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Sample records for users neuherberg germany

  1. 3. European conference of TRIGA users. Papers and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Third European Conference of TRIGA Users was held October 29-31, 1974, in Neuherberg near Munich, Germany under the sponsorship of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen and Umweltforschung mbH, Physikalischen-Technische Ableilung. The main topics were: experience in reactor operation, maintenance, measurements, fuel management and fuel performance, neutron physical experiments and other research programs

  2. Quality control in nuclear medicine. Addendum to 'Quality assurance in nuclear medicine', World Health Organization, 1982. Following a training workshop in Neuherberg, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, November 23-30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cradduck, T.D.; Busemann Sokole, E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of a workshop, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) and the World Health Organization (WHO), held in Neuherberg, Munich, 1983, a revised concept of quality control (QC) in nuclear medicine is proposed. In a previous document published by the WHO in 1982, a set of rigorous daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and half-quarterly QC protocols was recommended. The revised concept suggested by the 1983 workshop participants is that of a simple, total system, QC test that can be applied on a frequent, probably daily, basis. Any deviation of the results of such a test from the accepted norm will require further investigation and decision trees can then be applied to localize faults

  3. Decommissioning of the Neuherberg Research Reactor (FRN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmeler, M.; Rau, G.; Strube, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Neuherberg Research Reactor is of type TRIGA MARK III with 1 MW steady state power and pulsable up to 2000 MW. During more than ten years of operation 12000 MWh and 6000 reactor pulses had been performed. In spite of its good technical condition and of permanent safe operation without any failures, the decommissioning of the Neuherberg research reactor was decided by the GSF board of directors to save costs for maintaining and personnel. As the mode of decommissioning the safe enclosure was chosen which means that the fuel elements will be transferred back to the USA. All other radioactive reactor components will be enclosed in the reactor block. Procedures for licensing of the decommissioning, dismantling procedures and time tables are presented

  4. Characteristics of Homeopathy Users among Internal Medicine Patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Amie; Cramer, Holger; Leung, Brenda; Lauche, Romy; Adams, Jon; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy use continues to grow in many European countries, and some studies have examined the characteristics of patients using homeopathy within the general population. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for homeopathy use among internal medicine patients. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among all patients being referred to the Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine at Essen, Germany, over a 3-year period. The analysis examined whether patients had used homeopathy for their primary medical complaint before, the perceived benefit, and the perceived harm of homeopathy use. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 2,045 respondents, 715 (35.0%) reported having used homeopathy for their primary medical complaint (diagnosis according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems), with 359 (50.2%) reporting perceived benefits and 15 (2.1%) reporting harm. Homeopathy use was positively associated with female gender, high school level education, suffering from fibromyalgia or subthreshold depression, and being fast food abstinent, while patients with osteoarthritis, spinal or other pain, smokers, and patients with a high external-social health locus of control were less likely to use homeopathy. Personal characteristics and health status may impact on the use and the perceived helpfulness of homeopathy. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Characteristics of acupuncture users among internal medicine patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Chung, Vincent C H; Lauche, Romy; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

    2015-06-01

    To identify socio-demographic and health-related factors associated with (a) acupuncture use and (b) the rated helpfulness of acupuncture among internal medicine patients. Data from a larger cross-sectional trial were reanalyzed. Patients who had used acupuncture for managing their primary medical complaint were compared to patients who had not. Predictors for (a) acupuncture use and (b) rated helpfulness were determined using logistic regression analyses. Of 2486 included patients, 51.49% reported acupuncture use and 39.22% reported no prior use. The use of acupuncture was associated with higher age, i.e. those aged 50-64 were more likely to have used acupuncture, while those younger than 30 were less likely. Patients with spinal pain, fibromyalgia, or headache were more likely to be acupuncture users; while IBS patients were less likely. Patients with good to excellent health status, high external-social health locus of control and current smokers were less likely to have used acupuncture. Among those who had used acupuncture, 42.34% perceived the treatment as helpful, while 35.94% did not. Rated helpfulness was associated with female gender, full-time employment, high health satisfaction, and high internal health locus of control. Those with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis or inflammatory bowel disease were more likely to find acupuncture helpful; those with headache or other types of chronic pain were less likely to find acupuncture helpful. Acupuncture was used by more than half of internal medicine patients. Prevalence and rated helpfulness of acupuncture use was associated with the patients' medical condition, sociodemography, and health locus of control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of food insecurity among food bank users in Germany and its association with population characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Julia; Gyngell, Fiona; Müller, Annalena; Eleraky, Laila; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among food bank users in many European countries is unknown. The study aims to examine FI prevalence and associated population characteristics among this particular group of disadvantaged people in Germany. Food insecurity status was assessed among 1033 adult food bank users with a mean age of 53 years (57% female, 43% male) in Germany in 2015 using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES). About half of the participants (55.8%) were single with no children and born in Germany. Over 37% had a self-reported BMI of 30 kg/m 2 or above and 37.4% indicated to smoke. Over 70% of the food bank users can be described as food insecure. Of those, about 35% were considered mildly food insecure. Almost 30% were categorized as moderately food insecure while over 7% were categorized as severely food insecure. Significant associations with food insecurity were found for gender, age, subjective health status, smoking, duration of food bank use, school education and family type. Among this socially disadvantaged population, food insecurity is highly prevalent and public health efforts should be focusing on this vulnerable population taken into account the identified population and behavioral characteristics associated with food insecurity.

  7. Communication and Consumer Activities of Social Networking Sites Users: Cases from Germany, Poland and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bartosik-Purgat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet heavily influences people’s lives every day, especially by the development of Social Networking Sites (SNS, which since their first appearance have been constantly recording a growing number of users. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the significance of SNS in relation to two activities of individual users: communication and consumer behaviour. The study focuses on the three most popular SNS in three neighbouring countries (Germany, Poland, and Russia namely, FACEBOOK, VKONTAKTE, and YOUTUBE. The methodological approach is twofold: firstly, the authors developed a theoretical background of the areas of using SNS and formulated research questions; secondly, they applied the PAPI and CAWI methods for the data analysis. Regarding the researched activities, it should be noted that SNS users use these platforms more often for communication than consumer actions. The most useful here is FACEBOOK in comparison to YOUTUBE. This study provides results, which can be useful in the management of the enterprises that use SNS for their marketing communication in Germany, Poland, and Russia.

  8. Ground depositions and air concentrations of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides at Munich-Neuherberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1987-01-01

    Southern Bavaria has received a comparatively high deposition of fallout radionuclides from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. As a result, in addition to the measurement of numerous gamma emitting nuclides and of strontium isotopes, the determination of several actinides, including isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and curium was possible. The observed radionuclide composition of the fallout and the time course of ground deposition and air concentration at the site of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF) at Neuherberg, 10 km north of Munich, are reported and discussed.

  9. Ground depositions and air concentrations of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides at Munich-Neuherberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1987-01-01

    Southern Bavaria has received a comparatively high deposition of fallout radionuclides from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. As a result, in addition to the measurement of numerous gamma emitting nuclides and of strontium isotopes, the determination of several actinides, including isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and curium was possible. The observed radionuclide composition of the fallout and the time course of ground deposition and air concentration at the site of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF) at Neuherberg, 10 km north of Munich, are reported and discussed. (orig.)

  10. Migration Background Influences Consumption Patterns Based on Dietary Recommendations of Food Bank Users in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Depa, Julia; Gyngell, Fiona; Müller, Annalena; Eleraky, Laila; Hilzendegen, Carolin

    2018-03-29

    People with low income tend to eat less balanced than people with higher income. This seems to be particularly the case for people with migration background. This cross-sectional study examined the relation of consumption patterns of 597 food bank users with different migration background in Germany. Questionnaires were distributed assessing sociodemographic information and consumption patterns. Analyses were conducted using binary logistic regressions. Models were controlled for age, gender, type of household and education. The group of German food bank users consumed fewer fruits and vegetables and less fish compared to all other groups with migration background (former USSR, Balkan region, Middle East). A significant predictor for fruit and vegetable consumption was migration status. Participants from the former USSR consumed less often SSBs compared to the other groups. Dietary recommendations for low income populations should take into consideration other aspects besides income such as migration status.

  11. Pregabalin Use Among Users of Illicit Drugs: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellgrove, Brendan J; Steinert, Tilman; Jaeger, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    The antiepileptic drug pregabalin is one of the best-selling pharmaceutical products worldwide. There are increasing concerns about its potential for misuse and dependence especially among patients with former or current substance use disorders (SUDs). Our objective was to clarify the extent and pattern of pregabalin use as well as motives and predictors in this population. We conducted a cross-sectional study with patients on a detoxification ward for illicit drugs at the Center for Psychiatry, Südwürttemberg, Ravensburg in southern Germany from August 2012 until July 2013. We used an extensive questionnaire, part of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and urine samples. Of the 253 participating patients, 56% had used pregabalin at least once. Of these, 92% had acquired it at least in part from illegal sources. The main motives for the use of pregabalin were the attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms, the augmentation of other psychotropic substances, and the psychotropic effects of pregabalin itself. Predictors for pregabalin use were opioid and sedative use as well as younger age. The criteria of dependency according to DSM-IV was met by 11% of pregabalin users and 13% of urine samples were positive for pregabalin. Use of pregabalin is common among users of illicit drugs in large parts of southern Germany, with motives for use, acquisition, and mode of use suggesting misuse. The mode of use, especially intake of high doses and concomitant use of other drugs, poses a serious risk to this population, including the development of dependency.

  12. Characterization of new users of cilostazol in the UK, Spain, Sweden, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsague, Jordi; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Calingaert, Brian; Bui, Christine; Varas-Lorenzo, Cristina; Arana, Alejandro; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Rubio, Francisca; Giner-Soriano, Maria; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Linder, Marie; Citarella, Anna; Scholle, Oliver; Blenk, Tilo; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2017-06-01

    To describe the characteristics of new users of cilostazol in Europe with the aim to support the evaluation of its benefit/risk as used in regular clinical practice before the implementation of labeling changes recommended by the European Medicines Agency. New users of cilostazol were identified in populations enrolled in five European health automated databases in the UK (The Health Improvement Network [THIN]), Spain (EpiChron cohort and Information System for the Improvement of Research in Primary Care [SIDIAP]), Sweden (National Registers), and Germany (German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database [GePaRD]) between 2002 and 2012. New users were characterized according to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities, concurrent use of interacting medications, new contraindications, duration of use, and potential off-label prescribing. We identified 22 593 new users of cilostazol. The median age was between 68.0 (THIN) and 73.7 (Sweden) years. More than 78% of users had concomitant cardiovascular disease, and between 78.8% (GePaRD) and 91.6% (THIN) were treated with interacting medications. Prevalence of new cardiovascular contraindications ranged from 1.5% (THIN) to 11.6% (GePaRD), and concurrent use of two or more antiplatelet drugs ranged from 6.3% (SIDIAP) to 13.5% (EpiChron cohort). Between 39.4% (Sweden) and 52.9% (THIN) of users discontinued cilostazol in the first 3 months. Between 41.0% (SIDIAP) and 93.4% (THIN) were considered to have received cilostazol according to the European Medicines Agency labeling. In this collaborative European study, most cilostazol users were elderly patients with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other comorbidity and concurrent use of interacting drugs, indicating that this is a vulnerable population at high risk of complications, especially cardiovascular events. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors

  13. ASSESSMENT OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY INDUCED BY PM 2.5 SAMPLES FROM TWO CITIES IN GERMANY WITH DIFFERING INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIES AND ASTHMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASSESSMENT OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY INDUCED BY PM 2.5 SAMPLES FROM TWO CITIES IN GERMANY WITH DIFFERING INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIES AND ASTHMA.LR Bishop, J Heinrich*, MK Selgrade & MI Gilmour. Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/ NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. *GSF, Neuherberg,...

  14. Man-made radioactivity of surface air and precipitation Munich-Neuherberg 1970-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1976-07-01

    The activity concentration of a number of artificial radionuclides and of Be 7 in surface air and the deposition of these nuclides to the ground by the precipitation is measured since 1970 resp. 1971 at Neuherberg near Munich. Air dust filters are compressed to give a pellet and precipitation is evaporated to a small volume before γ-spectrometry using a Ge(Li)-detector. After ashing of the samples Pusup(238, 239, 240) and Fe 55 are separated radiochemically and measured by alpha respectively X-ray spectrometry. The results, presented as monthly mean resp. sum values, are discussed and compared with results published by other authors (HASL, UKAEA, PTB, DWD a.o.). The contribution of artificial radioactivity to the radiation exposure from fallout nuclides during the years 1970 to 1975 was very low. Their concentration levels led to values of the annual intake, which are far beyond the admissible values according to the new Radiation Protection Ordinance of the FRG. With regard to the intake by inhalation Pu 239 is the most important of all observed nuclides, whereas in the case of ingestion Sr 90 is the critical nuclide. At this time the level of the activity concentration is mainly represented by the residual radioactivity from nuclear bomb tests. A continuous control is necessary because of the growth of nuclear power production and the increasing use of radionuclides. (orig.) [de

  15. Enhancing trust online A cross Bsectional study on users judgments of online bank websites in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gabi; Jonasson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Background: One the latest developments in the banking sector are online banks, which provide their services only online while physical offices are not available. Market research conducted in Germany, have shown that Germans are hesitating to adopt to the digital offered banking services. The major barrier for adoption is due to trust issues, which are rooted in perceived security and privacy protections. Earlier literature has found that other website interaction factors are also playing a r...

  16. Mottled Neuherberg (Mo sup(N)), a new male-lethal coat colour mutation of the house mouse (Mus musculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A new semidominant X-chromosomal mutation, Mottled Neuherberg (Mo sup(N)), which causes coat colour variegation is described. Mo sup(N) arose in the second postirradiation generation after 2 x 200 R of X-rays (24 hours apart) to oocytes of X/O mice. Heterozygous Mo sup(N) females have irregular patches of fully and lightly coloured fur over the whole coat with curly vibrissae. Their viability is reduced, about 3% of the heterozygotes dying prenatally and 6 to 28% dying postnatally before weaning. Survivors are fertile without externally visible abnormalities. Hemizygous Mo sup(N) males die in utero after implantation. The recombination frequency between Mo sup(N) and tabby (Ta) was 3.65 +- 3.16% (with 95% -confidence limits). Therefore, it is suggested that Mo sup(N) is a new allele of the mottled (Mo) locus of the house mouse. Mo sup(N)-bearing ova seem to have a lower chance of becoming fertilized by wild-type spermatozoa than by Ta-bearing spermatozoa. (orig.) [de

  17. Report on second FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting on radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants - Neuherberg, Germany, F.R., 4-8 May 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division established the coordinated research programme on 'Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants'. The first FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting of the programme was held in Panama City, Panama in October 1985. It established a framework for experiments by the participating researchers to investigate metabolism and terminal residues of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in food plants using 14 C-labelled materials with associated and other techniques. In this second report, progress made since the first report is presented and the further research needed to fulfill the objectives of the programme is outlined. The objectives of the meeting were as follows: To review progress within the coordinated research programme; To discuss problems pertinent to methodologies and labelled substrates; To prepare a report and recommendations with particular reference to future needs and priorities. The 12 papers presented at the meeting are given in summary form. (orig./MG)

  18. Daily and seasonal variation of short-lived radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air at Munich-Neuherberg - a long-term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    2001-09-01

    Daily and seasonal variation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC Rn-222 ) and of the concentration of the short-lived radon decay product 214 Pb in ground-level air was investigated at Munich-Neuherberg from 1982 to 2000, and from 1989 to 2000, respectively. For this, the EEC was measured continuously with an alpha/beta aerosol monitor at 2.5 m above ground, and 214 Pb was determined by online gamma spectrometry at about 12 m above ground. The resulting time series were analysed statistically. For the respective periods, the measurements yielded a long-term average concentration of 7.8 Bq m -3 (geometric mean: 6.1 Bq m -3 ) for the EEC, and 6.0 Bq m -3 (geom. mean: 5.0 Bq m -3 ) for 214 Pb. In these periods, daily averages ranged from 0.6 to 49 Bq m -3 (EEC), and from 0.6 to 43 Bq m -3 ( 214 Pb). Monthly mean concentrations varied between 3.0 Bq m -3 in March 1988 and 20 Bq m -3 in October 1985 (EEC), and from 3.4 Bq m -3 in April 1992 to 11 Bq m -3 in October 1995 ( 214 Pb), respectively. The annual average concentrations were from 5.9 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 10.6 Bq m -3 in 1985 (EEC), and from 5.3 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 6.8 Bq m -3 in 1991 ( 214 Pb). From the long-term average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC), an average annual effective dose of 0.13 mSv due to the short-lived radon progeny outdoors was estimated. The time series showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. The variations from day to day are mainly caused by the actual weather conditions (wind, rain, etc.), i.e. the short-term turbulent conditions. The seasonal pattern is characterised by an autumn to winter maximum and an early summer minimum, and reflects the prevailing turbulent conditions at the respective seasons. As known, at Munich-Neuherberg during autumn and winter months (October/November to February) inversion weather conditions frequently occur, while the other months are characterised by more turbulent conditions. (orig.)

  19. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  20. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... developed toward an open access order; open access was not, however, sustainable and collapsed in 1930–31. This case of a failed open access order suggests refining the framework of limited and open access orders in further work. It shows that the political process of “creative destruction” might result...

  1. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  2. Cegelec Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  3. from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Azizi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first and most important principle of marketing is focusing on the customer needs and wants, because regardless of that, companies will not be able to survive in today's competitive environment. These days, companies know that providing products and services according to customer needs and demands, is an important competitive advantage to gain more sales and benefit, so identifying customer needs and demands, and adopting appropriate strategies for supplying customers' desires are the most important activities in competitive markets. Considering the competitive environment in e-commerce and importance of focus on customer expectations in electronic markets, this study has been aimed to identify and prioritize the factors affecting customer satisfaction in electronic commerce. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model, questionnaire was designed and distributed between 221 people in Germany. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. The research model had found out that from six main factors and 25 sub factors, six factors and 17 sub factors affect satisfaction in online shopping. Also in this study, the type of goods, prices of purchased goods and age range of online buyers are investigated.

  4. Present and future use of TRIGA reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, H.; Junker, D.; Krauss, O.

    1986-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany nine research reactors are presently in operation, three of which are TRIGA reactors. These are the TRIGA Mark I reactors at Hannover and Heidelberg with a steady state power of 250 kW and the TRIGA Mark II reactor at Mainz with a steady power of 100 kW and a peak pulsing power of 250 MW. The decommissioning of a number of research reactors, including the TRIGA Mark III reactor at Neuherberg near Munich, is reason enough to think about the present and future use of our reactors. The German TRIGA reactors met a lively interest of scientists, since they went into operation. Presently they are well used especially in biomedical (Hannover, Heidelberg) and basic research (Mainz). In the course of about 20 years of operation the techniques and requirements of experiments changed and consequently the use of the reactors too. Certainly this will be so in the future. But thanks to its versatile experimental facilities, this type of reactor can meet the various experimental demands. So we are looking forward to a good utilisation of our German TRIGA reactors in future and taking into account the low costs for personal, energy and fuel, we are quite confident that they will be in operation still for many years. (author)

  5. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  6. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  7. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  8. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  9. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  10. EMI in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  11. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  12. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  13. Precaution against radioactive contamination of steel products in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewers, E.; Schulz-Klemp, V.; Steffen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Regulations for handling of radioactive materials in Germany. Engagement of the Germany Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) since the end of the eighties and measures taken. Level of radioactivity in uncontaminated steel products. Agreements between steel industry and scrap supplying industry as well as terms of delivery. Actual status of equipment for detection of radioactivity in the German steel plants. Demands of steel users for clean steel. (author)

  14. Multiculturalism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts out from the recent statement by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel that multiculturalism in Germany is dead. The author draws attention to the unfavourable conditions for the development of multiculturalism in Germany. The reasons are historical, especially the experience of Nazism as well as the German social state. Namely, foreign workers in Germany, although without political rights and socially non-integrated, enjoyed a high degree of working and social rights, including high employment security. In this respect their position significantly differed from that of American workers (immigrants, which is why the struggle for civil rights was not in the foreground for German immigrants. Therefore, “the crisis of multiculturalism” appeared with the immigrants’ “second generation” (children, who have been first hit in the current times of crisis and the increasing deregulation of the labour market. They have remained socially non-integrated and without civil and political rights. It is interesting that the churches, particularly the Protestant one, lead in Germany in the efforts to begin to look at immigrants in a cultural (human sense as well, and have thus been the first to acknowledge that Germany has become a multicultural society. But this term and concept in Germany have remained sketchy, both in the theoretical and political sense. However, they have gained certain sympathy, mainly in parts of liberal-democratic circles – the Green Party leading the way – but more in a symbolic sense in countering xenophobia and cultural exclusion in German society. When multiculturalism was accused of developing “parallel society”, both the right and the left renounced it in favour of the (seemingly neutral concept of integration. The author proves that Germany has become and has remained multicultural, although not a multiculturalist country.

  15. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  16. Nuclear energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Since September 1998 the Federal Government formed by a Red/Green Coalition declared its goal: irreversible phase out of nuclear power plants. The first attempt to stop reprocessing as well as the first attempt to change nuclear law failed. The present situation is as follows: existing nuclear power plants operate in a most satisfying way producing 170 TWh/a. i.e. 35% of total production; transport license is not granted; no new NPP is planned, but Germany will participate in the French European Power Reactor (EPR) project. Concerning fast reactors, no industrial activities exist in Germany. There is no intention to build a facility, but Germany participates in the European CAPRA project. Existing research items are related to neutronics, safety analysis, irradiation experiment TRABANT, accelerator driven systems, thermohydraulics, safety

  17. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzballa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  18. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  20. Library Consortia in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Reinhardt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.

  1. Germany bars nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1999-01-01

    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  2. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.

