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Sample records for usando detectores termoluminescentes

  1. Development and characterization of two-component albedo based neutron individual monitoring system using thermoluminescent detectors; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de um sistema de monitoracao individual de neutrons tipo albedo de duas componentes usando detectores termoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcelo Marques

    2008-07-01

    A TLD-albedo based two-component neutron individual monitoring system was developed and characterized in this work. The monitor consists of a black plastic holder, an incident neutron boron loaded shield, a moderator polyethylene body (to increase its response), two pairs of TLD-600 and TLD-700 (one pair to each component) and an adjustable belt. This monitoring system was calibrated in thermal neutron fields and in 70 keV, 144 keV, 565 keV, 1.2 MeV and 5 MeV monoenergetic neutron fields. In addition, it was calibrated in {sup 252C}f(D{sub 2}O), {sup 252}Cf, {sup 241}Am-B, {sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 238}Pu-Be source fields. For the latter, the lower detection levels are, respectively, 0.009 mSv, 0.06 mSv, 0.12 mSv, 0.09 mSv and 0.08 mSv. The participation in an international intercomparison sponsored by IAEA with simulated workplace fields validated the system. The monitoring system was successfully characterized in the ISO 21909 standard and in an IRD - the Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - technical regulation draft. Nowadays, the neutron individual system is in use by IRD for whole body individual monitoring of five institutions, which comprehend several activities. (author)

  2. In vivo dosimetry with semiconductor and thermoluminescent detectors applied to head and neck cancer treatment; Dosimetria in vivo com uso de detectores semicondutores e termoluminescentes aplicada ao tratamento de cancer de cabeca e pescoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegas, Claudio Castelo Branco

    2003-03-15

    In vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy, i. e, the assessment of the doses received by patients during their treatments, permits a verification of the therapy quality. A routine of in vivo dosimetry is, undoubtedly, a direct benefit for the patient. Unfortunately, in Brazil and in Latin America this procedure is still a privilege for only a few patients. This routine is of common application only in developed countries. The aim of this work is to show the viability and implementation of a routine in vivo dosimetry, using diodes semiconductors and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), at the radiotherapy section of the National Institute of Cancer in Brazil, in the case of head and neck cancer treatment. In order to reach that aim, the characteristics of the response of diodes ISORAD-p and LiF:Mg;Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescent detectors in powder form were determined. The performance of those detectors for in vivo dosimetry was tested using an RANDO Alderson anthropomorfic phantom and, once their adequacy proved for the kind of measurements proposed, they were used for dose assessment in the case of tumour treatments in the head and neck regions, for Cobalt-60 irradiations. (author)

  3. Revelando el signo de las cargas eléctricas usando un detector de polaridad entretenido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo discutiremos la construcción, uso y funcionamiento de un detector de polaridad electrostática que fue diseñado con el propósito de hacer interesante y entretenida una clase introductoria acerca de la existencia de cargas eléctricas y sus interacciones. El detector de polaridad usa un circuito simple y un diseño que puede imprimirse en una impresora 3D. Así el lector puede armar su propio detector luego de comprar y ensamblar de manera fácil algunos componentes electrónicos de bajo costo. El cuerpo del detector tiene la forma de un tiburón martillo cuyos ojos se encienden de acuerdo al signo de la carga del objeto que se quiere medir. Esta forma divertida de tiburón permite construir actividades entretenidas en donde los estudiantes puedan investigar las propiedades fundamentales de las interacciones entre objetos cargados eléctricamente.

  4. Development of an X-ray detector using photodiodes; Desarrollo de un detector de rayos X usando fotodiodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, J.; Azorin V, J. C.; Sosa A, M. A.; Ceron, P., E-mail: gonzalezgj2012@licifug.ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Currently the radiation detectors for medical applications are very high value in the market and are difficult to access as training material. In the Sciences and Engineering Division of the Guanajuato University (Mexico) investigations are carried out related to ionizing radiations, especially with X-rays. To overcome the lack of materials has had to resort to borrowing equipment from other institutions, so its use and availability are intermittent. For these reasons is proposed to design and implement an X-ray detector for the use of the work group and the University. This work aims to build an X-ray semiconductor detector using inexpensive and affordable materials, is also proposed the use of a photodiode sensor and an Arduino analog-digital card and a LCD display showing the data. (Author)

  5. Datalogger usando nios ii

    OpenAIRE

    Campoverde Rugel, Luis Enrique; Velásquez Vargas, Washington Adrián; Ponguillo, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en la implementación de un Datalogger utilizando el microprocesador NIOS II el cual fue embebido en el FPGA CYCLONE II que se encuentra integrada en la tarjeta de desarrollo ALTERA DE2, el cual obtiene datos de distintos sensores y los almacena en una tarjeta SD Card. Para la realización del proyecto se aplican cuatro etapas. La primera etapa está basada en obtener los datos mediante el uso de sensores y la transmisión usando un PIC, la siguiente etapa se basa...

  6. Study of method of efficiency transference using detectors NaI(Ti); Estudo de método de transferência de eficiência usando detectores NaI(Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Thiago L.; Salgado, César M., E-mail: thiago_lins-ramos@hotmail.com, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The use of NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors for measurements implies the determination of the detection efficiency as a function of the energy of the incident photons. The efficiency curve can be obtained experimentally with the use of several mono-energy sources calibrated with emission energies covering the whole range of interest or using the Monte Carlo method. The Institute of Nuclear Engineering develops several methodologies using these detectors as they are robust, inexpensive and do not need cooling for their use. The assembly of an experimental arrangement is usually complex, since several factors influence the result affecting reproducibility in measurements, such as: parallelism between source and detector, alignment between source and detector, and accuracy of source-detector distance. In view of such difficulties, an automated positioning system was developed for the source-detector set controlled by a micro controller based on the ARDUINO language in order to guarantee the reproducibility in the experimental arrangements. In the initial phase of this study, a mathematical model was developed in the MCNP-X code using a NaI (Tl) detector. A theoretical validation using the Efficiency Transfer Method was performed at three different positions on the detector's axial axis (10.6 cm, 11.3 cm and 12.0 cm). This method is based on the ratio of effective solid angles. The experimental validation presented maximum relative errors of 7.74% for the position 11.3 cm.

  7. Determination of the level of water in the core of reactors PWR using neutron detectors signal ex core; Determinacion del nivel del agua del nucleo de reactores PWR usando la senal de detectores neutronicos excore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, A.; Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    The level of water from the core provides relevant information of the neutronic and thermal hydraulic of the reactor as the power, k EFF and cooling capacity. In fact, this level monitoring can be used for prediction of LOCA and reduction of cooling that can cause damage to the core. There are several teams that measure a variety of parameters of the reactor, as opposed to the level of the water of the core. However, the detectors 'excore' measure fast neutrons which escape from the core and there are studies that demonstrate the existence of a relationship between them and the water level of the kernel due to the water shield. Therefore, a methodology has been developed to determine this relationship, using the Monte Carlo method using the MCNP code and apply variance reduction techniques based on the attached flow that is obtained using the method of discrete ordinates using code TORT. (Author)

  8. Characterization of array scintillation detector for follicle thyroid 2D imaging acquisition using Monte Carlo simulation; Caracterizacao de uma matriz detectora cintiladora para aquisicao de imagem 2D da regiao folicular da glandula tireoide por emissao radioativa usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da

    2007-05-15

    The image acquisition methods applied to nuclear medicine and radiobiology are a valuable research study for determination of thyroid anatomy to seek disorders associated to follicular cells. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has also been used in problems related to radiation detection in order to map medical images since the improvement of data processing compatible with personnel computers (PC). This work presents an innovative study to find out the adequate scintillation inorganic detector array that could be coupled to a specific light photo sensor, a charge coupled device (CCD) through a fiber optic plate in order to map the follicles of thyroid gland. The goal is to choose the type of detector that fits the application suggested here with spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and good detector efficiency. The methodology results are useful to map a follicle image using gamma radiation emission. A source - detector simulation is performed by using a MCNP4B (Monte Carlo for Neutron Photon transport) general code considering different source energies, detector materials and geometries including pixel sizes and reflector types. The results demonstrate that by using MCNP4B code is possible to searching for useful parameters related to the systems used in nuclear medicine, specifically in radiobiology applied to endocrine physiology studies to acquiring thyroid follicles images. (author)

  9. Reconocimiento de Gestos usando Cámaras de Profundidad

    OpenAIRE

    JHONSON GARCÍA, FIORELLA ANNETH

    2017-01-01

    El proyecto pretende detectar un repertorio de gestos a partir de nubes de puntos 3D obtenidas con cámaras de profundidad tipo Kinect. Jhonson García, FA. (2017). Reconocimiento de Gestos usando Cámaras de Profundidad. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/91700 TFGM

  10. Reconocimiento de Huellas Dactilares Usando Características Locales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El reconocimiento de huellas dactilares es uno de los métodos más populares usados con mayor grado de éxito para la identificación de personas. La huella dactilar tiene características únicas llamadas minucias, las cuales son puntos donde los bordes terminan o se dividen. Los sistemas de identificación que usan patrones biométricos de huella dactilar se denominan AFIS (Sistema de Identificación Automático de Huella Dactilar. En este trabajo se realizó un sistema para reconocimiento de huella dactilar usando combinación de Transformada Rápida de Fourier (FFT con Filtros de Gabor para aclarar la imagen y después un novedoso método para el reconocimiento usando características locales.

  11. Evaluation of the response of thermoluminescent detectors in clinical beams dosimetry using different phantoms; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes na dosimetria de feixes clinicos utilizando diferentes objetos simuladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana Cardoso

    2010-07-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the three principal treatment modalities used in the treatment of malignant diseases such as cancer, the other two are chemotherapy and radiosurgery. In contrast to other medical specialties that rely mainly on the clinical knowledge and experience of medical specialists, radiotherapy, with its use of ionizing radiation in treatment of cancer, relies heavily on modern technology and the collaborative efforts of several professionals whose coordinated team approach greatly influences the outcome of the treatment. In the area of clinical dosimetry, an efficient and accurate calibration of the radiation beam ensures knowledge of the radiation dose delivered to the patient, allowing thus the success of radiotherapy. This study aims to compare the thermoluminescent response of calcium sulfate doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) dosimeters produced by IPEN (6 mm in diameter and 0,8 mm tick) with the response of lithium fluoride (3,15 x 3,15 x 0,9 mm{sup 3}) doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti) in dosimetry of clinical photons (6 and 15 MV) and electrons beams (6 and 9 MeV) using solid water (RMI-457), water and PMMA phantoms. Initially, the dose-response curves were obtained for irradiation in cobalt-60 gamma radiation source in air (PMMA plates) and under electronic equilibrium conditions and for clinical electrons and photons beams at depth of maximum dose. The sensitivities of the thermoluminescent dosimeters were also evaluated and the values of their reproducibilities and intrinsic efficiency were determined for the response to different types of phantoms and radiation energy. The obtained results indicate that the main advantage of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosimeters is the enhanced sensitivity to radiation doses measured for {sup 60}Co, photons and electrons beams, thus representing a viable alternative for application in dosimetry in the radiotherapy area. (author)

  12. Influência da dependência energética de dosímetros termoluminescentes na medida da dose na entrada da pele em procedimentos radiográficos Influence of thermoluminescent dosimeters energy dependence on the measurement of entrance skin dose in radiographic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Liane de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da dependência energética de materiais termoluminescentes na determinação da dose na entrada da pele de pacientes submetidos a exames radiográficos (radiologia geral, mamografia e radiologia odontológica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Três diferentes materiais termoluminescentes foram utilizados: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P e CaSO4:Dy. Estes materiais foram expostos a fontes padronizadas de radiação X e gama, e a feixes clínicos de raios X. RESULTADOS: As curvas de calibração e de dependência energética foram obtidas. Todos os materiais apresentaram resposta linear em função do kerma no ar. Com relação à dependência energética, as amostras de CaSO4:Dy e LiF:Mg,Ti mostraram maior variação da resposta termoluminescente em função da energia efetiva do feixe de radiação. CONCLUSÃO: Os materiais testados mostraram desempenho adequado para a detecção da radiação X em feixes padronizados e clínicos. Embora as amostras de CaSO4:Dy e LiF:Mg,Ti apresentem dependência energética significativa no intervalo de energia considerado, este materiais podem ser utilizados para medição da dose de entrada na pele se fatores de correção apropriados forem utilizados.OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of the energy dependence of thermoluminescent materials on the determination of entrance skin dose in patients submitted to conventional radiographic studies (general radiology, mammography and dental radiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different thermoluminescent materials were utilized: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO4:Dy. These materials were exposed to standardized sources of X and gamma radiation and clinical X-ray beams. RESULTS: Calibration and energy dependence curves were obtained. All the materials showed a linear response as a function of the air kerma. As far as energy dependence is concerned, the CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples showed the

  13. Implementación del sistema para municipios, usando pmi

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Ruiz, Victor Hugo; Buenaño Vera, Sulay Pamela; Freire Cobo, Lenin

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de informe de graduación, es plantear y describir la implementación de un sistema informático en una entidad municipal usando PMI, siguiendo las pautas definidas en la Guía del PMBOK. Nuestro estudio es aplicar la Metodología Administración de Proyectos PMI a un proyecto ya terminado. Para este proyecto hemos tomado la información de la implementación del Sistema CABILDO ERP en el Gobierno Municipal de San Jacinto de Yaguachi, realizado por la empresa ecuatoriana...

  14. Programação funcional usando Java

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Juan Zavaleta Gavidia

    1997-01-01

    Desde a introdução da World Wide Web para o mundo nos inícios de 1990, usando a Internet como uma rede para transferir dados, empregando uma forma de expressão chamada de Hipertexto, a qual liga as informações relacionadas e combinadas com multimídia, os Webs resultantes têm aberto novas possibilidades de expressão e comunicação. A quantidade de tráfego de dados na Web e o número de computadores ofertando informação vem crescendo dramaticamente, mas falta expressividade e qualidade interativa...

  15. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  16. Thermoluminescent analysis of CaSO{sub 4} composites activated with rare earths; Analise termoluminescente de compositos de CaSO{sub 4} ativado com terras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junot, D.O.; Chagas, M.A.P.; Souza, D.N., E-mail: danilo.junot@hotmail.com, E-mail: mchagasfisica@gmail.com, E-mail: divanizi@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Since the thermoluminescence started to be applied to the dosimetry of ionizing radiation in 1940 different materials detectors have been proposed, and one of the most common is CaSO{sub 4}. The motivation of this work was to produce crystals of CaSO{sub 4} doped with rare earth elements such as europium (Eu), neodymium (Nd) and thulium (Tm). It was also produced crystals of CaSO{sub 4}:Ag. The interest in the production of these materials was to investigate other methods of production of thermoluminescent materials. The results show that the CaSO{sub 4}:Tm is more suitable for use in the thermoluminescent dosimetry. Although not the most intense peak, the peak at 170 °C could be a dosimetric peak. Analyses showed that all samples have a TL response proportional to the dose absorbed. (author)

  17. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  18. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  19. DISEÑO DE UN MICROSISTEMA PROGRAMABLE PARA EFECTOS DE AUDIO DIGITAL USANDO FPGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Michael Espinosa Durán

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el diseño de un microsistema programable para el procesamiento de efectos de audio digital implementado en un FPGA. El microsistema es diseñado usando un procesador de propósito específico y reconfigurable, un banco de RAMs y una interfaz gráfica de usuario basada en una pantalla táctil LCD. El procesador es diseñado usando 15 efectos de audio basados en retardos y procesamiento en el dominio dinámico y de la frecuencia. Los efectos son diseñados usando Megafunciones y el compilador FIR de Quartus II, son simulados en Simulink5 usando DSP Builder6, y son configurados utilizando una interfaz gráfica de usuario. El microsistema programable es implementado en el sistema de desarrollo DE2-70, y su funcionamiento es verificado usando un reproductor MP3 y un parlante. Adicionalmente, el microsistema permite la generación de efectos con alta fidelidad usando una tasa de muestreo máxima de 195.62 MSPS, y puede ser embebido en un SoC.

  20. SISTEMA DE MODELAGEM DE FIGURAS TRIDIMENSIONAIS USANDO RECONHECIMENTO DE VOZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauan Cristiano De Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente o mercado de Sistemas de Desenho auxiliado por Computador (CAD, sofre extrema carência de processos automatizados de reconhecimento de fala. O surgimento de tecnologias de automação facilita no desenvolvimento de aplicações capazes de auxiliar nestes processos. Baseando-se nestas afirmações construiu-se um modelo utilizando tecnologias capazes de transformar fala em sinais digitais, sendo possível a interpretação por sofisticados computadores. Observando ausência de tais ferramentas, o presente trabalho busca uma proposta capaz de acrescentar mecanismos os quais possibilitem a criação de modelos tridimensionais usando tecnologias como servidores HTTP, dispositivos moveis, linguagens de programação Java e PHP, Computação Gráfica e linguagem de interpretação por blocos. Os resultados obtidos na confecção do presente trabalho corroboram com as necessidades atuais representadas na sociedade propondo sustentabilidade, acessibilidade, portabilidade e facilidade de comunicação.

  1. Aulas-laboratorios de bajo costo, usando TIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia E. Calderón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una propuesta educativa orientada a promover el desarrollo de un pensamiento critico y un mayor interes por las ciencias experimentales. Con este fin desarrollamos propuestas de proyectos educativos susceptibles de ser destinadas a las aulas y laboratorios de las escuelas secundarias y primeros anos de la universidad, que resaltan los aspectos metodologicos de las ciencias. Aqui, realizamos una compilacion de varios proyectos, que ilustran formas de incorporar las tecnologias de la informacion y la comunicacion (TIC en diversos experimentos de ciencias, muchos de ellos publicados individualmente anteriormente, y que en conjunto se pueden utilizar para implementar un aula-laboratorio de bajo costo. Con TIC hacemos referencia a la convergencia de computadoras, sistemas audiovisuales, Internet, telefonia, y diversos equipos que se integran con algunos de ellos. Los proyectos intentan integrar areas como fisica, matematica, quimica, informatica, arte, etc. y apuntan a que los estudiantes puedan responder a las preguntas: .Como sabemos esto?, .Por que creemos en aquello? Preguntas que ilustran la naturaleza del pensamiento cientifico. Nuestra contribucion mas significativa es haber desarrollado ≪aulas-laboratorios≫ de muy bajo costo, usando TIC. Con el advenimiento de programas como ≪Una Laptop por Nino≫ que se estan implementando en varios paises de Latinoamerica, resulta oportuno utilizar este recurso como base para generar laboratorios de bajo costo, que creemos pueden ser una herramienta util para mejorar el aprendizaje de las ciencias, incentivar vocaciones y contribuir a desarrollar un pensamiento critico, a la par de desarrollar habilidades con el uso de las TIC que pueden ser de utilidad en diversos ambitos academicos y laborales.

