and individual categories. Therefore, an algorithm was introduced to prioritize the safety of roads using the quasi-induced exposure method and utilizing the analytical hierarchy process. For this research, 11 provinces of Iran were chosen as case study locations. A rural accidents database was created for these provinces, the validity of quasi-induced exposure method for Iran’s accidents database was explored, and the involvement ratio for different characteristics of the drivers and the vehicles was measured. Results showed that the quasi-induced exposure method was valid in determining the real exposure in the provinces under study. Results also showed a significant difference in the prioritization based on the new and traditional approaches. This difference mostly would stem from the perspective of the quasi-induced exposure method in determining the exposure, opinion of experts, and the quantity of accidents data. Overall, the results for this research showed that prioritization based on the new approach is more comprehensive and reliable compared to the prioritization in the traditional approach which is dependent on various

  7. OPTIMASI PEMADATAM CEPAT PADA PENGAYAAN MINYAK IKAN HASIL SAMPING PENGALENGAN LEMURU DENGAN ASAM LEMAK w-3 MENGGUNAKAN METODE PERMUKAAN RESPON [Optimization of Rapid Solidification to Enrich Fish Oil from by-Product of Lemuru Canning Processing with w-3 batty Acids by Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil from by-product of lemuru canning processing was a source of w-3 fatty acid but its characteristics had out been known. The content of w-3 fatty acids of this oil had to be increased. Various methods are available to enhance w-3 fatty acids concentration Rapid solidification was one of limited methods to enrich fish oil by w-3 fatty acids containing triglycerides.This research was conducted to optimize rapid solidification condition to enrich fish oil from by product of lemuru canning processing with w-3 fatty acids and characterize the enriched oil compared by International Association of Fish Meal and Oil Manufacturers standard. In optimization process, the content of EPA+OHA and yield .was maximized. A two-factors central composite design in Response Surface Method was used to study the effect of solvent-to-oil ratio (X1 and extraction time (X2. The response (Y is the multiplication of EPA+DHA content by yield.The results showed that under optimum conditions the maximum response were obtained at a solvent-to-oil ratio of 3,95:1(vw and extraction time of 24,93 hours. The w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had EPA+DHA content of 33,33% and yield of 9.40% (w/w.The produced w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had good quality based on food grade fish oil standard, unless Fe and Cu content. Chelation could reduce these oxidizing metals.

  8. OPTIMASI KONDISI PEMURNIAN ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI MINYAK HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN TUNA (Thunnus sp DENGAN KRISTALISASI UREA [Optimizing Conditions for the Purification of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from By-product of Tuna (Thunnus sp Meal Processing by Urea Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (-3 are proven to have health beneficial effects. Some effort had been done to obtained oil high in -3 fatty acids. Among the methods developed, urea crystallization was preferred because it is simple, economic, and result in high purity of fatty acids. A source that had not been widely explored for -3 fatty acids production is the by-product of tuna meal processing. This research studied the optimization condition for separation and purification of -3 fatty acids from the by-product of tuna meal processing by urea crystallization. Crystallization reaction conditions of urea inclusion were optimized using the response surface methodology, and the model was developed.Optimization result showed a quadratic polynomial regression equation of Y= 140,52677X1 + 8,38203X2 – 19,85850X12 – 0,12173X22 – 0,74000X1X2 – 240,33546 with X1=urea to fatty acid ratio and X2=crystallization time. Maximum response was obtained at urea to fatty acid ratio of 3,07:1,crystallization time of 25,10 hours, and predicted response was 80,60%. Analysis of variance showed that urea to fatty acid ratio and crystallization time affected response. Under optimal conditions, the product was 3.89 times concentrated and the purity of -3 fatty acids was 81,98%. Verification result revealed that the predicted value from this model was reasonably close to the experimentally observed value. Urea crystallization process changed quality parameters that were oxidation level (peroxide value, anisidin value, and totox value, Fe and Cu content, P content, and water content. The changes were caused by adsorption of primary and secondary oxidation products, part of metals, and phosphoric compound onto unsaponifiable matters or soluble into water.

  9. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  10. An investigation into the application of modern heuristic optimisation techniques to problems in power and processing utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahal, Keshav Prasad

    2000-01-01

    The work contained in this thesis demonstrates that there is a significant requirement for the development and application of new optimisation techniques for solving industrial scheduling problems, in order to achieve a better schedule with significant economic and operational impact. An investigation of how modern heuristic approaches, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA), fuzzy logic and hybrids of these techniques, may be developed, designed and implemented appropriately for solving short term and long term NP-hard scheduling problems that exist in electric power utilities and process facilities. GA and SA based methods are developed for generator maintenance scheduling using a novel integer encoding and appropriate GA and SA operators. Three hybrid approaches (an inoculated GA, a GA/SA and a GA with fuzzy logic) are proposed in order to improve the solution performance, and to take advantage of any flexibilities inherent in the problem. Five different GA-based approaches are investigated for solving the generation scheduling problem. Of those, a knowledge-based hybrid GA approach achieves better solutions in a shorter computational time. This approach integrates problem specific knowledge, heuristic dispatch calculation and linear programming within the GA-framework. The application of a GA-based methodology is proposed for the scheduling of storage tanks of a water treatment facility. The proposed approach is an integration of a GA and a heuristic rule-base. The GA string considers the tank allocation problem, and the heuristic approach solves the rate determination problems within the framework of the GA. For optimising the schedule of operations of a bulk handling port facility, a generic modelling tool is developed characterising the operational and maintenance activities of the facility. A GA-based approach is integrated with the simulation software for optimising the scheduling of operations of the facility. Each of these approaches is

  11. Application opportunities of systems of control and monitoring for engineering processes fading by JSC 'Instrumental plant 'Tenzor', for utilization and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitsky, V.J.; Esaulkov, R.O.; Maslova, M.V.; Kujil, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Use of unique automated technological process control systems (ATPCS) on objects of storage of radiation hazardous and nuclear materials is offered. The application opportunity of diagnostic complex consisting of specialized software 'Cruise' and infra-red detection system for control and diagnostics of utilization of nuclear waste products in subcritical thermonuclear equipment is considered

  12. Cognitive Processing about Classroom-Relevant Contexts: Teachers' Attention to and Utilization of Girls' Body Size, Ethnicity, Attractiveness, and Facial Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley S.; Treat, Teresa A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines 2 aspects of cognitive processing in person perception--attention and decision making--in classroom-relevant contexts. Teachers completed 2 implicit, performance-based tasks that characterized attention to and utilization of 4 student characteristics of interest: ethnicity, facial affect, body size, and attractiveness. Stimuli…

  13. Generic data base for security equipment and its utility in the safeguards inspection process. Final report 8151-79-FR-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, S.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains material presented at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conference of regional inspectors in Atlanta, Georgia, on January 17, 1979. It describes the contents of the generic data base for security equipment, which was developed by SRI for NRC under a Sandia Laboratories' subcontract, and examines its potential utility in the process of inspection of NRC-licensed facilities

  14. Investigation of utilization of process of polyethylene waste of low density for creation of competitive materials with application of phenol formaldehyde oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakishieva, M.A.; Bilalov, Ya. M; Ibragimova, S. M; Dadasheva, G. I; Rezaei, Rudabeh

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The possibility of the utilization of low density polyethylene wastes by means of their modification with phenol formaldehyde oligomers (Ph FO) and PhFO with the thiourathenes has been investigation. Theology properties of the investigated systems showed that the obtained compositions can be able to be processed by the ordinary methods such as extrusion and casting

  15. Utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas para frangos de corte com base no conceito de proteínas bruta e ideal, no período de 43 a 49 dias de idade Utilization of animal by-products in broilers diets based on the concept of crude and ideal protein in the period from 43 to 49 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Cancherini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em rações para frangos de corte, formuladas com base nas proteínas bruta e ideal no período de 43 a 49 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 frangos machos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 2x2+1, com duas fontes de proteína de origem animal (farinha de vísceras de aves e farinha de sangue bovino, dois conceitos de formulação (proteínas bruta e ideal e uma ração testemunha à base de milho e de farelo de soja, com quatro repetições cada. As características avaliadas foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, peito e porcentagem de gordura abdominal. Os melhores ganho em peso e conversão alimentar foram obtidos quando a dieta à base de milho e farelo de soja foi utilizada. As farinhas de vísceras e de sangue e os conceitos de formulação não exerceram influência sobre as características avaliadas.One experiment was conducted to study the utilization of animal by-products in broilers diets based on the concept of crude and ideal protein form 43 to 49 days of age. Sixty hundred Ross male broilers were used in a factorial arrangement 2x2+1 (two animal sources by-products - poultry viscera meal and bovine blood meal crude and ideal protein and one basal diet (corn + soybean meal, envolving a total of five treatments with four replications of thirty broilers each. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass and breast yield and the abdominal fat percentage were evaluated. The best weight gain and feed conversion were obtained when birds were fed a corn and soybean meal based diet. The poultry viscera and bovine blood meals and formulation concepts did not influence on evaluated parameters.

  16. The management of steel industry by-products and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The report considers the management of solid and semi-solid wastes that are reused or disposed of outside steelworks. Headings are: introduction; ironmaking slags (including generation, properties, processing, uses and disposal); (steelmaking slag from hot metal pretreatment, and primary and secondary steelmaking); ironmaking dust and sludges; steelmaking dust and sludges; millscale and sludge from continuous casting and rolling mills; treatment and handling of used oils and greases; refractory waste from refining of metallurgical furnaces and vessels; by-products, waste and wastewater arising from coke oven batteries; treatment of stainless steel waste; characterisation of waste by leaching tests; dumping technology; and conclusions.

  17. Valuing Treatments for Parkinson Disease Incorporating Process Utility: Performance of Best-Worst Scaling, Time Trade-Off, and Visual Analogue Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weernink, Marieke G M; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; IJzerman, Maarten J; van Til, Janine A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment profiles including both health outcomes and process characteristics in Parkinson disease using best-worst scaling (BWS), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analogue scales (VAS). From the model comprising of seven attributes with three levels, six unique profiles were selected representing process-related factors and health outcomes in Parkinson disease. A Web-based survey (N = 613) was conducted in a general population to estimate process-related utilities using profile-based BWS (case 2), multiprofile-based BWS (case 3), TTO, and VAS. The rank order of the six profiles was compared, convergent validity among methods was assessed, and individual analysis focused on the differentiation between pairs of profiles with methods used. The aggregated health-state utilities for the six treatment profiles were highly comparable for all methods and no rank reversals were identified. On the individual level, the convergent validity between all methods was strong; however, respondents differentiated less in the utility of closely related treatment profiles with a VAS or TTO than with BWS. For TTO and VAS, this resulted in nonsignificant differences in mean utilities for closely related treatment profiles. This study suggests that all methods are equally able to measure process-related utility when the aim is to estimate the overall value of treatments. On an individual level, such as in shared decision making, BWS allows for better prioritization of treatment alternatives, especially if they are closely related. The decision-making problem and the need for explicit trade-off between attributes should determine the choice for a method. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  19. Utilization of process energy from supermarket refrigeration systems. Coupling of cooling and heating; Prozessenergienutzung von Supermarktkaelteanlagen. Kaelte-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, Alexander [TEKO Gesellschaft fuer Kaeltetechnik mbH, Altenstadt (Germany). Technologie und Kommunikation

    2010-03-15

    The efficiency is defined as the relation between utility and expenditure. Thus, it is obvious for the specialist of refrigeration to tackle with the expenditure (energy consumption) since the utilization conventionally is defined as the produced/need cooling performance of a refrigeration plant. If refrigeration plants are regarded according to their function (withdrawal of heat from a refrigeration chamber and delivery to the environment), the heating system is the producer of the requirement for cooling in 'the winter' (heating season). Thus, the refrigeration plant perhaps already has a marvellous efficiency, and the separate heating system too - however in interaction. The broad view moves into the focus. The possible approaches and effects are described in the contribution under consideration using the example of a Discount supermarket with a sales area of 800 square meters and a requirement of cooling of more than 30 kW.