    1990-01-01

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  3. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  4. Country report for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  5. Environmental policy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wey, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.) [de

  6. ECFA SURVEY: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Few nations can match the scope of German basic physics contributions. Earlier this century, illustrious names (Rontgen, Franck, von Laue, Planck, Sommerfeld, Heisenberg, ) kept Germany among the front runners. Subsequent history has given German physics a very different profile - the country now participates massively in international projects and is the largest single contributing nation in CERN's research programme. At the same time, an impressive high energy programme at the German national Laboratory at DESY, Hamburg, centred around the 6.3 kilometre HERA ring, the world's only high energy electron-proton collider, attracts scientists from all over the world

  7. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...... the 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  8. Fusarium Keratitis in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Serena; Kaerger, Kerstin; Hamprecht, Axel; Roth, Mathias; Cornely, Oliver A.; Geerling, Gerd; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Kurzai, Oliver; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and results in poor outcome. In tropical and subtropical areas, the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. However, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. At the German National Reference Center, we have observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. Here, we present the first German case series of eye infections with Fusarium species. We identified Fusarium isolates from the eye or eye-related material from 22 patients in 2014 and 2015. Thirteen isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), 6 isolates belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), and three isolates belonged to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). FSSC was isolated in 13 of 15 (85%) definite infections and FOSC in 3 of 4 (75%) definite contaminations. Furthermore, diagnosis from contact lens swabs or a culture of contact lens solution turned out to be highly unreliable. FSSC isolates differed from FOSC and FFSC by a distinctly higher MIC for terbinafine. Outcome was often adverse, with 10 patients requiring keratoplasty or enucleation. The use of natamycin as the most effective agent against keratitis caused by filamentous fungi was rare in Germany, possibly due to restricted availability. Keratitis caused by Fusarium spp. (usually FSSC) appears to be a relevant clinical problem in Germany, with the use of contact lenses as the predominant risk factor. Its outcome is often adverse. PMID:28747368

  9. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  10. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  11. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  12. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  13. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  14. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  16. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    On the occasion of the retirement of the Editor-in-chief of 'atomwirtschaft', the author gave a keynote speech on the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany at the headquarters of the Handelsblatt Verlag in Duesseldorf on October 30, 1984. He subdivided the period under discussion into five phases, the first of which comprises the 'founding years' of 1955 to 1960. This was the time when activities in nuclear research and nuclear technology in Germany, which were permitted again in mid-1955, began with the establishment of the national research centers, the first Atomic Power Program, the promulgation of the Atomic Energy Act, the foundation of government organizations, including the Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy, etc. In the second phase, between 1960 and 1970, a solid foundation was laid for the industrial peaceful uses of nuclear power in the construction of the first LWR experimental nuclear power stations, the first successful export contracts, the beginnings of the first nuclear fuel cycle plants, such as the WAK reprocessing plant, the Asse experimental repository, the Almelo agreement on centrifuge enrichment. The third phase, between 1970 and 1975, was a period of euphoria, full of programs and forecasts of a tremendous boom in nuclear generating capacities, which were further enhanced by the 1973 oil squeeze. In 1973 and 1974, construction permits for ten nuclear power plants were applied for. The fourth phase, between 1975 and 1980, became a period of crisis. The fifth phase, the eighties, give rise to hope for a return to reason. (orig./UA) [de

  17. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  18. The Lincoln Image in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the enduring fascination with the sixteenth President of the United States in Germany. In general, his legacy and its evaluation changed in relation to the determinate historical contexts, beginning with the monarchial system, extending through the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and now the Federal Republic of Germany. Certain social and political individuals/groups in Germany used the image and iconography of Lincoln as a projection screen to support their own political objectives. Although there were always multiple layers of Lincoln representations in Germany, the dominant images were: the national unifier, the libertarian universalist, the emancipator, the defender of moral values, the modernizer, the democrat who used the power of the democratic state, the egalitarian self-made man from humble origins, and the defender of social justice and workingmen’s rights.

  19. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  20. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  1. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  2. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-02-02

    After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT--first low because of strict admission criteria--increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65% to 85% in the first years, up to 50% after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10% of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. In Germany, a history of substitution treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile

  3. The electricity supply industry in Germany: market power or power of the market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, G.; Keller, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the electricity supply industry in Germany, which was liberalized in April 1998. Noticeable aspects are the eligibility of all end-users, the lack of constraints on the vertical industry structure and the option for negotiated third party access. There is no sector-specific regulation. This paper argues that the vertically integrated firms concentrate on excessive network access charges, whereas the stages generation and retail appear to be relatively competitive. Empirical evidence suggests that in Germany network access charges make up a significantly higher share of end-user prices than in the UK, which is used as regulation-benchmark. (author)

  4. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... tested in library contexts and the aim of this article is to identify the main approaches and to discuss their perspectives, including their strenghts and weaknesses in, especially, public library contexts. The purpose is also to prsent and discuss the results of a recent - 2014 - Danish library user...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  5. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German reu...

  6. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...

  7. Physician assistant education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dierks; L. Kuilman; C. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from

  8. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  9. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gustedt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  10. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  11. Nuclear power perspectives for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 300 experts from the power industries, of research and politics, from Germany and abroad followed the invitation of the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) to meet at the traditional winter meeting held in Bonn on January 28 and 29, 1992, in order to discuss topical political issues, not only relating to nuclear power, but to primary energy supply in general. Bonn having been chosen as the place for the 1992 meeting, there were unusually many members of Parliament and members of the Federal German Government attending the conference. The four sessions of the conference were devoted to the following aspects: Perspectives, the world energy market, current issues of energy policy in Germany, and preventive risk management. (orig.) [de

  12. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  13. Energy supply in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu

    1988-07-10

    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  14. Germany: energy transition or revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany has decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 but it wants also to get rid of fossil energies by 2050. Those ambitious goals imply to be able to cut by half the demand for primary energy by 2050 which will be only possible if the need for building heating is cut by 80%, the constraint on transport is less important: one million of electrical vehicles will have to be on the road by 2020 and 3 millions 10 years later. In 2012 the production of electricity was made mainly from coal (44.7%), renewable energies (21.9%), nuclear energy (16%), natural gas (11.3%) and other energies (fuel...) (6.1%). Today the renewable energy sector is a major industrial sector in Germany, it represents about 382000 jobs directly or indirectly, it means more than the sector of conventional energies. (A.C.)

  15. International Student Migration to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Donata Bessey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents first empirical evidence on international student migration to Germany. I use a novel approach that analyzes student mobility using an augmented gravity equation and find evidence of strong network effects and of the importance of distance - results familiar from the empirical migration literature. However, the importance of disposable income in the home country does not seem to be too big for students, while the fact of being a politically unfree country decreases migrati...

  16. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  18. Wind power report Germany 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  19. Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and

  20. User 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    an effect on their future needs. Human needs have been studied much longer than user generations per se. Psychologist Maslow presented a characterization of human needs as early as 1943. This basic characterization was later studied with an evolving environment in mind. Although the basic needs have...

  1. Germany: the electricity bill soars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    As Germany is already one of the European countries where electricity prices are the highest for households (twice more than in France), the author comments the past evolution of these prices and shows that they will probably increase again in 2017 to finance energy transition. This increase is notably due to higher taxes (a comparison with the French CSPE tax is presented and commented), and to a costly grid renewal. As the energy transition appears to be very expensive (about 500 billions euros by 2025), the cost-benefit rate of the German energy transition is disastrous and the de-carbonation of the electricity sector does not progress

  2. Germany after March 11th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, A.

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

  3. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  4. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, R.; Frasch, G.; Kammerer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  5. Electronic Cigarettes-Attitudes and Use in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, Tobias; Wissen, Franziska; Linhardt, Andrea; Aichert, Désirée S; Pogarell, Oliver; de Vries, Hein

    2016-05-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death and disease. Previous studies on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use have reported reduction and cessation of conventional cigarette smoking; however, health effects are still a matter of discussion. This cross-sectional study investigated the attitudes of adults in Germany towards using e-cigarettes instead of or in addition to cigarettes. Furthermore, it examined the extent to which e-cigarettes are used as a smoking cessation tool. In 2012, we recruited a sample of 319 participants comprising e-cigarette users (vapers, 33%), cigarette smokers (smokers, 37%) and smokers of both cigarette types (dual users, 30%). The Integrated Model for Change (I-Change Model) was used as a theoretical framework and a modified Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence was used to assess nicotine dependence. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and smoking status was substantiated by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. The vapers were more often men, were less addicted to nicotine and had a higher motivation to stop smoking than the smokers. In addition, vapers reported better health and had a lower carbon monoxide concentration than smokers. Furthermore, vapers had a more positive attitude towards e-cigarettes and higher self-efficacy in terms of abstaining from cigarettes in certain situations. This is the first study to report on the use of e-cigarettes in Germany. Our results support those of previous studies in other populations. Further research is still needed on the potential health effects of e-cigarettes and their efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. The study is the first description of attitudes and use of e-cigarettes in Germany. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by

  7. Neurosurgical Resident Training in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Gempt, Jens; Gautschi, Oliver P; Demetriades, Andreas K; Netuka, David; Kuhlen, Dominique E; Schaller, Karl; Ringel, Florian

    2017-07-01

    Introduction  Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods  An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Results  Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). In a multivariate analysis corrected for baseline group differences, German trainees were 29% as likely as non-German trainees to be satisfied with clinical lectures given at their teaching facility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.49; p  hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61; p  = 0.005). This working time, however, is less spent in the operating suite (OR: 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59; p  = 0.001) and more doing administrative work (OR: 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13-2.96; p  = 0.015). Conclusion  Some theoretical and practical aspects of neurosurgical training are superior, but a considerable proportion of relevant aspects are inferior in Germany compared with other European countries. The present analyses provide the opportunity for a critical review of the local conditions in German training facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  9. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  10. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  11. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  12. Renewable Energy CSOPs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Lowitzsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy-CSOP facilitates broad equity participation of citizens without assets or savings in a regulated public energy utility. As the CSOP is designed for regulated markets with guaranteed prices, regulated market access and long-term relationships between producer and consumer, the energy market is predestined. A CSOP trust can be set up for a renewable energy plant (e.g., a biogas reactor, a solar panel, a windmill or a geothermic drill. European states have set an ambitious target to reach 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Germany as Europe’s green energy leader could become a pioneer in CSOP implementation. Small communities in Europe would benefit from the increased share of renewable energy resources.

  13. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  14. The use of IMRT in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [de

  15. 6. European conference of TRIGA reactor users. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Sixth European Conference of TRIGA Users was held in September 1980, in Mainz, Germany under the joint sponsorship of INTERATOM and the Institut fur Kernchemie. The main areas of discussions were: Fuel cycle aspects; New reactor developments and improvements; TRIGA applications; Operating and maintenance experiences and Instrumentation

  16. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  17. Eastern Germany Ahead in Employment of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Holst; Anna Wieber

    2014-01-01

    Almost a quarter of a century after the fall of the Wall, there are still more women in employment in eastern Germany than in the west. Although the disparity is marginal now, the two regions started from dramatically different levels. In 1991, immediately after reunification, the employment rate for women in western Germany was 54.6 percent, but since then it has increased year on year, reaching 67.5 percent in 2012. In eastern Germany, female employment initially plummeted after the fall of...

  18. Farming for Health: Aspects from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, Konrad; Stephan, Ingrid; Hermanowski, Robert; Flake, Albrecht; Post, Franz-Joseph; van Elsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Until now, the term ‘Farming for Health’ is unknown in Germany but it would cover a wide spectrum of different kinds of social agriculture already existing in Germany, such as farms that integrate disabled people or drug therapy into their farming system, or farms that integrate children, pupils or older people. Relevant work in Germany is done in ‘Sheltered Workshops’, where supporting and healing powers of farming and gardening are used for disabled people with a diversity of work possibili...

  19. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.

    1998-01-01

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  20. Justine user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  1. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  2. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  3. Wind power in Germany - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1996-01-01

    The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

  4. Managing ageing workforces: Empirical evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, H.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change (ageing populations and falling birth rates) affects all industrialised nations, including Germany. Traditionally, the problems associated with managing numbers of older workers were mitigated by the Altersteilzeitgesetz in Germany. Under this law, firms were offered financial support by the government to offer early retirement (Müller-Camen et al. 2009). As these provisions came to an end in 2010, the need to find alternative solutions to displacing older workers, as well ...

  5. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2014-01-01

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO 2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Housing Markets in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schneider; Karin Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Running counter to the sharp rise in house prices and housing wealth observed since the mid- 1990s in the vast majority of European countries, real house prices in Germany and Austria were going down in this period and did not start to rise until 2010 or 2007, respectively. This reflects national idiosyncracies in housing markets and motivated the discussion of relevant peculiarities in, and similarities among, Austria and Germany as well as Switzerland. Among the most important structural fe...

  7. Maternal Employment and Childhood Overweight in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie-Charlotte Meyer

    2015-01-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from European countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. Moreover, we explore potential underlying mechanisms that mi...

  8. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  9. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  10. Health-related use of the Internet in Germany 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lausen, Berthold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The European eHealth Trends project analyses the attitudes towards and usage of eHealth applications of European citizens in the time frame 2005–2007. In April/May 2007 the second series of representative stratified surveys with computer-based telephone interviews (CATI (in Germany based on the German ADM Master Sample were performed by a poll agency in seven European countries. Here we report the major results for the German population, were 1000 participants with an age between 15 and 80 years were interviewed. For the general use of the Internet for health purposes as well as the established eHealth Internet use (at least once a month we report a significant increase (from 44.4% to 56.6% and from 22.5% to 32.0%. Further, the percentage of Germans who consider the Internet as an important medium for health purposes increased from 33.7% to 36.8%. In Bavaria, the percentage of established eHealth Internet users was lowest among the German states. The results of our eHealth Trends survey in Germany show a considerable increase of eHealth use within the last 18 months. German physicians need to be prepared for an increasing number of empowered patients, who have searched for information on their health problems in the Internet, but will also demand more enhanced services.

  11. Evaluation of the pilot procurement project in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, Katrin

    2003-01-01

    Energy+ represents a European cooperative procurement initiative which aims at increasing the market share of highly energy-efficient cold appliances. Three years after its start, the project was recently evaluated in Germany. This paper discusses the main evaluation results and their implications for the project's further development. It covers the impacts of Energy+ on technology development and the commercial importance of the targeted appliances. Due to the project's relatively recent start, however, the main focus of the evaluation lies on the procurement process and practical implementation elements. Of particular interest are the specificities of the considered market segment which, in Germany and also in other participating countries, is characterised by highly dispersed consumers and the lack of large institutional buyers as candidates for a buyer group. The project therefore developed a new approach emphasising the role of retail organisations and of marketing activities by the project coordinators. The evaluation discusses several challenges related to this approach. This includes issues concerning the interfaces between international producers, their national branch offices and retailers as well as conflicts between the marketing approaches of producers and retailers, in particular with respect to the use of brand names and trade marks. Further, in Energy+ the communication between users and producers, an essential innovative element of cooperative procurement, cannot take its usual role, since consumers are not directly involved in the process. The paper shows how the project has dealt with these challenges and provides recommendations for the future project design

  12. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  13. Germany, high-tech country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG) [de

  14. [Cochlear implant treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Stelzig, Y

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of impaired auditory function through cochlear implant is possible, with high reliably and great success. Nevertheless, there are regular disputes between patients and insurance companies due to high costs. In Germany, approx. 1.9 Mio. people are severely hearing impaired. It can be estimated that for adequate hearing rehabilitation about 30,000 cochlear implants/year are necessary. Currently, less than 10% of those affected are offered cochlear implant. A handicap is defined if there is deviation from normal hearing for more than 6 months. This sets a time frame for the supply with cochlear implant after sudden deafness. The professional code requires to advice all medical options to a person seeking help for hearing loss. This includes benefit-risk consideration. At this point, the economic aspect plays no role. The indication for medical treatment is only subject to the treating physician and should not be modified by non-physicians or organizations. It should be noted that a supply of hearing aids is qualitatively different to the help from a cochlear implant, which provides a restoration of lost function. In social law (SGB V and IX) doctors are requested to advise and recommend all measures which contribute to normal hearing (both sides). This indicates that doctors may be prosecuted for not offering help when medically possible, just because health insurance employees did not approve the cost balance. The current situation, with insufficient medical care for the hearing impaired, needs clarifying. To do this, patients, health insurance companies, the political institutions, legislation and professional societies need to accept their responsibilities.

  15. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  16. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  17. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  18. MRI of the prostate in Germany. Online survey among radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Reiser, M.; Mueller-Lisse, U.L.

    2015-01-01

    To assess structural, technical, and communicative aspects of dedicated MR examinations of the prostate (MRP) offered by radiologists in Germany. We conducted an eight-item online survey among members of the German Radiology Society (DRG). Radiological institutions were asked about their structure, i. e., either hospital department (HD) or private practice (PP), number of board-certified radiologists, postal regions, number of MRPs in 2011, MR technology and MR sequences applied, ways to communicate results, and feedback from referring physicians on results of subsequent tests and procedures. Submissions were cleared of redundancies and anonymized. Differences in the number of positive replies to each item were statistically significant at p < 0.05 for two-tailed testing in 2 x 2 tables. The survey represented board-certified radiologists in 128 institutions (63 HDs and 65 PPs) in 67/95 German postal regions (71 %). Almost two-thirds of institutions performed 11 to 50 MRPs in 2011, more often at 1.5 T (116/128, 91 %) than at 3.0 T (36/128, 28 %), and most frequently with surface coils (1.5 T, 88/116, 76 %; 3.0 T, 34/36, 94 %; chi-square, 1.9736, 0.1 < p < 0.25). About two-thirds of 1.5 T users and 90 % of 3.0 T users applied at least one functional MR modality (diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, or MR spectroscopy) for MRP. Reports including graphic representations of the prostate were applied by 21/128 institutions (16 %). Clinical feedback after MRP to radiologists other than upon their own request was infrequent (HDs, 32 - 45 %, PPs, 18 - 32 %). MRP was a widely available, small-volume examination among radiologists in Germany in 2011. The technology mainstay was a 1.5 T surface coil examination including at least one functional MR modality. Dedicated reporting and feedback mechanisms for quality control were underdeveloped.

  19. MRI of the prostate in Germany. Online survey among radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Reiser, M. [Univ. Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Lewerich, B. [Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, Geschaeftsstelle, Berlin (Germany); Mueller-Lisse, U.L. [Interdisziplinaeres Onkologisches Zentrum Muenchen (IOZ) (Germany). Dept. of Urology; Scherr, M.K. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik, Dept. of Radiology, Murnau (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    To assess structural, technical, and communicative aspects of dedicated MR examinations of the prostate (MRP) offered by radiologists in Germany. We conducted an eight-item online survey among members of the German Radiology Society (DRG). Radiological institutions were asked about their structure, i. e., either hospital department (HD) or private practice (PP), number of board-certified radiologists, postal regions, number of MRPs in 2011, MR technology and MR sequences applied, ways to communicate results, and feedback from referring physicians on results of subsequent tests and procedures. Submissions were cleared of redundancies and anonymized. Differences in the number of positive replies to each item were statistically significant at p < 0.05 for two-tailed testing in 2 x 2 tables. The survey represented board-certified radiologists in 128 institutions (63 HDs and 65 PPs) in 67/95 German postal regions (71 %). Almost two-thirds of institutions performed 11 to 50 MRPs in 2011, more often at 1.5 T (116/128, 91 %) than at 3.0 T (36/128, 28 %), and most frequently with surface coils (1.5 T, 88/116, 76 %; 3.0 T, 34/36, 94 %; chi-square, 1.9736, 0.1 < p < 0.25). About two-thirds of 1.5 T users and 90 % of 3.0 T users applied at least one functional MR modality (diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, or MR spectroscopy) for MRP. Reports including graphic representations of the prostate were applied by 21/128 institutions (16 %). Clinical feedback after MRP to radiologists other than upon their own request was infrequent (HDs, 32 - 45 %, PPs, 18 - 32 %). MRP was a widely available, small-volume examination among radiologists in Germany in 2011. The technology mainstay was a 1.5 T surface coil examination including at least one functional MR modality. Dedicated reporting and feedback mechanisms for quality control were underdeveloped.

  20. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the elicitation process. Cases and user requirement elements discussed in the book include: User requirements elicitation processes for children, construction workers, and farmers User requirements for personalized services of a broadcast company Variations in user involvement Practical elements of user...

  1. Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelowa, A.

    2003-01-01

    Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period

  2. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Emission reduction program in the unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehr, M.; Emsperger, W.; Termuehlen, H.

    1992-01-01

    High population density and intense industrialization in both parts of Germany resulted in high specific power demands. The domestic availability of hard coal and lignite made coal-fired power plants the backbone of power generation in all of Germany. The unification of Germany has brought together two power generation systems with similar basic needs and concepts. However, forty years existence within different economic systems has resulted in a quite different status in regard to installed generating capacity, availability of various fuels and environmental standards. To bridge the existing gap in a relatively short time is a huge challenge for the utilities, the power generation and distribution industry as well as for the federal and state authorities

  4. AREVA Germany. International competence in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    AREVA NP was created in 2001 by the merger of the French nuclear technology specialist Framatome with the nuclear sector of Siemens. The company is headquartered in Paris and has regional subsidiaries in Germany and the United States. The joint venture's strength lies in its all-round competence in nuclear power plants, from reactor development to power plant services and modernization of operating plants, design and production of fuel assemblies and turn-key construction of nuclear power reactors. Major core competences are located in Germany including the test facilities which are unique in the entire group as well as electrical engineering and instrumentation and control systems. AREVA NP is part of the globally acting AREVA group which pursues a unique integrated business model. The concept covers the entire nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to reprocessing used fuel assemblies. At present, AREVA has 48,000 employees worldwide, of which 5,700 are Germany-based. (orig.)

  5. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  7. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Goebel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  8. 40 Years MAGLEV Vehicles in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Reinhold; Guangwei, Shu

    2011-01-01

    On May 6th 1971 the worldwide first MAGLEV vehicle was presented by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) in Ottobrunn near Munich, Germany. Till the year 2000 different test and application MAGLEV vehicles followed, but no commercial use in Germany. Since December 31st 2002 the Shang-hai MAGLEV Transportation System is successfully in operation, as the worldwide first and only one commercial used MAGLEV line. The paper in honour of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eveline Gottzein for her 80th birthday contains in...

  9. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Rosemarie; Bernicke, Maja; Bertram, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  10. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  11. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  12. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  13. Lazy User Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Collan, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    In this position paper we suggest that a user will most often choose the solution (device) that will fulfill her (information) needs with the least effort. We call this “lazy user behavior”. We suggest that the principle components responsible for solution selection are the user need and the user state. User need is the user’s detailed (information) need (urgency, type, depth, etc.) and user state is the situation, in which the user is at the moment of the need (location, time, etc.); the use...

  14. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central l...

  15. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  16. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohberg, K.; Weingarten

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  17. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  18. The regulation of asset valuation in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, D.; Hoffman, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the regulatory history of asset valuation in Germany from the fifteenth century to the implementation of the European Economic Community's Fourth Directive in 1986. Aiming to explain regulatory changes by reference to preceding socio-economic and political developments, we find

  19. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  20. Expansion in Germany; Expansion am Standort Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2011-05-05

    Germany is one of the key countries of the worldwide solar industry. For more than a decade, more than 100 German businesses have been active in all parts of the solar sector. During the past three years, the situation has changed dramatically, owing to increasing globalization and stronger competition.

  1. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  2. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  3. Towards a national ecosystem assessment in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Christian; Neßhöver, Carsten; Schröter, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present options for a National Ecosystem Assessment in Germany (NEA-DE) that could inform decision-makers on the state and trends of ecosystems and ecosystem services. Characterizing a NEA-DE, we argue that its cross-sectoral, integrative approach would have the advantages of increased...

  4. Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  5. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing

  6. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish, F.

    2004-11-01

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  7. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...