  2. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  3. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  4. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  5. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  6. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  7. Identificación de sistemas no lineales usando series Volterra – Laguerre

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Ramos, Carlos Celestino; Medina Ramos, Carlos Celestino

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo de Tesis está enfocado en la identificación de sistemas no lineales de modelo dinámico no conocido, adicionalmente y en base a los resultados obtenidos, se propone la aplicación del sistema de Control Predictivo no Lineal Basado en Modelos, NMPC, usando el algoritmo de la Matriz Dinámica de Control no Lineal, NDMC. El primer objetivo de este trabajo consiste en implementar una metodología para la identificación de sistemas no lineales usando series de Volterra truncadas; proye...

  8. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  10. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  11. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  12. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  13. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  14. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  15. Split detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederstrand, C.N.; Chism, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which provides a dual channel capability for the simultaneous determination of the presence and concentration of two gases in a stream of sample gas and which has a single infrared source, a single sample cell, two infrared bandpass filters, and two infrared detectors. A separator between the filters and detectors prevents interchange of radiation between the filters. The separator is positioned by fitting it in a slot

  16. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  17. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, J.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sheng, J.P.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, F.K.; Tang, S.Q.; Tian, W.H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.Y.; Wang, J.G.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, S.Q.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wang, Z.H.; Wang, Z.J.; Wei, C.L.; Wei, Z.Z.; Wu, J.W.; Wu, S.H.; Wu, S.Q.; Wu, W.M.; Wu, X.D.; Wu, Z.D.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xiao, J.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, X.X.; Xu, J.G.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xuan, B.C.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, S.P.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.Z.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, X.R.; Ye, M.H.; Yu, C.H.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, M.; Zheng, W.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhong, G.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, J.; Zhou Li; Zhou Lin; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Y.S.; Zhou, Y.H.; Zhu, G.S.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, S.G.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e + e - annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  18. Comparing of the yield curve of the pediatric X-ray equipment using thermoluminescent dosimeters and cylindrical ionization chamber; Comparacao da curva de rendimento de um aparelho de raios X pediatrico utilizando dosimetros termoluminescentes e camara de ionizacao cilindrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipov, Danielle, E-mail: dfilipov@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schelin, Hugo R., E-mail: ledesmaiorgealberto@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The determination of the yield curve of a radiographic equipment should be realized once a year, or when the unit be serviced. Besides being a requirement of ANVISA, through this test is possible to determine the incident air kerma (at a given point in the center of the beam) - INAK. Based on these concepts, the main objective of this work is the comparison of yield curves of the pediatric X-ray apparatus using two different detectors: one cylindrical ionization chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters type LiF: Mg, Cu, P, as per protocol RLA / 9/057 IAEA. Then the equation of the yield curve (generated by each detector) was used to determine the INAK of 10 pediatric examinations, performed on this equipment. After the process of calibration of both detectors, they were placed side by side at a focus of the tube equipment for determining the performance of the same curve. Finally, using the curves generated by two detectors, INAK values of the 10 tests were calculated (from the kVp values, and mAs focus-patient of each exams), generating difference values at most 5%. As a conclusion, it can be said that the TLD lithium fluoride doped with Mg, Cu and P and the cylindrical ionization chambers may be used satisfactorily to determine the yield curve, whether as quality control or dosimetry.

  19. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  20. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  1. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  2. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Construcción de Distribuciones Multivariadas con Marginales Dependientes Usando Cópulas en R

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo-Elorza, M. C; Lozano, J. A

    2014-01-01

    Las cópulas se han convertido en una herramienta popular para la construcción de modelos multivariados en campos donde la dependencia multivariada es de gran interés. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar las cópulas tanto en su concepto teórico, como en su implementación en el software estadístico R y profundizar en la construcción de distribuciones multivariadas con marginales dependientes, usando la clase mvdc del paquete copula, la cual permite utilizar varias y diferentes marginales ...

  4. Interação Humano - Computador usando Visão Computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Bucher B. Barbosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa estudar maneiras de se explorar a Interação Humano Computador, usando Visão Computacional. A idéia tem como objetivo um esforço para tornar o computador mais interativo com o usuário, sem a necessidade da compra de um hardware ou acessório específico para tal. O produto final deste trabalho em desenvolvimento é um software que contempla esta funcionalidade, tornando o computador mais interativo.

  5. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  6. Ionization detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, E E

    1976-02-27

    This invention concerns a fire detection system making use of a beta source. The ionisation detector includes a first and second chamber respectively comprising a first and second electrode, preferably a plate, with a common electrode separating the first and second chamber. Communication is provided between these chambers through a set of orifices and each chamber also has a set of orifices for communication with the ambient atmosphere. One or both chambers can comprise a particle source, preferably beta. The detector also has an adjustable electrode housed in one of the chambers to regulate the voltage between the fixed electrode of this chamber and the common electrode located between the chambers. The electrodes of the structure are connected to a detection circuit that spots a change in the ionisation current when a fire alarm condition arises. The detection circuit of a new type includes a relaxation oscillator with a programmable unijunction transistor and a light emitting diode.

  7. MUST detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay, in collaboration with the SPhN-Saclay and the DPTA Bruyeres, has built an array of 8 telescopes based on Si-strip technology for the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. The detectors are described, along with the compact high density VXI electronics and the stand-alone data acquisition system developed in the laboratory. One telescope was tested using an 40 Ar beam and the measured performances are discussed. (authors)

  8. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  9. CLARIFICACIÓN DE AGUAS USANDO COAGULANTES POLIMERIZADOS: CASO DEL HIDROXICLORURO DE ALUMINIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MIGUEL COGOLLO FLÓREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un estudio del proceso de clarificación en sistemas de tratamiento de aguas industriales usando un coagulante inorgánico polimerizado (hidroxicloruro de aluminio. Inicialmente, se establecen los elementos conceptuales más importantes de las etapas del proceso de clarificación (coagulación, floculación y sedimentación. Luego, se señalan los principales coagulantes convencionales utilizados en el tratamiento de aguas y se abordan los policloruros de aluminio (PAC´s como integrantes de una nueva generación de coagulantes alternativos cuyo uso se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas dado su mejor desempeño respecto a los coagulantes convencionales; se especifican los aspectos técnicos y operativos que se deben considerar al momento de implementar un proceso de clarificación de aguas usando un PAC como coagulante. Finalmente, se presentan datos comparativos de condiciones operacionales reales de un proceso de clarificación de aguas, producto de un trabajo previo, donde se remplazó un coagulante convencional (sulfato de aluminio por hidroxicloruro de aluminio, donde se corrobora el mejor desempeño del proceso luego del remplazo.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE LA DEGRADACIÓN Y MINERALIZACIÓN DEL MALATIÓN USANDO FOTOCATÁLISIS MEDIANTE UN COLECTOR SOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Catalina Rodriguez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Se empleó un colector solar para evaluar la degradación del malatión en una solución acuosa de 15 _g/L del plaguicida, usando tres concentraciones diferentes de dióxido de titanio (100, 200 y 250 mg/L y peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2 al 30% como agente oxidante. La disminución de la concentración del malatión se determinó por cromatografía de gases con detector de microcaptura de electrones (CG-_ECD, previa extracción de las muestras con discos C18, y la mineralización se determinó mediante análisis de carbono orgánico total (COT. El proceso de degradación se evaluó durante 16 horas, durante las cuales, se registró la energía solar incidente mediante un radiómetro (Kipp & Zonen, modelo CUV 3. En la fotolisis se alcanzó un porcentaje de degradación de 58,8% y en la fotocatálisis, con 250 mg/L de TiO2 y 10 mL/h de H2O2, se obtuvo 98,7% de degradación. El porcentaje de mineralización alcanzado durante la fotocatálisis fue de 73%.

  11. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  12. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Finkenzeller, J.; Kiiehn, G.; Lichtenberg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an exemplary embodiment, a flat radiation beam is detected having a common electrode disposed parallel to the beam plane at one side and a common support with a series of individual conductors providing electrodes opposite successive portions of the common electrode and lying in a plane also parallel to the beam plane. The beam may be fan-shaped and the individual electrodes may be aligned with respective ray paths separated by uniform angular increments in the beam plane. The individual conductors and the connection thereof to the exterior of the detector housing may be formed on an insulator which can be folded into a T-shape for leading the supply conductors for alternate individual conductors toward terminals at opposite sides of the chamber

  13. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  14. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  15. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

  16. SÍNTESIS DE OXITOCINA EN FASE SÓLIDA USANDO DERIVADOS DE TERBUTOXICARBONILO Y FLUORENILMETOXICARBONILO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Calvo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La oxitocina, péptido cíclico cuya secuencia es CYIQNCPLG, fué el primer péptido de importancia biológica que pudo ser sintetizado. En este trabajo se compara la síntesis de la oxitocina usando resina p metilbenzhidrilamina (MBHA para la síntesis por estrategia t-Boc y resina Rink p-metilbenzhidrilamina (Rink MBHA para la síntesis por estrategia Fmoc, con altos rendimientos. El péptido crudo se ciclizó en una disolución acuosa de dimetilsulfóxido al 10%. La caracterización se llevó a cabo por espectrometría de masas y resonancia magnética nuclear, y se logró detectar la presencia de dos isómeros.

  17. Silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to and an overview of function principles and properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is attempted. The paper is addressed to people interested in detector development but not already experts in the field of semiconductor detectors. (orig.)

  18. Calibration of detector efficiency of neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; He Xijun; Xu Rongkun; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    BF 3 neutron detector has been set up. Detector efficiency is calibrated by associated particle technique. It is about 3.17 x 10 -4 (1 +- 18%). Neutron yield of neutron generator per pulse (10 7 /pulse) is measured by using the detector

  19. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  1. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  2. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  3. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  4. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  5. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  6. Variantes del problema del cartero mixto que se pueden resolver usando programación lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Zaragoza Martínez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dada una gráfica mixta y conexa con costos en sus aristas y arcos, el problema del cartero mixto consiste en encontrar un circuito cerrado de la gráfica mixta que recorra sus aristas y arcos a costo mínimo. Se sabe que este problema es NP-duro. Sin embargo, bajo ciertas condiciones adicionales, el problema se puede resolver en tiempo polinomial usando programación lineal, en otras palabras, los poliedros correspondientes son enteros. Algunas de estas condiciones son: la gráfica mixta es serie paralelo o la gráfica mixta tiene grado total par en todos sus vértices. Además, mostramos que si agregamos la restricción adicional de que cada arista se recorra exactamente una vez entonces el problema se puede resolver en tiempo polinomial si el conjunto de arcos forma un bosque. Palabras clave: Gráfica mixta, problema de cartero, programación lineal. Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C45, 90C35.

  7. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I; Martinez laso, L

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  8. Mica fission detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Anderson, J.D.; Hansen, L.; Lehn, A.V.; Williamson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The present development status of the mica fission detectors is summarized. It is concluded that the techniques have been refined and developed to a state such that the mica fission counters are a reliable and reproducible detector for fission events

  9. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  10. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  11. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  12. Uso de detectores de neutrinos para el monitoreo de reactores nucleares Uso de detectores de neutrinos para el monitoreo de reactores nucleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la factibilidad del uso de los detectores de antineutrinos para el monitoreo de reactores nucleares. Usando un modelo sencillo de cascada de fisión a dos componentes, se ilustra la dependencia del número de antineutrinos detectados a una distancia L del reactor según la composición nuclear del combustible. Se explica el principio de detección de neutrinos de reactores en base al decaimiento beta inverso y se describe como los detectores de neutrinos pueden emplearse para el monitoreo de la producción de materiales fisibles en el reactor. Se comenta como generalizar este análisis al caso real de un reactor nuclear in situ y uno de los principales experimentos internacionales dedicados a este propósito. We study the feasibility to use antineutrinos detectors for monitoring of nuclear reactors. Using a simple model of fission shower with two components, we illustrate how the numbers of antineutrinos detected at a distance L from the reactor depend on the composition of the nuclear combustible. We explain the principles of reactor neutrino detection using inverse beta decays and we describe how neutrinos detectors can be used for monitoring the production of fissile materials within the reactors. We comment how to generalize this analysis to the realistic case of a nuclear reactor in situ and one of the main international experiments dedicated to study the use of neutrinos detectors as nuclear safeguards.

  13. HIBP primary beam detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

  14. The OSMOND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-11

    The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  15. Un estudio sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento aleatorio usando recursos educativos abiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Patricia Pinzón Triana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta los resultados de un proyecto de investigación sobre la implementación de la enseñanza probabilística con recursos educativos abiertos (REA, diseñados en la plataforma Edmodo, y que está dirigido a estudiantes de tercer grado de educación básica secundaria de Bogotá, Colombia, y Tuxtepec, México. El fin era evidenciar sus preconceptos, nociones y evaluar el resultado de la instrucción en términos de su pensamiento probabilístico y dar respuesta a la interrogante ¿cuál es el efecto de la instrucción en probabilidad usando Edmodo en estudiantes de tercer grado de educación básica secundaria respecto a la valoración de fenómenos aleatorios de la vida cotidiana, sus conjeturas y la toma de decisiones? Se empleó un enfoque cualitativo a partir del método de estudio de casos, desde el análisis particular a lo general (Stake, 2005. Para la implementación, se consideró el estudio de Fishbein (1975 sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento probabilístico y el de Marzano (2000, relacionado con las dimensiones del aprendizaje. Estos elementos sirvieron para establecer el impacto del uso de los REA, en especial el de la plataforma Edmodo en el desarrollo de competencias en los estudiantes. Los instrumentos consistieron en una prueba de entrada, actividades de apoyo interactivo desde Edmodo y una prueba de salida para determinar los niveles de aprendizaje; mediante triangulación de datos, se evidenciaron alcances de niveles adecuados de desempeño acordes con los requerimientos de los estándares nacionales e internacionales.

  16. AUTOMATIZACIÓN DE LA ARQUITECTURA DE COMPONENTES GENÉRICOS USANDO UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Fuentes Ramírez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available

     

    La arquitectura de componentes genéricos permite chequear la consistencia interna de sus elementos arquitectónicos (componentes y conectores a partir de las relaciones internas en sus respectivas estructuras, que pueden ser de inclusión y transformación. También permite verificar la conexión entre componentes y conectores a partir de las relaciones de transformación entre sus interfaces respectivas. Las ideas que se presentan aquí constituyen una propuesta para la automatización de la descripción de esta arquitectura usando el lenguaje de modelado unificado (UML a partir de la descripción formal de sus diagramas de clases y de secuencia, así como para el chequeo de la consistencia. En este artículo se muestra la aplicación de esta propuesta mediante una extensión de la herramienta Visual Paradigm, por medio de un módulo de software conectable.

  17. Pirólise catalítica do PEBD usando como catalisador a vermiculita modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciel Aureliano Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD é um dos polímeros mais usados atualmente, e a grande quantidade desse polímero produzida resulta em toneladas de resíduos, que necessitam ser tratados. Neste trabalho foi realizada a pirólise termocatalítica do PEBD usando como catalisador a argila vermiculita modificada, como alternativa para o tratamento dos resíduos. A argila foi tratada com solução de ácido nítrico a diferentes concentrações e calcinada a 400 °C. Os materiais foram caracterizados por técnicas de difratometria de raios X, termogravimetria, adsorção de nitrogênio e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. A pirólise térmica e termocatalítica foi realizada em um micro reator acoplado com GC/MS, a 500 °C. O intuito da pirólise de resíduos poliméricos é a obtenção de hidrocarbonetos leves (C<16, que possam ser empregados na indústria química e petroquímica, através de quebras na cadeia polimérica. Os resultados foram satisfatórios, com aumento no rendimento para hidrocarbonetos leves ao empregar os catalisadores chegando a 71,4% de produtos com C<16, enquanto a pirólise térmica resultou apenas de 25,8%.

  18. Desarrollo de un horno solar para el secado de plantas y vegetales usando control difuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar G. Ibarra Manzano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, el aprovechamiento de la energía solar en el deshidratado de productos agrícolas se ha vuelto cada día más común debido a los altos rendimientos en los productos post-cosecha. La inversión en tecnologías propias para contribuir con los productores del sector agroalimentario es un factor importante para el desarrollo de las cadenas produc­tivas de nuestro país. En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un horno solar para el secado de plantas y vegetales utilizando control difuso. Este es un sistema térmicamente controlado que permite disminuir el tiempo de secado de varios días a unas horas. Se reali­zaron pruebas de secado usando flor de jamaica, en las cuales se pudo disminuir el tiempo de secado de cuatro días a aproximadamente 5 h. Se presentan tanto la parte de diseño conceptual, como resultados experimentales del mismo. Los resultados obtenidos permiten ver la viabilidad del diseño propuesto.Recently, the use of solar energy in the dehydration of agricultural products is becomingmore common as high yields in the post-harvest products. Investment in technologies forcontributing to the producers of food products is an important factor for the development ofthe productive chains of our country. This paper presents the development of a solar oven fordrying plants and vegetables using fuzzy control. This is a heat-controlled system that allowsdecreasing the drying time from several days to hours. Drying tests were conducted usingjamaica flower, which could decrease the drying time from four days to about 5 h. We presentboth the conceptual design of the experimental results. The results obtained allow us to seethe feasibility of the proposed design.

  19. WORKSHOP: Scintillating fibre detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillating fibre detector development and technology for the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider, SSC, was the subject of a recent workshop at Fermilab, with participation from the high energy physics community and from industry. Sessions covered the current status of fibre technology and fibre detectors, new detector applications, fluorescent materials and scintillation compositions, radiation damage effects, amplification and imaging structures, and scintillation fibre fabrication techniques

  20. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  1. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  2. Self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, C.S.; Ramachandra Rao, M.N.; Ingale, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of self powered neutron detectors used for in-core flux measurements are described. The characteristics of the various detectors, with emitters Rh, V, Co, Py are presented. Details about the fabrication of these detectors are given. (A.K.)

  3. The JADE muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Armitage, J.C.M.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Glendinning, I.; Greenshaw, T.; Hassard, J.F.; Hill, P.; King, B.T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mercer, D.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.

    1985-01-01

    The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.)

  4. Economical stabilized scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Chudakov, V.A.; Gurinovich, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    An economical scintillation detector with the stabilization system of an integral type is described. Power consumed by the photomultiplier high-voltage power source is 40 mW, energy resolution is not worse than 9%. The given detector is used in a reference detector of a digital radioisotope densimeter for light media which is successfully operating for several years

  5. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. HP Ge planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.M.; Osipenko, B.P.; Yurkowski, J.; Podkopaev, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  8. The ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian

    2006-06-26

    The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

  9. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  10. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  11. Guía metodológica para obtener patrones de accidentabilidad laboral usando Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Cevallos Chacón, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es desarrollar y proponer una metodología clara y objetiva que permita a las empresas de cualquier industria, investigar sobre patrones de accidentabilidad laboral usando la minería de datos como herramienta de análisis. Para tal efecto se combina los conceptos de seguridad industrial relacionados con la investigación de accidentes y toma como marco principal, la normatividad nacional vigente en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo. Estos conceptos son ...