  20. Potential nitrous oxide yield of AOA vs. AOB and utilization of carbon and nitrogen in the ammonia oxidizing process in the Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Dai, M.; Tan, S.; Xia, X.; Liu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas, is a by-product during ammonia oxidation process, the production of which is often stimulated under low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the estuarine environment. The potential yield of N2O has been considered to be driven by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) of Betaproteobacteria & Gammaproteobacteria and/or ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of Thaumarchaeota. In order to examine the relative importance of AOA and AOB in producing N2O and in modulating the potential N2O yield, arch-amoA, beta-amoA, gamma-amoA encoding for the alpha subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) are used as biomarkers to identify the distributions and bioactivities of AOA and AOB in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Size fractionation experiments were conducted to distinguish AOA and AOB on particles in different size-fractions of > 3 μm, 0.45-3 μm, and 0.22-0.45 μm. Pure culture of N. maritimusSCM1 was studied as a model organism to identify the organic carbon production during ammonia oxidation by SCM1 strains. Our results show that AOA distributes largely in the free-living state and could adapt to very limited ammonia substrate and low saturation of DO; AOB mainly distributes at the particle-attached state under relative richer ammonia and high DO conditions; however, the RNA/DNA ratio of AOB was higher than that of AOA under the same conditions suggesting AOB is relatively more actively expressed. In the upper reach of PRE, the dominant microorganism in the water column was AOB and the in situ N2O/NH3 therein ranged 0.73-3.74 ‰. In the lower PRE, AOA was dominated, and the in situ N2O/NH3 was of 1.17- 7.32‰. At selected sites, we estimated isotope effect (e) of AOA (eDIC/bulk) as -23.94‰ and AOB (eDIC/bulk) as -56.6‰ to -44.8‰, which is consistent with the studies of pure cultures. The coefficient of C sequestration "k", defined as (C biomass / DIC in situ) / (N biomass / ammonia in situ) to differ the utilization of carbon and nitrogen, of

  1. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kozlov, Aleksandr [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  2. A liquefied energy chain for transport and utilization of natural gas for power production with CO2 capture and storage - Part 2: The offshore and the onshore processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelund, Audun; Gundersen, Truls

    2009-01-01

    A novel energy and cost effective transport chain for stranded natural gas utilized for power production with CO 2 capture and storage is developed. It includes an offshore section, a combined gas carrier, and an integrated receiving terminal. In the offshore process, natural gas (NG) is liquefied to LNG by liquid carbon dioxide (LCO 2 ) and liquid inert nitrogen (LIN), which are used as cold carriers. The offshore process is self-supported with power, hot and cold utilities and can operate with little rotating equipment and without flammable refrigerants. In the onshore process, the cryogenic exergy in LNG is used to cool and liquefy the cold carriers, which reduces the power requirement to 319 kWh/tonne LNG. Pinch and exergy analyses are used to determine thermodynamically optimized offshore and onshore processes with exergy efficiencies of 87% and 71%, respectively. There are very low emissions from the processes. The estimated specific costs for the offshore and onshore process are 8.0 and 14.6 EUR per tonne LNG, respectively, excluding energy costs. With an electricity price of 100 EUR per MWh, the specific cost of energy in the onshore process is 31.9 EUR per tonne LNG

  3. Peptides from Fish By-product Protein Hydrolysates and Its Functional Properties: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sillero, Juan; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Prentice, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others. This paper reviews different methods for the production of protein hydrolysates as well as current research about several fish by-products protein hydrolysates bioactive properties, aiming the dual objective: adding value to these underutilized by-products and minimizing their negative impact on the environment.

  4. Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Eyassu Seifu; Asaminew Tassew

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess processing, utilization and marketing of traditional dairy products produced in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha districts in Northwestern Ethiopia. A single-visit-multiple-subject formal survey was conducted to collect data. A total of 150 households (75 households from each district) were individually interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The major dairy products produced in the study area include butter, ghee, Ayib, Arera (defatted sour milk), Ergo ...

  5. Mining by-products show potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Many mining and industrial processes generate wastewater that contains a variety of contaminants, such as metals and metalloids. These must be removed to ensure the wastewater is suitable for reuse or safe discharge to the environment. However, mining wastewater treatment processes have traditionally been difficult due to the large range of different contaminants present, requiring a number of complex steps. In current processes, the mining industry generally adds lime to the wastewater to purify it. While often effective, the key issue with this method has been the volume of sludge that forms and the subsequent problems with dealing with this sludge - either to extract the contained water, which often requires additional treatment, or to find enough space for long-term disposal. This complex practice could end soon thanks to a new treatment solution that utilises hydrotalcites. Developed by CSIRO, the treatment overcomes the complexities of lime-based methods and offers a simpler and more water smart process. The CSIRO team found that hydrotalcites, which are layered minerals consisting of aluminium- and magnesium- rich layers, can simultaneously remove a variety of contaminants in wastewater in a single step. Scientists noticed that hydrotalcites begin to form when aluminium and magnesium are present at an ideal ratio and under conditions during neutralisation of acidic waters. As hydrotalcites form, the contaminants become trapped and are easily removed from the wastewater as a solid. Mining wastewater often contains substantial magnesium and aluminium concentrations. This means that we can create hydrotalcites utilising common contaminants that are already present in the wastewater, by simply adjusting their concentrations and adding alkaline compounds to rapidly increase pH. Initial applications have focussed on treating wastewater generated from the mining and extraction of uranium. A range of contaminants including uranium, rare earth elements

  6. Advice on the disposal of radioactive by-products arising in the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyermann, M.; Goergner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the current legislation in the GDR advice is given on the classification and disposal of radioactive by-products from the utilization of nuclear energy with special emphasis on the different procedures for products which require a disposal licence by the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection and those which do not need such an authorization. (author)

  7. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  8. Improving digestive utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs in pigs and poultry by processing and enzyme technologies: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Pustjens, A.M.; Schols, H.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing technologies, whether or not combined with cell wall degrading enzymes, on the physicochemical properties of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and the resulting effects on NSP degradation in both pigs and poultry were reviewed. Evaluation of the effects of processing

  9. Utilizing Multiple Objectives for the Optimization of the Pultrusion Process Based on a Thermo-Chemical Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutum, Cem C.; Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2013-01-01

    Pultrusion is one of the most effective manufacturing processes for producing composites with constant cross-sectional profiles. This obviously makes it more attractive for both researchers and practitioners to investigate the optimum process parameters, i.e. pulling speed, power and dimensions of

  10. IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

  11. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  12. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents.

  13. CANGS: a user-friendly utility for processing and analyzing 454 GS-FLX data in biodiversity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlötterer Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies have substantially increased the sequence output while the costs were dramatically reduced. In addition to the use in whole genome sequencing, the 454 GS-FLX platform is becoming a widely used tool for biodiversity surveys based on amplicon sequencing. In order to use NGS for biodiversity surveys, software tools are required, which perform quality control, trimming of the sequence reads, removal of PCR primers, and generation of input files for downstream analyses. A user-friendly software utility that carries out these steps is still lacking. Findings We developed CANGS (Cleaning and Analyzing Next Generation Sequences a flexible and user-friendly integrated software utility: CANGS is designed for amplicon based biodiversity surveys using the 454 sequencing platform. CANGS filters low quality sequences, removes PCR primers, filters singletons, identifies barcodes, and generates input files for downstream analyses. The downstream analyses rely either on third party software (e.g.: rarefaction analyses or CANGS-specific scripts. The latter include modules linking 454 sequences with the name of the closest taxonomic reference retrieved from the NCBI database and the sequence divergence between them. Our software can be easily adapted to handle sequencing projects with different amplicon sizes, primer sequences, and quality thresholds, which makes this software especially useful for non-bioinformaticians. Conclusion CANGS performs PCR primer clipping, filtering of low quality sequences, links sequences to NCBI taxonomy and provides input files for common rarefaction analysis software programs. CANGS is written in Perl and runs on Mac OS X/Linux and is available at http://i122server.vu-wien.ac.at/pop/software.html

  14. #RecruitmentSocialMedia : How Swedish organizations can utilize the beneficial outcomes of using social media in the recruitment process

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Eddie; Kjellberg, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Due to changes in the labour market, organizations need to adjust and change their attitude towards the recruitment process. The traditional way of recruiting will eventually disappear and the use of social media will play an important part in recruiting. The recruitment process is a set of actions created by the organization and consists of: Recruitment Objectives, Strategy Development, Recruitment Activities, Intervening Job Applicant Variables and Recruitment Results. The use of social med...

  15. Process Parameter Optimization of Extrusion-Based 3D Metal Printing Utilizing PW–LDPE–SA Binder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luquan Ren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed. An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some critical parameters of extrusion-based 3D printing processes were optimized by a series of experiments with a melting extrusion printer. The raw materials were copper powder and a thermoplastic organic binder system and the system included paraffin wax, low density polyethylene, and stearic acid (PW–LDPE–SA. The homogeneity and rheological behaviour of the raw materials, the strength of the green samples, and the hardness of the sintered samples were investigated. Moreover, the printing and sintering parameters were optimized with an orthogonal design method. The influence factors in regard to the ultimate tensile strength of the green samples can be described as follows: infill degree > raster angle > layer thickness. As for the sintering process, the major factor on hardness is sintering temperature, followed by holding time and heating rate. The highest hardness of the sintered samples was very close to the average hardness of commercially pure copper material. Generally, the extrusion-based printing process for producing metal materials is a promising strategy because it has some advantages over traditional approaches for cost, efficiency, and simplicity.