  8. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  9. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  10. Solar energy in Germany: a national commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of solar energy in Germany: national energy plan and share of solar energy in the German energy mix, the photovoltaic industry: a dynamic industry which creates jobs, 2006-2012 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, solar thermal resource potentialities and effective exploitation

  11. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  12. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  13. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  14. Is Germany a model for managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  15. [Performance of in vitro fertilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, Hans; Montag, Markus; van der Ven, Katrin

    2002-07-01

    In Germany the application of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is regulated by federal legislation. Compared with the international situation the "German Embryo Protection Law" is very "restrictive" and various methods of ART are prohibited, e.g. oocyte/embryo donation, embryo cryopreservation and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Furthermore, in Germany only 1 to 3 fertilized oocytes may be cultured to embryo. All these embryos then have to be transferred into the uterus of a particular patient. Additional fertilized oocytes can only be cryopreserved in a pronuclear state. The success rate of ART has increased significantly over the past few years owing to the introduction of blastocyst cultures and the selection of 1 to 2 good quality blastocysts for embryo transfer. Furthermore, the transfer of only 1 to 2 blastocysts effectively reduces the risk of high rank multiple pregnancies. In Germany, however, the selection of only a few good quality blastocysts for transfer is prohibited by law. New laboratory techniques, e.g. pronuclear scoring and polar body biopsy screening for aneuploidy are in accordance with German law. The application of these methods provides a selection of "good quality oocytes" and seems to increase the overall success rate. Further studies are required, however. The success rate, quality and cost effectiveness of ART in Germany appears compromised when compared with many other countries. What is more, in contrast to the international situation research and development in ART in Germany has been decreasing constantly over the past few years, due to the inappropriate regulations of the German health care system and the insufficient support given to university-based centers.

  16. The outlook for natural gas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs

  17. Low-threshold support for families with dementia in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochgraeber Iris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-threshold support services are a part of the German health care system and help relieving family caregivers. There is limited information available on how to construct and implement low-threshold support services for people with dementia and their families in Germany. Some studies describe separately different perspectives of experiences and expectations, but there is no study combining all the different perspectives of those involved and taking the arrangements and organisation as well as their opinions on supporting and inhibiting factors into consideration. Findings This protocol describes the design of the study on low-threshold support services for families with a person with dementia in two German regions. The aim is to develop recommendations on how to build up these services and how to implement them in a region. A quantitative as well as a qualitative approach will be used. The quantitative part will be a survey on characteristics of service users and providers, as well as health care structures of the two project regions and an evaluation of important aspects derived from a literature search. Group discussions and semi-structured interviews will be carried out to get a deeper insight into the facilitators and barriers for both using and providing these services. All people involved will be included, such as the people with dementia, their relatives, volunteers, coordinators and institution representatives. Discussion Results of this study will provide important aspects for policymakers who are interested in an effective and low-threshold support for people with dementia. Furthermore the emerging recommendations can help staff and institutions to improve quality of care and can contribute to developing health and social care structures in Germany.

  18. Graphical user interfaces and visually disabled users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll, L.H.D.; Waterham, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    From February 1992 until the end of 1993, the authors ((IPO) Institute for Perception Research) participated in a European ((TIDE) Technology Initiative for Disabled and Elderly) project which addressed the problem arising for visually disabled computer-users from the growing use of Graphical User

  19. Accelerator facilities users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, H.C.; Adrion, L.; Frosch, R.; Salzmann, M.

    1994-07-01

    In 1981 the ''Green Book'' of SIN was distributed, a User Handbook serving the needs of people already working at SIN as well as informing new users about our installations. An update of the Green Book is necessary because many beams have disappeared, been modified or added, and the installation has been upgraded in intensity and versatility quite considerably. The spectrum of users has shifted away from nuclear and particle physics; applications in medicine, solid state physics and materials science have gained in importance. This Users' Guide is intended to inform our users about the changes, and to interest potential new users in coming to PSI. (author) figs., tabs

  20. Poverty, health, and nutrition in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the relation between poverty and several variables describing health and nutrition behavior in East Germany and West Germany. Data are from the third National Health Survey in West Germany and the first Health Survey for the new federal states of Germany (1991/92). Both health surveys included a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nutritional behavior (using a food-frequency list), physical activity, and a medical examination comprising measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sampling for serum cholesterol determination. Participants included 4958 subjects in the West Survey and 2186 subjects in the East Survey aged 25-69 years, with a respective net response rate of 69.0% and 70.2%. Poverty was defined as a household equivalence income of 62.5% or less of the median income of the general population. The lowest income group (poverty or near poverty) comprised 11.6% of East German versus 15.9% of West German males and 14.8% of East German versus 19.3% of West German females. For most but not all health and nutrition parameters, less favorable results were obtained for subjects with an equivalence income below or near poverty. The most striking poverty-related differences regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors were found for lack of regular exercise for both genders and obesity in females. No poverty-related differences were found for the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, despite a much higher prevalence of obesity in persons with an income below the poverty line. Current nutritional behavior and changes in nutritional behavior during the last three years was strongly related to income status, with a more unhealthy status for low-income population groups in both East and West Germany. In Germany, poverty has strong effects on individual health status and nutritional behavior. Because of rising unemployment rates and reductions in social security payments for low

  1. User interface user's guide for HYPGEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ing-Tsau

    1992-01-01

    The user interface (UI) of HYPGEN is developed using Panel Library to shorten the learning curve for new users and provide easier ways to run HYPGEN for casual users as well as for advanced users. Menus, buttons, sliders, and type-in fields are used extensively in UI to allow users to point and click with a mouse to choose various available options or to change values of parameters. On-line help is provided to give users information on using UI without consulting the manual. Default values are set for most parameters and boundary conditions are determined by UI to further reduce the effort needed to run HYPGEN; however, users are free to make any changes and save it in a file for later use. A hook to PLOT3D is built in to allow graphics manipulation. The viewpoint and min/max box for PLOT3D windows are computed by UI and saved in a PLOT3D journal file. For large grids which take a long time to generate on workstations, the grid generator (HYPGEN) can be run on faster computers such as Crays, while UI stays at the workstation.

  2. New Head of the Users Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Doris Chromek-Burckhart took over as Head of the Users Office on 1 June. She succeeds Chris Onions, who held the post for more than ten years before retiring in 2010, and Jose Salicio Diez, who replaced him temporarily.   Doris Chromek-Burckhart photographed by Pierre Gildemyn. Doris Chromek-Burckhart arrived at CERN about thirty years ago after completing a physics degree at Mainz University in Germany, and began her career with the Organization working on data acquisition systems for the experiments. She then joined ATLAS, where she took part in the development, commissioning and operation of the experiment's own data acquisition system. Her appointment as Head of the Users Office was preceded by two years as CERN's Equal Opportunities Officer from 2009 to 2010. The Users Office, which has now been in existence for over twenty years, manages administrative procedures and generally makes life easier for the 10,000 or more users from around a hundred different countries, in collaboration with CER...

  3. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    IDRC Extranet home page, which is an umbrella for a number of applications available to IDRC external users. ... IDRC Connect is not formatted for mobile users. ..... Thesis. • Training Material. • Website. • Working Paper. • Workshop Report.

  4. Implicit User Interest Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K

    2002-01-01

    User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...

  5. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  6. Potential and costs of renewables in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, K.F.; Raede, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Set off by the oil crisis in the Seventies and nurtured by the critical stance of the public towards nuclear energy and its growing awareness of the climate problem, studies on possible applications of renewables in Germany have played an increasingly important role over the years. A large number of publications have been turned out on this issue. It therefore appears worthwhile to collect the various results given in the literature and compile them for easy comparison. The authors of the present article give a short synopsis of a study to this end that was completed in the autumn of last year. The chief aim of the compilation was to enable the reader to gain a quick overview of the known results and to facilitate his orientation, thus making the problems surrounding the application of renewables in Germany more transparent. (orig.) [de

  7. Second births in western Germany and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Köppen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

  8. The future of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in Germany is not only a matter of technology, economy and ecology but, above all, a matter of political leadership, the quality of interaction of all groups of society, the need to take ideology out of politico-economico-technical matters, and of firmly standing up for a style of democracy in which majorities, not minorities, decide. The power economy is agreed that nuclear power is indispensable in a powerful electricity supply scheme. These should be the criteria to be met by an energy consensus: No nuclear plants should be sacrificed by being shut down before the end of their technical and economic service life; spent fuel and waste management in Germany should be secured with sufficient interim storage and repository storage capacities. (orig.) [de

  9. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut.

  10. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  12. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  13. Year 2 of Germany's Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2013-01-01

    After a decade characterised by the take-off of renewable energies, Germany decided in 2010 to make them the top priority. At the same time, it decided to make exemplary efforts in terms of energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. The audacious nature of this policy was strengthened by the 'turn' taken in 2011 to give up nuclear energy in the wake of the Fukushima accident. Given the initial results for 2012, Germany seems to be on target for reaching its national objective, of 18% renewable energy within total consumption by 2020. Germany is also well placed to reduce its planned cut in electricity consumption of 10%. The country will also meet its commitments, both international and European, concerning greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, recent trends suggest it will be increasingly difficult for Germany to meet its own, domestic goal of cutting emissions by 40%, by 2020. Furthermore, it is hard to see how Germany will be able to bring down total energy consumption by 20% by 2020 (from 2008 levels), or increase the share of renewables in electricity production above 35%. Success with this latter objective is largely dependent on reinforcing networks, both for transmission over long distances and for local distribution. It is not sure that the delays accumulated in both areas will be made up for by 2020, despite the rapid legislative adjustments that have already been made. By favouring intermittent energy sources - wind and solar power - Germany also faces problems of managing frequent production fluctuations. The long term solution to this lies in storing electricity. However, despite the considerable efforts in research and development, the technologies necessary for this will doubtless not be available on a large scale before the end of the present decade. These efforts could nevertheless provide German industry with interesting advantages in sectors of high potential, such as electric vehicles. Measures to promote renewable energies are

  14. NPAS Users Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This NPAS Users Guide is primarily intended as a source of information about policies, procedures, and facilities appropriate for users in the program of Nuclear Physics at SLAC (NPAS). General policies and practices are described, the preparation of proposals is discussed, and the services for users is outlined. SLAC experimental facilities are described, and contacts are listed

  15. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  16. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  17. Supplementary income. Direct selling in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion

  18. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fertig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  19. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  20. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  1. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing their loans portfolio. Most lending categories even show an increase following a monetary tightening. The main implication of our results is that a bank lending channel is not an important transmissio...

  2. Photovoltaic energy in Germany: experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of photovoltaic energy in Germany: resource potential, 2000-2010 development, share in the energy mix, market, legal framework and incentives, market evolution and electricity feed-in tariffs, 2006-2011 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, households' contribution, R and D investments, industry development and employment, the German national energy plan after Fukushima, the expectations of the German photovoltaic industry

  3. Self-consumption in Germany. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, definition and economic models, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', possible future legal evolutions

  4. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Reichert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  5. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  6. Final storage in Germany. Who is interested?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    2002-01-01

    The final storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Germany - who, in Germany, has any interest in this subject, especially now that the new Atomic Energy Act has been adopted, and who is going to read this article? The author, Professor Klaus Kuehn, examines this question, analyzing in his contribution the current situation and the points of view of those who may be interested in this topic. In Prof. Kuehn's opinion, the addresses in particular are these: - the federal government, - the opposition in the federal parliament, - the federal states, - the Federal Ministry for the Environment, - the Federal Ministry for Research, - the Federal Ministry of Economics, - the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, - the operators of nuclear power plants, - the Working Group Elaborating Procedures for Selecting Repository Sites (AkEnd). Klaus Kuehn concludes that there is little interest at the present time in the subject of Final Storage in Germany, for reasons explained in detail which result both from the political constellation and from existing constraints. (orig.) [de

  7. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  8. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  9. DOSFAC2 user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Energy R and D in Germany; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PJ Runci

    1999-01-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R and D stood at$42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R and D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R and D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R and D expenditures, public R and D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately$15 billion. The reduction in R and D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R and D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R and D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R and D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R and D fell from approximately$1.6 billion to$400 million--a 75% real decline. The$850 million reduction in Germany's fission R and D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R and D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R and D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy

  11. Energy R and D in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  12. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  13. Electric power transmission and distribution in Germany - an NTPA success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staschus, K.

    2002-01-01

    The German Energy Law of April 1998 opened 100 percent of the German electricity market to competition without any transition phase. Over four years later, the degree of market opening is still ahead of that in many other European countries. Transition phases elsewhere have been dominated by the need to develop detailed rules not only for the functioning of the power markets - e.g. in power exchanges - but also for the transmission and distribution system operators and for the data exchange between market participants. Especially the data exchange needs for the handling of household customers switching suppliers has been a challenge in all the countries that have opened the household customer market. But also the network access fees on both transmission and distribution level are still being debated in many countries. The German governments have so far chosen to let the network operators develop the access rules, pricing rules and data exchange standards in intense - and intensely observed - negotiations with the network users. Important outcomes of such negotiations include the well-known A ssociations' Agreements , GridCode, DistributionCode, MeteringCode as well as the government's Best Practice Recommendations on data exchange standards for the switching between suppliers. One important advantage of this negotiation-based rather than regulatory approach is its speed and flexibility. For example, the Associations' Agreement on network access fees is now valid in its third version, and each successive version included important learning from the experience of both network operators and network users with the previous agreement. This paper will summarise the legal framework of the liberalised power market in Germany and focus on the current state of pricing rules in the Associations' Agreement, of well advanced comparisons run by VDN, of the network access fees of hundreds of distribution system operators including specific data on structural differences of their

  14. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding......When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...

  15. Sign Language Translation in State Administration in Germany: Barrier Free Web Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Lišková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe Web accessibility in state administration in the Federal Republic of Germany in relation to the socio-demographic group of deaf sign language users who did not have the opportunity to gain proper knowledge of a written form of the German language. The demand of the Deaf to information in an accessible form as based on legal documents is presented in relation to the theory of translation. How translating from written texts into sign language works in pract...

  16. Power outages in California - could they also happen in Germany?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ufer, D.

    2001-01-01

    Since the summer of 2000, the U.S. state of California has experienced breakdowns of its electricity supply with considerable impacts on all areas of social life. As a consequence of insufficient generating capacity available, specific large-scale consumers or entire urban districts must be cut off the power grid at times of peak electricity demand. The causes of these structural problems of electricity supply in California are associated closely with the consequences of the (incomplete) deregulation of the electricity market. Deregulation, which was achieved with a lot of regulations, accompanied by extensive environmental protection requirements, resulted in a decline of the generating capacity available. In addition, legal fixing of end user prices has spelt financial disaster for many power utilities. Measures to overcome the crisis are being discussed, but will take effect only on a medium term. A similar situation in Germany must not be expected to arise at short notice because sufficient standby capacity is available at the present time, and electricity consumption is rising only moderately. However, on a medium term, a structural crisis similar to that in California could be brought about by the deregulation of the German electricity market, especially with the present influence exerted by the government through measures not in conformity with the market, such as legislation on renewable energies and on cogeneration schemes. (orig.) [de

  17. "Think positively": Parkinson's disease, biomedicine, and hope in contemporary Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Ingrid; Just, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Narratives of hope shape contemporary engagements with Parkinson's disease. On the one hand, a "biomedical narrative of hope" promises that biomedical research will help to transform this treatable but incurable disease into a curable one in the future. On the other hand, a more individual "illness narrative of hope" encourages patients to influence the course of Parkinson's disease by practicing self-care and positive thinking. This article asks how these two narratives of hope interact. It bases its argument on an analysis of data from 13 focus groups conducted in Germany in 2012 and 2014 with patients with Parkinson's disease and their relatives. Participants were asked to have their say on clinical trials for advanced therapies for Parkinson's disease and, while doing so, envisioned their biosocial selves in the present and the future. Three "modes of being" for patients were drawn from this body of data: a "users on stand-by" mode, an "unengaged" mode, and an "experimental pioneers" mode. Both narratives of hope were important to all three modes, yet they were mobilized at different frequencies and also had different statuses. While the biomedical narrative of hope was deemed an important "dream of the future" that participants passively supported without having to make it their own, the illness narrative of hope was a truth discourse that took an imperative form: having Parkinson's disease implied the need to maintain a positive attitude.

  18. International design competition. Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb. Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).

  19. Streamer Motives and User-Generated Content on Social Live-Streaming Services

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlander, Mathilde B.

    2017-01-01

    Three most popular information services, Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow, vicarious for all Social Live-Streaming Services (SLSSs), are investigated to analyze their streamers' motivations and the user-generated content. Additionally, we collected demographic data (gender and age). More than 7,500 streams by users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan were observed. Main streamer motivations on SLSSs are boredom, socializing, the need to reach a specific group, the need to communicate, and fun. Im...

  20. User-centered design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Joo Hyun; Kim, Hyeong Heon

    2008-01-01

    The simplification philosophy, as an example, that both of EPRI-URD and EUR emphasize is treated mostly for the cost reduction of the nuclear power plants, but not for the simplification of the structure of user's tasks, which is one of the principles of user-centered design. A user-centered design is a philosophy based on the needs and interests of the user, with an emphasis on making products usable and understandable. However, the nuclear power plants offered these days by which the predominant reactor vendors are hardly user-centered but still designer-centered or technology-centered in viewpoint of fulfilling user requirements. The main goal of user-centered design is that user requirements are elicited correctly, reflected properly into the system requirements, and verified thoroughly by the tests. Starting from the user requirements throughout to the final test, each requirement should be traceable. That's why requirement traceability is a key to the user-centered design, and main theme of a requirement management program, which is suggested to be added into EPRI-URD and EUR in the section of Design Process. (author)

  1. [Internet Use by Oncology Outpatients: Results of a Survey in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Uirassu; Riese, Christoph; Baumann, Walter

    2017-05-15

    Objective Internet has become an important source of information for cancer patients regarding disease and treatment. A national survey was conducted to assess the importance of Internet in the routine care of cancer patients in Germany. Method The cross-sectional survey included 5,984 outpatients (56.7% female, M=64.3 years, SD=12). 3 groups were identified: Internet users, non-users whose families/friends did online research for them, and "complete" non-users. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and group comparisons. Results 1 patient in 2 used the Internet to research health-related information. Internet users considered this research to be helpful, felt better able to participate in health-related decisions, and less alone with their disease. However, the information found online contributed to a feeling of uncertainty. 72.5% of Internet users researched treatment options and 21.3% talked to their doctor about their research. Conclusion The Internet was shown to be an important source of information for cancer patients. For patients to be able to use Internet research meaningfully, it could be helpful that they receive support from their oncologist. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Speech at German Council on Foreign Relations, 8 October 2010, Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2010-01-01

    It is a great honour for me to speak at the German Council for International Relations. Germany is a strong believer in multilateral diplomacy and has always been a staunch supporter of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an experienced user of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes and participates actively in the Agency's programmes. Germany is also a generous provider of international development aid, including through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme, which makes nuclear technologies available to developing countries. And Germany is committed to the goal of a world free of all nuclear weapons. Since taking office, I have been trying to change the widespread perception of the Agency as simply the world's 'nuclear watchdog' because it does not do justice to our extensive activities in other areas, especially in nuclear energy, nuclear applications, and technical cooperation. In the half-century since it was established, the Agency has pursued two undamental goals: preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons and helping to make nuclear technologies available for peaceful applications. would like to focus on three main areas - nuclear power, nuclear sciences and applications, and nuclear non-proliferation - and say a few words about the management of the Agency.

  3. CMS tier structure and operation of the experiment-specific tasks in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowack, A

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, several university institutes and research centres take part in the CMS experiment. Concerning the data analysis, a couple of computing centres at different Tier levels, ranging from Tier 1 to Tier 3, exists at these places. The German Tier 1 centre GridKa at the research centre at Karlsruhe serves all four LHC experiments as well as four non-LHC experiments. With respect to the CMS experiment, GridKa is mainly involved in central tasks. The Tier 2 centre in Germany consists of two sites, one at the research centre DESY at Hamburg and one at RWTH Aachen University, forming a federated Tier 2 centre. Both parts cover different aspects of a Tier 2 centre. The German Tier 3 centres are located at the research centre DESY at Hamburg, at RWTH Aachen University, and at the University of Karlsruhe. Furthermore the building of a German user analysis facility is planned. Since the CMS community in German is rather small, a good cooperation between the different sites is essential. This cooperation includes physical topics as well as technical and operational issues. All available communication channels such as email, phone, monthly video conferences, and regular personal meetings are used. For example, the distribution of data sets is coordinated globally within Germany. Also the CMS-specific services such as the data transfer tool PhEDEx or the Monte Carlo production are operated by people from different sites in order to spread the knowledge widely and increase the redundancy in terms of operators

  4. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  5. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  6. The energy supply situation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederer, P.

    2007-01-01

    The focus is on 4 energy supply issues of decisive relevance to energy supply in Germany, but also in other countries in Europe and worldwide: (1) How will the global energy situation develop? (2) What is the organization, and the development, of the market in which we are doing business? (3) What are the challenges facing the power industry in view of a threatening climate change? (4) Against this backdrop, how do we design the energy mix of the future? Analysis of these 4 points shows that, for a foreseeable time, all types of energy generation are necessary if Germany and Europe are to be supplied energy efficiently, securely, and in a way not polluting the environment. Hence, these concrete conclusions can be drawn: (1) We need more renewable energies in Germany, in Europe, and worldwide. (2) We need the development of 700 C coalfired power plant technology in order to first advance the development of CCS (carbon capture and storage) technology and thus minimize CO 2 emissions from fossil-fired power plants. (3) We need increases in energy efficiency which help us satisfy the steadily growing need for energy with dwindling fossil resources. (4) We need nuclear power because of its ability to produce baseload electricity free from CO 2 . For nuclear power, it is now important that politics and the power industry jointly find ways and means to reassess, in an unbiased way, the plant operating lives laid down in the current Atomic Energy Act. This is required, inter alia, because of the challenges in climate policy and because of global economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  7. An ecological tax reform in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, L.; Bleijenberg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    This study, being a part of the large research program 'External Effects of Energy Procurement' and coordinated by PROGNOS, concerns the distributional and macro-economic effects of the internalization of the external effects of the energy supply by means of an ecological tax reform. The PROGNOS study is focused on the costs and effects of energy production, procurement and consumption (in Germany), that are not taken care of by the market. Here a rough estimate is given of the macro-economic consequence and the distributional effects for the industrial sector and households in (West) Germany of an energy tax of which the revenues are 'reinjected' into the economy, mainly by lowering the financial burden on labour. First a description is given of the starting points of the study and the form of the energy tax. Subsequently attention is paid to the macro-economic effects, the sectoral effects, and the effects on the distribution of incomes for households. The model calculations for Western Germany and the Netherlands confirm the expectation that an ecological tax reform leads to the combined realization of employment and environmental objectives. Shifts in the sectoral structure may occur. Energy intensive branches of industry will have to give up a part of their market share in favour of labour-intensive sectors. The results also illustrate that there are several possibilities to prevent a change in the collective burden of regular expenses as a result of a tax or levy on energy, and that the effects of a fuel tax on the income distribution can be corrected. 5 figs., 19 tabs., 5 apps., 15 refs

  8. A Less Ambitious Energy Transition for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeker, Etienne; Yahiel, Michel; Lenglart, Fabrice; Broca, Olivier de; Senne, Valerie

    2017-08-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, the German authorities launched the country's energy transition, or Energiewende. With near unanimous support of Germany's citizens, it was seen as a society-wide project. The enthusiasm the Energiewende generated soon spread beyond the Rhine. Indeed, for many French people it became the model to follow. Replacing nuclear energy and fossil fuels with renewable energy sources that were local when possible, developing electric mobility and making progress towards a zero carbon economy were all virtuous goals. What's more, it seemed they could be attained over a relatively short period of time and at reasonable cost. Today, the Energiewende's future looks less bright. While Germany produces a third of its electricity from renewable energy, this comes at a high price. The cost of electricity for small consumers more than doubled between 2000 and 2013. At the same time, the country continues to rely on coal to produce a large share of its electricity and still has one of the highest levels of CO_2 per person in Europe. But Germany's population is divided about closing its coal-fired and lignite power plants, not to mention doing so would jeopardize its energy supply. Add to this the fact the massive development of intermittent renewable energy sources has made the German power grid unstable and has necessitated the construction of thousands of kilometers of high voltage lines amidst strong local opposition. Lastly, electrifying the transport sector could serve to compound the series of scandals that have hit the automotive industry. Against this backdrop, the coalition government formed following the September 2017 federal elections could very well lower the bar for the Energiewende. (author)

  9. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  10. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    In this report, we present the results of a research project about international user studies. The project has been carried out by researchers from the Center for Persona Research and –Application, The IT University in Copenhagen and the Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University...... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...... the countries/regions they operate in. Instead, they focus on a few strategic markets. International user studies tend to be large-scale studies that involve the effort of many both internal and external/local human resources. The studies typically cover 2-4 countries/regions and many end users in each country...