  12. Medición de microdeformaciones en losas viales usando sensores de redes de Bragg en fibras ópticas

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez-Hoyos, Francisco Javier; Serpa-Imbet, Claudia Milena; Gómez-Cardona, Nelson Darío

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un método no invasivo para la medición de microdeformaciones en estructuras de concreto usando sensores de redes de Bragg en fibras ópticas adheridos a su superficie. Se realizan mediciones en losas viales de concreto bajo una carga estática de 10 kN, encontrándose una relación aproximada de 2 : 1 entre la deformación registrada por los sensores y los valores arrojados por una simulación computacional con el método de elementos finitos. Se propone el uso de estos s...

  13. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  14. Aptitud combinatoria general y especifica de líneas tropicales de maiz usando probadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sierra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptitud combinatoria general y específica de líneas tropicales de maíz usando probadores. Durante el ciclo O - I 1996/97 fueron evaluados en el Campo Experimental Cotaxtla mestizos de líneas sobresalientes y provenientes de varias fuentes de germoplasma como son : a Líneas recicladas de H-513 X VS-536, b Líneas derivadas de un compuesto de amplia base genética, c Líneas élite de programa de maíz de Cotaxtla (LTs y d Líneas de CIMMYT (CMLs. Como probadores se usaron las líneas LT-154 y LT-155 progenitores del híbrido H-513 y las líneas CML247 y CML254 cuya cruza es un patrón heterótico definido por CIMMYT para el trópico. Hubo líneas con buen comportamiento per-se tanto en rendimiento como en características agronómicas y que se encuentran formando mestizos sobresalientes con uno o varios probadores. Con relación a la Aptitud combinatoria, se encontró que las líneas F31XF30-4-3-1, F41XF40-1-2-1, CABG3’-12-2-1-2-1-1, LT174 y CML15 registraron los máximos valores con el probador 2 (LT155; F4XF3-5-2-1 y CML15 con el probador 4 (CMl254. Así también, las líneas F4XF5-5-1-1, y CABG3’-12-2-1-2-1-1, LT174, CML13 y CML15 con buena ACG. Con relación a los probadores, se encontró que para el grupo de líneas Recicladas , los probadores 1(LT154 y 4 (CML254 registraron los coeficientes de regresión más altos, lo que indica que permiten identificar líneas sobresalientes. Para líneas CABG fué el probador 2 (LT155 el que registró el mejor valor y en líneas Élite , los probadores 2(LT155, y 3(CML247 identificaron mejor a las líneas sobresalientes. Para las líneas del CIMMYT el mejor valor fué para el probador 4(CML254

  15. Solucionando dificultades en el aula: una estrategia usando el aprendizaje basado en problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Luz Valderrama Sanabria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se utiliza el proyecto de investigación en el aula con énfasis en el Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas, el cual promueve el aprendizaje activo y significativo, permitiendo solucionar situaciones reales de conocimiento en torno a una temática específica. Implementa los principios de la investigación formativa, como herramienta para generar nuevas alternativas en la apropiación del conocimiento. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la percepción de los estudiantes del programa Regencia de Farmacia frente a la utilización del aprendizaje basado en problemas con el fin de realizar aportes al currículo. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal realizado con una muestra no probabilística, por conveniencia, conformada por 109 estudiantes de segundo a sexto semestre. Se elaboró un cuestionario con escala tipo Likert, sometido a valoración por expertos. Resultados: En general, los estudiantes están de acuerdo con la estrategia porque ha permitido acercarse a la investigación, fortaleciendo el pensamiento crítico; generando autonomía y responsabilidad frente al aprendizaje. A medida que avanzan los semestres, le ven mayor utilidad. Sin embargo, falta claridad en el uso de la metodología y capacitación por parte de algunos docentes para desarrollarla eficazmente. Discusión: La coordinación docente es fundamental, se debe fortalecer este aspecto para dar claridad al uso de la metodología. Implementar procesos de evaluación para determinar los avances desarrollados por los estudiantes y el impacto generado. Conclusiones: Los estudiantes consideran que adquieren conocimientos y competencias que les ayudarán en la práctica profesional.  Cómo citar este artículo: Valderrama ML, Castaño GA. Solucionando dificultades en el aula: una estrategia usando el aprendizaje basado en problemas. Rev Cuid. 2017; 8(3: 1907-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v8i3.456

  16. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  17. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  18. Physics of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.

    1991-01-01

    The general concept of a radiation detector is based on three fundamental principles: sensitivity of the device to the radiation of interest which requires a large cross-section in the detector material, detector response function to the physical properties of the radiation. As an example, a scintillation detector for charged particles should allow to identify the charge of the particle, its kinetic energy and the time of impact combined with optimum resolutions. Optimum conversion of the detector response (like luminescence of a scintillator) into electronical signals for further processing. The following article will concentrate on the various aspects of the first two listed principles as far as they appear to be relevant for photon and charged particle detection using organic and inorganic scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  19. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  20. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodo, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  1. Cherenkov water detector NEVOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhin, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    A unique multipurpose Cherenkov water detector, the NEVOD facility, uses quasispherical measuring modules to explore all the basic components of cosmic rays on Earth's surface, including neutrinos. Currently, the experimental complex includes the Cherenkov water detector, a calibration telescope system, and a coordinate detector. This paper traces the basic development stages of NEVOD, examines research directions, presents the results obtained, including the search for the solution to the 'muon puzzle', and discusses possible future development prospects.

  2. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  3. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  4. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  5. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-03-05

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  6. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  7. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  8. The LHC detector challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Virdee, Tejinder S

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

  9. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  10. GRINDING OF HARDENED STEELS USING OPTIMIZED COOLING RECTIFICADO DE ACEROS ENDURECIDOS USANDO REFRIGERACIÓN OPTIMIZADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Cléber de Sampaio Alves

    2008-06-01

    medio. Para ello, al proceso de rectificación está intrínseco el reciclaje del fluido de corte, que se destaca por su costo. A través de la variación de la velocidad de avance en el proceso de rectificación cilíndrica externa del acero ABNT D6, racionalizando la aplicación de dos fluidos de corte y usando una muela superabrasiva de CBN (nitruro de boro cúbico con ligante vitrificado, se evaluaron los parámetros de salida fuerza tangencial de corte, rugosidad, circularidad, desgaste de la herramienta, la tensión residual y la integridad superficial a través de la microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM de las piezas de prueba. Con el análisis del desempeño fluido, muela y velocidad de inmersión se encontró las mejores condiciones de fabricación propiciando la disminución del volumen de fluido de corte, disminución del tiempo de fabricación sin perjudicar los parámetros geométricos, dimensionales, el acabado superficial y la integridad superficial de los componentes.

  11. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  12. New detector concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Lutz, G.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

  13. Stanford's big new detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

  14. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  15. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  16. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  17. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  18. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  19. LHCb detector performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinol, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are

  20. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  1. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  2. Future particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√(s)=2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √(s)=14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described

  3. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  4. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  5. Validación de la escala para manía de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia usando el análisis de Rasch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sánchez

    2011-03-01

    Conclusiones. En este primer estudio de la escala para manías usando el análisis de Rasch, se detectó mal ajuste y redundancia de algunos ítems. El síndrome maníaco no queda completamente evaluado por la escala. El instrumento podría mejorarse agregando síntomas depresivos.

  6. The GDH-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, K; Fausten, M; Menze, D; Michel, T; Nagel, A; Ryckbosch, D; Speckner, T; Vyver, R V D; Zeitler, G

    2002-01-01

    For the GDH-Experiment at ELSA, the helicity dependent total photoabsorption cross-section is to be determined. These measurements will be performed with the newly developed GDH-Detector which is presented here. The concept of the GDH-Detector is to detect at least one reaction product from all possible hadronic processes with almost complete acceptance concerning solid angle and efficiency. This is realized by an arrangement of scintillators and lead. The overall acceptance for hadronic processes is better than 99%. The electromagnetic background is suppressed by about five orders of magnitude by means of a threshold Cherenkov detector. In dedicated tests, it has been demonstrated that all individual components of the GDH-Detector fulfill the design goals. Measurements of unpolarized total photoabsorption cross-sections were performed to ensure that the complete GDH-Detector is operational.

  7. Introduction to detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Walenta, Albert H

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for momentum measurements,particle identification and energy measurements (calorimeters) as well for imaging applications in medecine, biology and industry (non destructive testing) will be put into relation to the specific detection princip In particular the resolution for position, time, energy and intensity measurement and the efficiency will be discussed. Signal extraction,electronic signal processing and principles of information capture will close the logic circle to the input : the radiation properties.The lecture will provide some sources for data tables and small demonstration computer programs f The basic detector physics as interaction of radiation with matter, information transport via free charges,photons and phonons and the signal formation will be presented in some depth with emphasis on the influence on specific parameters for detector The lecture will cover the most popular detector principles, gas detectors (ion chambers,MPWC's and MSGC's), semiconductor detectors scintillators and ...

  8. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  9. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  10. Advanced far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > λ > 50 μm are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

  11. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  12. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

  13. CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] detector simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.

    1987-12-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) uses several different simulation programs, each tuned for specific applications. The programs rely heavily on the extensive test beam data that CDF has accumulated. Sophisticated shower parameterizations are used, yielding enormous gains in speed over full cascade programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  14. Síntesis de oxitocina en fase sólida usando derivados de terbutoxicarbonilo y fluorenilmetoxicarbonilo

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Julio C; Barrera, Nubia F.; García, Josué A.; Guzman, Fanny; Espejo, Fabiola; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2010-01-01

    La oxitocina, péptido cíclico cuya secuencia es CYIQNCPLG, fué el primer péptido de importancia biológica que pudo ser sintetizado. En este trabajo se compara la síntesis de la oxitocina usando resina p metilbenzhidrilamina (MBHA) para la síntesis por estrategia t-Boc y resina Rink p-metilbenzhidrilamina (Rink MBHA) para la síntesis por estrategia Fmoc, con altos rendimientos. El péptido crudo se ciclizó en una disolución acuosa de dimetilsulfóxido al 10%. La caracterización se llevó a cabo p...

  15. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  16. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  17. Smile detectors correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Kivanc; Chang, Xin; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The novel smile recognition algorithm is presented based on extraction of 68 facial salient points (fp68) using the ensemble of regression trees. The smile detector exploits the Support Vector Machine linear model. It is trained with few hundreds exemplar images by SVM algorithm working in 136 dimensional space. It is shown by the strict statistical data analysis that such geometric detector strongly depends on the geometry of mouth opening area, measured by triangulation of outer lip contour. To this goal two Bayesian detectors were developed and compared with SVM detector. The first uses the mouth area in 2D image, while the second refers to the mouth area in 3D animated face model. The 3D modeling is based on Candide-3 model and it is performed in real time along with three smile detectors and statistics estimators. The mouth area/Bayesian detectors exhibit high correlation with fp68/SVM detector in a range [0:8; 1:0], depending mainly on light conditions and individual features with advantage of 3D technique, especially in hard light conditions.

  18. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  19. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  20. A New Virtual Point Detector Concept for a HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jong In; Yun, Ju Yong

    2009-01-01

    For last several decades, the radiation measurement and radioactivity analysis techniques using gamma detectors have been well established. Especially , the study about the detection efficiency has been done as an important part of gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency depends strongly on source-to-detector distance. The detection efficiency with source-to-detector distance can be expressed by a complex function of geometry and physical characteristics of gamma detectors. In order to simplify the relation, a virtual point detector concept was introduced by Notea. Recently, further studies concerning the virtual point detector have been performed. In previous other works the virtual point detector has been considered as a fictitious point existing behind the detector end cap. However the virtual point detector position for the front and side of voluminous detectors might be different due to different effective central axis of them. In order to more accurately define the relation, therefore, we should consider the virtual point detector for the front as well as side and off-center of the detector. The aim of this study is to accurately define the relation between the detection efficiency and source-to-detector distance with the virtual point detector. This paper demonstrates the method to situate the virtual point detectors for a HPGe detector. The new virtual point detector concept was introduced for three area of the detector and its characteristics also were demonstrated by using Monte Carlo Simulation method. We found that the detector has three virtual point detectors except for its rear area. This shows that we should consider the virtual point detectors for each area when applying the concept to radiation measurement. This concept can be applied to the accurate geometric simplification for the detector and radioactive sources.

  1. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  2. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  3. Lithium germanium detectors reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, J.A.; Marti, G.V.; Riso, J.M.; Gimenez, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author) [es

  4. The AGILE anticoincidence detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotti, F.; Fiorini, M.; Incorvaia, S.; Mattaini, E.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.

    2006-01-01

    AGILE is a γ-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10 -4 . In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS

  5. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  6. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  7. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  8. Fuel rod leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize 133 Xe is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of 133 Xe appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  9. The HOTWAXS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diakun, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.m.duxbury@rl.ac.uk; Fairclough, J.P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom); Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sankar, G. [Royal Institution of GB, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Terrill, N.J. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-11

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  10. The HOTWAXS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E.; Diakun, G.; Duxbury, D.M.; Fairclough, J.P.A.; Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I.; Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J.; Sankar, G.; Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R.; Terrill, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source

  11. Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57 Co and 60 Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239 Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

  12. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  13. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  14. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  15. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  16. Inverter ratio failure detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  17. Sensitive detectors in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of sample components in HPLC is difficult for many reasons; the key difficulty is the mobile phase which usually has properties similar to the solute. A variety of detectors have been developed for use in HPLC based on one of the above approaches; however, the search is still continuing for an ideal or universal detector. A universal detector should have the following characteristics: (1) responds to all solutes or has predictable specificity; (2) high detectability and the same predictable response; (3) fast response; (4) wide range of linearity; (5) unaffected by changes in temperature and mobile-phase flow; (6) responds independently of the mobile phase; (7) makes no contribution to extracolumn band broadening; (8) reliable and convenient to use; (9) nondestructive to the solute; (10) provides qualitative information on the detected peak. Unfortunately, no available HPLC detector possesses all these properties. 145 refs

  18. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  19. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  20. New detector techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Iarocci, Enzo

    1994-03-14

    The intense R&D effort being carried out in view of LHC has given rise in a relatively short time to a wide spectrum of new detector concepts and technologies. Subject of the lectures will be some of the most interesting new ideas and developments, in the field of noble liquid, crystal and scintillating fiber trackers. The emphasis will be on the basic aspects of detector operation.

  1. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  2. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurman, B.; Erlandsson, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes problems concerning the calibration of germanium detectors for the measurement of gamma-radiation from environmental samples. It also contains a brief description of some ways of reducing the uncertainties concerning the activity determination. These uncertainties have many sources, such as counting statistics, full energy peak efficiency determination, density correction and radionuclide specific-coincidence effects, when environmental samples are investigated at close source-to-detector distances

  3. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    The study group met from June 7 to 11, 1976, with the dual purpose of reviewing an earlier Lepton Detector report in order to resolve some of the remaining design problems and of considering possible alternatives. Since the role of this group was primarily that of providing a critique of the earlier work, the reader is referred to that earlier paper for the general motivation and design of the detector. Problems studied at this session are described

  4. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  5. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity measurements in ATLAS. Most changes were motivated by the number of interactions per bunch-crossing and the 25 ns bunch-spacing expected in LHC RUN II (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2

  6. FERMILAB: Collider detectors -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Last month's edition (April, page 12) included a status report on data collection and preliminary physics results from the 'newcomer' DO detector at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. This time the spotlight falls in the Veteran' CDF detector, in action since 1985 and meanwhile significantly upgraded. Meanwhile the Tevatron collider continues to improve, with record collision rates

  7. Microsonic detector (MSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, J.T.; Haridas, P.; Oh, S.H.; Pless, I.A.; Stoughton, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The microsonic detector (MSD) has good spatial resolution, moderate flux capacity, moderate event rate, and small volume. The MSD is a super clean bubble chamber driven at 10-50 KHz. It would be used in experiments as a vertex detector to detect short lived particles. Its characteristics--active volume, density, absorption length, radiation length, and spatial resolution--are given. The setup is schematicized, and a photograph of a 130 MeV/C photon bremsstrahlung beam is given

  8. Protecting detectors in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechman, M.; Augustinus, A.; Chochula, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Stig Jirden, L.; Rosinsky, P.; Schindler, H.; Cataldo, G. de; Pinazza, O.; Kurepin, A.; Moreno, A.

    2012-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related to beam safety. The gained experiences and conclusions from the individual safety projects are also presented. (authors)

  9. Radiation detectors for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10 B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF 3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

  10. Detectors for CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

  11. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  12. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  13. Frontier detectors for frontier physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervelli, F.; Scribano, A.

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named meeting. These concern developments of radiation detectors and counting techniques in high energy physics. Especially considered are tracking detectors, calorimeters, time projection chambers, detectors for rare events, solid state detectors, particle identification, and optical readout systems. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  14. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  15. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  16. Evaluation of the thermoluminescent detector answers of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti and micro LiF:Mg,Ti in photon clinical beams dosimetry using water simulator; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes de CaSO4:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti e microLiF:Mg,Ti na dosimetria de feixes clinicos de fotons utilizando simulador de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana C.; Veneziani, Glauco R.; Campos, Leticia L., E-mail: lmatsushima@usp.b, E-mail: veneziani@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (GMR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; Cruz, Jose C. da, E-mail: rsakuraba@einstein.b, E-mail: jccruz@einstein.b [Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Albert Einstein (HAE)

    2011-10-26

    This paper perform the comparative study of thermoluminescent answer of calcium sulfate dosemeter doped with dysprosium (DaSO{sub 4}:Dy) produced by the IPEN, Sao Paulo, with answer of lithium fluoride dosemeters doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg, Ti) in the dosimetry of clinical beams of photons (6 and 15 MV) by using water simulator object. Dose-answer curves were obtained for gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in the air and in conditions of electronic equilibrium (plate of PMMA), and clinical photons of CLINAC model 2100C accelerators of the two evaluated hospitals: Hospital das Clinicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Sao Paulo university and Hospital Albert Einstein. It was also evaluated the sensitivity and reproduction of the three dosemeters

  17. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  18. Caracterização dosimétrica de feixes de fótons com detector de diamante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Sabino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar o detector de diamante, bem como observar seu comportamento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As características dosimétricas de feixes de fótons de 6 MV de energia foram medidas utilizando o sistema automático de varredura MP3 da PTW com um detector de diamante e foram comparadas com medidas usando uma câmara de ionização 31010 da PTW. RESULTADOS: As características dosimétricas do detector de diamante foram observadas por meio de medidas de linearidade com a dose, dependência com a taxa de dose e distribuições de dose em profundidade, bem como perfis. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas medidas com diamante e câmara de ionização foram validadas com resultados publicados na literatura, o que demonstrou um bom comportamento do detector de diamante na comparação com a câmara de ionização, muito utilizada para dosimetria em radioterapia, evidenciando que o diamante é uma boa escolha de detector para dosimetria de campos pequenos.