  16. Process Parameter Optimization of Extrusion-Based 3D Metal Printing Utilizing PW–LDPE–SA Binder System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Luquan; Zhou, Xueli; Song, Zhengyi; Zhao, Che; Liu, Qingping; Xue, Jingze; Li, Xiujuan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed. An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some critical parameters of extrusion-based 3D printing processes were optimized by a series of experiments with a melting extrusion printer. The raw materials were copper powder and a thermoplastic organic binder system and the system included paraffin wax, low density polyethylene, and stearic acid (PW–LDPE–SA). The homogeneity and rheological behaviour of the raw materials, the strength of the green samples, and the hardness of the sintered samples were investigated. Moreover, the printing and sintering parameters were optimized with an orthogonal design method. The influence factors in regard to the ultimate tensile strength of the green samples can be described as follows: infill degree > raster angle > layer thickness. As for the sintering process, the major factor on hardness is sintering temperature, followed by holding time and heating rate. The highest hardness of the sintered samples was very close to the average hardness of commercially pure copper material. Generally, the extrusion-based printing process for producing metal materials is a promising strategy because it has some advantages over traditional approaches for cost, efficiency, and simplicity. PMID:28772665

  17. Process Parameter Optimization of Extrusion-Based 3D Metal Printing Utilizing PW-LDPE-SA Binder System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Luquan; Zhou, Xueli; Song, Zhengyi; Zhao, Che; Liu, Qingping; Xue, Jingze; Li, Xiujuan

    2017-03-16

    Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed. An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some critical parameters of extrusion-based 3D printing processes were optimized by a series of experiments with a melting extrusion printer. The raw materials were copper powder and a thermoplastic organic binder system and the system included paraffin wax, low density polyethylene, and stearic acid (PW-LDPE-SA). The homogeneity and rheological behaviour of the raw materials, the strength of the green samples, and the hardness of the sintered samples were investigated. Moreover, the printing and sintering parameters were optimized with an orthogonal design method. The influence factors in regard to the ultimate tensile strength of the green samples can be described as follows: infill degree > raster angle > layer thickness. As for the sintering process, the major factor on hardness is sintering temperature, followed by holding time and heating rate. The highest hardness of the sintered samples was very close to the average hardness of commercially pure copper material. Generally, the extrusion-based printing process for producing metal materials is a promising strategy because it has some advantages over traditional approaches for cost, efficiency, and simplicity.

  18. Utilization of a HTR type reactor as a heat source for the processing of pyrobituminous shale by the Petrosix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessine, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Some thermodynamics aspects of a system resulting from the coupling of a THTR nuclear power plant type (Thorium High Temperature Reactor) and a commercial shale oil processing plant are studied. The coupling is basically characterized by the application of all available energy from the nuclear reactor to the shale oil processing. The nuclear reactor employed is a PR-3000, with 2980,8 MW sub(t), developed in the Federal Republic of Germany for process heat applications (coal and steam reforming to produce reducers and products similar to the derivates of petroleum). The commercial shale oil plant considered (U.C.X.) uses the Petrosix process developed by the Superintendencia da Industrializacao do Xisto (S.I.X.) of Petrobras. Some flow diagrams are proposed for the coupling between the basic cycle of PR-3000 reactor with hot gas cycle of U.C.X. For a pre-determined flow diagram and boundary conditions, the thermodynamic parameters that lead to a maximum efficiency of the system are established. Also the main steam cycle parameters of PR-3000 reactor are determined, including those for the main heat exchanger, whose data are similar to the corresponding steam and coal reforming system used in process heat application of the PR-3000 [pt

  19. Assessment of sulfide production risk in soil during the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, L; Coudert, L; Gilbert, Y; Mercier, G; Blais, J F

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential of sulfide generation during infiltration through soil of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification process. Three types of soil with different permeability rates (K s = 0.028, 0.0013, and 0.00015 cm/s) were investigated to evaluate the potential risk of sulfur generation during the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification system. These soils were thoroughly characterized and tested to assess their capacity to be used as drainages for wastewaters. Experiments were conducted under two operating modes (saturated and unsaturated). Sulfate, sulfide, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were determined over a period of 100 days. Despite the high concentration of sulfates (200 mg/L) under anaerobic conditions (ORP = -297 mV), no significant amount of sulfide was generated in the aqueous (soil permeability did not have a noticeable effect on the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification system due to low contents of organic matter (i.e., dissolved organic carbon, DOC). The autotrophic denitrification process used to treat the domestic wastewater allowed the reduction of the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) below 5 mg/L, of DOC below 7 mg/L, and of COD below 100 mg/L.

  20. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  1. A sustainable process to utilize ferrous sulfate waste from titanium oxide industry by reductive decomposition reaction with pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Penghui; Deng, Shaogang; Zhang, Zhiye; Wang, Xinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Yang, Xiushan; Yang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A newly developed treating process of ferrous sulfate was proposed. • The reaction process was discussed by thermodynamic analysis. • Thermodynamic analysis was compared with experiments results. • The kinetic model of the decomposition reaction was determined. • The reaction mechanism of autocatalytic reactions was explored. - Abstract: Ferrous sulfate waste has become a bottleneck in the sustainable development of the titanium dioxide industry in China. In this study, we propose a new method for the reductive decomposition of ferrous sulfate waste using pyrite. Thermodynamics analysis, tubular reactor experiments, and kinetics analysis were performed to analyze the reaction process. The results of the thermodynamic simulation showed that the reaction process and products were different when molar ratio of FeSO_4/FeS_2 was changed. The suitable molar ratio of FeSO_4/FeS_2 was 8–12. The reaction temperature of ferrous sulfate with pyrite was 580–770 K and the main products were Fe_3O_4 and SO_2. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The desulphurization rate reached 98.55% and main solid products were Fe_3O_4 at 823.15 K when mole ratio of FeSO_4/FeS_2 was 8. Nano-sized magnetite was obtained at this condition. The kinetic model was investigated by isoconversional methods. The average E value was 244.34 kJ mol"−"1. The ferrous sulfate decomposition process can be treated as autocatalytic reaction mechanism, which corresponded to the expanded Prout–Tompson (Bna) model. The reaction mechanism of autocatalytic reactions during the process of ferrous sulfate decomposition were explored, the products of Fe oxide substances are the catalyst components.

  2. Analytic Hierarchy Process & Multi Attribute Utility Theory Based Approach for the Selection of Lighting Systems in Residential Buildings: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Alshamrani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach developed for selecting lighting systems in residential buildings using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Multi Criteria Decision Making Technique (MCDMT. The developed approach considers four selection criteria of lighting systems: life-cycle cost, illumination, environmental performance, and life-span. The criteria of selection, along with the most widely used lighting systems in residential buildings, were determined through questionnaire surveys with suppliers, maintenance managers, and lighting experts. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi Attribute Utility Theory were utilized to assess the significant influence of the identified main and sub-criteria on the selection process, from the design point of view. The developed approach was tested on a real case project in selecting the lighting system for aresidential building in Saudi Arabia. The obtained results show that the life-cycle cost and illumination proprieties, followed by the service life were found to be the most influential measures in the selection process. The results also show that Light-Emitting Diode(LED lighting systems prove to bear the highest initial cost while sustaining the best overall performance.

  3. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility study of thermal processing of cacao shells with energy utilization. Haalbaarheidsstudie thermische verwerking cacaodop met energiebenutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, R; Pfeiffer, A E [KEMA Milieu Technologie, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1994-05-27

    A cacao factory in Zaanstad, Netherlands, produces cacao shells, which are applied as filling material in fodder. However, while the development of the market and environmental regulations are uncertain, the option to use cacao shells as an energy source to generate heat and/or electricity seems to be attractive. Attention is paid to the consequences of the combustion of cacao shells for which two variants are considered: (1) only heat production which covers the total heat demand; (2) combined generation of power and heat, which saves natural gas and electricity. Surplus power can be supplied to the grid. Descriptions of the systems for the two variants are given, as well as the costs and benefits. A preference for one of the two variants depends on the market sales for cacao shells. If it is decided to put the chosen installation to tender it is recommended to investigate further the subsidy options and the possibility of cooperation with the energy utility sector. In the appendix the results of the flue gas purification concept are presented. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 1 appendix

  5. Risk mitigation process for utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts in CCD camera for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees; Batcheldor, Scott; Cannon, Steven C.; Roberts, Thomas E.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned during the design and development of a high performance cooled CCD camera for military applications utilizing common commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts. Our experience showed that concurrent evaluation and testing of high risk COTS must be performed to assess their performance over the required temperature range and other special product requirements such as fuel vapor compatibility, EMI and shock susceptibility, etc. Technical, cost and schedule risks for COTS parts must also be carefully evaluated. The customer must be involved in the selection and evaluation of such parts so that the performance limitations of the selected parts are clearly understood. It is equally important to check with vendors on the availability and obsolescence of the COTS parts being considered since the electronic components are often replaced by newer, better and cheaper models in a couple of years. In summary, this paper addresses the major benefits and risks associated with using commercial and industrial parts in military products, and suggests a risk mitigation approach to ensure a smooth development phase, and predictable performance from the end product.

  6. An innovative intermittent-vacuum assisted thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for effective animal manure utilization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renchuan; Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Deng, Xiangyuan; Kabir, Fayal; Lu, Qian; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent-vacuum stripping (IVS) was developed as a pretreatment for thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) to improve methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity through preventing free ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) inhibition from liquid swine manure (LSM). Over 98% of ammonia and 38% organic nitrogen were removed in 60min from 55°C to 85°C with vacuum pressure (from 100.63±3.79mmHg to 360.91±7.39mmHg) at initial pH 10.0 by IVS. Thermophilic methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity of pretreated LSM increased 52.25% (from 11.56±1.75% to 17.60±0.49%) in 25days and 40% (from 10days to 6days) in bio-methane potential assay. Over 80% H 2 S and total nitrogen were removed by IVS assistance, while around 70% nitrogen was recycled as ammonium sulfate. Therefore, IVS-TAD combination could be an effective strategy to improve TAD efficiency, whose elution is more easily utilized in algae cultivation and/or hydroponic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the integrated hydrothermal carbonization-algal cultivation process for enhanced nitrogen utilization in Arthrospira platensis production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Changhong; Wu, Peichun; Pan, Yanfei; Lu, Hongbin; Chi, Lei; Meng, Yingying; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable microalgal cultivation at commercial scale requires nitrogen recycling. This study applied hydrothermal carbonization to recover N of hot-water extracted Arthrospira platensis biomass residue into aqueous phase (AP) under different operation conditions and evaluated the N utilization, biomass yield and quality of A. platensis cultures using AP as the sole N source. With the increase of temperature at 190-210°C or reaction time of 2-3h, the N recovery rate decreased under nitrogen-repletion (+N) cultivation, while contrarily increased under nitrogen-limitation (-N) cultivation. Under +N biomass accumulation in the cultures with AP under 190°C was enhanced by 41-67% compared with that in NaNO3, and the highest protein content of 51.5%DW achieved under 200°C-2h was also 22% higher. Carbohydrate content of 71.4%DW under -N cultivation achieved under 210°C-3h was 14% higher than that in NaNO3. HTC-algal cultivation strategy under -N mode could save 60% of conventional N. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A large-scale forest landscape model incorporating multi-scale processes and utilizing forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson III; David R. Larsen; Jacob S. Fraser; Jian. Yang

    2013-01-01

    Two challenges confronting forest landscape models (FLMs) are how to simulate fine, standscale processes while making large-scale (i.e., .107 ha) simulation possible, and how to take advantage of extensive forest inventory data such as U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to initialize and constrain model parameters. We present the LANDIS PRO model that...