  11. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The peculiarities and the differences in the development of nuclear energy in the two neighboring countries are described. The development in France could be promoted more easily which was also due to the government structure. Uncomplicated licensing procedures and other factors permitted a less difficult realisation of the nuclear energy programme. Serious economic consequences in our country are pointed out. In this summary, the most important results and statements of a memorandum worked out by the KWU with the headline 'Germany/France - the electricity supply in comparison' are listed. (UA) [de

  13. Detection of radioactivity in scrap in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, E.; Thierfeldt, S.; Sefzig, R.; Weimer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Although Germany's scrap export exceeds the import, the imports of scrap amount to more than one million Mg per year. Radioactivity has been found mainly in imported scrap in Germany. This radioactivity can consist of surface contamination in scrap e.g. from the oil and gas industry, nuclear and other technical applications or of radiation sources, e.g. from medical or technical irradiation devices where the source has not been removed prior to scrapping. Fortunately really large sources have been involved in only very few occasions. More serious incidents have, however, been reported from other countries. Today, measurement facilities have been installed at the entrances to virtually all German foundries and larger scrap yards. These measurement facilities allow the swift measurement of whole lorry or freight car loads. The lower limit of detection is for some devices as low as ca. 5 nSv/h (dose rate increase above background at the detector) which is achieved by very advanced hardware and software. Additionally, simplified dose rate measurements are performed by German customs officials at the eastern borders for scrap loads to be imported into Germany. When activity is detected in a load, several options exist, like e.g.: (i) sending the scrap back to the sender; (ii) allowing the whole load to be melted down; (iii) careful unloading and separating the load with the aim of localizing and removing the contamination. This paper analyses these various options after detection, discusses the role of the competent authorities and evaluates the possible radiological consequences. Realistic dose calculations show that it is possible that a person may receive doses of several mSv or even 10 mSv if precautionary measures are neglected or if a larger source is not detected at all. This paper further addresses which types and amounts of radioactivity may be detected and which conclusions can be drawn from the dose rate at the detector. The continuous increase in the number

  14. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  15. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2009-01-01

    Off-site nuclear emergency response in Germany is divided into disaster response under the responsibility of the Laender and measures for precautionary radiation protection pursuant to the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act under the lead of federal authorities. Early countermeasures at the regional level require a different management than long-term and comprehensive actions of precautionary radiation protection. As situations may arise in which measures of both approaches overlap with regard to place and time, it is essential to make thorough preparations in order to avoid problems with implementation. (orig.)

  16. Situation concerning the HLW repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempert, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste has been defined in Germany as: maintenance-free, safe emplacement of radioactive waste, time unlimited and no intention of retrievability. The responsibility for final disposal lies in the hands of the German Federal Government, which has assigned a federal authority to plan, erect and operate the federal facilities for long-term storage of nuclear waste. The federal authority has in lack of industrial experience contracted my company DBE which is responsible for the engineering, erection and operation of all German nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  17. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, K.

    1998-01-01

    The regulatory programme governing the safe use of radioisotopes in Germany is based on the federal legislation enacted as Atomic Energy Control Act (Atomgesetz) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlen-schutzverordnung) and its implementation by the competent authorities of the individual states. Despite this highly decentralized infrastructure of enforcement the basic principles of regulations described in this paper such as authorization criteria, conditions imposed as well as depth and intensity of inspection balanced according to the individual radiation hazard involved are harmonized to the greatest possible extent by regular coordination among the competent authorities as well as a series of technical regulations such as standards and guidelines. (author)

  18. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E

    1978-04-01

    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  19. Fuels and alternative propulsion in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The transportation sector is one of the first responsible of the air pollution in Germany. The kyoto protocol and the european directive led the german Government to set about some measures. To encourage the petroleum industry to develop classical fuels/biofuels mixing, the government exempted from taxes until 2020 the biofuels part. The Government decided also financial incentives for diesel vehicles equipped with particles filters. Among the different fuels, the document presents the advantages and disadvantages of the hydrogen fuels and the hybrid motors. (A.L.B.)

  20. Management of nuclear liabilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The management of nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany is explored in this article. The intermediate storage and final disposal of spent fuels from the country's twenty nuclear power stations is discussed. Flexible solutions to the changing problems of nuclear fuel cycle economics are needed. Financing the back end of the nuclear power station lifetimes is currently underfunded. Monies should be accumulated during the plant's active life. The political, technical, legal and economic aspects of the nuclear industry must also be included. (UK)

  1. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henning Kappel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

  2. MADS Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  3. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  4. Web-users identification

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakov, Ilja

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to determine what parameters (of a browser fingerprint) are necessary in order to identify a user in a specific interval (number of users). The secondary goal is to try to assign fingerprints to users. The final goal is to find out the weight of each parameter (usefulness). The thesis consists of two main parts: data collection (up to 10000 users) and analysis of the data. As a result, with help of an implemented JavaScript plugin, a database, which consists of...

  5. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need...

  6. MLF user program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Takashi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2008-01-01

    The user program of J-PARC/MLF is overviewed. Since MLF will be one of the major neutron facilities in the world, an international standard system for the user program is expected. It is also expected to establish a system to promote users from industries. The MLF user program is based on the IUPAP recommendation on the selection of proposals. Both open and closed accesses, biannual, regular, rapid accesses, etc. will be provided. All the features in the system are being introduced to maximize both scientific and engineering outputs from MLF. (author)

  7. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  8. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  9. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  10. Report on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in Germany. The general technology underlying most aspects of NPP C and I in Germany has not altered since the last progress report although there has been many improvements in detail. Since the beginning of 1990 the GRS carried out the safety investigations of NPPs in East Germany. The USSR as the vendor of the plants and France were also involved in the project. The following fields are briefly described: Status of nuclear power in Germany; training simulators; backfitting of computers and information systems; operator support/new control rooms. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  11. West-East migration in Germany since 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Grit

    2011-01-01

    Not only did 2.5 million people migrate from East Germany to West Germany between 1991 and 2006, 1.5 million people also moved from West to East Germany. This counter-current movement took placed largely unnoticed by the public and researchers alike. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative data to first of all examine how the population structure in the New Länder has changed as a result of interregional migration between Länder in East and West Germany. It goes on to study the moti...

  12. Demonstrator 1: User Interface and User Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Describes the user interface and its functionality in a prototype system used for a virtual seminar session. The functionality is restricted to what is needed for a distributed seminar discussion among not too many people. The system is designed to work with the participants distributed at several...

  13. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Germany, Austria and dissolution of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the causes of dissolution/breakdown of Yugoslavia. The author first analyses writing of German and Austrian press which has, at the very beginning of the crisis, taken a strong anti-Serb standing, as in 1914 and 1941. Author then analyses the reasons that led Austrian and German diplomacy and governments to actively forging the crisis and then breaking down a sovereign country. Those reasons could be summarized as follows: German and Austrian revenge for two wars lost in these territories; improvement of conditions for fulfillment of old German dream to advance toward Middle East; in order to become a world power Germany 'had to' to annul some of the consequences of the First and Second World War on the symbolic level and acquire a possibility to test its powers, and breaking down Yugoslavia, with help of its internal allies Germany broke down its army without military engagement and removed an obstacle for advancement towards East.

  16. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firm and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET

  17. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  18. Nuclear energy research in Germany 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Research and development (R and D) in the fields of nuclear reactor safety and safety of nuclear waste and spent fuel management in Germany are carried out at research centers and, in addition, some 32 universities. In addition, industrial research is conducted by plant vendors, and research in plant and operational safety of power plants in operation is organized by operators and by organizations of technical and scientific research and expert consultant organizations. This summary report presents nuclear energy research conducted at research centers and universities in Germany in 2009, including examples of research projects and descriptions of the situation of research and teaching. These are the organizations covered: - Hermann von Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, responsibility of the former Karlsruhe Research Center), - Juelich Research Center (FZJ), - Nuclear Technology Competence Center East, - Dresden-Rossendorf Research Center (FZD), - Rossendorf Nuclear Process Technology and Analysis Association (VKTA), - Dresden Technical University, - Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Science, - Institute of Nuclear Energy and Energy Systems (IKE) of the University of Stuttgart. (orig.)

  19. EMI New User Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M

    2013-01-01

    This document provides pieces of information about new user communities that directly or indirectly take advantage of EMI Products. Each user community is described via one specific EMI product use case to understand and communicate the current usage of EMI Products in practice.

  20. Additional user needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorschach, H.E.; Hayter, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of a discussion group on users' needs held at the Workshop on an Advanced Steady-State Neutron Facility. The discussion was devoted to reactor characteristics, special facilities and siting considerations suggested by user needs. (orig.)

  1. Users in Persistant Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta; Varnes, Claus J.

    2012-01-01

    of the hybrid collective to include the press and distribution channels to want it back. All actors in collective actions can become lead users when supported by establishing alliances. This perspective is different from Von Hippel (1986) who is claiming that the trend needs to be defined before the lead users...

  2. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface e...

  3. Users are problem solvers!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Janse, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Most formal problem-solving studies use verbal protocol and observational data of problem solvers working on a task. In user-centred product-design projects, observational studies of users are frequently used too. In the latter case, however, systematic control of conditions, indepth analysis and

  4. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.

  5. User interface support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick

    1989-01-01

    Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.

  6. The PANTHER User Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coram, Jamie L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perkins, David Nikolaus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  7. TRAC User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Stumpf, H.; Lime, J.F.

    1985-11-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist users in applying the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC). TRAC is an advanced best-estimate systems code for analyzing transients in thermal-hydraulic systems. The code is very general. Because it is general, efforts to model specific nuclear power plants or experimental facilities often present a challenge to the TRAC user. This guide has been written to assist first-time or intermediate users. It is specifically written for the TRAC version designated TRAC-PF1/MOD1. The TRAC User's Guide should be considered a companion document to the TRAC Code Manual; the user will need both documents to use TRAC effectively. 18 refs., 45 figs., 19 tabs

  8. RADTRAN 4: User guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    RADTRAN 4 is used to evaluate radiological consequences of incident-free transportation, as well as the radiological risks from vehicular accidents occurring during transportation. This User Guide is Volume 3 in a series of four volume of the documentation of the RADTRAN 4 computer code for transportation risk analysis. The other three volumes are Volume 1, the Executive Summary; Volume 2, the Technical Manual; and Volume 4, the Programmer's Manual. The theoretical and calculational basis for the operations performed by RADTRAN 4 are discussed in Volume 2. Throughout this User Guide the reader will be referred to Volume 2 for detailed discussions of certain RADTRAN features. This User Guide supersedes the document ''RADTRAN III'' by Madsen et al. (1983). This RADTRAN 4 User Guide specifies and describes the required data, control inputs, input sequences, user options, program limitations, and other activities necessary for execution of the RADTRAN 4 computer code

  9. CD3 TRIGA users conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sixteenth European TRIGA Users Conference was held in Pitesti, Romania, on 25-28 September, 2000, under the sponsorship of the Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti. The papers which follow in this document are presented in the same order as listed in the Conference Program. All papers which were received for publication (44) have been included. Those papers which were presented but not received for publication are presented in abstract form (4 papers). It was very interesting for the Conference attendees from the West to learn about the large scope of excellent work conducted in Romania, especially at the Institute of Nuclear Research in Pitesti. Similarly, it was fortunate that a large attendance of Romanian researchers (53) from many institutes, universities, and government agencies could attend the Conference and interact with their counterparts from outside Romania. The European TRIGA9 Owners' Group was fortunate to be hosted by the owners and users of the world's largest TRIGA reactor - the 14-MW Romanian research and test reactor. The Opening Session talk was given by Radu Berceanu, Minister of Industries and Commerce. It was followed by the following presentations: R and D - Support for Nuclear Power Development by Ioan Rotaru (General Manager of SNNE); Overview of TRIGA Reactor and other Programs at GENERAL ATOMICS by Junaid Razvi (General Manager TRIGA Reactor at GA); Development strategies connected to National Power and Energy Program by Mircea Ionescu (Director Nuclear Energy Department of M.I.C.); Contribution of INR R and D Programs to Sustain Peaceful and Safe utilization of Nuclear Energy in Romania by Constantin Gheorghiu (Scientific Deputy Director at SCN). A Technical visit to TRIGA Reactor at INR Pitesti took place. Opening Session was followed by five sessions dedicated to the following subjects: Session 1 (8 papers) - TRIGA reactors operation, repair and maintenance; Session 2 (10 papers) - Future developments and future goals of

  10. Satellite communication from user to user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, Manfred

    Satellite communication systems which allow a multitude of user-to-user, point-to-point, and multipoint connections, are presented. The bit rates are 64 kbit/sec and multiples, up to 1.92 Mbit/sec. If required, the ground-stations are installed at the customer's site or at suitable locations in order to serve several customers. However, technical requirements for station location have also to be fulfulled, in order to avoid interference with terrestrial radio services. The increasing number of participants to Satellite Multi Service and INTELSAT Business Services imposes the solution of the problem of communication using cheap techniques. The changes of the German Federal Post Office also permit the economic use of satellite radio techniques for short distances.

  11. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  12. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  13. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  14. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  15. Renewable energies and energy transition in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures about the German national energy plan: the 2013 coalition contract and the 2014-2017 government priorities, the security of energy supplies and the reflections about an evolution of the existing mechanism, the legal aspects of the renewable energies support mechanism (EEG law and its amendments, 2014 law reform, goals, direct selling, bids solicitation, self-consumer EEG contribution, exemptions redesigning), the energy-mix comparison between Germany and France, the 2003-2013 evolution of the renewable power generation, the German photovoltaic and wind power parks (installed power, geographical distribution, capacity), and the evolution of electricity prices for the industry and for households between 1998 and 2013

  16. Radioactive waste management in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.

  17. Organisation of scientific research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhnaya Galina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the structure of research system in Germany. It describes the federal and state levels of research management. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF bears primary responsibility for science and technology policy at the federal level. At the state level, this responsible is shared by the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Economy. The author emphasizes the role of the National Academy of Sciences “Leopoldina”, whose principal objective is to provide advisory services to German policymakers and present German science at the international level. Special attention is paid to the wide spectrum of German research agents: public and private research organizations, higher education institutions, R&D departments of industrial companies. The article stresses the research potential of universities that receive funding under the Excellence Initiative and describes the contribution of production in research and development activities, focusing on the top ten German companies in terms of R&D expenditure.

  18. Nuclear air cleaning activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion is limited to nuclear air cleaning activities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Work is underway on containment venting with regard to filtration based on a combination of stainless steel roughing and fine filters with a decontamination factor similar to or better than that achieved with high-efficiency particulate air filters. The main point of interest is the development of relatively small filter units that can be located inside the containment. The concept of a new design for double containment having annular rooms between the steel containment and the concrete containment is discussed. Work related to the dismantling of decommissioned reactors and limited research for fuel reprocessing facilities are also noted

  19. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  20. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  1. Neuer Atheismus: New Atheism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zenk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Knutzen (born 1646 – died after 1674 was the first author we know of who self-identified as an atheist (Schröder 2010: 8. Before this, the term had solely been used pejoratively to label others. While Knutzen is almost completely forgotten now, authors such as Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, or Sigmund Freud are better remembered and might even be considered classic writers in the history of the atheist criticism of religion. Whatever may be said about the influence of any one of these authors, there is no doubt that Germany looks back on a notable history in this field. About a decade ago, Germany’s capital Berlin was even dubbed ‘the world capital of atheism’ by the American sociologist Peter L. Berger (2001: 195.Given this situation, I am bewildered by the expression ‘New Atheism’. Yet, undoubtedly, the term has become a catchphrase that is commonly used in the public discourse of several countries. The most prominent authors to be labelled ‘New Atheists’ are Richard Dawkins (The God Delusion, 2006, Daniel Dennett (Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon, 2006, Sam Harris (The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason, 2004, and Letter to a Christian Nation, 2006, and Christopher Hitchens (God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Every­thing, 2007. These authors and their books – all of them international bestsellers – have been intensely discussed around the world, including in Germany. In this paper, I intend to illuminate some of the characteristics and remarkable traits of the German discourse on the ‘New Atheism’. Here we can distinguish between two phases. The German media initially characterised ‘New Atheism’ as a rather peculiarly American phenomenon. However, it soon came to be understood to be a part of German culture as well.

  2. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  3. Germany's climate policy: Facing an automobile dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gössling, Stefan; Metzler, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Germany has one of the most ambitious climate policy goals worldwide, having pledged to reduce national emissions by 40% by 2020, and 80–95% by 2050 (base year: 1990). 2015 data suggests that progress on decarbonisation has slowed, also because emissions from the transport sector have grown. Road transport, which is contributing 20.5% to Germany's CO_2 emissions, has become a major obstacle to achieving the country's policy goals. This paper analyses energy use from road transport in order to provide a better understanding of emissions from this sub-sector. Data is derived from representative longitudinal household surveys as well as mobility and fuel diaries for the period 2002–2015. Analysis reveals significant growth in energy-inefficient car choices, as well as considerable differences in mobility patterns (distances driven, driving styles) and actual fuel consumption between car segments. Findings suggest that German transport policies will fail to deliver significant emission reductions if complexities in car model choices and use patterns are ignored. Both command-and-control and market-based measures will be needed to align the transport sector with climate goals, while persisting policy inconsistencies will also have to be addressed. Findings are of central relevance for EU-wide and global climate policy in the transport sector. - Highlights: • Emissions from German road transport have remained constant between 1990 and 2015. • Non-progress on transport decarbonisation is barrier to national mitigation goals. • Analysis shows that wide range of complexities are overlooked by government. • Policies need to consider car fleet segmentation and driving patterns. • Command-and-control as well as market-based measures needed.

  4. Strategy for decommissioning of NPP's in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittscher, D.; Sterner, H.

    2003-01-01

    According to German Atomic Law, two different strategies are possible, i.e. direct dismantling and safe enclosure before dismantling. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Taking into account the site and plant specific conditions the optimal strategy can be evaluated. Both approaches have been applied in Germany in the past. The German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Ordinance (June 2002) were adapted recently (July 2002). Additionally, the life operation time of the German NPP's was fixed in a new law (April 2002): Orderly Termination of the Commercial Production of Nuclear Electricity. These issues have made it necessary for the power utilities to review the strategies applied. As long as the final disposal in Germany is still an open issue, the construction of local Interim Stores is necessary to be able to dismantle a NPP. The basic strategies are not excluding each other and it seems clear today, that the optimal approach is a combination of these strategies, e.g. dismantling of all auxiliary systems and leaving activated parts for a longer SE period. Within this approach the advantages of both basic strategies have been integrated in one. The EWN GmbH has developed such integrated but still different approaches for the decommissioning projects of the Kernkraftwerke Greifswald (KGR) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) Juelich. It can be stated that the decommissioning of a NPP does not present technical issues of concern, but is more a project management issue, although surrounded by sometime intricate political and juridical boundary conditions. A major strategy change is to be expected only when final disposal capacities are available in the future. (authors)

  5. Game user experience evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhaupt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi

  6. Safety for Users

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  7. Safety for Users

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  8. Designing for user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  9. 10 Years of Native Seed Certification in Germany - a Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Ann Kareen; Wieden, Markus

    2018-06-21

    Many renaturation projects and compensation areas are based on the use of seeds from regional indigenous wild plants, in the following: native or regional seeds. Despite this, such seeds make up only a small proportion of the total number of seeds used for greening projects - in Germany, for example, it is only around 1% (= 200 t/yr). Although the market for regional seeds is small, it is highly competitive. High-priced native seeds compete with flower mixes of unspecified origin and can only be differentiated from them by reliable quality seals. A quality assurance system based on seed legislation (EU Directive 2010/60, preservation mixtures) has been developed in a few European countries. However, quality assurance ends with the sale of the seeds. Thus, seed use remains unmonitored and often unsuitable material, or material foreign to the region, is planted in restoration areas. Unfortunately, nature conservation has not made seed-based restoration one of its key issues, neither at the European, nor at the national level. Currently there are many different local and regional standards, methods and private certificates that are confusing for users and which provide little continuity and predictability for producers. We recommend the establishment of an EU directive or a broadly agreed recommendation to the EU member states, spearheaded by nature conservation, which would define the standards for producing and using native seeds (e.g. harmonized regions that cross national borders, quality regulations). At the same time, wild plant interest groups should combine existing structures in order to strengthen seed-based restoration through international cooperation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Persistent Educational Advantage Across Three Generations: Empirical Evidence for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziefle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP to analyze the persistence of educational attainment across three generations in Germany. I obtain evidence of a robust effect of grandparents' education on respondents' own educational attainment in West Germany, net of parental class, education, occupational status, family income, parents' relationship history, and family size. I also test whether the grandparent effect results from resource compensation or cumulative advantage and find empirical support for both mechanisms. In comparison, the intergenerational association between grandparents' and respondents' education is considerably weaker in East Germany and is also mediated completely by parental education. There are hardly any gender differences in the role of grandparents for respondents’ educational attainment, except for the fact that resource compensation is found to be exclusively relevant for women’s attainment in both West Germany and in East Germany after German reunification and the associated transition to an open educational system.