  19. Study of environmental aerosols using PIXE; Estudio de aerosoles ambientales usando PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape, F; Diaz, R V; Anguiano, G; Flores M, J [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1990-03-15

    This experimental study consists in make falling a particle beam on a collected sample of the air pollutants. In the present work protons coming from a particle accelerator were used. The magnet baffle of this it selects the protons energy according to the experiment. The beam current is generally of the order of nano amperes and it can be measured and integrated. At the interact the beam with the sample there are produced X rays characteristic of each one of those present elements in it. These X rays are registered by a Li-Si detector of which proportional pulses are obtained to the energy of the same ones. Finally this pulses are electronically processed in a typical arrangement (preamplifier-amplifier-multichannel) that delivers an energy spectra characteristic of the sample elements. Each one of the peaks of the spectra represents an element which is possible to identify. From the under curve area of each peak it can be evaluated the concentration corresponding to each element. (Author)

  20. Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Shunji

    2008-01-01

    Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Magnesium borate radiothermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskaya, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Minaeva, E.E.; Sokolov, A.D.

    1974-01-01

    In the report the technology of obtaining polycrystalline magnesium borate activated by dysprosium is described briefly and the method of preparing the tabletted detectors from it is presented. The dependence of the light sum of the samples on the proportion of the components and on the sintering regime has shown that the most sensitive material is obtained at the proportion of boric anhydride and magnesium oxide 2.2-2.4 and at the dysprosium concentration about 1 milligram-atom per gram molecule of the base. The glow curve of such a material has a simple form with one peak the maximum of which is located at 190-200 0 C. The measurement of the main dosimetric characteristics of the magnesium borate tabletted detectors and the comparison with similar parmaeters of the lithium fluoride tabletted detectors have shown that at practically identical effective number the former detectors have the following substantial advantages: the sensitivity is ten-twenty times as large, they are substantially more technological on synthesis of the radiothermoluminophor and during the production of the tabletted detectors, they have a simple glow curve, they do not require the utilization of the thermocycling during the use. (author)

  2. HPGe detector shielding adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, L.; Rulik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-level background shielding of HPGe detectors is used mainly for environmental samples with very low content of radionuclides. National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO) in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. The detectors are placed in a room built from materials with low content of natural radionuclides and equipped with a double isolation of the floor against radon. Detectors themselves are placed in lead or steel shielding. Steel shielding with one of these detectors with relative efficiency of 100% was chosen to be rebuilt to achieve lower minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. The additional lead and copper shielding, consequent reduction of the inner volume and supply of evaporated nitrogen, caused a decrease of the background count and accordingly MDA values as well. The effect of nitrogen evaporation on the net areas of peaks belonging to radon daughters is significant. The enhanced shielding adjustment has the biggest influence in low energy range, what can be seen in collected data. MDA values in energy range from 30 keV to 400 keV decreased to 0.65-0.85 of original value, in energy range from 400 keV to 2 MeV they fell to 0.70-0.97 of original value. (authors)

  3. ATLAS muon detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Muon detectors from the outer layer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Over a million individual detectors combine to make up the outer layer of ATLAS. All of this is exclusively to track the muons, the only detectable particles to make it out so far from the collision point. How the muon’s path curves in the magnetic field depends on how fast it is travelling. A fast muon curves only a very little, a slower one curves a lot. Together with the calorimeters, the muon detectors play an essential role in deciding which collisions to store and which to ignore. Certain signals from muons are a sure sign of exciting discoveries. To make sure the data from these collisions is not lost, some of the muon detectors react very quickly and trigger the electronics to record. The other detectors take a little longer, but are much more precise. Their job is to measure exactly where the muons have passed, calculating the curvature of their tracks in the magnetic field to the nearest five hundredths of a ...

  4. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Jacobs, S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion is given of the initial detector design, focusing on the cost estimates and on the inner detector modules. With regard to inner modules, the rate problem was examined for the closest elements, and the question whether one should use argon or lead-liquid scintillator calorimeters was discussed. New designs which involved major modifications to the lepton detector are considered. The major motivations for alternative designs were twofold. One was that the original detector looked quite expensive, and a study of the tradeoff of money versus physics had not really been done yet. The second point was that, since the physics region to be explored was totally new ground, one would like to leave as many options open as possible and build a detector that was as flexible as possible. A scaled-down version of the original design, which was strongly favored by this study, appears to save an appreciable amount of money with a small decrease in the initial physics scope. The more modular designs seem quite attractive, but not enough time was spent to demonstrate feasibility

  5. Análisis de la biodiversidad genética del algodón peruano usando marcadores moleculares: Avances en el 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Olórtegui, José; Espinoza, Marco; Espinoza, José; Montoya, Ysabel

    2005-01-01

    Tres mini preparaciones de extracción de ADN de algodón fueron comparadas en términos de calidad y rendimiento. El método de extracción de ADN usando CTAB fue el más eficiente (30 ug) en comparación con un kit comercial de extracción (20 ug) a partir de 100 mg de hojas cotiledonarias. La óptima calidad del ADN fue evaluada con las enzimas de restricción EcoRI y MseI. El ADN preparado será usado para iniciar el análisis de la biodiversidad genética del algodón peruano, usando marcadores mole...

  6. Estructura y diversidad genética en vacas Holstein de Antioquia usando un polimorfismo del gen bGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rincon F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas del polimorfismo del intrón 3 del gen bGH y estimar algunos parámetros de estructura poblacional en ganado Holstein. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó con 1366 vacas Holstein en 120 hatos de 11 municipios del departamento de Antioquia. Se extrajo DNA por el método de Salting out y la genotipificación se realizó usando la técnica de PCR-RFLPs. La diversidad genética se determinó mediante la comparación de las heterocigosidades, El equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (HW y la diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones se realizó usando el software Arlequín 2.0 Las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas se evaluaron mediante el paquete estadístico SAS®. Resultados. Las frecuencias genotípicas encontradas fueron 0.764 (+/+, 0.223 (+/- y 0.013 (-/- y las frecuencias alélicas 0.876 (+ y 0.124 (-. No se encontraron desviaciones del Equilibrio de Hardy Weinberg en ninguna de las subpoblaciones. La diversidad genética determinada mediante la comparación de las heterocigosidades fue relativamente baja entre poblaciones pero al interior de estas no. El valor de FST de toda la población fue de 0.0068 y significativo (p<0.05, algunos FST pareados también lo fueron, tomando valores desde 0.0 a 0.13. Los estadísticos FIT y FIS no fueron significativos. Conclusiones. El gen bGH es un candidato interesante para evaluar características de importancia económica ya que no parece haber sido sometido a selección directa, presenta una variabilidad media en las poblaciones, observándose diferenciación genética significativa entre distintos municipios, producto de los diferentes sistemas de producción y acceso a las biotecnologías.

  7. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  8. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  9. The H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzika, G.

    1992-11-01

    The H1 detector presently operating at the HERA e-p collider is described. A general overview of the detector is given with particular emphasis on the calorimeters, the main element of which is a liquid Argon calorimeter enclosed within a large radius solenoid. Calorimetry in the proton direction, close to the beam-pipe is provided by a copper-silicon pad hadronic calorimeter. In the electron direction a lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter closes the solid angle between the rear part of the liquid Argon calorimeter and the beam-pipe. An iron limited streamer tube tail catcher using the return yoke of the solenoid as absorber completes the calorimetry of the detector. The hardware triggers derived from the calorimeters are also described and some performance details of the calorimeters are given

  10. Improved photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeno, A.; Marsh, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. A multi-layered detector apparatus is disclosed which comprises a first conductive layer having two sides, a photoconductive layer thick enough to obtain a desired level of sensitivity and resolution of the detector apparatus when the detector apparatus is exposed to radiation of known energy, one side of the photoconductive layer being integrally affixed to and in electrical contact with one side of the first conductive layer, an insulating layer having two sides that is a phosphor that will emit light when irradiated by x-rays, one side of the insulating layer being affixed to the other side of the photoconductive layer and a transparent conductive layer having two sides, one side of the transparent conductive layer being affixed to the other side of the insulating layer. (author)

  11. The ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, HM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is equipped with a charged particle tracking system, the Inner Detector, built on three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements made from a fine detector granularity. The Pixel and microstrip (SCT) subdetectors, which use the silicon technology, are complemented with the Transition Radiation Tracker. Since the LHC startup in 2009, the ATLAS inner tracker has played a central role in many ATLAS physics analyses. Rapid improvements in the calibration and alignment of the detector allowed it to reach nearly the nominal performance in the timespan of a few months. The tracking performance proved to be stable as the LHC luminosity increased by five orders of magnitude during the 2010 proton run, New developments in the offline reconstruction for the 2011 run will improve the tracking performance in high pile-up conditions as well as in highly boosted jets will be discussed.

  12. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  13. Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-μm (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

  14. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  15. The AFP detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration; Caforio, Davide; Czekierda, Sabina; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta; Sicho, Petr; Zabinski, Bartlomiej

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  16. Semiconductor Thermal Neutron Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The  CdTe  and  GaN  detector  with  a  Gd  converter  have  been developed  and  investigated  as  a  neutron  detector  for neutron  imaging.  The  fabricated  Gd/CdTe  detector  with  the  25  mm  thick  Gd  was  designed  on  the  basis  of  simulation results  of  thermal  neutron  detection  efficiency  and  spatial  resolution.  The  Gd/CdTe  detector  shows  the  detection  of neutron  capture  gamma  ray  emission  in  the  155Gd(n,  g156Gd,  157Gd(n,  g158Gd  and  113Cd(n,  g114Cd  reactions  and characteristic X-ray emissions due to conversion-electrons generated inside the Gd film. The observed efficient thermal neutron detection with the Gd/CdTe detector shows its promise in neutron radiography application. Moreover, a BGaN detector has also investigated to separate neutron signal from gamma-ray clearly. 

  17. Monitorização de transplante cardíaco usando análises do eletrograma intracavitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROFMAN Paulo Roberto S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma série de registros do eletrograma intracavitário tem sido utilizada para monitorização não invasiva da rejeição em pacientes transplantados usando um marcapasso de dupla câmara e eletrodos endocavitários revestidos com estrutura fractal. Os sinais têm sido avaliados usando o sistema CHARM (Computerized Heart Acute Rejection Monitoring _ sistema computadorizado para monitorização da rejeição cardíaca aguda. Os relatórios obtidos com este sistema contêm curvas com parâmetros sensíveis à rejeição, que demonstram uma boa correlação com a clínica e os resultados das biópsias convencionais. A monitorização a longo prazo, usando estas análises, mostrou ser uma ferramenta valiosa no acompanhamento destes pacientes.

  18. Detectors for rare events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the possibility of combining the advantages of photographic data retrieval with the flexibility of operation of conventional gaseous or liquid detectors operated with electronic data retrieval. Possible applications of the proposed detectors to such problems as nucleon decay, neutrinoelectron interaction, and the search for magnetic monopoles are examined. Topics considered include the photography of ionization patterns, the photography of ionization tracks with the multistep avalanche chambers, and exploiting the stimulated scintillation light. Two processes which give rise to the emission of light when ionizing electrons interact in gases under the influence of an electric field are described

  19. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  20. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  1. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  2. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. ATLAS Forward Proton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grieco, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system is the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The full two-arm setup was installed during the 2016/2017 EYETS. This allows measurements of processes with two forward protons: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. In 2017, AFP participated in the ATLAS high-luminosity data taking on the day-by-day basis. In addition, several special runs with reduced luminosity were taken. The poster will present the AFP detectors and the lessons learned from the last year operation and some performance from 2016 and 2017.

  4. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Seya, Toru; Watanabe, Masaaki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the reliability of a failed fuel detector which detects radioactivity of nuclear fission products leaked out from fuel elements in cooling water. Constitution: Collected specimen is introduced into a separator and co-existing material considered to be an impediment is separated and removed by ion exchange resins, after which this specimen is introduced into a container housing therein a detector to systematically measure radioactivity. Thereby, it is possible to detect a signal lesser in variation in background, and inspection work also becomes simple. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Neutron detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Shirayama, Shinpei.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent gamma-ray from leaking externally passing through the inside of a neutron detector assembly. Constitution: In a neutron detector assembly having a protection pipe formed with an enlarged diameter portion which serves also as a spacer, partition plates with predetermined width are disposed at the upper and the lower portions in this expanded portion. A lot of metal particles are filled into spaces formed by the partition plates. In such a structure, the metal particles well-absorb the gamma-rays from above and convert them into heat to provide shielding for the gamma-rays. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  7. High efficiency scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation counter consisting of a scintillation detector, usually a crystal scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube which converts photons to electrical pulses is described. The photomultiplier pulses are measured to provide information on impinging radiation. In inorganic crystal scintillation detectors to achieve maximum density, optical transparency and uniform activation, it has been necessary heretofore to prepare the scintillator as a single crystal. Crystal pieces fail to give a single composite response. Means are provided herein for obtaining such a response with crystal pieces, such means comprising the combination of crystal pieces and liquid or solid organic scintillator matrices having a cyclic molecular structure favorable to fluorescence. 8 claims, 6 drawing figures

  8. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  9. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity monitoring and measurements in the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Most changes were motivated by the large (up to 50) number of interactions per bunch-crossing and short (25 ns) bunch-spacing expected in LHC run 2 (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2.

  10. Electret radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubu, M.

    1981-01-01

    The electret radiation detector consists of 30 to 35% of bee wax and of 65 to 70% of colophony. It is mainly the induction conductivity of charo.es between the dipoles in the electret which is used for detection. In the manufacture of the detector, the average atomic number of the electret can be altered by adding various compounds, such as ZnO, which also increases efficiency for gamma radiation. An alpha or beta emitter can also be built-in in the electret. (B.S.)

  11. Report of the compact detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkby, J.; Kondo, T.; Olsen, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

  12. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  13. DEPFET-detectors: New developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: gerhard.lutz@cern.ch; Andricek, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Eckardt, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Haelker, O. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Hermann, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Lechner, P. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Richter, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schaller, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schopper, F. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Soltau, H. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Strueder, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Treis, J. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Woelfl, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Zhang, C. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available.

  14. DEPFET-detectors: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.; Andricek, L.; Eckardt, R.; Haelker, O.; Hermann, S.; Lechner, P.; Richter, R.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.; Treis, J.; Woelfl, S.; Zhang, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available

  15. MODELAMIENTO DE LA CINÉTICA DE BIOADSORCIÓN DE Cr (III USANDO CÁSCARA DE NARANJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA LUCIA PINZÓN-BEDOYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utilizó como material bioadsorbente cáscara naranja con el fin de remover iones cromo presentes en soluciones hipotéticas diluidas, utilizadas como modelo de aguas contaminadas con bajas concentraciones de este metal. Las condiciones de operación utilizadas fueron: relación sólido/líquido 4 g/l, tamaño de partícula ??0,425 mm, concentración inicial de disolución de Cr(III 100 mg/l, tiempo de contacto 60 h y pH constante (4 y 5. Los modelos cinéticos escogidos para identificar el mecanismo de reacción del proceso de bioadsorción usando cáscara de naranja fueron: primer orden reversible, pseudo- segundoorden, Elovich y difusión intraparticular. Los resultados indican que la ecuación de Elovich proporciona mayor exactitud en el ajuste de los datos experimentales del equilibrio a este modelo cinético. La bondad del ajuste de los datos se realizó por regresión no-lineal utilizando como criterio la minimización de la función objeto suma de los cuadrados del error, SCE, haciendo uso de la herramienta matemática MATLAB.

  16. APROXIMACIÓN AL ANÁLISIS DE LA VALORACIÓN DE LA PRUEBA USANDO MODIFIED WIGMOREAN ANALYSIS (MWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Valle Rojas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra cómo el análisis de la valoración de la prueba, usando herramientas de diagramación argumental, puede ayudar a los operadores jurídicos a evaluar la calidad de la argumentación del razonamiento jurídico. Se aplica el Modified Wigmorean Analysis (MWA a un caso penal hipotético y a un caso real, ensayando el proceso de análisis y diagramación y probando su utilidad. La conclusión reseña las ventajas y debilidades del análisis y sugiere ajustes al proceso de diagramación.The present work shows how the analysis of the valuation of the proof, using tools of plot diagramming, can help the juridical operators to evaluate the quality of the argumentation of the juridical reasoning. There is applied the Modified Wigmorean Analysis (MWA to a penal hypothetical case and to a real case, testing the process of analysis and diagramming and proving his utility. The conclusion outlines the advantages and weaknesses of the analysis and suggests adjustments to the process of diagramming.

  17. Criptosporidiose em paciente com espondilite anquilosante usando adalimumabe Cryptosporidiosis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis treated with adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Chiuchetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A criptosporidiose é uma doença parasitária causada pelo protozoário Cryptosporidium sp. Observou-se um aumento no número de diagnósticos realizados nos últimos vinte anos, principalmente em pacientes que apresentam imunodeficiências como a síndrome da imunodeficiência humana adquirida e as imunodeficiências induzidas como em pacientes transplantados e nos que necessitam realizar hemodiálise frequentemente. Relata-se o caso de um jovem com espondilite anquilosante que, usando adalimumabe, apresentou diarreia devido à criptosporidiose.Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by a protozoan called Cryptosporidium sp. An increased number of diagnoses were made in the last 20 years, especially in patients with immunodeficiency like the acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome and induced immunodeficiency, such as in transplant patients and those who need frequent hemodialysis, has been observed. We report the case of a young patient with ankylosing spondylitis treated with adalimumab who developed chronic diarrhea secondary to cryptosporidiosis

  18. JMat - Herramienta remota de cálculo y multiusuario para el aprendizaje basado en problemas usando Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bladimir Bacca Cortes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available JMat es una herramienta de cálculo basada en JAVA y EJS (Easy Java Simulations, con un esquema cliente / servidor, soporte multi-usuario y acceso remoto a Matlab. La aplicación está orientada a brindar a los usuarios una interacción con Matlab usando tres interfaces: Consola de Comandos, donde se invocan remotamente comandos de texto compatibles con Matlab. Espacio de Trabajo y Graficación, donde se mantiene un registro automático de las variables de usuario y se grafican individualmente. Funciones de usuario y Transferencia de Archivos, donde el usuario crea sus funciones, envía y recibe datos hacia y desde el servidor. JMat requiere un acceso a Internet, un servidor remoto donde esté instalado Matlab y un cliente (Navegador WEB o aplicación. No se requiere Matlab en el cliente. JMat está siendo usada actualmente en la Universidad del Valle en los cursos de Control Automático de Procesos, Control Inteligente, Redes Neuronales Artificiales, Procesamiento de Señales y Tratamiento Digital de Imágenes como herramienta para el aprendizaje basado en problemas empleando la plataforma de eLearning de la Universidad del Valle.