  9. A Look at the Memory Performance of Retarded and Normal Children Utilizing the Levels of Processing Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupart, Judy L.; Mulcahy, Robert F.

    Memory performance differences of mental age matched (9-12 years) educable mentally retarded (EMR) (n=56) and normal (n=56) children were examined in two experiments using the F. Craik and R. Lockhart levels of processing framework. In experiment 1, Ss were randomly assigned to an incidental, intentional, or planned intentional learning condition,…

  10. Utilization of magnetically responsive cereal by-product for organic dye removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldíková, Eva; Politi, D.; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Pospíšková, K.; Sidiras, D.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2016), s. 2204-2214 ISSN 0022-5142 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13709S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1305 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : modified rice straw * aqueous-solution * methylene-blue * wheat-straw * activated carbon * cost adsorbents * crystal violet * anionic dyes * adsorption * acid * barley straw * magnetic modification * magnetic adsorbent * microwave-assisted synthesis * organic dyes Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2016

  11. Utilization of organic by-products for the removal of organophosphorous pesticide from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Mubeena; Iqbal, Shahid; Bhanger, M.I.; Moazzam, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sorption potential of rice (Oryza sativa) bran and rice husk for the removal of triazophos (TAP), an organophosphate pesticide, has been studied. The specific surface area were found to be 19 ± 0.7 m 2 g -1 and 11 ± 0.8 m 2 g -1 for rice bran and rice husk, respectively. Rice bran exhibited higher removal efficiency (98 ± 1.3%) than rice husk (94 ± 1.2%) by employing triazophos solution concentration of 3 x 10 -5 M onto 0.2 g of each sorbent for 120 min agitation time at pH 6 and 303 K. The concentration range (3.2-32) x 10 -5 M was screened and sorption capacities of rice bran and rice husk for triazophos were computed by different sorption isotherms. The energy of sorption for rice bran and rice husk was assessed as 14 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.2 kJ mol -1 and kinetics of the sorption is estimated to be 0.016 ± 0.002 and 0.013 ± 0.002 min -1 , respectively. Intraparticle diffusion rate was computed to be 4 ± 0.8 and 4 ± 0.9 nmol g -1 min -1/2 . Thermodynamic constants ΔH, ΔS and ΔG at varying temperatures (283-323 K) were also calculated

  12. Utilization of low NOx coal combustion by-products. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project was to commercialize fly ash beneficiation at various facilities around the country. The paper describes laboratory characterization of fly ash samples, pilot plant testing, product testing, and market and economic analyses. Products include concrete, concrete blocks and bricks, plastic fillers, activated carbon, and metal matrix composites.

  13. Center for By-Products Utilization (CBU) | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  14. [Utilization of gossypol-free cottonseed and its by-products as human food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, A; Delpeuch, F; Favier, J C

    1977-01-01

    Trials have principally turned on a glandless cottonseed flour, with 56 p. 100 of proteins. It is possible to blend it with millet or sorghum flour, and so to prepare the main meals of the local cooking. Trial of acceptability and long-dated consumption have shown that this flour is rather well appreciated especially in sauces. The growth of young children has been better thanks to the consumption of a cottonseed flour pap during six months. Trials to manufacture biscuits and noodles have been attempted. Kernels of cottonseed with 32 p. 100 of proteins and 33 p. 100 of lipids have been consumed with success. Four tons of kernels have been sold at the same price as sorghum in the area where the glandless cotton plant is under cultivation.

  15. Utilization of byproducts from potatoes and vegetables for value-added products; Perunan ja vihannesten sivuvirtojen arvokomponenttien hyoetykaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M.; Valimaa, A.-L.; Kankaala, A.; Lotjonen, T.; Virtanen, E.

    2012-07-01

    In this report, by-products are defined as the fractions produced in processing of potatoes and vegetables in addition to the main products. These by-products include peels, potato pulp, potato fruit juice, leftovers from cutting processes and under-sized potatoes left in the field. The amount of the by-products varies depending on the process. For example, in peeling processes the amount of by-products can be as much as 50-100% compared to that of the peeled product. The disposal of the by-products is strictly regulated by the national biowaste strategy, the landfill directive and the new waste legislation. For example, the landfill directive requires a gradual reduction in the amount of biodecomposable community waste. This means that in 2016, an maximum of 25% of the estimated biodecomposable community waste produced can be placed in landfill sites. Moreover, the EU aims at increasing the amount of the renewable traffic fuels to 10% by the year 2020. The utilization of the by-products in an effective and holistic way is not necessary only due to the tight legislative demands, but also n order to make the production economically profitable. For example, it is possible to separate from by-products of potatoes and vegetables commercially valuable biocomponents, such as starch, proteins and fiber, and to produce bioethanol and biogas in biorefinery plants. In the biorefinery plants, chemicals, biofuels and energy are produced sustainably using mechanical, chemical and biological processes. However, in a conventional refinery process usually only one component is utilized, for example potato starch. The North Ostrobothnia region is lacking the biorefinery that utilizes the by-products of potatoes and vegetables. This study was carried out in 2011-2012 by MTT Agrifood Research Finland Oulu. The objective was to develop a biorefinery concept in which by-products from potato and vegetables industry are manufactured to value-added products efficiently utilizing the

  16. Utilization of slaked lime for the regulation of pH value in the process of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Aleksandar V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of used lime at plant from company Messer-Tehnogas, Belgrade, were in the aim to improvement technologically results from flotation concentration of copper minerals in flotation plant Veliki Krivelj. This paper shows usage of slaked lime, which is waste in the process of technical gas production, for regulation of pH value in the process of copper minerals flotation concentration. It is important to point out that slaked lime is a waste material that is not dangerous. Preparation and dosage includes preparation procedures, which enable introduction into flotation process with the aim of achieving better results. Lime from Limekiln Zagrađe is brought into four storage places in flotation. Volume of each storage place is 80 m3. Lime in pieces from storage place is added by airbladders on transportation line and by system of transportation lines lime gets to the ball mill. At the mill entrance water is added and then follows lime grinding. Milk glass of lime thus prepared goes to the pump basket from where is transported by pipeline to conditioner, and then by manual and (or automatic valves it is dosed to the flotation concentration of copper minerals process. Prospect of advancement and rationalization of the used lime in flotation plant Bor, Veliki Krivelj and Majdanpek as well as a way to link different branches of industry was demonstrated. Total cost of lime supplying, transporting, preparation and distribution related slaked lime is lower for 2.955 din/kg. Particularly, using lime from Messer in content of 2.1 g/l value of pH 11.82 is possible to obtain.

  17. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Sheehan, J.; Ibsen, K.; Majdeski, H.; Galvez, A.

    1999-07-20

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol enzymatic based process. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment lignin burner and boiler--turbogenerator, and utilities--are included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation to assist in the process design evaluation, equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design and costing for the lignin burner and boiler turbogenerator has been reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. and the wastewater treatment by Merrick and Company. An overview of both reviews is included here. The purpose of this update was to ensure that the process design and equipment costs were reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type using available technical data. This work has resulted in an economic model that can be used to predict the cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic biomass using this technology if a plant were to be built in the next few years. The model was also extended using technology improvements that are expected to be developed based on the current DOE research plan. Future process designs and cost estimates are given for the years 2005, 2010, and 2015.

  18. Utilization of food outlets and intake of minimally processed and ultra-processed foods among 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elizabeth Nappi; Retondario, Anabelle; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Hinnig, Patrícia de Fragas; Neves, Janaina das; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-29

    Access to food retailers is an environmental determinant that influences what people consume. This study aimed to test the association between the use of food outlets and schoolchildren's intake of minimally processed and ultra-processed foods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in public and private schools in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, from September 2012 to June 2013. The sample consisted of randomly selected clusters of schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years, who were attending 30 schools. Parents or guardians provided socioeconomic and demographic data and answered questions about use of food outlets. Dietary intake was surveyed using a dietary recall questionnaire based on the previous day's intake. The foods or food groups were classified according to the level of processing. Negative binomial regression was used for data analysis. We included 2,195 schoolchildren in the study. We found that buying foods from snack bars or fast-food outlets was associated with the intake frequency of ultra-processed foods among 11-14 years old in an adjusted model (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01;1.23). Use of butchers was associated with the intake frequency of unprocessed/minimally processed foods among children 11-14 years old in the crude model (IRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01;1.22) and in the adjusted model (IRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.06;1.17). Use of butchers was associated with higher intake of unprocessed/minimally processed foods while use of snack bars or fast-food outlets may have a negative impact on schoolchildren's dietary habits.

  19. Improve the material absorption of light and enhance the laser tube bending process utilizing laser softening heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhan, Khalil Ibraheem; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Zakaria, Azmi; Ismail, Mohd Idris Shah B.; Alsabti, Naseer Mahdi Hadi; Ahmad, Ahmad Kamal

    2018-02-01

    Laser forming is a flexible control process that has a wide spectrum of applications; particularly, laser tube bending. It offers the perfect solution for many industrial fields, such as aerospace, engines, heat exchangers, and air conditioners. A high power pulsed Nd-YAG laser with a maximum average power of 300 W emitting at 1064 nm and fiber-coupled is used to irradiate stainless steel 304 (SS304) tubes of 12.7 mm diameter, 0.6 mm thickness and 70 mm length. Moreover, a motorized rotation stage with a computer controller is employed to hold and rotate the tube. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to improve the laser tube bending process by enhancing the absorption coefficient of the material and the mechanical formability using laser softening heat treatment. The material surface is coated with an oxidization layer; hence, the material absorption of laser light is increased and the temperature rapidly rises. The processing speed is enhanced and the output bending angle is increased to 1.9° with an increment of 70% after the laser softening heat treatment.