  11. Interrelationships between mortality and fertility in Germany: rural and urban Prussia and modern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, H; Zimmermann, K F

    1990-01-01

    "The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an influence on family decision making about demographic variables. Results show that there are indications for replacement motives, and that economic factors matter." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  12. User interface development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrawal, Bharat

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development of user interfaces for OS/2 versions of computer codes for the analysis of seals. Current status, new features, work in progress, and future plans are discussed.

  13. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  14. EPA User Personas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA's three web user personas (Information Consumer, Information Intermediary, and Information Interpreter) can help you identify appropriate top audiences and top tasks for a topic or web area.

  15. Bevalac user's handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment

  16. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  17. AVERT User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    AVERT is a flexible modeling framework with a simple user interface designed specifically to meet the needs of state air quality planners and other interested stakeholders. Use this guide to get started.

  18. EMAP Users Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Arnold; Redondo, Rory

    Presented is the user's manual for the Educational Manpower Information Sources Project (EMAP), an information file containing approximately 325 document abstracts related to the field of educational planning. (The EMAP file is described in document SP 006 747.) (JB)

  19. MINTEQ user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.; Hostetler, C.J.; Deutsch, W.J.; Cowan, C.E.

    1987-02-01

    This manual will aid the user in applying the MINTEQ geochemical computer code to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. The manual will provide a basic understanding of how the MINTEQ computer code operates and the important principles that are incorporated into the code and instruct a user of the MINTEQ code on how to create input files to simulate a variety of geochemical problems. Chapters 2 through 8 are for the user who has some experience with or wishes to review the principles important to geochemical computer codes. These chapters include information on the methodology MINTEQ uses to incorporate these principles into the code. Chapters 9 through 11 are for the user who wants to know how to create input data files to model various types of problems. 35 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Metadata: A user`s view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretherton, F.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Singley, P.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An analysis is presented of the uses of metadata from four aspects of database operations: (1) search, query, retrieval, (2) ingest, quality control, processing, (3) application to application transfer; (4) storage, archive. Typical degrees of database functionality ranging from simple file retrieval to interdisciplinary global query with metadatabase-user dialog and involving many distributed autonomous databases, are ranked in approximate order of increasing sophistication of the required knowledge representation. An architecture is outlined for implementing such functionality in many different disciplinary domains utilizing a variety of off the shelf database management subsystems and processor software, each specialized to a different abstract data model.

  1. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  2. Study tour to biomass gasifiers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoef, H.A.M.

    2000-12-01

    A study trip to a biomass gasification plant in Germany took place from 13-15 November 2000. The goal of the trip was to obtain information on German developments, experience, and possibilities in the field of biomass gasification. The participants were representatives of Dutch parties in the energy sector: waste sector, manufacturers, producers, policy makers and consultants. The most important feature was the visit to plants that were in operation. Due in particular to the new EEG (Emeuerbare-Energien-Gesetz/Renewable Energy) legislation, German policy makers have created an initial market for sustainable energy with a degree of success. The key feature is that EEG makes projects 'bankable' by guaranteeing a return delivery compensation. An EEG-type scheme designed to accelerate the development of sustainable energy could be an interesting instrument also for the Netherlands. The plan was to visit four plants and have a number of presentations in a period of three days. Preference was for relatively new plants with differing concepts. The following plants were visited and/or presented: 200-kWe CHP wood gasification plant, based on AHT technology, located at Domsland in Eckenfoerde; a 10,000 tonnes/year wood gasification plant, based on 'cupola furnace' technology of blast furnaces, located at Holzhausen near Leipzig; a 1-MWe wood gasification plant, based on Carbo-V technology, located at Freiberg; and finally a 23-MWe CBP wood gasification plant, also based on Juch technology, located at Siebenlehn. In clearly appears that Germany is ahead of the Netherlands in the realisation of gasification plants. Still, there are certain problems with the reliability of operation. The plants selected were relatively new (with the possible exception of Espenhain) and they are having too many teething problems. Sound insight has been obtained into the various concepts of decentralised energy generation from biomass and how this can be fitted into the existing infrastructure

  3. Market value-oriented gas pricing in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimermacher, T.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany, natural gas faces stiff competition from other types of energy. In many applications, natural gas is capable of replacing other fuels. In addition there is a growing gas-to-gas competition in some European countries, either through pipeline construction by a competitor as in Germany or by mandatory third-party access as in UK. Competition leads to market value-oriented energy pricing, which is particularly evident in Germany. For the consumer, this competitive situation ensures that natural gas can be obtained (and remains available in the long term) at competitive prices

  4. End User Development Toolkit for Developing Physical User Interface Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Daniel T; Palfi, Anders; Svendsen, Haakon Sønsteby

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tangible user interfaces and end user development are two increasingresearch areas in software technology. Physical representation promoteopportunities to ease the use of technology and reinforce personality traits ascreativeness, collaboration and intuitive actions. However, designing tangibleuser interfaces are both cumbersome and require several layers of architecture.End user development allows users with no programming experience to createor customize their own applications. ...

  5. Evaluating User Participation and User Influence in an Enterprise System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Does user influence have an impact on the data quality of an information systems development project? What decision making should users have? How can users effectively be engaged in the process? What is success? User participation is considered to be a critical success factor for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects, yet there is little…

  6. [Research funding for rare diseases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Frank; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2017-05-01

    There is high need for more research in the field of rare diseases. Not only must the causes and mechanisms of the numerous and often heterogeneous diseases be delineated, but criteria must also be defined for optimal stratification of patients for individualized therapies. In this context, research and innovative diagnostics are linked together more closely than in other fields of medicine. The early stages of disease-oriented research can be performed in individual institutions but, due to low numbers of patients, late translation and transfer into clinics requires multicentric and international collaboration. In Germany research on rare diseases takes place mostly in faculties of medicine at universities. Since the institutional financial support is very low, research grants have substantial significance. The German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are the main grant agencies for national projects, but foundations and patient advocacy groups also finance research to a certain extent. The ERA-Net "E-Rare" and the programs of the EU target primarily international cross-border projects and patient trials. All of these programs need to be adapted more efficiently to the particular needs of rare disease research. For national and international research projects on rare diseases, sufficient funds are needed but also sustainable interdisciplinary platforms and centers must be established in order to share expert knowledge and to implement complex programs such as proof-of-concept studies in humans.

  7. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  8. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  9. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  10. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  11. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  12. Country policy profile - Germany. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The German Government has initiated a long-term transformation of the entire energy system termed Energiewende. Besides the gradual phase-out of nuclear energy by 2022, one substantial element is the complete overhaul of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). On 1 August 2014 the EEG 2014 entered into force, representing a fundamental revision of the existing support scheme for renewable electricity, primarily for PV, wind and biomass. Beyond, Germany decided to phase out nuclear power from its generation mix by 2022 and to increase its share of renewable energy to 40-45% by 2025 and 55-60% by 2035. Renewable electricity is still supported through feed-in tariffs laid down in the EEG 2014 and low interest loans but from now on complemented by tendering procedures over the coming years. Renewable heating and cooling is supported by the regulations in the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWaermeG), the Market Incentive Programme (MAP) governed by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA) and low-interest loans offered via the KfW. Numerous support schemes are available for renewable heat on state (Laender) level. Renewable transport fuels are mainly supported by a quota system (bio-fuels Quota Act = Biokraftstoffquotengesetz - BiokraftQuG), and through fiscal regulation

  13. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  15. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    This book is an updated edition of the previous version from 2015. In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  16. Streamer Motives and User-Generated Content on Social Live-Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedlander, Mathilde B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three most popular information services, Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow, vicarious for all Social Live-Streaming Services (SLSSs, are investigated to analyze their streamers' motivations and the user-generated content. Additionally, we collected demographic data (gender and age. More than 7,500 streams by users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan were observed. Main streamer motivations on SLSSs are boredom, socializing, the need to reach a specific group, the need to communicate, and fun. Important content categories on all three SLSSs are chatting, sharing information, 24/7, and 'slice of life.' We were able to identify differences between users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan as well as between the users of Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow. The main motive to stream in the U.S. is to reach a specific group, while in Japan it is socializing, and in Germany boredom. The top content category for both, YouNow as well as Periscope, is to chat; on Ustream it is 24/7 (i.e., webcams.

  17. STAIRS User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadjokov, V; Dragulev, V; Gove, N; Schmid, H

    1976-10-15

    The STorage And Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) of IBM is described from the user's point of view. The description is based on the experimental use of STAIRS at the IAEA computer, with INIS and AGRIS data bases, from June 1975 to May 1976. Special attention is paid to what may be termed the hierarchical approach to retrieval in STAIRS. Such an approach allows for better use of the intrinsic data-base structure and, hence, contributes to higher recall and/or relevance ratios in retrieval. The functions carried out by STAIRS are explained and the communication language between the user and the system outlined. Details are given of the specific structure of the INIS and AGRIS data bases for STAIRS. The manual should enable an inexperienced user to start his first on-line dialogues by means of a CRT or teletype terminal. (author)

  18. STAIRS User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjokov, V.; Dragulev, V.; Gove, N.; Schmid, H.

    1976-10-01

    The STorage And Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) of IBM is described from the user's point of view. The description is based on the experimental use of STAIRS at the IAEA computer, with INIS and AGRIS data bases, from June 1975 to May 1976. Special attention is paid to what may be termed the hierarchical approach to retrieval in STAIRS. Such an approach allows for better use of the intrinsic data-base structure and, hence, contributes to higher recall and/or relevance ratios in retrieval. The functions carried out by STAIRS are explained and the communication language between the user and the system outlined. Details are given of the specific structure of the INIS and AGRIS data bases for STAIRS. The manual should enable an inexperienced user to start his first on-line dialogues by means of a CRT or teletype terminal. (author)

  19. End User Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Caroline; Lunn, Darren; Michailidou, Eleni

    As new technologies emerge, and Web sites become increasingly sophisticated, ensuring they remain accessible to disabled and small-screen users is a major challenge. While guidelines and automated evaluation tools are useful for informing some aspects of Web site design, numerous studies have demonstrated that they provide no guarantee that the site is genuinely accessible. The only reliable way to evaluate the accessibility of a site is to study the intended users interacting with it. This chapter outlines the processes that can be used throughout the design life cycle to ensure Web accessibility, describing their strengths and weaknesses, and discussing the practical and ethical considerations that they entail. The chapter also considers an important emerging trend in user evaluations: combining data from studies of “standard” Web use with data describing existing accessibility issues, to drive accessibility solutions forward.

  20. GRSAC Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model

  1. GRSAC Users Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  2. Prototype development of user specific climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Systematic consultations in the last years with representatives from sectors particularly affected by climate change have helped the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) to identify the most pressing needs of stakeholders from public and private sectors. Besides the development of innovative climate service products and methods, areas are also identified, for which intensive research activities have to be initiated. An example is the demand of decision makers for high-resolution climate change information needed at regional to local levels for their activities towards climate change adaptation. For questions concerning adaptation to climate change, no standard solutions can be provided. Different from mitigation measures, adaptation measures must be framed in accordance with the specific circumstances prevailing in the local situation. Here, individual solutions, which satisfy the individual requirements and needs, are necessary. They have to be developed in close co-operation with the customers and users. For example, the implications of climate change on strategic and operative decisions, e.g. in enterprises and urban planning, are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, high-quality consultancy for businesses and public administration is needed, in order to support decision makers in identifying associated risks and opportunities. For the development of prototype products, GERICS has framed a general methodological approach, including the idea generation, the iterative development, and the prototype testing in co-development with the user. High process transparency and high product quality are prerequisite for the success of a product. The co-development process ensures the best possible communication of user tailored climate change information for different target groups.

  3. International design competition - Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb - Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)

    2007-11-15

    Following its great success last year, Formula Student Germany made an even more impressive impact at the second competition held at the Hockenheimring in 2007. This time, 1400 students from 14 nations came together to present the results of their development work to 5000 visitors and sponsors. At the end, the competition was won by the team from the University of Stuttgart - and ATZ/MTZ would like to congratulate them on their victory. The special character of Formula Student, however, means that everyone has something to celebrate. The enthusiasm and commitment of the teams not only resulted in exciting racing cars and innovative overall designs but also in a fantastic atmosphere. (orig.)

  4. HANARO user support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Kim, Y. J.; Seong B.S. [and others

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to support external user for the promotion of HANARO common utilization effectively. To do this, external manpower was recruited and trained. Also, in order to find out and cultivate HANARO user, practice-oriented education was done. The total number of project selected as the promotion of HANARO common utilization was 31 in this year. These composed of four fields such as neutron beam utilization, materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production. In each field, the numbers of project were 17, 7, 4 and 3 respectively. At first, from a selected project of view, supporting ratio by external manpower was reached to the 58%, that is, 18 out of 31 project was supported. In each field, it was 82% for neutron beam utilization and 100% for neutron activation analysis. Also, from the utilization time point of view, supporting ratio of external manpower was reached to 30% for neutron beam utilization and 59% for neutron activation analysis. Otherwise, supporting ratio by manpower in KAERI was reached to 97%, that is, 30 out of 31 project was supported. Also, from the utilization time point of view, total supporting ratio was reached to 15%. In each field, it was 20% for neutron beam utilization, 18% for materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, 20% for neutron activation analysis and 6% for radioisotope production. In order to contribute finding and cultivating of HANARO potential user and increase utilization ratio of HANARO experimental facility, practice-oriented HANARO user education has been done. At first, 32 participants from industries, universities, institutes were educated and practiced on HRPD/SANS instrument in the field of neutron beam utilization. Otherwise, in order to support external user effectively, external manpower were trained. Also, more effective support for external user could be possible through the grasping difficulty and problem on the performance of project

  5. HANARO user support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Kim, Y. J.; Seong B.S.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to support external user for the promotion of HANARO common utilization effectively. To do this, external manpower was recruited and trained. Also, in order to find out and cultivate HANARO user, practice-oriented education was done. The total number of project selected as the promotion of HANARO common utilization was 31 in this year. These composed of four fields such as neutron beam utilization, materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production. In each field, the numbers of project were 17, 7, 4 and 3 respectively. At first, from a selected project of view, supporting ratio by external manpower was reached to the 58%, that is, 18 out of 31 project was supported. In each field, it was 82% for neutron beam utilization and 100% for neutron activation analysis. Also, from the utilization time point of view, supporting ratio of external manpower was reached to 30% for neutron beam utilization and 59% for neutron activation analysis. Otherwise, supporting ratio by manpower in KAERI was reached to 97%, that is, 30 out of 31 project was supported. Also, from the utilization time point of view, total supporting ratio was reached to 15%. In each field, it was 20% for neutron beam utilization, 18% for materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, 20% for neutron activation analysis and 6% for radioisotope production. In order to contribute finding and cultivating of HANARO potential user and increase utilization ratio of HANARO experimental facility, practice-oriented HANARO user education has been done. At first, 32 participants from industries, universities, institutes were educated and practiced on HRPD/SANS instrument in the field of neutron beam utilization. Otherwise, in order to support external user effectively, external manpower were trained. Also, more effective support for external user could be possible through the grasping difficulty and problem on the performance of project

  6. Natural User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara , António

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Informática apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra This project’s main subject are Natural User Interfaces. These interfaces’ main purpose is to allow the user to interact with computer systems in a more direct and natural way. The popularization of touch and gesture devices in the last few years has allowed for them to become increasingly common and today we are experiencing a transition of interface p...

  7. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  8. IMAGE User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehfest, E; De Waal, L; Oostenrijk, R.

    2010-09-15

    This user manual contains the basic information for running the simulation model IMAGE ('Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment') of PBL. The motivation for this report was a substantial restructuring of the source code for IMAGE version 2.5. The document gives concise content information about the submodels, tells the user how to install the program, describes the directory structure of the run environment, shows how scenarios have to be prepared and run, and gives insight in the restart functionality.

  9. Who are your users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Salminen, joni; Jung, Soon-Gyo

    2017-01-01

    One of the reasons for using personas is to align user understandings across project teams and sites. As part of a larger persona study, at Al Jazeera English (AJE), we conducted 16 qualitative interviews with media producers, the end users of persona descriptions. We asked the participants about...... their understanding of a typical AJE media consumer, and the variety of answers shows that the understandings are not aligned and are built on a mix of own experiences, own self, assumptions, and data given by the company. The answers are sometimes aligned with the data-driven personas and sometimes not. The end...

  10. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  11. MERBoard User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Shab, Ted; Vera, Alonso; Gaswiller, Rich; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An important goal of MERBoard is to allow users to quickly and easily share information. The front-end interface is physically a large plasma computer display with a touch screen, allowing multiple people to interact shoulder-to-shoulder or in a small meeting area. The software system allows people to interactively create digital whiteboards, browse the web, give presentations and connect to personal computers (for example, to run applications not on the MERBoard computer itself). There are four major integrated applications: a browser; a remote connection to another computer (VNC); a digital whiteboard; and a digital space (MERSpace), which is a digital repository for each individual user.

  12. MBN Explorer Users' Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Sushko, Gennady; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    The MBN Explorer Users' Guide describes how to install and to run MBN Explorer, the software package for advanced multiscale simulations of complex molecular structure and dynamics. This guide includes the description of the main features and the algorithms of the program, the manual how to use...... simulations of structure and dynamics of a broad range of systems with the sizes from the atomic up to the mesoscopic scales. MBN Explorer is being developed and distributed by MBN Research Center, www.mbnresearch.com, which organises hands-on tutorials for the software, user's workshops and conferences....

  13. Overview of long-term field experiments in Germany - metadata visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqit Zoarder, Md Abdul; Heinrich, Uwe; Svoboda, Nikolai; Grosse, Meike; Hierold, Wilfried

    2017-04-01

    BonaRes ("soil as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy") is conducting to collect data and metadata of agricultural long-term field experiments (LTFE) of Germany. It is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the umbrella of the National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030. BonaRes consists of ten interdisciplinary research project consortia and the 'BonaRes - Centre for Soil Research'. BonaRes Data Centre is responsible for collecting all LTFE data and regarding metadata into an enterprise database upon higher level of security and visualization of the data and metadata through data portal. In the frame of the BonaRes project, we are compiling an overview of long-term field experiments in Germany that is based on a literature review, the results of the online survey and direct contacts with LTFE operators. Information about research topic, contact person, website, experiment setup and analyzed parameters are collected. Based on the collected LTFE data, an enterprise geodatabase is developed and a GIS-based web-information system about LTFE in Germany is also settled. Various aspects of the LTFE, like experiment type, land-use type, agricultural category and duration of experiment, are presented in thematic maps. This information system is dynamically linked to the database, which means changes in the data directly affect the presentation. An easy data searching option using LTFE name, -location or -operators and the dynamic layer selection ensure a user-friendly web application. Dispersion and visualization of the overlapping LTFE points on the overview map are also challenging and we make it automatized at very zoom level which is also a consistent part of this application. The application provides both, spatial location and meta-information of LTFEs, which is backed-up by an enterprise geodatabase, GIS server for hosting map services and Java script API for web application development.

  14. Perspectives on User Satisfaction Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    2001-01-01

    Discusses academic libraries, digital environments, increasing competition, the relationship between service quality and user satisfaction, and user surveys. Describes the SERVQUAL model that measures service quality and user satisfaction in academic libraries; considers gaps between user expectations and managers' perceptions of user…

  15. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  17. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  18. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  19. Redundancy proves its worth in FR Germany [emergency power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of loss of power events at nuclear power stations in FR Germany has confirmed the data used in the German risk study and underlined the advantages of providing a high degree of redundancy in emergency power supplies. (author)

  20. NP issues in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.

    1994-01-01

    Status of nuclear energy production in Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Measures to qualify continuing operation of nuclear power plants and research activities on reactor materials aging studying are described

  1. Are CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany.

  2. Germany, Japan and the De-Baathification of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    ... since the occupations of Japan and Germany at the end of World War II." These plans include trials for Saddam's "key" senior officials, backed by a "truth and reconciliation" process to "publicly shame but not necessarily punish, human rights violators...

  3. The School-HE Interface in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithals, F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concerns and problems associated with the secondary school-higher education interface in West Germany. Reviews reform efforts and attempts at problem resolution with specific emphasis on physics instruction. (ML)

  4. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Zimbal, A.; Busch, F.; Jordan, M.; Eichelberger, A.; Engelhardt, J.; Martini, E.; Figel, M.; Haninger, T.; Frasch, G.; Guenther, K.; Seifert, R.; Rimpler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples. (authors)

  5. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  6. Personal lifelong user model clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Kay, Judy; Kummerfeld, Bob

    This paper explores an architecture for very long term user modelling, based upon personal user model clouds. These ensure that the individual's applications can access their model whenever it is needed. At the same time, the user can control the use of their user model. So, they can ensure...... which combines both. Finally we discuss implications of our approach for consistency and freshness of the user model information....... it is accessed only when and where they wish, by applications that they wish. We consider the challenges of representing user models so that they can be reused by multiple applications. We indicate potential synergies between distributed and centralised user modelling architectures, proposing an architecture...

  7. The extent and impact of outsourcing: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Craig P. Aubuchon; Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Sumon Bhaumik

    2012-01-01

    The authors use data from several sources, including plant-level data from the manufacturing sector in Germany, to expand the literature on outsourcing. They find that, in Germany, the extent of outsourcing among manufacturing industries is higher than among service industries and that the outsourcing intensity of these industries did not change much between 1995 and 2005. They also find a statistically significantly positive impact of industry-level outsourcing intensity on German plant-leve...

  8. Inequality-adjusted gender wage differentials in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Selezneva, Ekaterina; Van Kerm, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper exploits data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to re-examine the gender wage gap in Germany on the basis of inequality-adjusted measures of wage differentials which fully account for gender differences in pay distributions. The inequality-adjusted gender pay gap measures are significantly larger than suggested by standard indicators, especially in East Germany. Women appear penalized twice, with both lower mean wages and greater wage inequality. A hypothetical risky inve...

  9. The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Venus, Thomas J.; Wesseler, Justus H H

    2017-01-01

    for farmers in their cultivation decisions, and therefore it is important to measure these costs. In this article, we investigate the costs of different coexistence measures for farmers in Germany. Currently, GM crop cultivation is outlawed in Germany, but there was a short period from 2005-2008 when...... that there are important differences in farm characteristics and overall landscape configuration that influence the costs or burden of coexistence measures....