  19. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  20. B-factory detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B 0 →J/ΨK S decays and related modes

  1. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfold, James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808/3546 filled/total LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept...

  2. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  3. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debertin, K.

    1983-01-01

    The process of determining the energy-dependent detection probability with measurements using Ge (Li) and high-grade germanium detectors is described. The paper explains which standards are best for a given purpose and given requirements as to accuracy, and how to assess measuring geometry variations and summation corrections. (DG) [de

  4. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  5. The BABAR Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luth, Vera G

    2001-05-18

    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  6. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Soluk, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808 LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept stable at a perce...

  7. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  8. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  9. The Borexino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, David

    2010-04-01

    The Borexino detector is a large volume liquid scintillator detector for low energy neutrino spetroscopy currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the mono-energetic (862KeV) 7Be electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in ultra-pure liquid scintillator. We report the description of the detector itself from its construction to the final current configuration. The initial requirements are first presented, then the strategy developed to achieve them: choice of materials and components, purification of the scintillator, cleaning, leak tightness, fluid handling. Every single point is analyzed, particularly the purification plants, that allowed reaching an ultra high pure scintillator and the fluid handling system, a large modular system connecting fluid receiving, purification and fluid delivery processes for every fluid involved. The different phases of the filling follow: from air to water to the final liquid scintillator, mainly focusing on the scintillator filling. The performances of the detector and the results are then presented.

  10. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  11. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  12. The LUCID-2 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808 LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept stable at a perce...

  13. Semiconductor detector physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Comprehension of semiconductor detectors follows comprehension of some elements of solid state physics. They are recalled here, limited to the necessary physical principles, that is to say the conductivity. P-n and MIS junctions are discussed in view of their use in detection. Material and structure (MOS, p-n, multilayer, ..) are also reviewed [fr

  14. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  15. Radiation detector. [100 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P D; Hollands, D V

    1975-12-04

    A radiation detector is described in which the radiation is led to a sensor via a 100 A thick gold film filter, which reduces the infrared components of the irradiation to a greater extent than the ultra-violet component reaching the sensor.

  16. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    foresees a TPC with around 200 points measured along a track, and read out by a system of micro-pattern gas detectors. These novel gas amplification devices promise to provide a stable, reliable readout system, which can be realized with comparatively little material in the endplate compared to a traditional wire readout.

  17. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  18. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips

  19. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  20. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  1. Smoke Detector Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

    This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

  2. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

    The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

  3. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or

  4. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

  5. The status of BAT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.

  6. Radiation detectors laboratory; Laboratorio de detectores de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  7. New electronically black neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, D.M.; Feldman, W.C.; Hurlbut, C.

    1986-03-01

    Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors

  8. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochinskii, N V; Sun, G C; Kostamo, P; Silenas, A; Saynatjoki, A; Grant, J; Owens, A; Kozorezov, A G; Noschis, E; Van Eijk, C; Nagarkar, V; Sekiya, H; Pribat, D; Campbell, M; Lundgren, J; Arques, M; Gabrielli, A; Padmore, H; Maiorino, M; Volpert, M; Lebrun, F; Van der Putten, S; Pickford, A; Barnsley, R; Anton, M E.G.; Mitschke, M; Gros d' Aillon, E; Frojdh, C; Norlin, B; Marchal, J; Quattrocchi, M; Stohr, U; Bethke, K; Bronnimann, C H; Pouvesle, J M; Hoheisel, M; Clemens, J C; Gallin-Martel, M L; Bergamaschi, A; Redondo-Fernandez, I; Gal, O; Kwiatowski, K; Montesi, M C; Smith, K

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

  9. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d'Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K.

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications

  10. Black and grey neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbard, F.

    1977-01-01

    Recent progress in the development and use of ''black'' and ''grey'' detectors is reviewed. Such detectors are widely used for counting neutrons in (p,n) and (α,n) experiments and in neutron cross section measurements. Accuracy of each detector is stressed. 19 figures

  11. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to

  12. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-01-15

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to 25 mm

  13. Mobility and powering of large detectors. Moving large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is considered of moving large lepton detectors at ISABELLE for readying new experiments, detector modifications, and detector repair. A large annex (approximately 25 m x 25 m) would be built adjacent to the Lepton Hall separated from the Lepton Hall by a wall of concrete 11 m high x 12 m wide (for clearance of the detector) and approximately 3 m thick (for radiation shielding). A large pad would support the detector, the door, the cryogenic support system and the counting house. In removing the detector from the beam hall, one would push the pad into the annex, add a dummy beam pipe, bake out the beam pipe, and restack and position the wall on a small pad at the door. The beam could then operate again while experimenters could work on the large detector in the annex. A consideration and rough price estimate of various questions and proposed solutions are given

  14. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  15. Proposal of a postal system for Ir-192 sources calibration used in high dose rate brachytherapy with LiF:Mn:Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters; Proposta de um sistema postal para a calibracao de fontes de {sup 192} Ir, utilizadas em braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose, com dosimetros termoluminescentes de LiF: Mn: Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, W.S.; Borges, J.C.; Almeida, C.E.V. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. CNEN Caixa Postal 37750, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    A proposal in order to improve the brachytherapy quality control and to allow postal intercomparison of Ir-192 sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy has been presented. The LiF: Mn: Ti (TLD 100) detector has been selected for such purpose. The experimental array and the TLDs irradiation and calibration techniques, at the treatment units, have been specified in the light of more recent methodology of Ir-192 calibration sources. (Author)

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  17. Semiconductor radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  18. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  20. Television area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, V.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of standard television camera tubes as X-ray detectors in X-ray diffraction studies. Standard tubes can be modified to detect X rays by depositing an external X-ray phosphor on the fibre optics face plate either of a highly sensitive television camera tube or of an image intensifier coupled to a camera tube. The author considers various X-ray phosphors and concludes that polycrystalline silver activated ZnS is most suitable for crystallographic applications. In the following sections various types of television camera tubes with adequate light sensitivity for use in an X-ray detection system are described, and also three types of image intensifiers. The digitization of the television output signals and their statistical precision are discussed and the electronic circuitry for the detector system is briefly described. (B.D.)

  1. CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00038772

    2011-01-01

    The present Compact Muon Solenoid silicon pixel tracking system has been designed for a peak luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1 and total dose corresponding to two years of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation. With the steady increase of the luminosity expected at the LHC, a new pixel detector with four barrel layers and three endcap disks is being designed. We will present the key points of the design: the new geometry, which minimizes the material budget and increases the tracking points, and the development of a fast digital readout architecture, which ensures readout efficiency even at high rate. The expected performances for tracking and vertexing of the new pixel detector are also addressed.

  2. The LUCID detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasagni Manghi, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Starting from 2015 LHC will perform a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely renewed, both on detector design and in the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics is presented, featuring a new read-out board (LUCROD), for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and the revisited LUMAT board for side A–side C combination. The contribution covers the new boards design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  3. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  4. Ionizing radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  5. Aerogel for FARICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kuyanov, I.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lopatin, S.A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V.; Podgornov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Porosev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-01

    We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2–3–4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30–45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

  6. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, G

    2003-01-01

    Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

  7. Seismic intrusion detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  8. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  9. The ALEPH detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's largest. In the foreground from the left, Jacques Lefrancois, Jack Steinberger, Lorenzo Foa and Pierre Lazeyras. ALEPH was an experiment on the LEP accelerator, which studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

  10. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  11. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  12. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  13. The Upgraded DØ detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš; Šimák, Vladislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 565, - (2006), s. 463-537 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA210; GA MŠk 1P05LA257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Fermilab * DZero * DØ * detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2006

  14. Thermal detector; Thermsiche verklikker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wey, A.; Dijkman, R. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    How much extra power will go through the different types of connection and cables in houses? Even though the knowledge of network companies with regard to their own cables is decreasing, they are forced to get more out of their own networks or even to squeeze them dry. In this way they can earn a great deal of money. A brief description is given of a thermal telltale (detector) which shows how far they can go.

  15. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  16. STAR detector overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ackermann, K. H.; Adams, N.; Adler, C.; Šumbera, Michal; Zborovský, Imrich

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 499, 2/3 (2003), s. 624-632 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 475; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : relativistic heavy ions * tracking detectors * electromagnetic calorimeters Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.166, year: 2003

  17. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  18. A fossils detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffetaut, E.

    1998-01-01

    Because fossil bones are often rich in uraninite they can be detected using a portable gamma-ray detector run over the prospected site. Zones with higher radioactivity are possible accumulations of bones or skeletons. This method invented by R. Jones from the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA) has been successfully used in the field and led to the discovery of new dinosaur skeletons. Short paper. (J.S.)

  19. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  20. The DELPHI Microvertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingefors, N.; Borner, H.; Boulter, R.; Caccia, M.; Chabaud, V.; Dijkstra, H.; Eerola, P.; Gross, E.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Hyams, B.; Karlsson, M.; Maehlum, G.; Ratz, K.; Roditi, I.; Straver, J.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Dufour, Y.; Brueckman, P.; Jalocha, P.; Kapusta, P.; Turala, M.; Zalewska, A.; Lindgren, J.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Ronnqvist, C.; Saarikko, H.; Saarikko, J.P.; Tuuva, T.; Almagne, B. d'; Bambade, P.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F.; Amery, A.; Booth, P.S.L.; Campion, A.R.; McNulty, R.; Smith, N.A.; Andreazza, A.; Battaglia, M.; Biffi, P.; Bonvicini, V.; Kucewicz, W.; Meroni, C.; Redaelli, N.; Stocchi, A.; Troncon, C.; Vegni, G.; Dauncey, P.; Mazzucato, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peisert, A.; Baubillier, M.; Chauveau, J.; Silva, W. da; Genat, J.F.; Rossel, F.; Adye, T.; Apsimon, R.; Bizell, J.; Denton, L.; Kalmus, G.E.; Lidbury, J.; Seller, P.; Tyndel, M.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Lounis, A.; Schaeffer, M.; Turchetta, R.; Brenner, R.; Sundell, E.

    1993-01-01

    The DELPHI Microvertex detector, which has been in operation since the start of the 1990 LEP run, consists of three layers of silicon microstrip detectors at average radii of 6.3, 9.0 and 11.0 cm. The 73 728 readout strips, oriented along the beam, have a total active area of 0.42 m 2 . The strip pitch is 25 μm and every other strip is read out by low power charge amplifiers, giving a signal to noise ratio of 15:1 for minimum ionizing particles. On-line zero suppression results in an average data size of 4 kbyte for Z 0 events. After a mechanical survey and an alignment with tracks, the impact parameter uncertainty as determined from hadronic Z 0 decays is well described by √(69/p t ) 2 +24 2 μm, with p t in GeV/c. For the 45 GeV/c tracks from Z 0 →μ + μ - decays we find an uncertainty of 21 μm for the impact parameter, which corresponds to a precision of 8 μm per point. The stability during the run is monitored using light spots and capacitive probes. An analysis of tracks through sector overlaps provides an additional check of the stability. The same analysis also results in a value of 6 μm for the intrinsic precision of the detector. (orig.)

  1. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Document Server

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  3. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

  4. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 experiment ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron and made the Nobel Prize winning discovery of W and Z particles in 1983. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was essentially a wire chamber - a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6...

  5. Modelo Bio-inspirado para el Reconocimiento de Gestos Usando Primitivas de Movimiento en Visión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Nope

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda el problema del reconocimiento de gestos usando la información de movimiento con el fin de obtener un modelo bio-inspirado para, en un futuro, utilizarlo en la programación de robots mediante el paradigma del aprendizaje por imitación. En este trabajo se extraen las primitivas de movimiento a partir de imágenes consecutivas, capturadas por una cámara web estándar. Para la programación por imitación de robots se identificó, como primera fase, el reconocimiento de gestos, en el cual es necesario resolver tres aspectos principales: La representación instantánea del movimiento, la integración temporal de dicha información y, la estrategia de clasificación. Estos tres aspectos serán tratados a lo largo de este trabajo y, en contraste con otros, la extracción del movimiento y su codificación está inspirada en el procesamiento del movimiento realizado en el cerebro de macacos. El modelo obtenido fue aplicado al reconocimiento de cuatro tipos de gestos realizados con la mano por diferentes personas. El porcentaje de aciertos varió entre 91.42% y 97.14%, utilizando diferentes estrategias estándar de clasificación. Palabras clave: Reconocimiento de gestos, modelo bio-inspirado, primitivas de movimiento, codificación del movimiento, integración temporal, visión artificial

  6. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1990-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and X-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. (orig.)

  7. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs

  8. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  9. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llope, W.J., E-mail: llope@rice.edu [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hoffmann, G.W. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Asselta, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brandenburg, J.D.; Butterworth, J. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Camarda, T.; Christie, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dong, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Engelage, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eppley, G.; Geurts, F. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hammond, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Judd, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McDonald, D.L. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Perkins, C. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2014-09-21

    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event “start time” needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ∼100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ∼1 cm.

  10. The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)

    CERN Multimedia

    Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P

    2002-01-01

    % DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

  11. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  12. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author)

  13. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekoszewski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author).

  14. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00714258

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  15. Desarrollo de herramienta de gestión de proyectos RUP usando metodologías Scrum + XP : gestión del proyecto y requisitos

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Romero, Javier; Quishpi Betún, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Una de las principales causas por las que los proyectos de desarrollo software fracasan es la ausencia de metodología en su desarrollo. La motivación que hay detrás de este proyecto es el desarrollo de una aplicación web usando la metodología Rational Unified Process (RUP) y aprender, en una situación real, cómo desarrollar utilizando las metodologías Scrum + XP. El principal objetivo de este proyecto es el seguimiento y documentación de una aplicación web para gestionar proyectos mediant...

  16. Efeito de instruções usando DVD-ROM no desempenho técnico de massoterapia miofascial e sua retenção

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Francisco Cachoni

    2014-01-01

    Contextualização: Existem poucas investigações sobre recursos didáticos modernos para o ensino de habilidades técnicas de massoterapia. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito de instruções usando filme no formato DVD associado ao ensino tradicional (aula expositiva com demonstração do instrutor em um voluntário), no aprendizado e na retenção de massagem miofascial (MM). Método: Estudo retrospectivo e duplo cego. Uma fisioterapeuta experiente que atuou como professora (cega ao objetivo do estudo) e 60 fis...

  17. Producción de carbones ultralimpios usando flotación burbujeante y lixiviación con ácidos

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza, Juan; Mejía, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Los carbones ultralimpios representan una importante materia prima para la elaboración de productos de alto valor agregado tales como fibra de carbono, electrodos, espumas de carbón, entre otros. En este trabajo, carbones ultralimpios con concentraciones menores a 0,50% de ceniza (p/p, base seca, bs) se obtuvieron usando flotación burbujeante en columna y lixiviación con ácidos fluorhídrico (HF) y nítrico (HNO3). Los contenidos de ceniza se redujeron desde 19,60 % en los carbones alimentados ...

  18. MODELACIÓN NUMÉRICA DE PROCESOS DE ESTERILIZACIÓN TÉRMICA DE ALIMENTOS USANDO VOLUMENES DE CONTROL: APROXIMACIÓN CILÍNDRICA

    OpenAIRE

    HÉCTOR J. CIRO-VELÁSQUEZ; CARLOS GONZÁLEZ; EDUARD GARCÍA

    2009-01-01

    Un proceso de esterilización térmica de alimentos fue modelado usando la técnica de diferenciación finita aplicada a volúmenes de control. El modelo de simulación fue desarrollado en coordenadas cilíndricas con un ejemplo de aplicación tomando como referencia un producto cárnico (carne de res). Los resultados de la simulación mostraron que el algoritmo desarrollado es independiente de la red nodal seleccionada, permitiendo cuantificar las curvas de penetración de calor en el punto crítico del...

  19. 2011 ATLAS Detector Performance - ID and Forward detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Davies‎, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Abdel Khalek, S

    2012-01-01

    This poster describes the performance of 2 parts of ATLAS: - The Inner Detector which consists of 3 subdetectors: the Pixel detector, the SemiConductor Tracker (or SCT) and the Transition Radiation Tracker (or TRT). Here, we report on Pixel detector and SCT performance over 2011. - ALFA detector which will determine the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC at the ATLAS Interaction Point (IP), and the total proton-proton cross section, by tracking elastically scattered protons at very small angles in the limit of the Coulomb Nuclear interference region.

  20. Gas pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Cavalca, F.; Latronico, L.; Massai, M.M.; Minuti, M.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.

    2007-01-01

    With the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), the class of micro-pattern gas detectors has reached a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics. To obtain this goal, three generations of application-specific integrated circuit of increased complexity and improved functionality has been designed and fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technology. This implementation has allowed manufacturing a monolithic device, which realizes, at the same time, the pixelized charge-collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics of a GPD. A big step forward in terms of size and performances has been obtained in the last version of the 0.18 μm CMOS analog chip, where over a large active area of 15x15 mm 2 a very high channel density (470 pixels/mm 2 ) has been reached. On the top metal layer of the chip, 105,600 hexagonal pixels at 50 μm pitch have been patterned. The chip has customable self-trigger capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way, by limiting the output signal to only those pixels belonging to the region of interest, it is possible to reduce significantly the read-out time and data volume. In-depth tests performed on a GPD built up by coupling this device to a fine pitch (50 μm) gas electron multiplier are reported. Matching of the gas amplification and read-out pitch has let to obtain optimal results. A possible application of this detector for X-ray polarimetry of astronomical sources is discussed

  1. Photon detector for MEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    During the past year, we have continued work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, a search for the rare decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity of a few parts in 10 13 . The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.38 MeV photon produced in a μ → eγ decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm 2 , a directional resolution of 10 degrees, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of 7%. It will consists of four independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e + e - pairs, and thereby, determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The inner drift chamber layer includes a delay line cathode to determine the z coordinates needed for track reconstruction. An MWPC located between two Pb layers identifies the conversion layer so that energy loss corrections may be applied, while plastic scintillators provide timing information. Our, group together with a group from the University of Houston, is responsible for the design and construction of the photon detector, as well as developing the computer codes necessary for Monte Carlo simulations and data analysis. During the past year, our efforts have focused primarily on two tasks, delay line cathode read-out and software development. This report describes our recent work on delay lines and data analysis along with a discussion of the new plans for multiplexing in the photon arm

  2. Activation neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  3. Particle localization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.