  20. Electrospun 4th-Generation Solid Dispersions of Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Utilizing Two Different Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from traditional solid dispersion (SD for improving the dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs, the upgraded 4th SD was developed to furnish a drug sustained-release profile. In this work, two different kinds of 4th SDs were fabricated using two electrospinning processes. One is a ternary SD (nanofibers F2 that consisted of ethyl cellulose (EC, polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG, and tamoxifen citrate (TAM from a modified coaxial process, and the other is a binary SD (nanofibers F1 which is comprised of EC and TAM from a single-fluid blending process. Scanning electronic microscopic observations demonstrated that F2 (330±50 nm showed a better quality than F1 (870±230 nm in terms of size and size distribution although both of them had a smooth surface morphology and a cross section. X-ray diffraction patterns verified that both SDs were amorphous nanocomposites owing to the favorable secondary interactions among these components, as suggested from the results of FTIR. In vitro dissolution experiments indicated that F2 could furnish an improved drug sustained-release characteristics compared to F1, exhausting all the contained TAM and having weaker leveling-off late release. The molecular behaviors of drug sustained-release from the binary 4th SD were suggested. The protocols reported here paved an alternative way for developing novel functional nanomaterials for effective delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  1. Utilization of Workflow Process Maps to Analyze Gaps in Critical Event Notification at a Large, Urban Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Meredith; Prater, Adam; Safdar, Nabile M; Dehkharghani, Seena; Fountain, Jack A

    2016-08-01

    Stroke care is a time-sensitive workflow involving multiple specialties acting in unison, often relying on one-way paging systems to alert care providers. The goal of this study was to map and quantitatively evaluate such a system and address communication gaps with system improvements. A workflow process map of the stroke notification system at a large, urban hospital was created via observation and interviews with hospital staff. We recorded pager communication regarding 45 patients in the emergency department (ED), neuroradiology reading room (NRR), and a clinician residence (CR), categorizing transmissions as successful or unsuccessful (dropped or unintelligible). Data analysis and consultation with information technology staff and the vendor informed a quality intervention-replacing one paging antenna and adding another. Data from a 1-month post-intervention period was collected. Error rates before and after were compared using a chi-squared test. Seventy-five pages regarding 45 patients were recorded pre-intervention; 88 pages regarding 86 patients were recorded post-intervention. Initial transmission error rates in the ED, NRR, and CR were 40.0, 22.7, and 12.0 %. Post-intervention, error rates were 5.1, 18.8, and 1.1 %, a statistically significant improvement in the ED (p workflow process maps. The workflow process map effectively defined communication failure parameters, allowing for systematic testing and intervention to improve communication in essential clinical locations.

  2. Utilização do subproduto da recuperação metálica de escórias de aços inoxidáveis na síntese de pigmentos cerâmicos; caracterização da matéria-prima By-product utilization of metallic recovering of stainless steel slags in the ceramic pigments synthesis; raw material characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Della

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo de recuperação metálica em escórias de aciaria - resíduo gerado em grande quantidade no processo de refino do ferro-gusa para obtenção do aço - que visa a recuperação de metais nobres, gera uma massa de óxidos que pode ser utilizada como fonte precursora na síntese do pigmento cerâmico verde vitória. Verde vitória é o nome dado ao pigmento cerâmico à base de cálcio, cromo e silício (Ca3Cr2Si3O12 que a elevadas temperaturas desenvolve a estrutura cristalina uvarovita responsável pela estabilização da cor verde característica. Este subproduto apresenta características constitucionais favoráveis à obtenção deste pigmento mediante o ajuste da composição química através da adição de óxidos puros. A combinação de técnicas de análise microestrutural, térmica e química foi utilizada nesta caracterização inicial.The metallic recovering process of steel industry slags - waste produced in a big amount by the process of pig iron refining for steel obtainment, which aims the recovering of noble metals, produces a oxide mass that can be used as a precursor source for the synthesis of the Victory Green ceramic pigment. Victory Green is the name of the ceramic pigment based on calcium, chromium and silicon (Ca3Cr2Si3O12 , and that develops the uvarovite crystalline structure in high temperatures, responsible for the stabilization of characteristic green color. This by-product presents favorable constitutional characteristics to the obtainment of this pigment by adjusting the chemical composition through additions of pure oxides. The combination of techniques of microstructural, thermal and chemical analysis was used in this initial characterization.

  3. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL. We envision updating this process design report at regular intervals; the purpose being to ensure that the process design incorporates all new data from NREL research, DOE funded research and other sources, and that the equipment costs are reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type. For the non-research areas this means using equipment and process approaches as they are currently used in industrial applications. For the last report, published in 1999, NREL performed a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design included the core technologies being researched by the DOE: prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment (WWT), lignin combustor and boiler-turbogenerator, and utilities--were included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation (Delta-T) to assist in the process design evaluation, the process equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design

  4. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  5. Social autopsy: INDEPTH Network experiences of utility, process, practices, and challenges in investigating causes and contributors to mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevoo Lucy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. Objective To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collection of information to understand common barriers to health care, risky behaviors, and missed opportunities for health intervention in deceased children under 5 years old. Methods Under the INDEPTH Network, a social autopsy working group was formed to reach consensus around a standard social autopsy tool for neonatal and child death. The details around 434 child deaths in Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in Uganda and 40 child deaths in Dodowa HDSS in Ghana were investigated over 12 to 18 months. Interviews with the caretakers of these children elicited information on what happened before death, including signs and symptoms, contact with health services, details on treatments, and details of doctors. These social autopsies were used to assess the contributions of delays in care seeking and case management to the childhood deaths. Results At least one severe symptom had been recognized prior to death in 96% of the children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and in 70% in Dodowa HDSS, yet 32% and 80% of children were first treated at home, respectively. Twenty percent of children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and 13% of children in Dodowa HDSS were never taken for care outside the home. In both countries most went to private providers. In Iganga/Mayuge HDSS the main delays were caused by inadequate case management by the health provider, while in Dodowa HDSS the main delays were in the home. Conclusion While delay at home was a main obstacle to prompt and

  6. A High Current Density Low Cost Niobium 3 Tin Titanium Doped Conductor Utilizing A Novel Internal Tin Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce A Zeitlin

    2005-01-01

    An internal tin conductor has been developed using a Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) with an integral Nb barrier surrounding the Nb filaments. High current densities of 3000 A/mm2+ at 12 T and 1800 A/mm2 at 15 T have been achieved in conductors as small as 0.152 mm with the use of Nb7.5Ta filaments and Ti in the Sn core. In contrast, conductors with pure Nb and Ti in the Sn achieved 2700 A/mm2 at 12 T. Two internal fins, developed and patented on the project, were introduced into the filament array and reduced the effective filament diameter (Deff) by 38%. Additional fins will further reduce Deff The conductor was produced from 152.4 mm diameter billets to produce wire as small as 0.152 mm. The process promises be scaleable to 304 mm diameter billets yielding wire of 0.304 mm diameter. The MEIT process wire was easy to draw with relatively few breaks. The cost of this conductor in large production quantities based on the cost model presented could meet the 1.5 $/kilo amp meter(KAM) target of the HEP community

  7. Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisami, Nallasamy; He, Ke; Moon, Il Shik

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 µm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 .deg. C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 .deg. C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m 2 hr, indicating system feasibility

  8. Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisami, Nallasamy; He, Ke; Moon, Il Shik [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 µm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 .deg. C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 .deg. C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m{sup 2}hr, indicating system feasibility.

  9. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  10. Utilization of auxiliary means for the enhancement of the efficiency and stability of the biogas process; Einsatz von Hilfsmitteln zur Steigerung der Effizienz und Stabilitaet des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the Guelzow expert discussions at 29th September 2010 in Guelzow (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) State of the promotional work of the FNR on the subject auxiliary means - open questions (Petra Schuesseler); (2) Utilization of auxiliary means in the biogas production - Survey and experiences from laboratory and practice (Konrad Koch); (3) ORGA - test: Development of a test procedure for the practical evaluation of the fermentation biology of NaWaRo biogas plants (Nils Engler); (3) Investigations for the utilization of minerals in biogas plants - Significance of minerals for anaerobic microorganisms and causes for concentration differences in biogas fermentation plants (Andreas Lemmer); (4) Quantification of the efficiency of mineral biogas additives at the fermentation of renewable raw materials and their verification in the practice (Dirk Wagner); (5) Optimization of processes by means of enzymes in biogas plants (Monika Heiermann); (6) Utilization of microorganisms for the enhancement of the gas yield (Doris Schmack); (7) Results of the discussion and summary (Petra Schuesseler).

  11. Development and quality characteristics of shelf-stable soy-agushie: a residual by-product of soymilk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nti, Christina A; Plahar, Wisdom A; Annan, Nana T

    2016-03-01

    A process was developed for the production of a high-protein food ingredient, soy-agushie, from the residual by-product of soymilk production. The product, with a moisture content of about 6%, was evaluated for its quality characteristics and performance in traditional dishes. The protein content was about 26% with similar amino acids content as that of the whole soybean. Lysine remained high in the dehydrated product (6.57 g/16 g N). While over 60% of the original B vitamins content in the beans was extracted with the milk, high proportions of the minerals were found to be retained in the residual by-product. The process adequately reduced the trypsin inhibitor levels in the beans from 25 to 1.5 mg/g. High sensory scores were obtained for recipes developed with soy-agushie in traditional dishes. The scope of utilization of the soy-agushie could be widened to include several traditional foods and bakery products for maximum nutritional benefits.

  12. Solvent-Free Biginelli Reactions Catalyzed by Hierarchical Zeolite Utilizing a Ball Mill Technique: A Green Sustainable Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Shahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable, green one-pot process for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs derivatives by a three-component reaction of β-ketoester derivatives, aldehyde and urea or thiourea over the alkali-treated H-ZSM-5 zeolite under ball-milling was developed. Isolation of the product with ethyl acetate shadowed by vanishing of solvent was applied. The hierachical zeolite catalyst (MFI27_6 showed high yield (86%–96% of DHPMs in a very short time (10–30 min. The recyclability of the catalyst for the subsequent reactions was examined in four subsequent runs. The catalyst was shown to be robust without a detectable reduction in catalytic activity, and high yields of products showed the efficient protocol of the Biginelli reactions.

  13. The Utilization of Canna Starch (Canna edulis Ker As A Alternative Hydrocolloid on The Manufacturing Process of Yogurt Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khoirul Umam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt as a fermented dairy product has been providing several benefits for human health and appropriate for people with lactose intolerance. Recently, the consumption level of yogurt has significantly increased. Starch can be used as an alternative hydrocolloid in the manufacturing process of yogurt. Indonesian Canna edulis Ker contains 63.27% amylopectin that has the potential used as an alternative hydrocolloid. Amylopectin has a very high capability of the water holding capacity to increase the viscosity and maintain the stability of yogurt drink. The present research was to determine the additional effects of Canna starch as an alternative hydrocolloid on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the yogurt drink during storage. Concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4% canna starch and 0.2% CMC (control were added to make yogurt. All treatments were carried out with four replications. Samples were refrigerated at 4oC for 24 hours and then analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, syneresis, sedimentable fraction, and sensory properties. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, and followed by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT. Data from the pH, titratable acidity, syneresis, sedimentable fraction, viscosity and sensory analyses obtained from the present study indicated that concentration of 0.1–0.4% (w/v Canna starch could be applicable in the manufacture of the yogurt drink. Furthermore, it was found that 0.1% (w/v of Canna starch selected as the best concentration could be used in yogurt manufacture process that resulted in similar sensory quality compared with CMC as commercial hydrocolloid.