  10. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  11. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena L. Hilchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  12. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  13. Transport of radioactive waste in Germany - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1995-01-01

    The transport of radioactive waste is centralised and coordinated by the German Railway Company (Deutsche Bahn AG, DB) in Germany. The conditioning of radioactive waste is now centralised and carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Nucklear Service (GNS). The Germany Railway Company, DB, is totally and exclusively responsible for the transport, the GNS is totally and exclusively responsible for the conditioning of radioactive waste. The German Railway Company transports all radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, conditioning facilities and the existing intermediate storage facilities in Germany. In 1992 nearly 177 shipments of radioactive waste were carried out, in 1991 the total amount was 179 shipments. A brief description of the transport procedures, the use of different waste packages for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and the transport routes within Germany will be given. For this purpose the inspection authorities in Germany have used a new documentation system, a special computer program for waste flow tracking and quality assurance and compliance assurance, developed by the electrical power companies in Germany. (Author)

  14. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. [Quality of surgical continuing education in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorg, J; Hassan, I; Fendrich, V; Polonius, M J; Rothmund, M; Langer, P

    2005-03-11

    One of the reasons for young doctors to leave the clinical work to go abroad or into non-clinical fields is insufficient quality of training under bad circumstances. Aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical training in Germany from the viewpoint of the residents. A questionnaire was prepared by residents and consultants and approved by the German surgical societies (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie und Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgen). It was sent to surgical residents between June 2003 and June 2004, published in "Der Chirurg BDC" and distributed among residents taking part in courses conducted by the BDC. It could be answered anonymously by email, mail or online. The questionnaire was sent back by 584 surgical residents (about 30 % of all). 58 % of the residents declared that they finished the training in the intended time (6 years). Rotation-systems as part of a structured residency program existed for 43 %. Standard surgical procedures were discussed or explained before the procedure in only 46 %. 61 % of the residents were not satisfied with the teaching assistance by their clinical teachers in the OR. Only 33 % had regular talks with the Chief about their progress in surgical training. 18 % of residents felt, that the hospital is interested in their progress in training. Indication-conferences took place in 52 % and mortality-conferences in only 20 % of programs. Regular seminars on recent issues took place in 62 %, and 61 % of residents did not get financial support to attend congresses. 36 % of residents had to use their holidays to attend congresses. Surgical training structures are not well established in about 50 % of the training hospitals from where we got answers to our survey. The training potential of daily surgical work is not used appropriately. It is therefore imperative to develop guidelines for surgical training, the use of log-books and rotation-programs.

  16. Germany, an industrialized country, and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wartenberg, L. v.

    2001-01-01

    The question of the future of nuclear power in Germany, and the agreement between the federal government and industry of June 14, 2000 about the future operation of plants, are important far beyond the confines of this sector of industry. In times of economic globalization and of competition among national economies, questions of location have become key issues in meeting future challenges. For this purpose, there must be more freedom for the economy; entrepreneurial action must be regarded as a positive duty to be fulfilled by society. Personal responsibility and competition, with room for self-responsibility, must not be hampered further by interventions and red tape. This applies to all sectors of the economy, in particular to the power supply sector, as is borne out by the current debate about the quota regulations for cogeneration systems (CHP). Social justice, one of the most important unifying forces in this modern society, must be interpreted as solidarity. This solidarity must be sought also in an international context. Supplying the basic necessities to all inhabitants of this earth requires all sources of energy, also in the interest of achieving sustainability. This term should be interpreted, above and beyond its meaning in environmental protection, as a concept in all areas of politics, implying that the future must be taken into account in all decisions made today. In the light of the problems associated with establishing a worldwide sustainable power supply system, inter alia meeting the objectives of climate protection, continuity of supply, and economic viability, there is no way around nuclear power. Free decisions are required in the sense of sustainable economic management, and the political boundary conditions must be created for this to be possible. (orig.) [de

  17. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  18. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  19. User's guide for ICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.K.

    1976-07-01

    ICE is a cross-section mixing code which will accept cross sections from an AMPX working library and produce mixed cross sections in the AMPX working library format, ANISN format, and the group-independent ANISN format. User input is in the free-form or fixed-form FIDO structure. The code is operable as a module in the AMPX system

  20. SALOME. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastrow, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    A user's guide for a least squares fit analysis program is presented, which has been developed for VUV and visible plasma spectroscopy on the Extrap-T1 experiment. The program can be used for line and multiplet identification, multiplet intensity and line width measurements. Atomic data are used extensively to aid the interpretation of the spectra. 7 figs

  1. Power User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  2. 16. ESRF users meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coraux, J.; Renevier, H.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Daudin, B.; Proietti, M.G.; Renaud, G.; Fowler, B.; Mercer, D.L.; Omar, A.H.; Thompson, P.; Markovic, N.M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Lucas, C.A.; Andrejczuk, A.; Kwiatkowska, J.; Dobrzynski, L.; Zukowski, E.; Bellin, Ch.; Loupias, G.; Shukla, A.; Buslaps, Th.; Stankov, S.; Sladecek, M.; Slezak, T.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Sepiol, B.; Vogl, G.; Chumakov, A.; Ruffer, R.; Hermann, R.P.; Grandjean, F.; Schweika, W.; Long, G.J.; Leupold, O.; Belrhall, H.; Caserotto, H.; Dauvergne, F.; Geoffroy, L.; Guljarro, M.; Launer, L.; Levault, B.; Walsh, M.; Beckers, M.; Schell, N.; Martins, R.M.S.; Mucklich, A.; Moller, W.; Silva, R.J.C.; Mahesh, K.K.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Tejas, Parikh; Neil, Fellows; Durodola, J.; Slawinski, W.; Przenioslo, R.; Sosnowska, I.; Suard, E.

    2006-01-01

    This document gathers the posters that were presented during the poster session of this workshop. These posters highlight the results obtained by ESRF'users in different fields such as surface structure, Compton scattering studies, localized vibrational modes in thermoelectric materials, Ni-Ti thin films, residual stresses in superconducting wires, and changes in crystal and magnetic structure of NdFeO 3

  3. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    covers the opposite view, where a company actively searches and involves lead users, however, with limited success also. Based on both cases, we analyze how, in these emerging processes of relating, meaning is co-created in a way that narrows the shared conceptual space for imagination and collaboration...

  4. Engaging with users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    with the biggest sense organ – our skin. Thus, the aim of our research is to develop new dialogue tools for teaching fashion and textile students in order to stimulate new ways of thinking and engaging with users. By developing and employing participatory design methods in the field of fashion and textiles, we...

  5. Governing the water user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, Edwin; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a policy shift that makes the ‘water user’ the main subject of water governance. From a Foucauldian perspective on governmentality these new subjectivities accompany neo-liberal governmental technologies to devolve autonomy from state institutions to an active user base, whilst

  6. User Centric Policy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  7. CONSUME: users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  8. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  9. TRANS-USERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to redesign production and business processes to accommodate for users' requirements (Maisons MACCHI), and the client as driver of innovation on the construction and renovation of the low budget hotel brand Formule 1 of ACCOR Hotels. In the third part, the discussion and conclusion addresses three interlinked...

  10. Users Office - Removal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    As of 8 December 2010 and until the end of February 2011, the Users Office will move from Bldg. 60. New Location : Bldg. 510-R-033 Opening Hours: Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday : 08.30 – 12.30 Monday to Friday: 14.00 – 16.00 Closed Wednesday mornings.

  11. Adaptive user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing and building adaptive user interfaces developed in the large AID project undertaken by the contributors.Key Features* Describes one of the few large-scale adaptive interface projects in the world* Outlines the principles of adaptivity in human-computer interaction

  12. Editorial Library: User Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Cecily J.

    This report presents the findings of a survey conducted by the editorial library of the Los Angeles Times to measure usage and satisfaction with library service, provide background information on library user characteristics, collect information on patterns of use of the Times' clipping files, relate data on usage and satisfaction parameters to…

  13. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  14. CANAL user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faya, A.; Wolf, L.; Todreas, N.

    1979-11-01

    CANAL is a subchannel computer program for the steady-state and transient thermal hydraulic analysis of BWR fuel rod bundles. The purpose of this manual is to introduce the user into the mechanism of running the code by providing information about the input data and options

  15. GERTS GQ User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Y.; And Others

    This user's manual for the simulation program Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) GQ contains sections on nodes, branches, program input description and format, and program output, as well as examples. Also included is a programmer's manual which contains information on scheduling, subroutine descriptions, COMMON Variables, and…

  16. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  17. AELIB user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.E.; Klawitter, G.L.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an updatable manual for users of AELIB, the AECL Library of FORTRAN-callable routines for the CRNL CDC 6600/CYBER 170 system. It provides general advice on the use of this library and detailed information on the selection and usage of particular library routines

  18. Our Deming Users' Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinklocker, Christina

    1992-01-01

    After training in the Total Quality Management concept, a suburban Ohio school district created a Deming Users' Group to link agencies, individuals, and ideas. The group has facilitated ongoing school/business collaboration, networking among individuals from diverse school systems, mentoring and cooperative learning activities, and resource…

  19. OASIS User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bojtar, L

    2009-01-01

    The OASIS system has been operational for years now. After a long development the project has reached a state where the number of features it provides exceeds largely what most of its users knows about. The author felt it was time to write a user manual explaining all the functionality of the viewer application. This document is a user manual, concentrating on the functionality of the viewer from the user’s point of view. There are already documents available on the project’s web site about the technical aspects at http://project-oasis.web.cern.ch/project-oasis/presentations.htm . There was an attempt to produce a tutorial on the viewer, but it didn’t get much further than the table of contents, that however is well thought. The structure of this user manual follows the same principle, the basic and most often used features are grouped together. Advanced or less often used features are described in a separate chapter. There is a second organizational principle, features belong to different levels: chann...

  20. Educating the Music User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  1. Culture-related differences in aspects of behavior for virtual characters across Germany and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Integrating culture as a parameter into the behavioral models of virtual characters in order to simulate cultural differences is becoming more and more popular. But do these differences affect the user's perception? In the work described in this paper, we integrated aspects of non-verbal behavior...... as well as communication management behavior into the behavior of virtual characters for the two cultures of Germany and Japan. We give a literature review pointing out the expected differences in these two cultures and describe the analysis of a multi-modal corpus including video recordings of German...... and Japanese interlocutors. After integrating our findings into a demonstrator featuring a German and a Japanese scenario, we presented the virtual scenarios to human observers of the two target cultures in order to find out their preferences....

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in ground level air and precipitation in South Germany from 1976 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-08-01

    The activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and of Be-7 in ground level air and precipitation have been determined by the Institut fuer Strahlenschutz at Munich-Neuherberg since 1970. While methods and results from 1970 to 1975 have been published in a previous report, the present report describes the revised program which includes now the naturally occurring nuclides Pb-210 and Po-210, as well as H-3. Sampling methods, analytical techniques and measuring procedures are given. The results up to the end of 1982 are reported and seasonal and long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations as well as frequency distributions of the data are discussed. The data are compared with those of other stations. As a consequence of some recent atmospheric nuclear test explosions by the People's Republic of China also short-lived radionuclides have been detected in ground level air and precipitation. The radiation exposure due to the radioactivity in ground level air and precipitation is estimated. (orig.)

  3. SHARP User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rahaman, Ronald O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  4. SHARP User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y. Q.; Shemon, E. R.; Thomas, J. W.; Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Rahaman, Ronald O.; Solberg, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  5. Operation experience at the Neuherberg Research Reactor (FRN) with several modifications of reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmeler, M; Rau, G [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1974-07-01

    Since the first full power operation in September 1972 up till now (Dec. 1973) the TRIGA Mark III reactor FRN has run more than 500 MWh in steady state operation and has been pulsed for 265 times. During startup experiments, neutron- and gamma-flux mapping has been performed with special technical devices in the core and in several irradiation positions, mainly in the thermal column and in the exposure room. Furthermore reactivity values of each fuel element have been measured at full power of 1 MW, thus enabling a more accurate burnup calculation. Troubles with the rotary specimen rack occurred at power rates above 280 kW; here, the lazy susan stuck, caused by thermal stress. Thus it will be replaced by a hydraulic-operated type, which has been developed at the TRIGA reactor Heidelberg. In order to increase irradiation capacity, a new core configuration has been set up a few months ago, replacing several fuel-reflector-elements by irradiation tubes within the grid-plate positions E-22, G-2, G-17 and G-36. Four additional fuel elements had to be inserted to compensate for the resulting reactivity losses. The original plan of regaining sufficient excess-reactivity by inserting a fuel element in grid-plate position A-l failed because of local boiling in the center of the core by 1 MW-operation. Experiments at the reactor started with the begin of routine-operation in September 1973. Up till now, a total of 450 neutron- and gamma- irradiations have been performed, mainly for neutron-activations. (author)

  6. Studies of airborne and deposited radionuclides at the GSF Research Center at Neuherberg near Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The sampling site and the currently used procedures of sample collection and analysis are sketched briefly. Typical monthly sample sizes are several 100000 cubic meters of air, and total deposition samples from 1 m 2 surface area. The analysis includes gamma spectrometry (e.g. of 7 Be, 137 Cs, 210 Pb) as well as radiochemical analysis with subsequent alpha spectrometry (e.g. of Pu, U, 210 Po) or beta counting (e.g. of 90 Sr, 210 Pb). Some recent results on Chernobyl-derived radionuclides are presented and compared to earlier observations. The role of resuspension and the influence of other parameters such as the stagnation index or the wind velocity on the observed activity concentrations are discussed. (author)

  7. Studies of airborne and deposited radionuclides at the GSF Research Center at Neuherberg near Munich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [GSF Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The sampling site and the currently used procedures of sample collection and analysis are sketched briefly. Typical monthly sample sizes are several 100000 cubic meters of air, and total deposition samples from 1 m{sup 2} surface area. The analysis includes gamma spectrometry (e.g. of {sup 7}Be, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb) as well as radiochemical analysis with subsequent alpha spectrometry (e.g. of Pu, U, {sup 210}Po) or beta counting (e.g. of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb). Some recent results on Chernobyl-derived radionuclides are presented and compared to earlier observations. The role of resuspension and the influence of other parameters such as the stagnation index or the wind velocity on the observed activity concentrations are discussed. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs.

  8. Observing the user experience a practitioner's guide to user research

    CERN Document Server

    Kuniavsky, Mike; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The gap between who designers and developers imagine their users are, and who those users really are can be the biggest problem with product development. Observing the User Experience will help you bridge that gap to understand what your users want and need from your product, and whether they'll be able to use what you've created. Filled with real-world experience and a wealth of practical information, this book presents a complete toolbox of techniques to help designers and developers see through the eyes of their users. It provides in-depth coverage of 13 user experience research techniques

  9. New Users | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Users Becoming a Core Facilities User The following steps are applicable to anyone who would like to become a user of the CCR SAXS Core facilities. All users are required to follow the Core Facilty User Polices.

  10. Climate-relevant monitorings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metternich, P.

    1993-01-01

    This catalogue contains so-called meta-data; i.e. information on data. For each measuring programme or set of data, users find the address (postal address, telephone, fax-number) of the respective contact person at the beginning of the entry. The catalogue has three parts: Part A is a compilation of monitoring programmes using conventional methods adopted on the ground. Part B contains research programmes or sets of data from the field of remote sensing. In part C, data sets from time series of climate-relevant parameters are described. Section A was additionally structured according so the compartments of the climate system: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere. (orig./KW) [de

  11. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  12. Identifying online user reputation in terms of user preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Identifying online user reputation is significant for online social systems. In this paper, taking into account the preference physics of online user collective behaviors, we present an improved group-based rating method for ranking online user reputation based on the user preference (PGR). All the ratings given by each specific user are mapped to the same rating criteria. By grouping users according to their mapped ratings, the online user reputation is calculated based on the corresponding group sizes. Results for MovieLens and Netflix data sets show that the AUC values of the PGR method can reach 0.9842 (0.9493) and 0.9995 (0.9987) for malicious (random) spammers, respectively, outperforming the results generated by the traditional group-based method, which indicates that the online preference plays an important role for measuring user reputation.

  13. GANDALF: users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strout, R.E. II; Beach, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The GANDALF computer code was written to calculate neutron dose equivalent given the pulse-height data obtained by using a Linear Energy Transfer (LET) proportional counter. The code also uses pre- and/or post-calibration spectra, from an alpha source, to determine a calibration factor in keV/μ/channel. Output from the code consists of the effective radius of the detection chamber in microns, a calibration factor in keV/μ/channel, and the total dose and dose equivalent in rad or rem between any two LET energies by using the equations by Attix and Roesch [Radiation Dosimetry, 1, 71 (1968)]. This report is a user's manual and is not intended as anything else, and assumes that the user has a basic knowledge of the LLL Octopus timesharing system. However, a very brief description of how the code operates is included

  14. TEBASCO user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.; Kaiser, T.B.; LoDestro, L.; Maron, N.; Nevins, W.M.; Willmann, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    TEBASCO is a Tandem mirror Equilibrium and BAllooning Stability COde. TEBASCO allows you to compute tandem-mirror MHD equilibria and to analyze both the flute-averaged and ballooning-mode stability of these equilibria. This stability analysis is directed toward the computation of marginal stability boundaries. Users of TEBASCO require a binary output file from the EFFI code which describes the vacuum magnetic field. In making this EFFI file the user will have defined a system of units for lengths (e.g., meters) and magnetic field (e.g., Tesla). In TEBASCO, all magnetic field strengths are normalized to the vacuum center-cell midplane value, and times are defined in units of the time for an Alfven wave in this field to transit one EFFI unit of length

  15. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  16. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group - FI Department

    2005-01-01

    The Farnell catalogue can now be accessed from the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue. Users can order Farnell equipment as well as standard Stores equipment at the same time using a single document, the EDH Materials Request form. The Materials Request form offers users items from both the internal 'Stores' catalogue and the external 'Farnell' catalogue, all of which may be ordered on the same form. The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Farnell equipment to Farnell. The delivery time is 48 hours in both cases. Requests for materials are routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  17. COLETTE users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heenan, R.W.; King, S.M.; Osborn, R.; Stanley, H.B.

    1989-12-01

    This guide describes the computer program COLETTE. It has been purposely designed to reduce the small-angle data collected on the ISIS small-angle neutron camera LOQ in an interactive and user-friendly manner. This not only gives the LOQ user an opportunity to inspect data rapidly and comprehensively during the course of an experiment but also provides the instrument scientists with a flexible diagnostic tool with which they can monitor the performance of the instrument. After the experiment is completed, COLETTE may be used to provide the final I(Q) versus Q following subtraction of a sample background run and normalisation to a scattering standard. By limiting the range of azimuthal angles included in the analysis the program may take sections through an anisotropic scattering pattern from an ordered system. A completely two dimensional I(Q x ,Q y ) map may also be generated. (author)

  18. Users' requirements for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Jitsukawa, S.; Ehrlich, K.; Moeslang, A.

    1998-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a high energy neutron irradiation facility which generates an intense neutron flux with D-Li stripping reactions for fusion materials testing. The role of IFMIF is (1) development of various fusion reactor materials, (2) determination of design-relevant engineering databases for the DEMO fusion reactor, (3) calibration and validation of data generated from fission reactor irradiations and the other simulation experiments, etc. The conceptual design activity (CDA) of IFMIF was initiated in February 1995 as an IEA collaborative activity to complete a reference conceptual design of IFMIF in December 1996. Users' requirements for the conceptual design of IFMIF were developed for materials to be tested, types of experiments, small specimen test technology and irradiation conditions. Furthermore, the neutron irradiation field characteristics (spectrum, flux/volume, etc.) of IFMIF were evaluated for the conceptual design parameters and were shown to meet the essential requirements of the users. (orig.)

  19. CSTEM User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, M.; McKnight, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    This manual is a combination of a user manual, theory manual, and programmer manual. The reader is assumed to have some previous exposure to the finite element method. This manual is written with the idea that the CSTEM (Coupled Structural Thermal Electromagnetic-Computer Code) user needs to have a basic understanding of what the code is actually doing in order to properly use the code. For that reason, the underlying theory and methods used in the code are described to a basic level of detail. The manual gives an overview of the CSTEM code: how the code came into existence, a basic description of what the code does, and the order in which it happens (a flowchart). Appendices provide a listing and very brief description of every file used by the CSTEM code, including the type of file it is, what routine regularly accesses the file, and what routine opens the file, as well as special features included in CSTEM.

  20. ASSIST user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all the states and transitions in a complex system model can be devastatingly tedious and error prone. The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) computer program allows the user to describe the semi-Markov model in a high-level language. Instead of listing the individual model states, the user specifies the rules governing the behavior of the system, and these are used to generate the model automatically. A few statements in the abstract language can describe a very large, complex model. Because no assumptions are made about the system being modeled, ASSIST can be used to generate models describing the behavior of any system. The ASSIST program and its input language are described and illustrated by examples.

  1. Internet user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furthermore, the paper looks at a representative sample of Romanian internet users. The results reveal that the Romanians are using the Internet especially for information gathering, e-mail, entertainment and social networking.

  2. MAGIC user's group software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G.; Ludeking, L.; McDonald, J.; Nguyen, K.; Goplen, B.

    1990-01-01

    The MAGIC User's Group has been established to facilitate the use of electromagnetic particle-in-cell software by universities, government agencies, and industrial firms. The software consists of a series of independent executables that are capable of inter-communication. MAGIC, SOS, μ SOS are used to perform electromagnetic simulations while POSTER is used to provide post-processing capabilities. Each is described in the paper. Use of the codes for Klystrode simulation is discussed

  3. Single user systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, I.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of the talk is devoted to establishing concepts and trends in interactive computing technology and is intended to provide a framework. I then discuss personal computing architectures of today and planned architectures of the 1990s. I present current personal computer environments for the programmer and for the user. Scenarios for future computing environments are developed. Finally, I open a discussion on the social implications of personal computers. (orig./HSI)

  4. 16. ESRF users meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coraux, J.; Renevier, H.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Daudin, B.; Proietti, M.G.; Renaud, G.; Fowler, B.; Mercer, D.L.; Omar, A.H.; Thompson, P.; Markovic, N.M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Lucas, C.A.; Andrejczuk, A.; Kwiatkowska, J.; Dobrzynski, L.; Zukowski, E.; Bellin, Ch.; Loupias, G.; Shukla, A.; Buslaps, Th.; Stankov, S.; Sladecek, M.; Slezak, T.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Sepiol, B.; Vogl, G.; Chumakov, A.; Ruffer, R.; Hermann, R.P.; Grandjean, F.; Schweika, W.; Long, G.J.; Leupold, O.; Belrhall, H.; Caserotto, H.; Dauvergne, F.; Geoffroy, L.; Guljarro, M.; Launer, L.; Levault, B.; Walsh, M.; Beckers, M.; Schell, N.; Martins, R.M.S.; Mucklich, A.; Moller, W.; Silva, R.J.C.; Mahesh, K.K.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Tejas, Parikh; Neil, Fellows; Durodola, J.; Slawinski, W.; Przenioslo, R.; Sosnowska, I.; Suard, E

    2006-07-01

    This document gathers the posters that were presented during the poster session of this workshop. These posters highlight the results obtained by ESRF'users in different fields such as surface structure, Compton scattering studies, localized vibrational modes in thermoelectric materials, Ni-Ti thin films, residual stresses in superconducting wires, and changes in crystal and magnetic structure of NdFeO{sub 3}.

  5. IAC user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, R. G.; Beste, D. L.; Gregg, J.

    1984-01-01

    The User Manual for the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) Level 1 system is presented. The IAC system currently supports the thermal, structures, controls and system dynamics technologies, and its development is influenced by the requirements for design/analysis of large space systems. The system has many features which make it applicable to general problems in engineering, and to management of data and software. Information includes basic IAC operation, executive commands, modules, solution paths, data organization and storage, IAC utilities, and module implementation.