    1976-01-01

    A proportional detector for the localization of particles comprises a leak-tight chamber filled with fluid and fitted with an electrode of a first type consisting of one or more conducting wires and with an electrode of a second type consisting of one or more conducting plates having the shape of a portion of cylindrical surface and a contour which provides a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point of the wires and the solid angle which subtends the plate at that point, means being provided for collecting the electrical signal which appears on the plates. 12 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

  4. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  5. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    In order to improve the security of handling special nuclear materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a sensitive acoustic emission detector has been developed that will detect forcible entry through block or tile walls, concrete floors, or concrete/steel vault walls. A small, low-powered processor was designed to convert the output from a sensitive, crystal-type acoustic transducer to an alarm relay signal for use with a supervised alarm loop. The unit may be used to detect forcible entry through concrete, steel, block, tile, and/or glass

  6. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg β, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

  7. Detector for failed fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide automatic monitor for the separation or reactor water and sampling water, in a failed fuel element detector using a sipping chamber. Constitution: A positional detector for the exact mounting of a sipping chamber on a channel box and a level detector for the detection of complete discharge of cooling water in the sipping chamber are provided in the sipping chamber. The positional detector is contacted to the upper end of the channel box and operated when the sipping chamber is correctly mounted to the fuel assemblies. The level detector comprises a float and a limit switch and it is operated when the water in the sipping chamber is discharged by a predetermined amount. Isolation of reactor water and sampling water are automatically monitored by the signal from these two detectors. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Neutron detector development at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, B.; Harder, J.A.; Mead, J.A.; Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional thermal neutron detectors have been the subject of research and development at Brookhaven for over 20 years. Based primarily on multi-wire chambers filled with a gas mixture containing 3 He, these detectors have been used in wide-ranging studies of molecular biology and material science samples. At each phase of development, experimenters have sought improvements in key parameters such as position resolution, counting rate, efficiency, solid-angle coverage and stability. A suite of detectors has been developed with sensitive areas ranging from 5x5 to 50x50 cm 2 . These devices incorporate low-noise-position readout and the best position resolution for thermal neutron gas detectors. Recent developments include a 1.5 mx20 cm detector containing multiple segments with continuously sensitive readout, and detectors with unity gain for ultra-high rate capability and long-term stability

  9. The CMS detector before closure

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2006-01-01

    The CMS detector before testing using muon cosmic rays that are produced as high-energy particles from space crash into the Earth's atmosphere generating a cascade of energetic particles. After closing CMS, the magnets, calorimeters, trackers and muon chambers were tested on a small section of the detector as part of the magnet test and cosmic challenge. This test checked the alignment and functionality of the detector systems, as well as the magnets.

  10. Diffusion processes in dyed detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lferde, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M.

    1982-01-01

    In order to get a better understanding of the dyed and fluorescent track detectors, the diffusion speed of the swelling agent, the sensitization molecules and the dye have been measured under various conditions. It is shown that the sensitization affects the entire detector while dyeing is restricted to the upper and lower layers of the detector. By combining the optimal values of the reactions parameters a higher contrast and sensitivity may be achieved. (author)

  11. Valoración de la formación recibida usando un perfil de referencia basado en competencias profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Maldonado Rojas

    Full Text Available Introducción: La formación profesional está hoy en día promoviendo la implementación de opciones educativas basadas en modelos por competencias. El presente trabajo tuvo como propósito establecer un perfil de referencia basado en competencias profesionales para la carrera de Tecnología Médica de la Universidad de Talca y usando éstas como indicadores, conocer la auto percepción que tienen los egresados respecto del grado en que fueron adquiridas durante su formación. Material y métodos: Se realizó una investigación de tipo exploratoria, mediante una encuesta autoaplicada que contenía un conjunto de indicadores que correspondían a competencias establecidas previamente en un perfil de referencia, cuya estructura considera diferentes áreas de desempeño. El perfil fue validado por juicio de expertos, determinando el grado de congruencia a través del coeficiente de Serafine. La construcción de la información se realizó a partir de las repuestas, las que fueron codificadas y representadas en porcentajes y posteriormente analizadas bajo categorías interpretativas. Resultados: La evaluación que se hace considera el porcentaje de egresados que valoró el logro de las competencias por área de desempeño en los niveles más altos. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: Para el área asistencial el 72,9 %, para el área investigación un 59 %, para el área de docencia un 44%, para el área administrativa un 27,1% y para el área personal-social un 91,3 %. Conclusiones: Siguiendo el criterio de categorías interpretativas, el área personal social indica una gran fortaleza de la formación, el área asistencial y el área investigación se encuentran en un nivel satisfactorio y las áreas docencia y administración en niveles medianamente satisfactorio, siendo esta última la gran falencia de la formación. El currículo vigente es adecuado para asegurar el logro de gran número de competencias, pero se debe revisar con el objetivo de

  12. Mejoramiento de imágenes usando funciones de base radial Images improvement using radial basis functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Echeverri Arias

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La eliminación del ruido impulsivo es un problema clásico del procesado no lineal para el mejoramiento de imágenes y las funciones de base radial de soporte global son útiles para enfrentarlo. Este trabajo presenta una técnica de interpolación que disminuye eficientemente el ruido impulsivo en imágenes, mediante el uso de interpolante obtenido por funciones de base radial en el marco de la investigación enfocada en el desarrollo de un Sistema de recuperación de imágenes de recursos acuáticos amazónicos. Esta técnica primero etiqueta los píxeles de la imagen que son ruidosos y, mediante la interpolación, genera un valor de reconstrucción de dicho píxel usando sus vecinos. Los resultados obtenidos son comparables y muchas veces mejores que otras técnicas ya publicadas y reconocidas. Según el análisis de resultados, se puede aplicar a imágenes con altas tasas de ruido, manteniendo un bajo error de reconstrucción de los píxeles "ruidosos", así como la calidad visual.Global support radial base functions are effective in eliminating impulsive noise in non-linear processing. This paper introduces an interpolation technique which efficiently reduces image impulsive noise by means of an interpolant obtained through radial base functions. These functions have been used in a research project designed to develop a system for the recovery of images of Amazonian aquatic resources. This technique starts with the tagging by interpolation of noisy image pixels. Thus, a value of reconstruction for the noisy pixels is generated using neighboring pixels. The results obtained with this technique have proved comparable and often better than those obtained with previously known techniques. According to results analysis, this technique can be successfully applied on images with high noise levels. The results are low error in noisy pixel reconstruction and better visual quality.

  13. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  14. Commissioning the SNO+ Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caden, E.; Coulter, I.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    SNO+ is a multipurpose liquid scintillator neutrino experiment based at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The experiment’s main physics goal is a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Tellurium-130, but SNO+ will also study low energy solar neutrinos, geo- and reactor-antineutrinos, among other topics. We are reusing much of the hardware from the original SNO experiment, but significant work has taken place to transform the heavy water detector into a liquid scintillator detector. We present upgrades and improvements to the read-out electronics and trigger system to handle the higher data rates expected by a scintillator experiment. We show the successful installation and testing of a hold-down rope net for the acrylic vessel to counter-act the buoyancy of organic liquid scintillator. We also describe the new scintillator process plant and cover gas systems that have been constructed to achieve the purification necessary to meet our physics goals. We are currently commissioning the experiment with ultra-pure water in preparation for filling with scintillator in early 2017 and present the current status of this work.

  15. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

  16. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya and M. Dallavalle

    2010-01-01

    The DT system operation since the 2010 LHC start up is remarkably smooth.
 All parts of the system have behaved very satisfactorily in the last two months of operation with LHC pp collisions. Disconnected HV channels remain at the level of 0.1%, and the loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the readout and Trigger electronics is about 0.4%. The DT DCS-LHC handshake mechanism, which was strengthened after the short 2009 LHC run, operates without major problems. A problem arose with the opto-receivers of the trigger links connecting the detector to USC; the receivers would unlock from transmission for specific frequencies of the LHC lock, in particular during the LHC ramp. For relocking the TX and RX a “re-synch” command had to be issued. The source of the problem has been isolated and cured in the Opto-RX boards and now the system is stable. The Theta trigger chain also has been commissioned and put in operation. Several interventions on the system have been made, pro...

  18. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2012-01-01

      Although the year 2012 is the third year without access to the chambers and the Front-End electronics, the fraction of good channels is still very high at 99.1% thanks also to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team. The downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <2%. The intervention on the LV power supplies, which required a large number of CAEN modules (137 A3050, 13 A3100, and 3 MAO) to be removed from the detector, reworked and tested during this Year-End Technical Stop, can now, after a few months of stable operation of the LV, be declared to have solved once-and-for-all the persistent problem with the overheating LV Anderson connectors. Another piece of very good news is that measurements of the noise from single-hit rate outside the drift-time box as a function of the LHC luminosity show that the noise rate and distribution are consistent with expectations of the simulations in the Muon TDR, which have guided the detector design and constru...

  19. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, M

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb −1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. (paper)

  20. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli.

    Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

  1. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon

    Following the opening of the CMS detector, commissioning of the cathode strip chamber (CSC) system resumed in earnest. Some on-chamber electronics problems could be fixed on the positive endcap when each station became briefly accessible as the steel yokes were peeled off. There was no opportunity to work on the negative endcap chambers during opening; this had to wait instead until the yokes were again separated and the stations accessible during closing. In March, regular detector-operating shifts were resumed every weekday evening during which Local Runs were taken using cosmic rays to monitor and validate repairs and improvements that had taken place during the day. Since April, the CSC system has been collecting cosmic data under shift supervision 24 hours a day on weekdays, and 24/7 operation began in early June. The CSC system arranged shifts for continuous running in the entire first half of 2009. One reward of this effort is that every chamber of the CSC system is alive and recording events. There...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli

    During the last 3 months the RPC group has made impressive improvements in the refinement of the operation tools and understanding of the detector. The full barrel and part of the plus end cap participated systematically to global runs producing millions of trigger on cosmics. The main monitoring tools were robust and efficient in controlling the detector and in diagnosis of problems. After the refinement of the synchronization procedure, detailed studies of the chamber performances, as a function of high voltage and front-end threshold, were pursued. In parallel, new tools for the prompt analysis were developed which have enabled a fast check of the data at the CMS Centre. This effort has been very valuable since it has helped in discovering many minor bugs in the reconstruction software and database which are now being fixed. Unfortunately, a large part of the RE2 station has developed increasing operational current. Some preliminary investigation leads to the conclusion that the serial gas circulation e...

  3. Ion smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    This invention covers an ion smoke detector in which the capacity that the smoke will cross, in the event of an accident, is irradiated by a very low energy radioactive source. The gas in the containment is thus partially ionised. Smoke in this containment reduces the mobility of the ions, thereby increasing the impedance of the measuring chamber. A leak tight reference chamber that therefore receives no smoke is added to the measuring chamber. This chamber is filled with the same gas as that present in the measuring chamber and undergoes the same irradiation. It is of course subjected to the same conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure and hygrometry as the measuring chamber. This makes it possible to break free from the fluctuations of the impedance of the chamber which would seem to be due to these interferences. One only radioactive source irradiates the measuring chamber and the reference chamber. The measuring chamber is in the shape of a cylinder open at one end and the reference chamber is annular and encompasses the measuring chamber. Provision is made for detecting an increase in the potential across the terminals of the measuring chamber in relation to the reference chamber, which is characteristic of the presence of smoke and other provisions separate from the former for dectecting a reduction in potential between the electrodes of the first ionisation chamber, which is characteristic of a change in the detector [fr

  4. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    The RPC muon detector and trigger are working very well, contributing positively to the high quality of CMS data. Most of 2011 has been used to improve the stability of our system and the monitoring tools used online and offline by the shifters and experts. The high-voltage working point is corrected, chamber-by-chamber, for pressure variation since July 2011. Corrections are applied at PVSS level during the stand-by mode (no collision) and are not changed until the next fill. The single detector calibration, HV scan, of February and the P-correction described before were very important steps towards fine-tuning the stability of the RPC performances. A very detailed analysis of the RPC performances is now ongoing and from preliminary results we observe an important improvements of the cluster size stability in time. The maximum oscillation of the cluster size run by run is now about 1%. At the same time we are not observing the same stability in the detection efficiency that shows an oscillation of about ...

  5. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  6. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) infrared detectors were studied for years but never matured sufficiently for infusion into instruments. Several recent...

  7. The IMB proton decay detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, R.C.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Smith, D.W.; Sobel, H.; Wuest, C.; Bionta, R.M.; Cortez, B.G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Greenberg, J.; Park, H.S.; Shumard, E.; Sinclair, D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Velde, J.C. van der; Goldhaber, M.; Blewitt, G.; Lehmann, E.; LoSecco, J.M.; Bratton, C.B.; Learned, J.; Svoboda, R.; Jones, T.W.; Ramana Murthy, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven proton decay detector which is nearing completion in a salt mine in Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. The detector is a water Cerenkov one with a fiducial volume of 4,000 tons and a threshold of 24 MeV. Initial results indicate that the detector is working according to specification and has a high potential for deep underground cosmic ray applications. I will give a brief account of the IMB detector construction and operation and also its present status and possible cosmic ray applications. (orig.)

  8. Position-sensitive superconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakado, M.; Taniguchi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors and superconducting transition- edge sensors (TESs) are representative superconductor detectors having energy resolutions much higher than those of semiconductor detectors. STJ detectors are thin, thereby making it suitable for detecting low-energy X rays. The signals of STJ detectors are more than 100 times faster than those of TESs. By contrast, TESs are microcalorimeters that measure the radiation energy from the change in the temperature. Therefore, signals are slow and their time constants are typically several hundreds of μs. However, TESs possess excellent energy resolutions. For example, TESs have a resolution of 1.6 eV for 5.9-keV X rays. An array of STJs or TESs can be used as a pixel detector. Superconducting series-junction detectors (SSJDs) comprise multiple STJs and a single-crystal substrate that acts as a radiation absorber. SSJDs are also position sensitive, and their energy resolutions are higher than those of semiconductor detectors. In this paper, we give an overview of position-sensitive superconductor detectors.

  9. Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material

  10. Clasificación digital de masas nubosas a partir de imágenes meteorológicas usando algoritmos de aprendizaje de máquina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Einstein Ramírez-Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación exacta de nubes precipitantes es una tarea difícil. En el presente trabajo se aplicaron los algoritmos Máquinas de Soporte Vectorial, Árboles de Decisión y Bosques Aleatorios para discriminar entre nubes precipitantes y nubes no precipitantes, a partir de una imagen meteorológica del satélite GOES-13 que cubre el territorio colombiano. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el desempeño de los algoritmos de aprendizaje de máquina (ML, para la clasificación digital de masas nubosas, en términos de la exactitud temática de la clasificación usando como referencia el algoritmo convencional distancia de Mahalanobis. Los resultados muestran que los algoritmos ML proporcionan una clasificación de masas de nubes más exacta que la obtenida por algoritmos convencionales. La mejor exactitud fue obtenida usando Bosques Aleatorios (RF, con una exactitud temática global de 97%. Adicionalmente, la clasificación obtenida con RF fue comparada pixel a pixel con estimaciones de precipitación de la NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM obteniendo una exactitud global del 94%. De acuerdo con este estudio, los algoritmos ML pueden ser usados para mejorar los actuales métodos de identificación de nubes precipitantes.

  11. Lei da gravitação universal e os satélites: uma abordagem histórico-temática usando multimídia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Vilela Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examina-se, neste artigo, o desenvolvimento de aulas de Física em que, usando-se uma multimídia, a Lei da Gravitação Universal é abordada de forma contextualizada a partir da História da Ciência e de um tema atual (os satélites. O objetivo foi examinar como estudantes de Ensino Médio aceitam e se envolvem nesse estudo. Usando uma abordagem metodológica qualitativa, a multimídia apresenta o que são e como funcionam os satélites artificiais, trazendo uma narrativa histórica desde as ideias de movimento do sistema planetário de Ptolomeu até as de Isaac Newton sobre o movimento dos corpos, culminando na Lei da Gravitação Universal. Entrevistas, observações de sala de aula e documentos produzidos pelos estudantes mostram que as imagens, os filmes e os textos contidos na multimídia enriquecem, de modo significativo, o conteúdo, facilitando o entendimento de conceitos da Física. A contextualização histórico-temática, por sua vez, produz maior envolvimento dos alunos no estudo da Física.

  12. Type test of the Rados MTS-N thermoluminescent dosimetry system for individual monitoring of whole body photons in HP (10); Teste de tipo do sistema de dosimetria termoluminescente RADOS MTS-N para monitoração individual de fótons de corpo inteiro em H{sub P}(10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.S.; Silva, E.R. da; Maurício, C.L.P., E-mail: max.das.ferreira@gmail.com, E-mail: everton@ird.gov.br, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ), uses an automatic thermoluminescent dosimetry (TL) system for evaluation of whole body for photons with individual monitors RADOS MTS-N, with TLF detector of LiF: Mg, Ti. The objective of this work was to characterize this system for the evaluation of H{sub P} (10) operating magnitude. The measuring range is 0.2 mSv to 2 Sv, for photon energies from 20 keV to 1250 keV. Performance tests were done for the following characteristics: homogeneity of the monitors, system reproducibility, linearity, temperature and humidity effect, energy and angular dependence and fading. The acceptance requirements used to test system performance have been drawn from national and international documents. The results obtained prove that the system can be used to measure the occupational dose of photons in H{sub P} (10)

  13. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Koichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of detecting the failure of a fuel rod by imparting a wire disconnection detecting function to a central electrode at the center of a failure mode thereto. Constitution: A wire disconnection detecting terminal is provided at the terminal opposite to the signal output terminal of a central electrode in a failed fuel detector used for detecting the failure of a fuel rod in an atomic power plant using liquid metal as a coolant, and a voltage monitor for monitoring the terminal voltage is connected to the terminal. The disconnection of the central electrode is detected by the failure of the output of the voltage monitor, and an alarm is thus generated. (Aizawa, K.)