  14. Xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Zhang, Min

    2010-06-22

    A strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas was engineered with a genetic modification to the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene resulting in reduced expression of GFOR enzyme activity. The engineered strain exhibits reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism. It also consumes more xylose and produces more ethanol during mixed sugar fermentation under process-relevant conditions.

  15. What work has to be done to implement collaborative care for depression? Process evaluation of a trial utilizing the Normalization Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lankshear Annette J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a considerable evidence base for 'collaborative care' as a method to improve quality of care for depression, but an acknowledged gap between efficacy and implementation. This study utilises the Normalisation Process Model (NPM to inform the process of implementation of collaborative care in both a future full-scale trial, and the wider health economy. Methods Application of the NPM to qualitative data collected in both focus groups and one-to-one interviews before and after an exploratory randomised controlled trial of a collaborative model of care for depression. Results Findings are presented as they relate to the four factors of the NPM (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration and a number of necessary tasks are identified. Using the model, it was possible to observe that predictions about necessary work to implement collaborative care that could be made from analysis of the pre-trial data relating to the four different factors of the NPM were indeed borne out in the post-trial data. However, additional insights were gained from the post-trial interview participants who, unlike those interviewed before the trial, had direct experience of a novel intervention. The professional freedom enjoyed by more senior mental health workers may work both for and against normalisation of collaborative care as those who wish to adopt new ways of working have the freedom to change their practice but are not obliged to do so. Conclusions The NPM provides a useful structure for both guiding and analysing the process by which an intervention is optimized for testing in a larger scale trial or for subsequent full-scale implementation.

  16. What work has to be done to implement collaborative care for depression? Process evaluation of a trial utilizing the Normalization Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gask, Linda; Bower, Peter; Lovell, Karina; Escott, Diane; Archer, Janine; Gilbody, Simon; Lankshear, Annette J; Simpson, Angela E; Richards, David A

    2010-02-10

    There is a considerable evidence base for 'collaborative care' as a method to improve quality of care for depression, but an acknowledged gap between efficacy and implementation. This study utilises the Normalisation Process Model (NPM) to inform the process of implementation of collaborative care in both a future full-scale trial, and the wider health economy. Application of the NPM to qualitative data collected in both focus groups and one-to-one interviews before and after an exploratory randomised controlled trial of a collaborative model of care for depression. Findings are presented as they relate to the four factors of the NPM (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration) and a number of necessary tasks are identified. Using the model, it was possible to observe that predictions about necessary work to implement collaborative care that could be made from analysis of the pre-trial data relating to the four different factors of the NPM were indeed borne out in the post-trial data. However, additional insights were gained from the post-trial interview participants who, unlike those interviewed before the trial, had direct experience of a novel intervention. The professional freedom enjoyed by more senior mental health workers may work both for and against normalisation of collaborative care as those who wish to adopt new ways of working have the freedom to change their practice but are not obliged to do so. The NPM provides a useful structure for both guiding and analysing the process by which an intervention is optimized for testing in a larger scale trial or for subsequent full-scale implementation.

  17. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  18. Utilization of Photochemically Induced Fluorescence Detection for HPLC Determination of Genotoxic Impurities in the Vortioxetine Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douša, Michal; Doubský, Jan; Srbek, Jan

    2016-07-01

    An analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantitative determination of two genotoxic impurities at ppm level present in the vortioxetine manufacturing process is described. Applying the concept of threshold of toxicological concern, a limit of 75 ppm each for both genotoxic impurities was calculated based on the maximum daily dose of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The novel reversed-phase HPLC method with photochemically induced fluorescence detection was developed on XSELECT Charged Surface Hybrid Phenyl-Hexyl column using the mobile phase consisted a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 and acetonitrile. The elution was performed using an isocratic composition of 48:52 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The photochemically induced fluorescence detection is based on the use of UV irradiation at 254 nm through measuring the fluorescence intensity at 300 nm and an excitation wavelength of 272 nm to produce fluorescent derivatives of both genotoxic impurities. The online photochemical conversion and detection is easily accomplished for two expected genotoxic impurities and provides a sufficiently low limit detection and quantification for the target analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. [Utility of conceptual schemes and mental maps on the teaching-learning process of residents in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruza, Norberto Sotelo; Fierros, Luis E

    2006-01-01

    The present study was done at the internal medicine service oft he Hospital lnfantil in the State of Sonora, Mexico. We tried to address the question of the use of conceptual schemes and mind maps and its impact on the teaching-learning-evaluation process among medical residents. Analyze the effects of conceptual schemes, and mind maps as a teaching and evaluation tool and compare them with multiple choice exams among Pediatric residents. Twenty two residents (RI, RII, RIII)on service rotation during six months were assessed initially, followed by a lecture on a medical subject. Conceptual schemes and mind maps were then introduced as a teaching-learning-evaluation instrument. Comprehension impact and comparison with a standard multiple choice evaluation was done. The statistical package (JMP version 5, SAS inst. 2004) was used. We noted that when we used conceptual schemes and mind mapping, learning improvement was noticeable among the three groups of residents (P evaluation tool when compared with multiple choice exams (P < 0.0005). Based on our experience we recommend the use of this educational technique for medical residents in training.

  20. Utilization of a hospital information system for outpatient prescription screening process at the PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Perwitasari, D. A.; Supadmi, W.; Risdiana, I.

    2017-11-01

    Prescription screening includes administrative and clinical precision of the drug, dosage, frequency and route of administration, therapeutic duplication, allergic or sensitive reactions, and actual or potential interactions. The study was aimed to identify the obstacles and compliance level of users, as well as the design of a prescription screening information system and its users’ perceptions. This study used qualitative and quantitative research design with action research studies involving pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, a programmer and clinical practice student pharmacists. The obstacle of pharmacists in doing prescription screening was the long duration in the process of manual prescription review. The compliance of pharmacists in manual prescription review was under 50%. The prescription information system was created by the programmer on the proposal of pharmacists in the form of front view, pharmacy display, sales display, prescription display, prescription display per period and display of recapped prescriptions. Perception of the usefulness was very high with a value of 4.5±0.577 and perception of ease of use was very high with a value of 4.214±0.534 from 28 respondents. The prescription information system was created by a programmer upon the recommendations of pharmacists. Perception of the usefulness and ease of use was very high.

  1. Nuclear data processing for cross-sections generation for fusion-fission, ADS, and IV generation reactors utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Fernandes, Lorena C.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    One of the mains topics about nuclear reactors is the microscopic cross section for incident neutrons. Therefore, in this work, it is evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic cross section for a nuclide and a material. One of the nuclides microscopic cross-section studied is the {sup 56}Fe which is the highest compound from the material macroscopic cross section studied SS316. On the other hand, it was studied the microscopic cross section of the {sup 242}Pu which is one of the nuclides that composes the nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel chosen is a spent fuel reprocessed by UREX+ technique and spiked with thorium with 20% of fissile material. Therefore it was studied the macroscopic cross section from this nuclear fuel. Both of them were compared by using three different ways to reprocess the nuclides, one for LWR, another for ADS and the last one for Fusion reactors. The library used was JEFF-3.2 recommend for the reactors studied. The comparison was made at 1200 K for the nuclear fuel and 700K for the SS316.The results present differences due to the energy discretization, the number of groups chosen for each reactor and some nuclear reactions taken into consideration according to the neutron spectrum for each reactor. The nuclides were processed by NJOY99.364 and plotted with MCNP-Vised. (author)

  2. Nuclear data processing for cross-sections generation for fusion-fission, ADS, and IV generation reactors utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Fernandes, Lorena C.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L.

    2017-01-01

    One of the mains topics about nuclear reactors is the microscopic cross section for incident neutrons. Therefore, in this work, it is evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic cross section for a nuclide and a material. One of the nuclides microscopic cross-section studied is the 56 Fe which is the highest compound from the material macroscopic cross section studied SS316. On the other hand, it was studied the microscopic cross section of the 242 Pu which is one of the nuclides that composes the nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel chosen is a spent fuel reprocessed by UREX+ technique and spiked with thorium with 20% of fissile material. Therefore it was studied the macroscopic cross section from this nuclear fuel. Both of them were compared by using three different ways to reprocess the nuclides, one for LWR, another for ADS and the last one for Fusion reactors. The library used was JEFF-3.2 recommend for the reactors studied. The comparison was made at 1200 K for the nuclear fuel and 700K for the SS316.The results present differences due to the energy discretization, the number of groups chosen for each reactor and some nuclear reactions taken into consideration according to the neutron spectrum for each reactor. The nuclides were processed by NJOY99.364 and plotted with MCNP-Vised. (author)

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins; analysis of protein processing, assembly and utility as vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. The infection is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the picornavirus family. The positive sense RNA genome of the virus includes a single, large......, open reading frame that encodes a polyprotein. The intact polyprotein is never observed as it is processed, both during and after translation, to 15 different mature proteins plus a variety of precursors. The FMDV capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the virus encoded 3C protease (3Cpro......) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1 and the peptide 2A. Sixty copies of each of the capsid proteins “self-assemble” into empty capsid particles or with the RNA genome into infectious viruses. These particles normally lack 2A but it is possible to construct and isolate mutant FMDVs in which the cleavage of the VP1/2A...

  4. Elimination of Salmonella in froglegs by irradiation. Coordinated programme on factors influencing the utilization of food irradiation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambunan, P.R.

    1984-11-01

    Living frogs and their internal organs are highly contaminated with several serotypes of Salmonella. The high level of contamination was carried along with frog legs upon arrival at processing plants. Washing in chlorinated water and freezing reduced but did not eliminate Salmonella from the product. Irradiating frog legs artificially contaminated with Salmonella up to 10 6 /g before freezing showed that a dose of 3 kGy and above resulted in no detection of the bacteria. If irradiation was carried out after freezing, a dose of 4 kGy and above has to be used. The latter procedure appears to be more feasible commercially than the former one. It was concluded that a combination of chlorination, freezing and irradiation with a dose ranging from 3 to 6 kGy should provide sufficient conditions for elimination of Salmonella in the product. The treatment also results in lowering the total viable count to less than 500,000 cells/g to conform with the standard requirements for export

  5. Information processing in the deregulated market. Consequences of competition for gas utilities; Informationsverarbeitung im liberalisierten Markt. Konsequenzen des Wettbewerbs fuer Gasversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeckerath, M. [Rhenag Rheinische Energie AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The liberation of the gas market gives rise to a fundamental rearrangement of the utilities companies information processing, accompanied by important changes in the organisational structures and processes of the enterprises. The application of new technologies, new contract management and changes in the enterprises product spectrum, as well as far-reaching changes in controlling, necessitate immediate action, while at the same time exploiting the opportunities presented by the Internet. (orig.) [German] Die Liberalisierung des Gasmarktes fuehrt zu einem grundlegenden Revirement in der Informationsverarbeitung der Versorgungsunternehmen, die begleitet wird von erheblichen Aenderungen in der Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation der Unternehmen. Der Einsatz neuer Techniken, ein neues Vertragsmanagement und eine geaenderte Produktpalette der Unternehmen sowie weitgehende Aenderungen im Controlling machen ein umgehendes Handeln dringend erforderlich, wobei gleichzeitig die Chancen des Internets zu wahren sind. (orig.)