  6. ASTRA Plus User Manual

    OpenAIRE

    MATUZAS Vaidas; CONTINI SERGIO

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the user interface and the main commands to perform system dependability analysis by means of ASTRA Plus. This package implements the analysis methods developed at the Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen from mid-2008. ASTRA Plus is composed of the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) module and of the Concurrent Importance and Sensitivity Analysis (CISA) module. The FTA module contains three different methods for solving a fault tree; all are based on the...

  7. User interface inspection methods a user-centered design method

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Chauncey

    2014-01-01

    User Interface Inspection Methods succinctly covers five inspection methods: heuristic evaluation, perspective-based user interface inspection, cognitive walkthrough, pluralistic walkthrough, and formal usability inspections. Heuristic evaluation is perhaps the best-known inspection method, requiring a group of evaluators to review a product against a set of general principles. The perspective-based user interface inspection is based on the principle that different perspectives will find different problems in a user interface. In the related persona-based inspection, colleagues assume the

  8. PARFUME User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamman, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    PARFUME, a fuel performance analysis and modeling code, is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for evaluating gas reactor coated particle fuel assemblies for prismatic, pebble bed, and plate type fuel geometries. The code is an integrated mechanistic analysis tool that evaluates the thermal, mechanical, and physico-chemical behavior of coated fuel particles (TRISO) and the probability for fuel failure given the particle-to-particle statistical variations in physical dimensions and material properties that arise during the fuel fabrication process. Using a robust finite difference numerical scheme, PARFUME is capable of performing steady state and transient heat transfer and fission product diffusion analyses for the fuel. Written in FORTRAN 90, PARFUME is easy to read, maintain, and modify. Currently, PARFUME is supported only on MS Windows platforms. This document represents the initial version of the PARFUME User Guide, a supplement to the PARFUME Theory and Model Basis Report which describes the theoretical aspects of the code. User information is provided including: (1) code development, (2) capabilities and limitations, (3) installation and execution, (4) user input and output, (5) sample problems, and (6) error messages. In the near future, the INL plans to release a fully benchmarked and validated beta version of PARFUME.

  9. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    was from the amazing Dr Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) who has conceived the concepts GameAbilitation, ArtAbilitation, and Ludic Engagement Designs for All. While presenting some of his work on GameAbilitation and ArtAbilitation he brought up the subject of conducting research with users with disabilities...... to be positive for the users. Well this might be how research works and we do try to be ethical, explain terms and conditions to our users and then say thank you, we sometimes return to present the results, give more “thank you”s and promise that “if it becomes available/when they acquire such an expensive...... device/when such smartphones become cheaper/when we’ll have funds” they can have such an experience again and that we make sure to upload everything online for free and so on and so forth. And sometimes we do actually try to leave devices, guidelines and software behind, though we never return to check...

  10. Measuring the User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry B. Santoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to develop an adapted version of User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ and evaluate a learning management system. Although there is a growing interest on User Experience, there are still limited resources (i.e. measurement tools or questionnaires available to measure user experience of any products, especially learning management systems. Two hundreds and thirteen computer science students participated and completed the adapted version of UEQ. In the study, the researchers used a learning management system named Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCELE. Several types of learning materials are posted in SCELE such as audio files, simulations, PowerPoint slides, multimedia contents, and webpage links. Most of the lecturers use discussion forums in their courses to encourage students to participate in active learning setting. Staff and lecturers sometimes post academic-related announcements on the SCELE homepage. Two hundred thirteen students enrolled in Computer Science program were invited to evaluate the SCELE. This study will benefit UX practitioners, HCI educators, program and center of learning resources administrators, and learning management system developers. Findings of the present study may also be valuable for universities and high schools which are using computer-based learning environments.

  11. AVRAM user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrady, P.W.

    1988-02-01

    This document details the use of the reliability code for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) project. This code was designed by Tom Anklam and John Harris. In late 1984 Patrick McGrady and Elena Koontz of C and TD/TA were assigned the task of improving the code and converting it for use on the DEC-10 system. In early 1986, Patric McGrady converted it to the CRAY. The AVRAM code is divided into distinct parts (often referred to as programs in this document). There is a COSMOS file that controls the execution of the FORTRAN code and controls the naming of output datasets and the deletion of temporary datasets created by the code. The FORTRAN code consists of a main program as a driver and of three main subroutines: EDIT, PARAM, and AVRAM. The EDIT program allows the user to create a new user defined system or add to an existing system or to change certain parameters. The PARAM program allows the user to alter system parameters and to select options such as economics run, criticality analysis or sensitivity studies. The AVRAM program does a reliability analysis of the system

  12. Germany: Exposure of Transport Workers During the Transport of Most Frequently Transported NORM in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The German national report to this CRP was focused on the following services according to the research agreement: (1) Status review, analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment and expected exposure of the shipment staff of the most relevant NORM in Germany; (2) Development of evaluation criteria and safety requirements to provide adequate safety standards for the transportation of NORM; (3) Development and application of procedures to determine the limits for exempt materials/consignments for transportation according to German Transport Regulations for all NORM. For the analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment of NORM for the following materials, a couple of transport scenarios were defined and the dose to transport workers was calculated. - Tantalum raw materials; - Raw phosphate; - Pipe scales and sludge from oil and gas exploitation; - Coal ash; - Waste rock material from uranium mining; - Zircon raw materials; - Titanium dioxide raw materials; - Filter gravel from waterworks

  13. Three aspects of the Germany-France comparison on electricity. Electricity production and consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    As a comparative overview of the French and German situation regarding electric power, a first article proposes tables and graphs illustrating data evolution, and brief comments about these evolutions. Comparison focuses on household electricity consumption, on electricity exchanges, and on the production of electricity based on renewable energies. An appendix proposes a presentation of the German policy for energy transition: principles and objectives, phasing out nuclear, implementation. Then, an article, illustrated by data tables and graphs, discusses the evolution of electric power production and consumption in Germany between 2000 and 2013. The author addresses power final consumption, power total production and exchanges, the components of electric power production, and greenhouse gas emissions (by fossil fuel, by sector, and by electricity and heat production)

  14. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kussmaul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  15. Reasoning about Users' Actions in a Graphical User Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    2002-01-01

    Describes a graphical user interface called IFM (Intelligent File Manipulator) that provides intelligent help to users. Explains two underlying reasoning mechanisms, one an adaptation of human plausible reasoning and one that performs goal recognition based on the effects of users' commands; and presents results of an empirical study that…

  16. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  17. Conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohrer, Philipp; Poize, Noemie; Hanus, Dominik; Hallmann, Dieter; Jourdain, Pierre; Ruehl, Martin; Bessiere, Patrick; Guyonnet-Duperat, Philippe; Foerster, Maelle; Partetzke, Matthias; Rumolino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on the role and involvement of citizens in wind energy projects and raised the question of the prerequisite to the construction of a participatory wind farm. In this framework, the different participatory models existing in both countries were analysed, in particular with regard to their respective advantages and drawbacks and to a legal framework which remains to be defined. Four projects, 2 in France and 2 in Germany, were presented as examples. The call for proposals model was presented and debated as well as the question of the project success, and of its financing and profitability. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Community wind farms in Germany: status quo and forecast (Philipp Vohrer); 2 - Participatory projects in France: which legal solutions, which prospects for development? (Noemie Poize); 3 - Citizen owned wind farms and their legal forms in Germany: Advantages and challenges of the different schemes (Dominik Hanus); 4 - Make wind power profitable: Citizen participation in Germany and France/Make the energy transition together. The energy co-operative participation as a model in Germany (Dieter Hallmann); 5 - Power to the people - A new model for French wind energy. Beganne community-owned wind farm (Pierre Jourdain); 6 - Making wind power profitable: civic participation in Germany and France: German utility companies rely on wind power. Direct civic participation in the municipal utility company - democratization of the turnaround in energy policy (Martin Ruehl); 7 - French municipalities get involved: calls for projects (Patrick Bessiere); 8 - Crowd-funding - French regulatory framework (Philippe Guyonnet-Duperat, Maelle Foerster); 9 - Making wind energy

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  19. Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, K.

    2003-01-01

    Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.) [de

  20. Planning and User Interface Affordances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amant, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... We identify a number of similarities between executing plans and interacting with a graphical user interface, and argue that affordances for planning environments apply equally well to user interface environments...

  1. User interfaces of information retrieval systems and user friendliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the characteristics of user interfaces of information retrieval systems with the emphasis on design and evaluation. It presents users’ information retrieval tasks and the functions which are offered through interfaces. Design rules, guidelines and standards are presented, as well as criteria and methods for evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on the concept of user friendliness as one of the most important characteristic of the user interfaces. Various definitions of user friendliness are presented and their elements are also discussed. In the end, the paper shows how user interfaces should be designed, taken into consideration all these criteria.

  2. What drives Users' Website Registration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Li (Ting); P.A. Pavlou (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUser registration is an important prerequisite for the success of many websites by enabling users to gain access to domain information and personalized content. It is not always desirable for users, however, because they need to disclose personal information. This paper examines what

  3. Lead user projects in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Earlier research on the lead user method is focused on individual case studies and how the method was applied in a specific context. In this paper, we take a broader approach, analyzing a sample of 24 lead user projects, which included working with 188 lead users. These projects were analyzed...

  4. Disk Operating System User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-01

    This document serves the purpose of bringing together in one place most of the information a user needs to use the DDP-516 Disk Operating System, (DOS). DOS is a core resident, one user, console-oriented operating system which allows the user to cont...

  5. Test and User Facilities | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test and User Facilities Test and User Facilities Our test and user facilities are available to | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z B Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant C Controllable Grid Interface Test System D Dynamometer Test Facilities

  6. Environment and economic growth in the federal republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, F.

    1998-01-01

    After several decades of economic growth with a continuous increase of energy consumptions, a new trend is now developing in Germany: reduction of energy consumptions and of pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes first the energy supplies of Germany (consumption, sources), the consumption by sector, and the share of the different energy sources in the German consumption (petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energies). In a second part, the German energy policy is presented with its priorities and actions regarding the environment protection: energy savings, development of renewable energy sources, reduction of automotive fuels consumption, rational use of energy, thermal insulation of buildings, financial incentives etc.. Finally, the forecasting of future energy consumption and pollutants emission trends in Germany and at the worldwide scale are evoked. (J.S.)

  7. HTGR type reactors in West Germany. Realizations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauenert, U.

    1978-01-01

    The framework within which the research studies on high temperature reactors have been pursued in West Germany since 1960 is recalled. The principles guiding the present policy of the country in this domain are given: choice of a single technical conception that be applied both to reactors generating electricity and reactors producing high temperature heat for industrial processes such as coal gasification; to group the technical and industrial potentials of West Germany in this domain; financial and technical participation of electricity producers in the expected realizations; international cooperation. In this technique, West Germany is at present among the most advanced nations with the realization of a prototype 300 MWe reactor, financed by the electricity producers and a contribution of government [fr

  8. Extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nydahl, Peter; Knueck, Dirk; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    in keeping ICU diaries. CONCLUSION: Six years after the introduction of ICU diaries, ICU nurses in Germany are becoming familiar with the concept. Nursing shortage and bureaucratic challenges have impeded the process of implementation, but the adaption of ICU diaries to German conditions appears......, newsletters, newspapers, lectures and publications in German nursing journals. AIM: The aim of the study was to update our knowledge of the extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014. DESIGN: The study had a prospective mixed methods multicenter design. METHOD: All 152 ICUs in the two German...... of Germany had implemented diaries and three units were planning to do so. Interviews were conducted with nurses at 14 selected ICUs. Informants reported successful adaption of the diary concept to their culture, but variability in application. No units were identified where all nursing staff participated...

  9. The photovoltaic sector in Germany, where does it go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Opinion polls show that photovoltaic power is very popular in Germany. This sector employs about 130.000 people and although a lot of solar modules are imported from China, other components like current inverters are fabricated in Germany and as a whole the trade balance is positive and the export rate nears 50%. In 2011 Germany invested 25 billion euros in the photovoltaic sector and now about 5% of the consumed electricity is photovoltaic power. Photovoltaic power reached grid parity in february 2012 for some consumers and the German government decided to reduce the purchase tariff drastically which may jeopardize the aim of having a photovoltaic park of 51 GWc by 2020. (A.C.)

  10. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  11. Regional cost differences of hospital supply in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauterbach, Karl W.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The intended adoption of a global reimbursement system for inpatient care in Germany envisions identical payments for identical treatments at different hospitals. This may lead to losses in some hospitals and may cause problems for the supply with health care facilities in the long run if there a important regional cost differences. Cost and performance data of 1112 hospitals in Germany have been analysed for regional differences in 2001: As regional categorizations we used official classification schemes based on centrality. The investigation does not support the postulation of additional payments for selected regions in Germany accounting for level cost-differences between hospitals. Confounding influence factors like ownership and hospital size seem to be more important. We recommend further investigations to evaluate regional cost-differences on the level of medical wards and using more risk-adjusted data. The examination of the individual case is necessary.

  12. ELEMENTS OF NEOCONSERVATISM IN THE CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL SOCIETY IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М С Ладыгин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of strengthening neoconservative sentiments, i.e. neocon actors, in Germany. The paper analyzes the aims of three neoconservative actors in Germany: the party Alternative for Germany, the social movement PEGIDA and the “Identitarian movement”. It is found that all three parties have similar aims and their cooperation could lead to a serious strengthening of neocon positions both in society and on the political landscape. One of the conclusions of the article at hand is that it is too early to judge the party's ability to work as an established party. This conclusion is accompanied with the fact that the majority of those who voted for AfG were so called “protest voters”, hence they may prevent the return of the party in the next elections to the Bundestag.

  13. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  14. XTV users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearing, J.F.; Johns, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    XTV is an X-Windows based Graphical User Interface for viewing results of Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) calculations. It provides static and animated color mapped visualizations of both thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction components in a TRAC model of a nuclear power plant, as well as both on-screen and hard copy two-dimensional plot capabilities. XTV is the successor to TRAP, the former TRAC postprocessor using the proprietary DISSPLA graphics library. This manual describes Version 2.0, which requires TRAC version 5.4.20 or later for full visualization capabilities

  15. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  16. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  17. User Interface Technology Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Menu entries may be grouped and orgered Into menu hierarchies. AN levels of a hirarchy may be visible at once, or they may have to be navigated with...s t Xerox aw systemflla3. Ti ft"s lb m"k t system leble , ba it ls effective tis of1 iy some User 9101" SWsuc kaybosrdoeute usersome ssteMIS ( Apple Ma...r~stMiTemidndanodApple we tadaml no d Muaioh Isa tadsm macesd to Apple - ,pfr ftc ParSomPT In a beadue-nu of Adobe System lnooporstsd. Scdlbs Is a

  18. ASSERT-4 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, R.A.; Tahir, A.; Carver, M.B.; Stewart, D.G.; Thibeault, P.R.; Rowe, D.S.

    1984-09-01

    ASSERT-4 is an advanced subchannel code being developed primarily to model single- and two-phase flow and heat transfer in horizontal rod bundles. This manual is intended to facilitate the application of this code to the analysis of flow in reactor fuel channels. It contains a brief description of the thermalhydraulic model and ASSERT-4 solution scheme, and other information required by users. This other information includes a detailed discussion of input data requirements, a sample problem and solution, and information describing how to access and run ASSERT-4 on the Chalk River computers

  19. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radiospares Catalogue is now accessible from the Material Request page on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores Catalogue. This means that users can order Radiospares equipment by completing an EDH Materials Request form. N.B.: The system will automatically forward orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Radiospares equipment to Radiospares. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  20. XMGR5 users manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.R.; Fisher, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    ACE/gr is XY plotting tool for workstations or X-terminals using X. A few of its features are: User defined scaling, tick marks, labels, symbols, line styles, colors. Batch mode for unattended plotting. Read and write parameters used during a session. Polynomial regression, splines, running averages, DFT/FFT, cross/auto-correlation. Hardcopy support for PostScript, HP-GL, and FrameMaker.mif format. While ACE/gr has a convenient point-and-click interface, most parameter settings and operations are available through a command line interface (found in Files/Commands).

  1. The borderless online user

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally copyright has been exploited in separate geographical markets. This practice restricts the ability of users to access online services, music, movies and sports events on their electronic devices wherever they are in Europe and regardless of borders, viz. so called ‘portability...... of amending the current legal regime. This contribution argues, however, that existing EU rules and principles, in particular the rules of competition law, may deal with the challenges of the existing restrictions on the cross-border access to online services to such an extent that those challenges...

  2. Information for Stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The DISTRELEC catalogue (IT) is now available in EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and the catalogues of existing suppliers. Using an EDH materials request form, users can now order DISTRELEC equipment from amongst the following product groups: peripherals, multimedia, PC components, data media, communication and data cables and adapters. Non-authorised materials will be clearly indicated. As a reminder, the system automatically manages the distribution of standard Stores equipment and punch out equipment ordered on the same request form. In both cases, delivery will take a maximum of 48 hours. The approval of the EDH document will follow the usual EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  3. CDS User survey

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Document Service

    2011-01-01

      The CERN Document Server is launching a user survey in order to collect information relative to its search engine, submission interfaces, collaborative features and content organisation. With the view of re-shaping its collections and interfaces and to better integrate with the new INSPIRE platform that serves all HEP literature, CERN Document Server team invites you to take part in the survey. Your input is essential to provide us with useful information before setting up the new service and improve your interactions with CDS. Thanks for participating !  

  4. Parks and their users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with urban parks and their use(rs. It focuses on usage-spatial relationships from two different angles. Firstly, it discusses the actual uses mapped in places, using repeated observation on different days, times and weather conditions. Secondly, it addresses designers’ views and beliefs about usage and design of urban parks. However, the paper shows that designers’ beliefs and awareness about uses in places, in some aspects, differ from actual use. It stresses the use of empirical knowledge about usage-spatial relationships, which can be gained by using observation and behavioural mapping, in decision-making processes for parks design.

  5. 15. ESRF users meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotis C, Kafatos; Ulrich, K.U.; Weib, S.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.C.; Foerstendorf, H.; Zanker, H.; Meyerheim, H.L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Kirschner, J.; Robach, O.; Ferrer, S.; Lyman, P.F.; Shneerson, V.L.; Fung, R.; Harder, R.J.; Parihar, S.S.; Johnson-Steigelman, H.T.; Lu, E.D.; Saldin, D.K.; Eastwood, D.S.; Atkinson, D.; Tanner, B.K.; Hase, T.P.A.; Van Kampen, M.; Hjorvarsson, B.; Brown, S.; Thompson, P.; Konovalov, O.; Saint-Martin, E.; Daillant, J.; Luzet, D.; Szlachetko, J.; Barrett, R.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.C.; Fennane, K.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, M.; Monaco, A.; Chumakov, A.; Crichton, W.; Van Buerck, I.; Wortmann, G.; Meyer, A.; Ponkratz, U.; Ruffer, R.; Sakurai, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Buslaps, T.; Honkimki, V.; Maeno, Y.; Collart, E.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.P.; Leininger, Ph.; Ishii, H.; Cai, Y.; Cheong, S.W.; Martins, R.M.S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Acapito, F.; Seta, M. de; Capelini, G.; Giorgi, M.; Schorr, G.; Geandier, G.; Alves Marques, M.; Barros Marquesa, M.I. de; Cabaco, M.I.; Gaspara, A.M.; Marques, M.P.M.; Amado, A.M.; Amorim da Costa, A.M.; Bruneseaux, F.; Weisbecker, P.; Brandao, M.J.; Aeby-Gautier, E.; Simmonds, H.; Lei, C.; Das, A.; Trolley, D.; Thomas, H.E.; Macdonald, J.E.; Wiegart, L.; Tolan, M.; Struth, B.; Petukhov, A.V.; Thijssen, J.H.J.; Hart, D.C.; Imhof, A.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Snigirev, A.; Mossaid, A.; Snigireva, I.; Reconditi, M.; Brunello, E

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the posters presented on the one day and a half long plenary meeting workshop. This meeting workshop is a privileged forum where ESRF users can exchange their views on the latest scientific and technical development involving synchrotron radiation. One poster deals with the investigation of colloid composition and uranium bond structure to see whether the migration of contaminants from abandoned mines could be stimulated or attenuated by colloids. Another poster is dedicated to the investigation of the uranium speciation in covered mine tailings by a combination of micro-spectroscopic and wet chemical approaches. 2 posters deal with the contribution of synchrotron radiation to radiotherapy.

  6. 15. ESRF users meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotis C, Kafatos; Ulrich, K.U.; Weib, S.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.C.; Foerstendorf, H.; Zanker, H.; Meyerheim, H.L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Kirschner, J.; Robach, O.; Ferrer, S.; Lyman, P.F.; Shneerson, V.L.; Fung, R.; Harder, R.J.; Parihar, S.S.; Johnson-Steigelman, H.T.; Lu, E.D.; Saldin, D.K.; Eastwood, D.S.; Atkinson, D.; Tanner, B.K.; Hase, T.P.A.; Van Kampen, M.; Hjorvarsson, B.; Brown, S.; Thompson, P.; Konovalov, O.; Saint-Martin, E.; Daillant, J.; Luzet, D.; Szlachetko, J.; Barrett, R.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.C.; Fennane, K.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, M.; Monaco, A.; Chumakov, A.; Crichton, W.; Van Buerck, I.; Wortmann, G.; Meyer, A.; Ponkratz, U.; Ruffer, R.; Sakurai, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Buslaps, T.; Honkimki, V.; Maeno, Y.; Collart, E.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.P.; Leininger, Ph.; Ishii, H.; Cai, Y.; Cheong, S.W.; Martins, R.M.S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Acapito, F.; Seta, M. de; Capelini, G.; Giorgi, M.; Schorr, G.; Geandier, G.; Alves Marques, M.; Barros Marquesa, M.I. de; Cabaco, M.I.; Gaspara, A.M.; Marques, M.P.M.; Amado, A.M.; Amorim da Costa, A.M.; Bruneseaux, F.; Weisbecker, P.; Brandao, M.J.; Aeby-Gautier, E.; Simmonds, H.; Lei, C.; Das, A.; Trolley, D.; Thomas, H.E.; Macdonald, J.E.; Wiegart, L.; Tolan, M.; Struth, B.; Petukhov, A.V.; Thijssen, J.H.J.; Hart, D.C.; Imhof, A.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Snigirev, A.; Mossaid, A.; Snigireva, I.; Reconditi, M.; Brunello, E.