  14. Self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passe, J.; Petitcolas, H.; Verdant, R.

    1975-01-01

    The self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) enable to measure continuously high fluxes of thermal neutrons. They are particularly suitable for power reactor cores because of their robustness. Description of two kinds of SPND's characterized by the electrical current production way is given here: the first SPND's which present a V, Ag or Rh emitter are sensitive enough but they offer a few minute delay time: the second SPND's which are depending on the gamma activation have a short delay time. The emitter is made of Co or Pt. In any case, the signal is linear with reaction rates. Finally, the applications are briefly repeated here: irradiation facility monitor in research reactors, and flux map and space instability control in power reactors [fr

  15. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  16. Neutron television camera detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron area detector system is being developed at the Institut Laue-Langevin which is based on a system for x-rays. The system has a large counting rate capability; this is extremely important where the total background count exceeds the total counts in the signals of interest. Its spatial resolution is of the order of one mm, while the screen size is 400 mm. The main limitation of the system is its limited counting efficiency, and this is directly attributable to the optical self-absorption of the neutron phosphor. All coherent noise in the system, i.e., all noise synchronized with the TV scans, has to be kept lower than the first bit threshold. However, this requirement can be relaxed when dealing with diffraction patterns, such as those from single crystals, for which a local background is subtracted from the pattern

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  18. Space-based detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload “LISA Technology Package” will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical...... of the LISA technology that are not going to be demonstrated by LPF, but under intensive development at the moment, were presented by Oliver Jennrich and Oliver Gerberding. Looking into the future, Japan is studying the design of a mid-frequency detector called DECIGO, which was discussed by Tomotada Akutsu...... as technology demonstrator. This will be the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer and has many aspects in common with the LISA long arm, as discussed by Andrew Sutton....

  19. Scintillator detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.; Dibianca, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a scintillator detector array for use in computerized tomography and comprises a housing including a plurality of chambers, the said housing having a front wall transmissive to x-rays and side walls opaque to x-rays, such as of tungsten and tantalum, a liquid scintillation medium including a soluble fluor, the solvent for the fluor being disposed in the chambers. The solvent comprises either an intrinsically high Z solvent or a solvent which has dissolved therein a high Z compound e.g. iodo or bromonaphthalene; or toluene, xylene or trimethylbenzene with a lead or tin alkyl dissolved therein. Also disposed about the chambers are a plurality of photoelectric devices. (author)

  20. Radon gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madnick, P.A.; Sherwood, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a radon gas detector. It comprises: a housing having an interior chamber, the interior chamber being completely closed to ambient light, the interior chamber being divided into an environment connecting chamber and a radiation ascertaining chamber; radiation sensitive means mounted between the environment connecting chamber and the radiation ascertaining chamber; air movement means mounted in connection with the environment connecting chamber. The air movement means for moving ambient air through the environment connecting chamber; electronic means for detecting radiation within the air which is passing through the environment connecting chamber. The electronic means also including radiation counting means. The electronic means producing an output based on the type and quantity of radiation in the environment connecting chamber; and display electronics for receiving the output and displaying accordingly a display representative of the amount and type of radiation located within the environment connecting chamber and hence within the ambient air

  1. Encapsulated scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepke, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation detector crystal is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a glass window. The window may be mounted in a ring by a compression seal formed during cooling of the ring and window after heating. The window may be chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The ring is welded to the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thin section is provided to resist the flow of welding heat to the seal between the ring and the window thereby forming a thermal barrier. The thin section may be provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of PTFE between the tubular body and the crystal minimizes friction created by thermal expansion. Spring washers urge the crystal towards the window. (author)

  2. ''Invisible'' axion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is given of various ideas which have been put forth to detect ''invisible'' axions, i.e., axions with f/sub a/ between 3 x 10 7 GeV and 2 x 10 12 GeV. These experiments would attempt to detect the axions which constitute the halo of our galaxy or axions which are emitted by our sun; or they would attempt to detect the force mediated by virtual axions. Various relevant axion parameters are given as f/sub a/. Among the experiments described are: galactic axion detector using a cavity; ''spin coupled'' axion detection; axion to photon conversion in an inhomogeneous static magnetic field; and macroscopic forces mediated by axions. 27 refs

  3. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  4. Porous material neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Yacouba [Oak Ridge, TN; Kocsis, Menyhert [Venon, FR

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  5. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  6. Particle detector spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs

  7. DETECTORS: scintillating fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the continual search for improved detection techniques, new materials are continually proving profitable. A good example is scintillating plastic fibres - tiny transparent threads sometimes finer than a human hair which transmit light. The narrowness and flexibility of these fibres was a major breakthrough for endoscopy - non-invasive techniques for viewing the otherwise inaccessible in surgery or machine inspection. In a more sophisticated form, these fibres find ready application in communications technology, where the goal is to transmit information rather than electrical power, replacing conventional and unwieldy current-carrying wire conductors. In particle physics, fibres have long been used to take the tiny scintillations produced when high energy particles hit fluorescent materials and 'conduct' them to photosensitive detectors some distance away

  8. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  9. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  10. Self-powered radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, Wallace.

    1980-01-01

    This invention aims to create a self fed radiation detector comprising a long central emitter-conductor absorbing the neutrons, wrapped in an insulating material, and a thin collector-conductor placed coaxially around the emitter and the insulation, the emitter being constructed of several stranded cables in a given conducting material so that the detector is flexible enough [fr

  11. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  12. The VENUS detector at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shojiro

    1983-01-01

    The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author)

  13. Monitor for reactor neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakami, Hisayuki; Shibata, Masatoshi

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention judges as to whether a neutron detector is normal or not while considering the change of indication value depending on the power change of a reactor core. That is, the device of the present invention comprises a standard value setting device for setting the standard value for calibrating the neutron detector and an abnormality judging device for comparing the standard value with a measured value of the neutron detector and judging the abnormality when the difference is greater than a predetermined value. The measured value upon initialization of each of the neutron detectors is determined as a quasi-standard value. An average value of the difference between the measured value and the quasi-standard value of a plurality of effective neutron detectors at a same level for the height of the reactor core is multiplied to a power rate based on the reactor core power at a position where the neutron detector is disposed upon calibration. The value obtained by adding the multiplied value and the quasi-standard value is determined as a standard value. The abnormality judging device compares the standard value with the measured value of the neutron detector and, if the difference is greater than a predetermined value, the neutron detector is determined as abnormal. As a result, judgement can be conducted more accurately than conventional cases. (I.S.)

  14. Fast Timing for Collider Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in fast timing particle detectors have opened up new possibilities to design collider detectors that fully reconstruct and separate event vertices and individual particles in the time domain. The applications of these techniques are considered for the physics at HL-LHC.

  15. Baby-MIND neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.

  16. The ARGUS silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ball, S.; Ehret, K.; Geyer, C.; Hesselbarth, J.; Hoelscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Huepper, A.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Brogle, M.; Horisberger, R.

    1994-01-01

    A silicon microstrip vertex detector has been built as an upgrade to the ARGUS detector for increased precision and efficiency in the reconstruction of decay vertices. This paper discusses the mechanical and electronic design of this device and presents first results from its successful test operation yielding an impact parameter resolution of about 18 μm. ((orig.))

  17. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M.C.; Bell, W.H.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, 'resuscitate' when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the 'Lazarus effect'. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors

  18. Performance of the DELPHI detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falaleev, V P; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Karyukhin, A N; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Perevozchikov, V; Pernegger, H; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Belokopytov, Yu; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Gouz, Yu; Jarlskog, Ch

    1996-01-01

    DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is a detector for e^+e^- physics, designed to provide high granularity over a 4\\pi solid angle, allowing an effective particle identification. It has been operating at the LEP (Large Electron-Positron) collider at CERN since 1989. This article reviews its performance.

  19. The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the

  20. Scalar top study: Detector optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This scenario could for example occur if the vertex detector is exposed to a large dose of machine background from the accelerator. The optimization of the radius of the innermost layer is an important aspect in the design of a vertex detector for a linear collider. VX32: Five layers and double material thickness (0.128% X0 ...

  1. Cryogenic detectors for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1988-11-01

    A comprehensive introduction to cryogenic detector developments for particle physics is presented, covering conventional detectors cooled to low temperature (scintillators and semiconductors), superconductive and thermal sensitive devices, as well as the basics of cold electronics. After giving a critical overview of current work, we elaborate on possible new ways for further improvements and briefly evaluate the feasibility of the main proposed applications

  2. Radiation damage in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1981-12-01

    A survey is presented of the important damage-producing interactions in semiconductor detectors and estimates of defect numbers are made for MeV protons, neutrons and electrons. Damage effects of fast neutrons in germanium gamma ray spectrometers are given in some detail. General effects in silicon detectors are discussed and damage constants and their relationship to leakage current is introduced

  3. Detectors for MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Jack; Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, it was thought that the proton radius was known with an uncertainty of 1%. However, experiments carried-out at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) involving muonic hydrogen yielded a radius 4% smaller with an uncertainty of .1%, a 7.9 σ inconsistency. This problem of properly measuring the radius now requires new and different measurements. The Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) will thus be the first to utilize elastic muon scattering with sufficient precision to address the proton radius measurement. MUSE will run in PSI's PiM1 beamline, using a stack of GEM chambers and thin scintillation detectors to identify and track the beam particle species in this mixed e, pi, mu beam. Scattered particles will be measured in two arms with ten layers of Straw Tube Tracking (STT) detectors and a double plastic scintillator wall for timing of and triggering on scattered particles. The STT chambers will employ the anti-Proton Annihilations at Darmstadt (PANDA) design. Each straw consists of a thin wire with high voltage surrounded by an aluminized Mylar tube inflated with a mix of Argon and Carbon Dioxide, the ratio of which is important for optimal operation. The Argon gas, ionized by incoming charged particles, releases electrons which attract to the central wire. The CO2 acts as a quencher, taking-up electrons to prevent an unstable avalanche effect. This project will investigate the effects of altering the gas mixture in the STTs on signal size and timing. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OISE-1358175, PHY-1614850, and PHY-1614938. Thank you to the teams at HUJI and PSI, in particular, Dr. G. Ron, Dr. T. Rostomyan, Dr. K. Dieters, and D. Cohen.

  4. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  5. The D0 detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, A.D.

    1995-02-01

    The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector

  6. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; LeNormand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Re, V.; Riester, G. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1998-11-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given.

  7. The PHOBOS detector at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Basilev, S.; Baum, R.; Betts, R. R.; Białas, A.; Bindel, R.; Bogucki, W.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Ceglia, M.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, A. E.; Coghen, T.; Connor, C.; Czyż, W.; Dabrowski, B.; Decowski, M. P.; Despet, M.; Fita, P.; Fitch, J.; Friedl, M.; Gałuszka, K.; Ganz, R.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Godlewski, J.; Gomes, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halik, J.; Halliwell, C.; Haridas, P.; Hayes, A.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R.; Hołyński, R.; Hofman, D.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Kita, W.; Kotuła, J.; Kraner, H.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Law, C.; Lemler, M.; Ligocki, J.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Neal, M.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Patel, M.; Pernegger, H.; Plesko, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Ross, D.; Rosenberg, L.; Ryan, J.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Scaduto, J.; Shea, J.; Sinacore, J.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Steinberg, P.; Straczek, A.; Stodulski, M.; Strek, M.; Stopa, Z.; Sukhanov, A.; Surowiecka, K.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zalewski, K.; Żychowski, P.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    This manuscript contains a detailed description of the PHOBOS experiment as it is configured for the Year 2001 running period. It is capable of detecting charged particles over the full solid angle using a multiplicity detector and measuring identified charged particles near mid-rapidity in two spectrometer arms with opposite magnetic fields. Both of these components utilize silicon pad detectors for charged particle detection. The minimization of material between the collision vertex and the first layers of silicon detectors allows for the detection of charged particles with very low transverse momenta, which is a unique feature of the PHOBOS experiment. Additional detectors include a time-of-flight wall which extends the particle identification range for one spectrometer arm, as well as sets of scintillator paddle and Cherenkov detector arrays for event triggering and centrality selection.

  8. Silicon Drift Detectors - A Novel Technology for Vertex Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D.

    1996-10-01

    Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) are novel position sensing silicon detectors which operate in a manner analogous to gas drift detectors. Single SDD's were shown in the CERN NA45 experiment to permit excellent spatial resolution (pseudo-rapidity. Over the last three years we undertook a concentrated R+D effort to optimize the performance of the detector by minimizing the inactive area, the operating voltage and the data volume. We will present test results from several wafer prototypes. The charge produced by the passage of ionizing particles through the bulk of the detectors is collected on segmented anodes, with a pitch of 250 μm, on the far edges of the detector. The anodes are wire-bonded to a thick film multi-chip module which contains preamplifier/shaper chips and CMOS based switched capacitor arrays used as an analog memory pipeline. The ADC is located off-detector. The complete readout chain from the wafer to the DAQ will be presented. Finally we will show physics performance simulations based on the resolution achieved by the SVT prototypes.

  9. The 150 ns detector project: progress with small detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Russell, S.R.; Kleinfelder, Stuart A.; Segal, Julie

    1994-01-01

    This project's long term goal is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1x256 1D and 8x8 2D detectors, 256x256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024x1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front end preamplifiers are being integrated first, since their design and performance are both the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is also concentrating on devising and perfecting detector structures which are thick enough (1 mm) to absorb over 99% of the incident X-rays in the energy range of interest. In this paper we discuss our progress toward the 1x256 1D and 8x8 2D detectors. We have fabricated sample detectors at Stanford's Center for Integrated Systems and are preparing both to test them individually and to wirebond them to the preamplifier samples to produce our first working small 1D and 2D detectors. We will describe our solutions to the design problems associated with collecting charge in less than 30 ns from 1 mm thick pixels in high resistivity silicon. We have constructed and tested the front end of our preamplifier design using a commercial 1.2 μm CMOS technology and are moving on to produce a few channels of the complete preamplifier, including a switchable gain stage and output stage. We will discuss both the preamplifier design and our initial test results. ((orig.))

  10. The 150 ns detector project: progress with small detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, W.K. (X-ray Instrumentation Associates, 2513 Charleston Rd, Ste 207, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)); Russell, S.R. (X-ray Instrumentation Associates, 2513 Charleston Rd, Ste 207, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)); Kleinfelder, Stuart A. (VLSI Physics, 19 Drury Lane, Berkeley, CA 94705 (United States)); Segal, Julie (Integrated Ckts Lab., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States))

    1994-09-01

    This project's long term goal is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1x256 1D and 8x8 2D detectors, 256x256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024x1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front end preamplifiers are being integrated first, since their design and performance are both the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is also concentrating on devising and perfecting detector structures which are thick enough (1 mm) to absorb over 99% of the incident X-rays in the energy range of interest. In this paper we discuss our progress toward the 1x256 1D and 8x8 2D detectors. We have fabricated sample detectors at Stanford's Center for Integrated Systems and are preparing both to test them individually and to wirebond them to the preamplifier samples to produce our first working small 1D and 2D detectors. We will describe our solutions to the design problems associated with collecting charge in less than 30 ns from 1 mm thick pixels in high resistivity silicon. We have constructed and tested the front end of our preamplifier design using a commercial 1.2 [mu]m CMOS technology and are moving on to produce a few channels of the complete preamplifier, including a switchable gain stage and output stage. We will discuss both the preamplifier design and our initial test results. ((orig.))

  11. Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornat, R

    2012-01-01

    A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

  12. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs

  13. New developments in PET detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lingxin; Zhao Shujun; Zhang Bin; Liu Haojia

    2010-01-01

    The researches on PET detector are always active and innovative area. The research direction of PET detector includes improving performances of scintillator-based detectors, investigating new detectors suitable for multi-modality imaging (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI), meeting requirements of TOF and DOI technologies and boosting the development of the technologies. In this paper, new developments in PET detector technology about scintillation crystal, photodetector and semiconductor detector is introduced. (authors)

  14. Ceratectomia lamelar anterior profunda usando a técnica "big-bubble" em pacientes com ceratocone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Antonini Coscarelli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar através de um estudo retrospectivo pacientes com ceratocone, a partir do 12º mês após a ceratectomia lamelar anterior profunda usando a técnica "big-bubble". MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de consecutivos 79 olhos de 71 pacientes com ceratocone moderado a grave, com baixa acuidade visual após as correções ópticas e intolerantes à adaptação de lente de contato. Todos os transplantes foram realizados pelo mesmo experiente cirurgião, no período de janeiro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2009, utilizando a técnica de ceratectomia lamelar anterior profunda pelo "big-bubble". Os dados analisados foram sexo, idade, paquimetria corneana, densidade endotelial, astigmatismo dinâmico e melhor acuidade visual corrigida (BCVA após a ceratectomia. RESULTADOS: A idade média verificada foi de 30,4 (± 10,2 anos, com 39 (54,9% do sexo feminino e 32 (45,1% do masculino. A paquimetria ultrassônica média foi de 518,6 (± 29,5 μm. Setenta e dois (91,1% dos transplantes realizados obtiveram acuidade visual dinâmica corrigida melhor ou igual a 20/50. A média do astigmatismo dinâmico foi de - 3,5 (± 1,5 dioptrias cilíndricas. A média da densidade endotelial encontrada conforme a faixa etária teve a distribuição com os pacientes de 11 a 20 anos com 3.053 (± 532 cél/mm²; 21 a 30 anos com 2.674 (± 725 cél/mm²; 31 a 40 anos com 2.737 (± 575 cél/mm²; 41 a 50 anos com 2.585 (± 476 cél/mm² e 51 a 60 anos com 2.398 (± 667 cél/mm². Microperfuração no per-operatório teve uma incidência de 8,8%. CONCLUSÃO: A ceratectomia lamelar anterior profunda pela técnica "big-bubble" é um valioso tratamento para pacientes com ceratocone, alcançando uma melhor acuidade visual corrigida final semelhante ao transplante penetrante. A contagem média de células endoteliais apresenta-se dentro da normalidade para a faixa etária após o procedimento. Não foram encontradas córneas rejeitadas ou com edema após a retirada de todos os

  15. Optimización del tratamiento de aguas residuales de cultivos de flores usando humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial horizontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica L. Jaramillo-Gallego

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: optimizar un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales de cultivos de flores, con el fin de mejorar la eficiencia en la remoción de los contaminantes, usando humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial-horizontal. Metodología: se realizó un estudio de tipo exploratorio experimental en dos etapas, en la primera se efectuó el acondicionamiento fisicoquímico y biológico del sistema de tratamiento, en la segunda, se llevó a cabo el seguimiento de la remoción de los contaminantes durante nueve meses, para lo cual se monitoreó la demanda química de oxígeno, demanda biológica de oxígeno, sólidos totales, sólidos suspendidos totales, pH y oxígeno disuelto. Resultados: Se logró mejorar la eficiencia del sistema de tratamiento en 7,1% para la Demanda biológica de oxígeno, 4,1% Demanda química de oxígeno, 56,9% sólidos totales y 117,2% solidos suspendidos totales. Conclusión: La concentración de DQO disminuyó con el tratamiento primario (Precipitación y oxidación química y favoreció la eficiencia del sistema de tratamiento secundario, dado que las aguas a tratar tenían valores muy altos de DQO que pueden saturar los humedales con contaminantes persistentes. Se podrían obtener mayores eficiencias, si se logra mejorar el sistema de tratamiento primario. Abstract Objective: to optimize the wastewater treatment system of flower crops in order to improve pollutant removal efficiency, using a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. Methodology: An exploratory experimental study was conducted in two stages; in the first stage the treatment system was conditioned physically, chemically and biologically. In the second stage pollutant removal was monitored for nine months. To achieve this, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total solids, total suspended solids, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored. Results: It was possible to improve the efficiency of the treatment system in 7.1% for

  16. Predicción de la estructura secundaria de proteínas usando Máquinas de soporte Vectorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío José Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Protein secondary structure prediction    using  support vector machines Abstract : Among the computational methods used for predicting secondary structure proteins highlights the use of support vector machines. This research shows the predicted secondary structure of protein from its primary amino acid sequence using Support Vector Machines. As inputs, in the proposed methodology, features are used from different structural motifs or text strings associated with the primary structure which represents the secondary structure, such as R-group and the probability that the amino acid at position adopts a central particular secondary structure. For feature extraction method is used coding of sequences in which each symbol in the primary structure is associated with each symbol in the secondary structure. The use of this encoding method reduces the dimensionality of the data of thousands of characteristics only 220 of these. The results obtained are comparable to those reported in the literature, taking about 70% accuracy. Furthermore, it is possible to reduce computational cost in the construction of classifiers because this work models the problem of multi classification as a group of binary classifiers. Key words: coding methodology; support vector machines; prediction of protein secondary structure. Resumen: Entre los métodos computacionales utilizados para la predicción de la estructura secundaria de proteínas, se destaca el uso de máquinas de soporte vectorial. Este trabajo de investigación presenta la predicción de la estructura secundaria de proteínas desde su secuencia primaria de aminoácidos usando Máquinas de Soporte Vectorial. Como entradas, en la metodología propuesta, se utilizan características de los diferentes motivos estructurales o cadenas de texto asociadas a la estructura primaria que representa la estructura secundaria, tales como el R-grupo y la probabilidad de que el aminoácido en la posici

  17. The Martian Oasis Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; tomasko, M. G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.