  6. Extending the synthetic utilities of the tandem cyclic sulfate rearrangement-opening process: Synthesis of β-hydroxy-y-phenyl-γ-phenyl-γ-lactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nagum; Yu, Min Lee; Jun, Hye Yeon; Ko, Soo Y. [Dept. of Chemistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Cinnamyl alcohol is an obvious choice of starting material that provides the carbon framework for the syntheses of these compounds. Stereoselective oxidations (epoxidation or dihydroxylation) pave the way for the introductions of O-/N-substituents. Issues of regioselections need to be dealt with in these transformation, which may be tackled either in the activation steps, in the substitution steps, or in the protection steps. In conclusion, we have incorporated a nitrile function at C-3 of the phenylpropyl skeleton in our tandem cyclic sulfate rearrangement-epoxide opening and epoxide ring closure-epoxide opening processes. The one-carbon extension broadens the synthetic utilities of our tandem processes, as exemplified in our synthesis of β-hydroxy-γ-phenyl-γ-lactam.

  7. Beneficial utilization of nuclear waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    A sufficient supply of isotopes exists to conduct demonstrational experiments in the 1975-1980 time frame to stimulate a market for waste products. A large potential market exists for a number of waste products, measured in terms of billions of dollars. Actinide by-products can become a feed stock for producing other energy producing isotopes by neutron irradiation whose value may exceed that of the fission products. Commercial reprocessors will not invest in the extraction and separation of isotopes from the waste stream until a proven market has evolved. Economic studies must be performed to establish the trade-offs between the beneficial use or disposal of wastes. Fundamental to these studies are process economics, safety analyses applications studies, and market analyses, both domestic and foreign. Regardless of the degree of beneficial utilization of wastes, some residual material from wastes not utilized and spent by-products after utilization will have to undergo ultimate disposal. Isotopic waste products have the potential for solving a number of societal and national security problems and represent a unique source of energy and materials

  8. Evaluating the utility of hydrocarbons for Re-Os geochronology : establishing the timing of processes in petroleum ore systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, D.; Creaser, R.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Oil from 6 Alberta oil sands deposits were analyzed with a rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotope chronometer, an emerging tool for determining valuable age information on the timing of petroleum generation and migration. The tool uses molybdenite and other sulphide minerals to establish the timing and duration of mineralization. However, establishing the timing events of petroleum systems can be problematic because viable sulphides for the Re-Os chronometer are often not available. Therefore, the known presence of Re and Os associated with organic matter in black shale, a common source of hydrocarbons, may suggest that bitumen and petroleum common to petroleum systems may be utilised for Re-Os geochronology. This study evaluated the potential of the Re-Os isotopic system for geochronology and as an isotopic tracer for hydrocarbon systems. The evaluation was based on Re-Os isotopic analyses of bitumen and oil sands. Hydrocarbons formed from migrated oil in both Alberta oil sand deposits and a Paleozoic Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposit contain significant Re and Os contents with high {sup 187}Re/{sup 188}Os and radiogenic {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios suitable for geochronology. The oil from the 6 Alberta oil sand deposits yields Re-Os analyses with very high Re/{sup 188}Os ratios, and radiogenic Os isotopic compositions. Regression of the Re-Os data yields a date of 116 {+-} 27 Ma. This date plausibly represents the period of in situ radiogenic growth of {sup 187}Os following hydrocarbon migration and reservoir filling. Therefore, directly dating these processes, and this formation age corresponds with recent burial history models for parts of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The very high initial {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os for this regression requires rocks much older than Cretaceous for the hydrocarbon source.

  9. Utilization of the MPI Process for in-tank solidification of heel material in large-diameter cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the US Department of Energy is remediation of sludge and supernatant waste in underground storage tanks. Exhumation of the waste is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation cannot completely remove all of the contaminated materials from the tanks. For large-diameter tanks, amounts of highly contaminated ``heel'' material approaching 20,000 gal can remain. Often sludge containing zeolite particles leaves ``sand bars'' of locally contaminated material across the floor of the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment (stabilization and immobilization) of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and mixed uniformly with sludge. Ground Environmental Services has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity jet delivery system termed, Multi-Point-Injection (MPI). This robust jet delivery system has been field-deployed to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in cylindrical (FY 1998) and long, horizontal tanks (FY 1999). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process successfully formed a 32-ton uniform monolith of grout and waste surrogates in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within a 40-in.-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies similar to Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily intermixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  10. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a

  11. A Green Desulfurization Technique: Utilization of Flue Gas SO2 to Produce H2 via a Photoelectrochemical Process Based on Mo-Doped BiVO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A green photoelectrochemical (PEC process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost three times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4. The enhanced H2 production and SO2 removal is attributed to the improved bulk charge carrier transportation after Mo doping, and greatly enhanced oxidation reaction kinetics on the photoanode due to the formation of SO32− after SO2 absorption by the electrolyte. Due to the utilization of SO2 to improve the production of H2, the proposed PEC process may become a profitable desulfurization technique.

  12. A green desulfurization technique: utilization of flue gas SO2 to produce H2 via a photoelectrochemical process based on Mo-doped BiVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Li, Kejian; Cheng, Hanyun; Zhang, Liwu

    2017-12-01

    A green photoelectrochemical (PEC) process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost 3 times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4. The enhanced H2 production and SO2 removal is attributed to the improved bulk charge carrier transportation after Mo doping, and greatly enhanced oxidation reaction kinetics on the photoanode due to the formation of SO32- after SO2 absorption by the electrolyte. Due to the utilization of SO2 to improve the production of H2, the proposed PEC process may become a profitable desulfurization technique.

  13. Comparison of biohydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manish, S.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2008-01-01

    For hydrogen to be a viable energy carrier, it is important to develop hydrogen generation routes that are renewable like biohydrogen. Hydrogen can be produced biologically by biophotolysis (direct and indirect), photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation or by combination of these processes (such as integration of dark- and photo-fermentation (two-stage process), or biocatalyzed electrolysis, etc.). However, production of hydrogen by these methods at commercial level is not reported in the literature and challenges regarding the process scale up remain. In this scenario net energy analysis (NEA) can provide a tool for establishing the viability of different methods before scaling up. The analysis can also be used to set targets for various process and design parameters for bio-hydrogen production. In this paper, four biohydrogen production processes (dark-fermentation, photo-fermentation, two-stage process and biocatalyzed electrolysis) utilizing sugarcane juice as the carbon source, are compared with base case method steam methane reforming (SMR) on the basis of net energy ratio, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was found that when by-products are not considered, the efficiencies of biological hydrogen processes are lower than that of SMR. However, these processes reduce GHG emissions and non-renewable energy use by 57-73% and 65-79%, respectively, as compared to the SMR process. Efficiencies of biohydrogen processes increase significantly when by-products are considered hence by-products removal and utilization is an important issue in biological hydrogen production. (author)

  14. Improved biomass utilization through the use of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Biomass is a major by-product resource of agriculture and food manufacturing, but it is under-utilized as a source of food, fibre, and chemicals. Nuclear techniques provide unique tools for studies of the capabilities of micro-organisms in methane digestor operation and in the transformation of lignocellulosic materials to useful products. Nuclear techniques have also been effectively employed as mutagenic agents in the preparation of more efficient microbial strains for the conversion of biomass. This report reviews the variety and diversity of such applications with focus on the development of microbial processes to utilize agricultural wastes and by-products. The value of nuclear techniques is manifestly demonstrated in the production of efficient microbial mutant strains, in the tracing of metabolic pathways, in the monitoring of lignin degradation and also of fermenter operation. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Reason and reaction: the utility of a dual-focus, dual-processing perspective on promotion and prevention of adolescent health risk behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Houlihan, Amy E; Gerrard, Meg

    2009-05-01

    A brief overview of theories of health behaviour that are based on the expectancy-value perspective is presented. This approach maintains that health behaviours are the result of a deliberative decision-making process that involves consideration of behavioural options along with anticipated outcomes associated with those options. It is argued that this perspective is effective at explaining and predicting many types of health behaviour, including health-promoting actions (e.g. UV protection, condom use, smoking cessation), but less effective at predicting risky health behaviours, such as unprotected, casual sex, drunk driving or binge drinking. These are behaviours that are less reasoned or premeditated - especially among adolescents. An argument is made for incorporating elements of dual-processing theories in an effort to improve the 'utility' of these models. Specifically, it is suggested that adolescent health behaviour involves both analytic and heuristic processing. Both types of processing are incorporated in the prototype-willingness (prototype) model, which is described in some detail. Studies of health behaviour based on the expectancy-value perspective (e.g. theory of reasoned action) are reviewed, along with studies based on the prototype model. These two sets of studies together suggest that the dual-processing perspective, in general, and the prototype model, in particular, add to the predictive validity of expectancy-value models for predicting adolescent health behaviour. Research and interventions that incorporate elements of dual-processing and elements of expectancy-value are more effective at explaining and changing adolescent health behaviour than are those based on expectancy-value theories alone.