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers the posters presented on the one day and a half long plenary meeting workshop. This meeting workshop is a privileged forum where ESRF users can exchange their views on the latest scientific and technical development involving synchrotron radiation. One poster deals with the investigation of colloid composition and uranium bond structure to see whether the migration of contaminants from abandoned mines could be stimulated or attenuated by colloids. Another poster is dedicated to the investigation of the uranium speciation in covered mine tailings by a combination of micro-spectroscopic and wet chemical approaches. 2 posters deal with the contribution of synchrotron radiation to radiotherapy

  7. FISPACT 97: user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-05-01

    FISPACT is the inventory code included in the European Activation System (EASY). A new version of FISPACT: FISPACT-97 has been developed and this report is the User manual for the code. It explains the use of all the code words used in the input file to specify a FISPACT run and describes how all the data files are connected. A series of appendices cover the working of the code and the physical and mathematical details. Background information on the data files and extensive examples of input files suitable for various applications are included. (Author)

  8. Percept User Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennon, Stephen Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This document is the main user guide for the Sierra/Percept capabilities including the mesh_adapt and mesh_transfer tools. Basic capabilities for uniform mesh refinement (UMR) and mesh transfers are discussed. Examples are used to provide illustration. Future versions of this manual will include more advanced features such as geometry and mesh smoothing. Additionally, all the options for the mesh_adapt code will be described in detail. Capabilities for local adaptivity in the context of offline adaptivity will also be included. This page intentionally left blank.

  9. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  10. EURADOS. A success story for European cooperation in the dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehm, Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). German Research Center for Environmental Health (GMBH); Schuhmacher, Helmut [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) is a European research platform aiming at the promotion of research and development and European cooperation in the field of the dosimetry of ionizing radiation (www.eurados.org). Initially founded in 1982, it was established in 2008 as a non-profit registered society under German law and is currently based in Neuherberg, Germany.

  11. Low Wage Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette

    In this working paper, mobility out of low wage employment in Denmark, Germany, and the United States is studied. Data used for the analysis are the Danish Longitudinal Database – a representative sample of the Danish population, and the PSID-GSOEP Equivalent File Data. Mobility is analysed...... as the transition out of low wage in 1993 and 1995 respectively, conditional on low wage in 1992. The econometric model takes selection into low wage in 1992 into account, and results clearly state the importance. At the aggregate level, mobility patterns are similar in Denmark and Germany, while mobility...

  12. Germany: INIS — 45 years of Reliable Nuclear Energy Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, Silke; Eck, Sabrina; Mutschelknauss, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany has been an official INIS member since 1970. The first 78 citations from German publications can be found in Issue 2 of Volume 1 of the INIS Atomindex. At that time, the Zentralstelle für Atomenergie-Dokumentation (ZAED) was the INIS center in Western Germany. To ensure that the documentation on nuclear energy was directly serving the interests of researchers working in this field, the ZAED had been recently moved from Frankfurt to the neighborhood of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany’s most important nuclear research institution. After 1977, the ZAED, together with other documentation centers, was merged into what is today FIZ Karlsruhe. At the same time, publications from Eastern Germany were analyzed by the Staatliches Amt für Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz in Berlin from 1974 to 1989. After the German reunification, FIZ Karlsruhe became responsible for this. The share of German contributions made to the INIS database amounts to 7% of the total number of contributions. Germany has regularly ranked among the top 5 contributing Member States in the annual statistics. Regarding cooperation in INIS, Germany — represented by FIZ Karlsruhe and its predecessors — has always been actively involved, not only in contributing publications, but also in strategic planning, organization, and technical and subject matters throughout the past five decades. Germany was part of the INIS Study Team during the planning stage of INIS. Germany also hosted two ILO meetings in Karlsruhe: one in 1979 and one on the occasion of the 30th anniversary in 2000. Staff from various INIS centers worldwide often visit FIZ Karlsruhe in order to gain insight into our INIS production or to participate in internships and training sessions on workflow management, application of rules, and FIBRE usage. FIZ Karlsruhe’s many years of participation in the Voluntary Input Program, and the editing of input provided as a service to sometimes as many as 7

  13. Traffic Mortality in Germany Before, During, and After Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Flaura K.; Menon, Rajiv; Moll, Elisa K.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Baker, Susan P.

    1999-01-01

    Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the combination of sudden wealth, sudden access to cars, and a flood of new young drivers had disastrous effects on East Germans. While motor vehicle occupant death rates decreased in West Germany, motor vehicle occupant death rates in East Germany surged upward. Between 1989 and 1991, the death rate increased for all age groups but was greatest for 18–20 year olds (from 5 to 54 deaths/100,000) and 21–24 year olds (from 5 to 44). Fatality ra...

  14. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  15. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  16. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in summary tables...

  17. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  18. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The seismic data will serve as input parameters for the construction of sensitive industrial-scale facilities and also as basic data of the general specifications for building construction (DIN 4149, part 1: Building construction in seismic regions of West Germany; assumed loads, dimensioning and design of high structures). To give a better picture, the data are presented in the form of maps showing seismic regions in West Germany (including marginal regions) and world-wide. Definitions are presented in order to facilitate reading for non-experts. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Change in the financing scheme for radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svobodová, Tereza

    2018-01-01

    Financing radioactive waste management is an issue every country using nuclear power has to deal with. A European directive even makes this binding for Euratom Member States. Germany changed its financing scheme entirely during the past year, thereby moving closer to other states' schemes. Germany replaced the funds put aside by the operators with a public fund to which the companies contribute. Now it is the government that is responsible for radioactive waste. This paper describes the regulation and information collection system on the European level and analyses the former and current German systems, their advantages and potential hazards. (orig.)

  20. [Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincia, L

    1996-09-01

    "A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  1. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  2. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  3. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11{sup th} March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17{sup th} March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17{sup th} May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13{sup th} May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11{sup th} October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30{sup th} June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30{sup th} June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative

  4. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11 th March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17 th March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17 th May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13 th May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11 th October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30 th June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30 th June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative procedure at that time. The ''stress tests'' were started by all German

  5. A User-Centric View of Intelligent Environments: User Expectations, User Experience and User Role in Building Intelligent Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Kaasinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Our everyday environments are gradually becoming intelligent, facilitated both by technological development and user activities. Although large-scale intelligent environments are still rare in actual everyday use, they have been studied for quite a long time, and several user studies have been carried out. In this paper, we present a user-centric view of intelligent environments based on published research results and our own experiences from user studies with concepts and prototypes. We analyze user acceptance and users’ expectations that affect users’ willingness to start using intelligent environments and to continue using them. We discuss user experience of interacting with intelligent environments where physical and virtual elements are intertwined. Finally, we touch on the role of users in shaping their own intelligent environments instead of just using ready-made environments. People are not merely “using” the intelligent environments but they live in them, and they experience the environments via embedded services and new interaction tools as well as the physical and social environment. Intelligent environments should provide emotional as well as instrumental value to the people who live in them, and the environments should be trustworthy and controllable both by regular users and occasional visitors. Understanding user expectations and user experience in intelligent environments, and providing users with tools to influence the environments can help to shape the vision of intelligent environments into meaningful, acceptable and appealing service entities for all those who live and act in them.

  6. Duty Rosters and Workloads of Obstetricians in Germany: Results of a Germany-wide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimann, Johannes; Knabl, Julia; Puppe, Julian; Bayer, Christian Michael; Gass, Paul; Gabriel, Lena; Seelbach-Goebel, Birgit; Lermann, Johannes; Schott, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    Compiling a daily hospital roster which complies with existing laws and tariff regulations and meets the requirements for ongoing professional training while also taking the legal regulations on the health of employees into account makes planning the duty roster a challenge. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic picture of existing duty roster systems and of the current workloads of obstetricians in Germany. This online survey was sent to 2770 physicians training to become obstetricians or specializing in specific areas of obstetric care. The survey consisted of an anonymized 95-item questionnaire which collected data on different types of duty roster systems and the workload of obstetricians in Germany for the period from 17.02.2015 to 16.05.2015. Out of a total of 2770 physicians who were contacted, 437 (16%) completed the questionnaire. Across all forms of care, the care provided outside normal working hours usually (75%) consisted of a combination of regular working times and on-call duty or even consisted entirely of standby duty. Level I perinatal centers were most likely 20% (n = 88) to have a shift system in place. Working a shift system was significantly more common in care facilities which had previously carried out a job analysis. The number of physicians in hospitals who are present during the night shift was higher in facilities with higher numbers of births and in facilities which offered higher levels of care. In addition to regularly working overtime and the fact that often not all the hours worked were recorded, it was notable that the systems used to compile duty rosters often did not comply with legal regulations or with collectively agreed working hours nor were they compatible with the staff planning requirements. The results of this study show that the conditions of work, the working times, and the organization of working times in obstetric departments are in need of improvement. Recording the actual times worked together with an

  7. Photovoltaics information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  8. ARDS User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Personal computers (PCs) are now used extensively for engineering analysis. their capability exceeds that of mainframe computers of only a few years ago. Programs originally written for mainframes have been ported to PCs to make their use easier. One of these programs is ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) which was developed at Arizona State University (ASU) by Nelson et al. to quickly and accurately analyze rotor steady state and transient response using the method of component mode synthesis. The original ARDS program was ported to the PC in 1995. Several extensions were made at ASU to increase the capability of mainframe ARDS. These extensions have also been incorporated into the PC version of ARDS. Each mainframe extension had its own user manual generally covering only that extension. Thus to exploit the full capability of ARDS required a large set of user manuals. Moreover, necessary changes and enhancements for PC ARDS were undocumented. The present document is intended to remedy those problems by combining all pertinent information needed for the use of PC ARDS into one volume.

  9. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  10. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  11. Involving Lead Users in Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Bilgram, Volker; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Research on the lead user method has been conducted for more than thirty years and has shown that the method is more likely to generate breakthrough innovation than traditional market research tools. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper shows a detailed view on the broad variety...... of research on lead user characteristics, lead user processes, lead user identification and application, and success factors. The main challenge of the lead user method as identified in literature is the resource issue regarding time, manpower, and costs. Also, internal acceptance and the processing...... of the method have been spotted in literature, as well as the intellectual property protection issue. From the starting point of the initial lead user method process introduced by Lüthje and Herstatt (2004), results are integrated into a revisited view on the lead user method process. In addition, concrete...

  12. User interfaces of information retrieval systems and user friendliness

    OpenAIRE

    Polona Vilar; Maja Žumer

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the characteristics of user interfaces of information retrieval systems with the emphasis on design and evaluation. It presents users’ information retrieval tasks and the functions which are offered through interfaces. Design rules, guidelines and standards are presented, as well as criteria and methods for evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on the concept of user friendliness as one of the most important characteristic of the user interfaces. Various definitions of u...

  13. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  14. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  15. School Psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzel, Gerd; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews origins and evaluation of the present status of school psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasizing strict separation of school tracks. Notes that system has been evolving into more flexible organizational structure in recent years. Discusses roles and functions of school psychology, administration, training, relationships…

  16. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henger, M.; Leydecker, G.

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes the regional reports of the seismological observatories for the year 1983. There was no serious earthquake so far in the F.R.G. The data are presented in the form of maps showing the seismic centers in West Germany (including marginal regions). Explanations of seismological terminology and abbreviations used are given for the general reader. (DG) [de

  17. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  18. Generation choices as influenced by costs, risks and externalities -Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, L.

    1994-01-01

    Power generation in Germany is dealing with social acceptability, cost considerations, governmental decisions and protection legislation. In the future, political and sociological factors will become more and more important: social acceptability of the energy sources choice is the most significant factor decision as the future pattern of power generation. (TEC)

  19. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  20. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...

  1. Kids in Germany: Comparing Students from Different Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…

  2. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  3. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  4. The Division of Household Labor in Germany and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Stier, Haya; Braun, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We compare the patterns of household division of labor in Germany and Israel--two countries that share key elements of the corporatist welfare regime but differ in their gender regimes--and evaluate several hypotheses using data from the 2002 International Social Survey Program. Although time constraints and relative resources affect the division…

  5. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  6. Dental hygiene education in Germany: Between economics and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermanns, B; Petersilka, G J

    2017-08-30

    To date, there is still no IFDH approved dental hygienist (DH) education model in Germany. Nevertheless, opportunities to complete vocational DH education courses have substantially increased within the last two decades. However, the content and quality of these courses vary greatly and are difficult to survey. The purpose of this article therefore was to present an overview of the education programmes offered in Germany as of March 2017. A formal request was sent to all education establishments for details of such courses, and a systematic internet search was performed covering the DH education topic in Germany. Ten vocational education programmes were found, most of them organized by local dental chambers. One private provider offers a Bachelor Degree in Dental Hygiene on completion of a course which runs over 2 or 3 ys. Details of contents, objectives and concise ratings or comparisons of the various courses are scarce, although in principle all should meet the same quality standards. For dental hygiene students, patients and dentists, it is hard and unsatisfactory to get a clear overview of the types and the quality of DH education which can be achieved in Germany. A solution for this dilemma would appear to be essential. However, due to the peculiarities of German legislation as well as the complex sphere of vested interests, it is impossible to predict if or when the situation will change for the better. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  8. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  9. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  10. Germany plans 60m euro physics and medicine lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2017-09-01

    A new €60m medical-physics research lab is to be built in Erlangen, Germany, by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPL) together with the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University Hospital Erlangen.

  11. Community nursing in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kramer, K.; Kerkstra, A.; Stevens, F.C.J.; Derksen, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a comparative study on community nursing in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, carried out in the region around Maastricht, where the borders of the three countries meet. The well-known problem of comparative studies (the incomparability of concepts and data) has been solved

  12. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Climatic change in Germany. Development, consequences, risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Jacob, Daniela; Schuck-Zoeller, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The book on the climatic change in Germany includes contributions to the following issues: global climate projections and regional projections in Germany and Europe: observation of the climatic change in Central Europe, regional climate modeling, limits and challenges of the regional climate modeling; climatic change in Germany - regional features and extremes: temperature and heat waves, precipitation, wind and cyclones, sea-level increase, tides, storm floods and sea state, floods, definition uncertainties, draughts, forest fires, natural risks; consequences of the climatic change in Germany: air quality, health, biodiversity, water resources, biochemical cycles, agriculture, forestry, soils, personal and commercial transport, cities and urban regions, tourism, infrastructure, energy and water supplies, cost of the climatic change and economic consequences; overall risks and uncertainties: assessment of vulnerabilities, literature review, climatic change as risk enhancement in complex systems, overall risks and uncertainties, decision making under uncertainties in complex systems; integrated strategies for the adaptation to the climatic change: the climate resilient society - transformations and system changes, adaptation to the climatic change as new political field, options for adaptation strategies.

  14. The neuropathology of morality: Germany 1930–1960

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes brain scientists' attempts to trace morality in the brain in Germany from 1930 to 1960. The debate around Karl Kleist's localization of the Gemeinschafts-Ich [community-I] in the 1930s is depicted in order to illustrate the central arguments for and against localizations of

  15. Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Freuling, Conrad M.; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J.; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P.; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  16. Radical Social Democracy and School Reform in Wilhelmian Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, James M.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes how the German Social Democratic Party promoted educational reform in Germany before World War I. It demanded state support for a secularized school program, suggested curricular reforms to instill socialist values, and promoted adult education and socialist training in the home. (AV)

  17. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  18. The Idea of Inclusion: Conceptual and Empirical Diversities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Stefan; Dedering, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, inclusion was introduced into discussions on education; today, we still do not have a precisely defined concept of inclusion. This article focuses its attention in this context on Germany, which in ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2009 embarked on the path towards realising an inclusive…

  19. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM's needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US

  20. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  1. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vita, L.

    2017-01-01

    The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

  2. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. The paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large and varies between occupation...

  3. Wager: GdF realizes heavy investment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Gaz De France decoded to buy Preussag Energie in east Germany. This decision fits into the gas market deregulation and will allow an increase of 50 % of the gas production. Meanwhile the decision is criticized by the syndicate CGT as a financial aberration. (A.L.B.)

  4. Restructuring power supply in Germany; Umstrukturierung der Stromversorgung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)

  5. Cultural Life in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter Nationes, Bonn (West Germany).

    By the nature of the subject, it is impossible to do justice to the cultural developments of more than 40 years in a brief survey. The aim of this document is to explore the diverse cultural life of West Germany complete with photographs of past and present artists, art products, and other aspects of German culture. The subject areas treated are:…

  6. Cleaning ex-uranium sites in Easter Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattsvajler, R.; Khagen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to problems, related with recovery and cleaning of ground and water, damaged during intensive uranium mining in the Easter Germany. Design and reclamation works, conducted in the framework of the unique project of Vismut company, are described. The consultation department of environment recovery for experience and technology propagation was organized in this company. 2 tabs

  7. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-09-01

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  8. The "Carbon-Neutral University"--A Study from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udas, Erica; Wölk, Monique; Wilmking, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, several higher education institutions around the world are integrating sustainability topics into their daily operations, functionality and education systems. This paper presents a case study from a pilot project implemented by the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald (hereafter, Greifswald University), Germany on its way…

  9. EURALERT-89 user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Friedland, W.; Proehl, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1990-09-01

    EURALERT-89 is a dose assessment program system including countermeasures which has been developed in the framework of the C.E.C. research programme 'Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios'. For this purpose the ECOSYS model for calculating the transfer of radionuclides through the environment, the contamination of foodstuffs and potential doses has been adapted to real-time use in the different European countries. In this user's guide the file names are given in the form SUBD/FNAM; this means that the data file with name FNAM is in the subdirectory SUBD. Remember that writing the path of a file depends on the computer used. With EURALERT-89 it is relatively simple to get an estimate of the most important informations (deposition, maximum specific activities in foodstuffs, most important dose values) for all locations which are included in the input file. This goal can be achieved with only a few commands. (orig./HP)

  10. CALENDF-2010: user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Ribon, Pierre; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille

    2011-09-01

    CALENDF-2010 represents a Fortran-95 update of the 1994, 2001 then 2005 code distribution with emphasise on programming quality and standards, physics and usage improvements. Devised to process multigroup cross-sections it relies on Gauss quadrature mathematical principle and strength. The followings processes can be handled by the code: moment probability table and effective cross-section calculation; pointwise cross section, probability table and effective cross-section regrouping; probability table condensation; probability table mix for several isotopes; probability table interpolation; effective cross section based probability table calculations; probability table calculations from effective cross-sections; cross-section comparison, complete energy pointwise cross-section processing and thickness dependent averaged transmission sample calculation. The CALENDF user manual, after having listed all principal code functions, describes sequentially each of them and gives comments on their associated output streams. Installation procedures, test cases and running time platform comparisons are given in the appendix. (authors)

  11. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Bossard catalogue is now accessible alongside the CERN Stores catalogue from the Material Request form on EDH. Users will thus be able to order Bossard equipment using the EDH Materials Request form. As a reminder, the system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Bossard equipment to Bossard. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Some items will remain available from the emergency desk in the event of urgent requests. These items will be visible in the Stores catalogue even if they cannot be purchased via the EDH material request form. Logistics Group FI Department

  12. Truck shovel users group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. [Surface Mining Association for Research and Technology, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Truck Shovel Users Group (TSUG) was developed as part of the Surface Mining Association for Research and Technology (SMART), an association of companies that meet to coordinate technology developments for the mining industry. The TSUG meet regularly to discuss equipment upgrades, maintenance planning systems, and repair techniques. The group strives to maximize the value of its assets through increased safety, equipment performance and productivity. This presentation provided administrative details about the TSUG including contact details and admission costs. It was concluded that members of the group must be employed by companies that use heavy mining equipment, and must also be willing to host meetings, make presentations, and support the common goals of the group. tabs., figs.

  13. INFORMATION FOR GAS USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested : to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible, to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact Gas.Store@cern.ch by e-mail or call 72265. Thank you for your co-operation.

  14. Information for gas users

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested: - to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible - to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact "Gas store" by e-mail. Thank you for your co-operation. Logistics Group SPL Division

  15. Communication to Linux users

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    We would like to inform you that the aging “phone” Linux command will stop working: On lxplus on 30 November 2009, On lxbatch on 4 January 2010, and is replaced by the new “phonebook” command, currently available on SLC4 and SLC5 Linux. As the new “phonebook” command has different syntax and output formats from the “phone” command, please update and test all scripts currently using “phone” before the above dates. You can refer to the article published on the IT Service Status Board, under the Service Changes section. Please send any comments to it-dep-phonebook-feedback@cern.ch Best regards, IT-UDS User Support Section

  16. Openphone user engagement and requirements solicitation in low literacy users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndwe, J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available stimulus of being singled out and made to feel important” (Franke and Kaul 1978). User engagement is particularly important for this targeted user group because of a cultural aspect, “where a questioner invariably gets positive answers as a matter... and specification is complex even when designing a ‘simple’ single user system because users often cannot properly articulate their needs (Pekkola et al. 2006). This complexity is amplified when designing applications that are to be used by a group of people...

  17. PST user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Cebull, M.J.; Gilbert, B.G.

    1996-10-01

    The Parametric Source Term (PST) software allows estimation of radioactivity release fractions for Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). PST was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program. PST contains a framework of equations that model activity transport between volumes in the release pathway from the core, through the vessel, through the containment, and to the environment. PST quickly obtains exact solutions to differential equations for activity transport in each volume for each time interval. PST provides a superior method for source term estimation because it: ensures conservation of activity transported across various volumes in the release pathway; provides limited consideration of the time-dependent behavior of input parameter uncertainty distributions; allows input to be quantified using state-of-the-art severe accident analysis code results; increases modeling flexibility because linkage between volumes is specified by user input; and allows other types of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plant designs to be evaluated with minimal modifications. PST is a microcomputer-based system that allows the analyst more flexibility than a mainframe system. PST has been developed to run with both MS DOS and MS Windows 95/NT operating systems. PST has the capability to load ASP Source Term Vector (STV) information, import pre-specified default input for the 6 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) initially analyzed in the NRC ASP program, allow input value modifications for release fraction sensitivity studies, export user-specified default input for the LWR being modeled, report results of radioactivity release calculations at each time interval, and generate formatted results that can interface with other risk assessment codes. This report describes the PST model and provides guidelines for using PST

  18. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  19. Small scale wood combustion in Germany. Recent research and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Unterberger, S.; Hein, K.R.G. [Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    To reduce Europe`s greenhouse gas emission CO{sub 2} it is a challenging task utilising biomass fuels as there are wood or wood residues from the forest industry. The utilisation can be done either in commercially operated medium (> 50 kWth) or full scale (> 1 MWth) decentralised heat and power stations or in small scale (< 50 kWth) domestic heating systems. In small scale heating systems untreated wood logs, wood briquette or wood pellets and in few cases wood chips are used. The present market in Germany is focused on the use of wood logs. Presently, the use of wood pellets in small scale automatically operated boilers < 15 kW especially for low energy houses is discussed more and more. Since 1980 the installation of new wood fired small scale domestic heating systems reached a significant size due to the interest of the customers to have a alternative inhouse heating system and to increase the living comfort. In 1994 the amount of sold small scale heaters in Germany were in total about 133.258 units. The thermal power of in 1994 sold units is estimated of about 1350 MW which is a significant size in total with regard to domestic heating purposes. Since few years there is a clear market trend in Germany towards the installation of open fire stoves. Due to this trend in Germany and the design characteristic of open fire stoves using huge glass doors of glass windows it is very difficult to achieve a further reduction of emissions like CO and unburned volatile hydrocarbons (VOC). In the text the requirements for modern small scale wood fired stoves in Germany as well as the actual stage and trend of research and development (R and D) are discussed 4 refs.

  20. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of