  16. Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL(©)): streamlining the systematic review process and creating utility for evidence-based health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cindy; Boyd, Courtney; Jain, Shamini; Khorsan, Raheleh; Jonas, Wayne

    2015-11-02

    Systematic reviews (SRs) are widely recognized as the best means of synthesizing clinical research. However, traditional approaches can be costly and time-consuming and can be subject to selection and judgment bias. It can also be difficult to interpret the results of a SR in a meaningful way in order to make research recommendations, clinical or policy decisions, or practice guidelines. Samueli Institute has developed the Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL) SR process to address these issues. REAL provides up-to-date, rigorous, high quality SR information on health care practices, products, or programs in a streamlined, efficient and reliable manner. This process is a component of the Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH™) program developed by Samueli Institute, which aims at answering the question of "What works?" in health care. The REAL process (1) tailors a standardized search strategy to a specific and relevant research question developed with various stakeholders to survey the available literature; (2) evaluates the quantity and quality of the literature using structured tools and rulebooks to ensure objectivity, reliability and reproducibility of reviewer ratings in an independent fashion and; (3) obtains formalized, balanced input from trained subject matter experts on the implications of the evidence for future research and current practice. Online tools and quality assurance processes are utilized for each step of the review to ensure a rapid, rigorous, reliable, transparent and reproducible SR process. The REAL is a rapid SR process developed to streamline and aid in the rigorous and reliable evaluation and review of claims in health care in order to make evidence-based, informed decisions, and has been used by a variety of organizations aiming to gain insight into "what works" in health care. Using the REAL system allows for the facilitation of recommendations on appropriate next steps in policy, funding

  17. Evaluation of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology specialists' preferences for hand hygiene: analysis using the multi-attribute utility theory and the analytic hierarchy process methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Aslı; Oruc, Ozlem Ege; Buke, Cagri; Ozkaya, Hacer Deniz; Kitapcioglu, Gul

    2017-08-31

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective attempts to control nosocomial infections, and it is an important measure to avoid the transmission of pathogens. However, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) with hand washing is still poor worldwide. Herein, we aimed to determine the best hand hygiene preference of the infectious diseases and clinical microbiology (IDCM) specialists to prevent transmission of microorganisms from one patient to another. Expert opinions regarding the criteria that influence the best hand hygiene preference were collected through a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Afterwards, these opinions were examined with two widely used multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods, the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A total of 15 IDCM specialist opinions were collected from diverse private and public hospitals located in İzmir, Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 49.73 ± 8.46, and the mean experience year of the participants in their fields was 17.67 ± 11.98. The findings that we obtained through two distinct decision making methods, the MAUT and the AHP, suggest that alcohol-based antiseptic solution (ABAS) has the highest utility (0.86) and priority (0.69) among the experts' choices. In conclusion, the MAUT and the AHP, decision models developed here indicate that rubbing the hands with ABAS is the most favorable choice for IDCM specialists to prevent nosocomial infection.

  18. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  19. Current status, research needs, and opportunities in applications of surface processing to transportation and utilities technologies. Proceedings of a December 1991 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Landgrebe, A.R. [eds.

    1992-09-01

    Goal of surface processing is to develop innovative methods of surface modification and characterization for optimum performance and environmental protection for cost-effective operational lifetimes of systems, materials, and components used in transportation and utilities. These proceedings document the principal discussions and conclusions reached at the workshop; they document chapters about the current status of surface characterization with focus on composition, structure, bonding, and atomic-scale topography of surfaces. Also documented are chapters on the current status of surface modification techniques: electrochemical, plasma-aided, reactive and nonreactive physical vapor deposition, sol-gel coatings, high-energy ion implantation, ion-assisted deposition, organized molecular assemblies, solar energy. Brief chapters in the appendices document basic research in surface science by NSF, Air Force, and DOE. Participants at the workshop were invited to serve on 10 working groups. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base where appropriate.

  20. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed H. Imam; Bor-Sen Chiou; Delilah Woods; Justin Shey; Gregory M. Glenn; William J. Orts; Rajnesh Narayan; Robert J. Avena-Bustillos; Tara H. McHugh; Alberto Pantoja; Peter J. Bechtel

    2008-01-01

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing zero to 25 weight percent of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads, and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along with starch and pulp fiber, and the foam product (panels) exhibited useful mechanical properties. Foams with all three fish by-products, ranging between 10 and 15 wt%, showed the highe...

  1. Mineral composition of fruit by-products evaluated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriela de Matuoka e Chiocchetti; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Macio Arruda Bacchi; Rogerio Augusto Pazim; Silvana Regina Vicino Sarries; Thais Melega Tome

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of fruits cropping 40 million tons per year. In agro-food processing, approximately 50 % of raw material is discarded generating large amounts of by-products. The lack of information on the nutritional quality of agroindustrial by-products precludes their potential use in the manufacture of food products accessible to all. In this context, the objective of this work was to investigate the nutritional quality of by-products of the industrial processing of fruits. Samples of bagasse, peel and seeds of several fruits (banana, camu camu, coconut, cupuacu, guava, jackfruit, mango, orange, papaya, pineapple, and soursop) were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. In general, higher levels of minerals were found in the by-products rather than in the pulps of fruits. This indicates that the use of the by-products should be encouraged, thereby reducing the economic and environmental impact of waste generated by agroindustrial processing. (author)

  2. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF......) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate...... of whole was the highest for the LE (p by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p

  3. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  4. Industry of petroleum and its by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of petroleum industry and its by-products is presented. Petroleum, since its origin and all steps of its industry including its detection, production and transportation is described. A historical description of the production and formation of fuels under the ground strates through million of years, as well as its chemical composition are presented. A full description of refining petrol and all by-products derived is given. Pictures and tables enhance the explanation

  5. Assessing the implementation process and outcomes of newly introduced assistant roles: a qualitative study to examine the utility of the Calderdale Framework as an appraisal tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancarrow S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Susan Nancarrow,1 Anna Moran,1 Leah Wiseman,2 Alison C Pighills,3 Karen Murphy41School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW; 2School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW; 3Faculty of Medicine Health and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Education and Research Centre, Mackay Base Hospital, Mackay, QLD; 4ACT Government Health Directorate, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Internationally, the health workforce has undergone rapid transformation to help meet growing staffing demands and population requirements. Several tools have been developed to support workforce change processes. The Calderdale Framework (CF is one such tool designed to facilitate competency-based training by engaging team members in a seven step process involving awareness raising, service and task analysis, competency identification, establishing support systems, training, and sustaining. This paper explores the utility of the CF as an appraisal tool to assess whether adherence to the tool influences outcomes. The CF was applied retrospectively to three complete evaluations of allied health assistant role introduction: a new podiatry assistant role (Australia, speech pathology assistant (Australia, and occupational therapy assistant practitioner role (UK. Adherence to the CF was associated with more effective and efficient use of the role, role flexibility and career development opportunities for assistants, and role sustainability. Services are less likely to succeed in their workforce change process if they fail to plan for and use a structured approach to change, assign targeted leadership, undertake staff engagement and consultation, and perform an initial service analysis. The CF provides a clear template for appraising the implementation of new roles and highlights the potential consequences of not adhering to particular steps in the implementation process.Keywords: workforce change, allied health

  6. Toward the complete utilization of rice straw: Methane fermentation and lignin recovery by a combinational process involving mechanical milling, supporting material and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Yota; Fujino, Ayami; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Fumio; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw was mechanically milled using a process consuming 1.9MJ/kg-biomass, and 10g/L of unmilled or milled rice straw was used as the carbon source for methane fermentation in a digester containing carbon fiber textile as the supporting material. Milling increased methane production from 226 to 419mL/L/day at an organic loading rate of 2180mg-dichromate chemical oxygen demand/L/day, corresponding to 260mLCH4/gVS. Storage of the fermentation effluent at room temperature decreased the weight of the milled rice straw residue from 3.81 to 1.00g/L. The supernatant of the effluent was subjected to nanofiltration. The black concentrates deposited on the nanofiltration membranes contained 53.0-57.9% lignin. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance showed that lignin aromatic components such as p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) were retained primarily, and major lignin interunit structures such as the β-O-4-H/G unit were absent. This combinational process will aid the complete utilization of rice straw. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Designing a Smart Car Parking System (PoC Prototype Utilizing CCTV Nodes: A vision of an IoT parking system via UCD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muftah Fraifer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using smart parking systems has become very important, and particularly so for metropolitan areas, because of the benefits for drivers in many aspects, such as time, frustration, stress, and anger, in addition to the increased consumption of fuel while searching for a vacant parking space. This paper proposes a review of recent advances in sensing and communication technology concerning smart parking systems. It includes a brief study of the selected topics and provides an implementation process of those selected systems. Moreover, this work proposes a design approach for a smart car parking system prototype based on utilizing CCTVs (nodes, it is also illustrates the algorithms used for computer vision detection through simulation and real environments, as the system has been deployed in both these environments. Furthermore, the system has been tested and evaluated by stakeholders via a user-centred design process by applying a qualitative research; the promising results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype. Finally, this paper discusses the benefits of engaging the stakeholders to develop the prototype.

  8. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  9. Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (initial award through Award Modification 2); Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment (Award Modifications 3 - 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ebert

    2008-02-28

    This is the final report for the DOE-NETL grant entitled 'Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification & Insurance Processes for the Electric Utility Industry' and later, 'Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment'. It reflects work done on projects from 15 August 2004 to 29 February 2008. Projects were on a variety of topics, including commercial insurance for electrical utilities, the Electrical Reliability Organization, cost recovery by Gulf State electrical utilities after major hurricanes, and review of state energy emergency plans. This Final Technical Report documents and summarizes all work performed during the award period, which in this case is from 15 August 2004 (date of notification of original award) through 29 February 2008. This report presents this information in a comprehensive, integrated fashion that clearly shows a logical and synergistic research trajectory, and is augmented with findings and conclusions drawn from the research as a whole. Four major research projects were undertaken and completed during the 42 month period of activities conducted and funded by the award; these are: (1) Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (also referred to as the 'commercial insurance' research). Three major deliverables were produced: a pre-conference white paper, a two-day facilitated stakeholders workshop conducted at George Mason University, and a post-workshop report with findings and recommendations. All deliverables from this work are published on the CIP website at http://cipp.gmu.edu/projects/DoE-NETL-2005.php. (2) The New Electric Reliability Organization (ERO): an examination of critical issues associated with governance, standards development and implementation, and jurisdiction (also referred to as the 'ERO study'). Four major deliverables were produced: a series of preliminary memoranda for the staff of the Office of Electricity Delivery and

  10. Mitigation strategies in the agro-food sector: The anaerobic digestion of tomato purée by-products. An Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Duca, Daniele; Negri, Marco; Fusi, Alessandra; Fiala, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Tomato processing involves a significant production of residues, mainly constituted by discarded tomatoes, skins, seeds and pulp. Often, these residues are not valorized and represent an added cost for manufacturing companies because of disposal processes, with environmental issues due to the difficult management. The exploitation of these residual materials results complex as their availability is mainly concentrated in few months. A possible solution is the production of biogas employed in a Combine Heat and Power engine for energy production, in line with the 2020 targets of European Union in terms of promotion of energy from renewable resources and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The tomato by-product utilization for energy production as a strategy to reduce the environmental load of tomato purée was evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. Two scenarios were considered: Baseline Scenario — tomato by-products are sent back to the tomato fields as organic fertilizers; Alternative Scenario — tomato by-products are employed in a nearby biogas plant for energy production. Methane production of tomato by-products was assessed by means of specific laboratory tests. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted reductions for all the impact categories with the Alternative Scenario. The most important reductions are related to particulate matter (− 5.3%), climate change (− 6.4%) and ozone depletion (− 13.4%). Although small, the reduction of the environmental impact cannot be neglected; for example for climate change, the anaerobic digestion of by-products allows a saving of GHG emissions that, over the whole year, is equal to 1.567 tons of CO 2 eq. The results of this study could be up-scaled to the food industries with high heat demand producing considerable amounts of fermentable by-products employable as feedstock for biogas production. - Highlights: • Tomato processing generates byproducts, whose residual mass is 2–5%. • Anaerobic

  11. Mitigation strategies in the agro-food sector: The anaerobic digestion of tomato purée by-products. An Italian case study