    2000-07-01

    public and Congress providing an attainable goal for both robotic and manned missions. The instrument required to detect an active oasis is a high spatial resolution (few tens of meters) Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectrometer coupled with a high resolution camera (five m/pixel). This combination creates too large a data volume to possibly return data for the entire Martian Surface; therefore it has been designed as one of the first in a new generation of 'smart' detectors, called the Mars Oasis Detector (MOD).

  18. SoLid Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labare, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    SoLid is a reactor anti-neutrino experiment where a novel detector is deployed at a minimum distance of 5.5 m from a nuclear reactor core. The purpose of the experiment is three-fold: to search for neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline; to measure the pure 235U neutrino energy spectrum; and to demonstrate the feasibility of neutrino detectors for reactor monitoring. This report presents the unique features of the SoLid detector technology. The technology has been optimised for a high background environment resulting from low overburden and the vicinity of a nuclear reactor. The versatility of the detector technology is demonstrated with a 288 kg detector prototype which was deployed at the BR2 nuclear reactor in 2015. The data presented includes both reactor on, reactor off and calibration measurements. The measurement results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The 1.6t SoLid detector is currently under construction, with an optimised design and upgraded material technology to enhance the detector capabilities. Its deployement on site is planned for the begin of 2017 and offers the prospect to resolve the reactor anomaly within about two years.

  19. Sobre el estudio de la función cuadrática y su relación con el área de algunas figuras y su visualización usando Cabri II Plus

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Barrios, Dídimo

    2013-01-01

    Propuesta didáctica en donde se presentan algunas actividades dinámicas usando Cabri II Plus con el fin de relacionar algunos aspectos que tienen que ver con el área de algunas figuras y la función cuadrática.

  20. Validação de simulações combinadas usando programas de simulação de energia do edifício e programas de transferência de calor, ar e umidade em componentes construtivos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costola, D.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Desempenho higrotérmico dos edifícios tem sido estudado usando uma variedade de programas de computador, os quais consideram determinados domínios geométricos (exterior, envelope e interior) e físicos (calor, ar e umidade). Estes programas podem ser classificados em três principais grupos: programas

  1. Rotating detectors and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paola, R.D.M. de; Svaiter, N.F.

    2000-08-01

    In this work we consider a quantum version of Newton s bucket experiment in a fl;at spacetime: we take an Unruh-DeWitt detector in interaction with a real massless scalar field. We calculate the detector's excitation rate when it is uniformly rotating around some fixed point and the field is prepared in the Minkowski vacuum and also when the detector is inertial and the field is in the Trocheries-Takeno vacuum state. These results are compared and the relations with Mach's principle are discussed. (author)

  2. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  3. Detector materials: germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1981-11-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1981 Nuclear Science Symposium. The basic physical properties of elemental semiconductors are reviewed. The interaction of energetic radiation with matter is discussed in order to develop a feeling for the appropriate semiconductor detector dimensions. The extremely low net dopant concentrations which are required are derived directly from the detector dimensions. A survey of the more recent techniques which have been developed for the analysis of detector grade semiconductor single crystals is presented

  4. Multicell x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, B.N.; Shelley, P.S.; Love, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is concerned with improving multicell detectors, particularly those used in computerized tomography. Existing ionization detectors have problems maintaining the precise dimensional spacing between electrodes required for accuracy. In addition, mechanical vibrations set up microphonic effects between the electrode plates. In this invention, pairs of electrode plates are separated by grooved insulating members. The upper and lower edges of an array of electrode plates are inserted in corresponding grooves in the insulating members, and, the whole electrode assembly is securely anchored in the detector chamber

  5. CLIC Detector and Physics Status

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)627941

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to LCWS2016 presents recent developments within the CLICdp collaboration. An updated scenario for the staged operation of CLIC has been published; the accelerator will operate at 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV and 3 TeV. The lowest energy stage is optimised for precision Higgs and top physics, while the higher energy stages offer extended Higgs and BSM physics sensitivity. The detector models CLIC_SiD and CLIC_ILD have been replaced by a single optimised detector; CLICdet. Performance studies and R&D in technologies to meet the requirements for this detector design are ongoing.

  6. Detector Plans for LS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nessi, M [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    All experiments plan an effective usage of the LS1 shutdown period. After three years of running they will go through a consolidation phase, mostly to fix problems that have emerged over time, like single points of failure in the infrastructure, failures of low voltage power supplies and optical links. Upgrades of some detector components will start, mainly related to the beam pipe, the innermost tracker elements and the trigger system. Detector components, which had to be staged for cost reasons in 2003, will then enter into the detector setup. The goal is to be fully ready for the new energy regime at nominal luminosity.

  7. SSC muon detector group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4π detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC

  8. SSC muon detector group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4..pi.. detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC.

  9. Applications of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a scientific research-work are summarized. Nuclear track detectors were used for new applications or in unusual ways. Photographic films, nuclear emulsions and dielectric track detectors were investigated. The tracks were detected by optical microscopy. Empirical formulation has been derived for the neutron sensitivity of certain dielectric materials. Methods were developed for leak testing of closed alpha emitting sources. New procedures were found for the application and evaluation of track detector materials. The results were applied in the education, personnel dosimetry, radon dosimetry etc. (R.J.)

  10. The CMS detector magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Hervé, A

    2000-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is a general-purpose detector designed to run in mid-2005 at the highest luminosity at the LHC at CERN. Its distinctive features include a 6 m free bore diameter, 12.5 m long, 4 T superconducting solenoid enclosed inside a 10,000 tonne return yoke. The magnet will be assembled and tested on the surface by the end of 2003 before being transferred by heavy lifting means to a 90 m deep underground experimental area. The design and construction of the magnet is a `common project' of the CMS Collaboration. It is organized by a CERN based group with strong technical and contractual participation by CEA Saclay, ETH Zurich, Fermilab Batavia IL, INFN Geneva, ITEP Moscow, University of Wisconsin and CERN. The return yoke, 21 m long and 14 m in diameter, is equivalent to 1.5 m of saturated iron interleaved with four muon stations. The yoke and the vacuum tank are being manufactured. The indirectly-cooled, pure- aluminium-stabilized coil is made up from five modules internally wound with four ...

  11. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierluigi Paolucci

    2013-01-01

    In the second part of 2013 the two main activities of the RPC project are the reparation and maintenance of the present system and the construction and installation of the RE4 system. Since the opening of the barrel, repair activities on the gas, high-voltage and electronic systems are being done in parallel, in agreement with the CMS schedule. In YB0, the maintenance of the RPC detector was in the shadow of other interventions, nevertheless the scaffolding turned out to be a good solution for our gas leaks searches. Here we found eight leaking channels for about 100 l/h in total. 10 RPC/DT modules were partially extracted –– 90 cm –– in YB0, YB–1 and YB–2 to allow for the replacement of FE and LV distribution boards. Intervention was conducted on an additional two chambers on the positive endcap to solve LV and threshold control problems. Until now we were able to recover 0.67% of the total number of RPC electronic channels (1.5% of the channels...

  12. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT collaboration is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance – after three years since the last access to the chambers and their front-end electronics – and upgrade. The most critical maintenance interventions are chambers and Minicrate repairs, which have not begun yet, because they need proper access to each wheel of the CMS barrel, meaning space for handling the big chambers in the few cases where they have to be extracted, and, more in general, free access from cables and thermal shields in the front and back side of the chambers. These interventions are planned for between the coming Autumn until next spring. Meanwhile, many other activities are happening, like the “pigtail” intervention on the CAEN AC/DC converters which has just taken place. The upgrade activities continue to evolve in good accordance with the schedule, both for the theta Trigger Board (TTRB) replacement and for the Sector Collector (SC) relocation from the UXC to the US...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2013-01-01

    During LS1, the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) collaboration is focusing its efforts on installation and commissioning of the fourth endcap station (RE4) and on the reparation and maintenance of the present system (1100 detectors). The 600 bakelite gaps, needed to build 200 double-gap RE4 chambers are being produced in Korea. Chamber construction and testing sites are located at CERN, in Ghent University, and at BARC (India). At present, 42 chambers have been assembled, 32 chambers have been successfully tested with cosmic rays runs and 7 Super Modules, made by two chambers, have been built at CERN by a Bulgarian/Georgian/Italian team and are now ready to be installed in the positive endcap. The 36 Super Modules needed to complete the positive endcap will be ready in September and installation is scheduled for October 2013. The Link-Board system for RE4 is under construction in Naples. Half of the system has been delivered at CERN in June. Six crates (Link-Board Boxes) and 75 boards, needed to instrument t...

  14. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

      2011 data-taking was very satisfactory for both the RPC detector and trigger. The RPC system ran very smoothly in 2011, showing an excellent stability and very high data-tacking efficiency. Data loss for RPC was about 0.37%, corresponding to 19 pb−1. Most of the performance studies, based on 2011 data, are now completed and the results have been already approved by CMS to be presented at the RPC 2012 conference (February 2012 at LNF). During 2011, the number of disconnected chambers increased from six to eight corresponding to 0.8% of the full system, while the single-gap-mode chambers increased from 28 to 31. Most of the problematic chambers are due to bad high-voltage connection and electronic failures that can be solved only during the 2013-2014 Long Shutdown. 98.4% of the electronic channels were operational. The average detection efficiency in 2011 was about 95%, which was the same value measured during the HV scan done at the beginning of the 2011 data-taking. Efficiency has be...

  15. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  16. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  17. ATLAS detector upgrade prospects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb $^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ...

  18. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    In the past months, the DT electronics has run in a stable and reliable way, demonstrated again through the CRAFT exercise. Operation when the CMS magnetic field was on has been satisfactory. The detector safety control and monitoring is improving constantly as the DT group accumulates running experience. The DT DAQ and DCS systems proved very stable during the intensive CRAFT period. The few issues that were identified by the DCS and on-line monitoring did not prevent the run to continue, so that the record of the DT in the data taking efficiency was very good. The long running period was also used to continue the transition from a system run by experts to one run by shifters, which was in the large part successful. Improvements, mostly in consolidation of error reporting, were identified and will be addressed in the coming shut-down. During the CRAFT data taking, DT triggered about 300 million cosmics with the magnet at 3.8T and the silicon strip tracker in the readout. Although a dedicated configuratio...

  19. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  20. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The CSC detector continued to operate well during the March-June 2011 period. As the luminosity has climbed three orders of magnitude, the currents drawn in the CSC high-voltage system have risen correspondingly, and the current trip thresholds have been increased from 1 μA to 5 μA (and 20 in ME1/1 chambers). A possible concern is that a long-lasting and undesirable corona is capable of drawing about 1 μA, and thus may not be detected by causing current trips; on the other hand it is easily dealt with by cycling HV when detected. To better handle coronas, software is being developed to better detect them, although a stumbling block is the instability of current measurements in some of the channels of the CAEN supplies used in ME1/1. A survey of other issues faced by the CSC Operations team was discussed at the 8th June 2011 CSC Operations/DPG meeting (Rakness). The most important issues, i.e. those that have caused a modest amount of downtime, are all being actively addressed. These are:...

  1. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Redondo

    2011-01-01

    During the second quarter of 2011, the DT system has continued to operate successfully with a high fraction of good channels (>99 %) and causing extremely little downtime to CMS. The high fraction of operated channels did not come for free: DT requested 18 short UXC accesses in the 3 months from March to May 2011. The dominant causes for these interventions were HV related interventions (7), which typically affect a small fraction of a chamber, and interventions for dealing with overheated LV Anderson connectors (7), whose failure could affect larger fractions of the detector (a whole chamber, half a wheel). With respect to the CMS downtime, a successful effort with colleagues from the DT Track Finder of the Level-1 Trigger system allowed to overcome a relatively relevant source of downtime from DTTF FED Out-Of-Sync errors, which would appear randomly during data-taking. The DT group developed a system configuration that would make it possible to reproduce the error without beam, thereby sparing lumin...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Pugliese

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of 2010 run, the overall behavior of the RPC system has been very satisfactory, both in terms of detector and trigger performance. This result was achieved through interventions by skilled personnel and fine-tuned analysis procedures. The hardware was quite stable: both gas and power systems did not present significant problems during the data-taking period, confirming the high reliability achieved. Only few interventions on some HV or LV channels were necessary during the periodical technical accesses. The overall result is given by the stable percentage of active channels at about 98.5%. The single exception was at beginning of the ion collisions, when it dipped to 97.4% because of the failure of one LV module, although this was recovered after a few days. The control and monitoring software is now more robust and efficient, providing prompt diagnostics on the status of the entire system. Significant efforts were made in collaboration with the CMS cooling team to secure proper working ...

  3. Microwave hematoma detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  4. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Redondo Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    The DT system has operated successfully during the entire 2011 data-taking: the fraction of good channels was always >99.4 % and the downtime caused to CMS amounts to a few inverse picobarns. This excellent performance does not come without a price: the DT group requested more than 30 short accesses to the underground experimental cavern (UXC).  A large fraction of interventions was for dealing with overheated LV Anderson connectors, whose failure can affect larger sections of the detector (a whole chamber, or half a wheel of the CMS barrel, etc.). A crash programme for reworking those connections will take place during the Year-End Technical Stop. The system of six vd chambers (VDC) that were installed on the DT exhaust gas line have operated successfully. The VDCs are small drift chambers the size of a shoebox that measure the drift velocity every 10 minutes. Possible deviations from the nominal value could be caused by a contamination of the gas mixture or changes in pressure or temperat...

  5. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Breedon

    Figure 2: Five ME4/2 chambers mounted on the +endcap. At the end of June, five large, outer cathode strip chambers (CSC) that were produced as spares during the original production were mounted on part of the disk space reserved for ME4/2 on the positive endcap (Fig. 2). The chambers were cabled, attached to services, and fully integrated and commissioned into the CSC DAQ and trigger systems. Comprising almost a full trigger sector, CMS will be able to test the significant improvement the trigger efficiency of the EMU system that the presence of the full ME4/2 ring is expected to bring. The return of beam in November was observed as “splash” events in the CSCs in which the detectors were showered with a huge number of particles at the same time. Although the CSCs were operating at a lower standby voltage the multiple hits on a strips could not be individually distinguished.&am...

  6. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Szillasi

    2013-01-01

    The CMS detector has been gradually opened and whenever a wheel became exposed the first operation was the removal of the MABs, the sensor structures of the Hardware Barrel Alignment System. By the last days of June all 36 MABs have arrived at the Alignment Lab at the ISR where, as part of the Alignment Upgrade Project, they are refurbished with new Survey target holders. Their electronic checkout is on the way and finally they will be recalibrated. During LS1 the alignment system will be upgraded in order to allow more precise reconstruction of the MB4 chambers in Sector 10 and Sector 4. This requires new sensor components, so called MiniMABs (pictured below), that have already been assembled and calibrated. Image 6: Calibrated MiniMABs are ready for installation For the track-based alignment, the systematic uncertainties of the algorithm are under scrutiny: this study will enable the production of an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and to update alignment position errors eventually, crucial...

  7. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    R.Carlin

    2010-01-01

    DT operation during 2010 LHC collisions, both in proton-proton and heavy ions, has been outstanding. The DT downtime has been below 0.1% throughout the whole year, mainly caused by the manual Resync commands that took around a minute for being processed. An automatic resynchronisation procedure has been enabled by August 27 and since then the downtime has been negligible (though constantly monitored). The need for these Resync commands is related to sporadic noise events that occasionally fill the RO buffers or unlock the readout links. Their rate is low, in the order of a few per week. Besides that, only one pp collisions run (1 hour 30 minutes run) has been marked as bad for DT, because of an incident with a temperature sensor that triggered a false alarm and powered off one wheel. Nevertheless, quite a large number of interventions (>30) have been made in the cavern during the year, in order to keep such a large fraction of the detector operational. Most of those are due to the overheating of the ...

  8. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedova and M. Dallavalle

    2010-01-01

    After successful operation during the 2009 LHC run, a number of fixes and improvements were carried out on the DT system the winter shutdown. The main concern was related with the impact of the extensive water leak that happened in October in YE+1. Opening of CMS end-caps allowed the DT crew to check if any Minicrates (containing the first level of readout and trigger electronics) in YB+2 and YB-2 were flooded with water. The affected region from top sectors in YB+2 reaches down to the bottom sectors in YB-2 following the water path in the barrel from end to end. No evidence of water penetration was observed, though the passage of water left oxidation and white streaks on the iron and components. In particular, large signs of oxidation have been seen on the YB-2 MB1 top and bottom stations. Review of the impact in YB+1 remains for future openings of CMS wheels, and at present, effort is focused on setting up the water leak detection system in the detector. Another important issue during this shutd...

  9. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Document Server

    G. Iaselli

    The RPC group has invested a large effort in the study of trigger spikes observed during CRAFT data taking. The chambers are susceptible to noise generated by the flickering of fluorescent and projector lamps in the cavern (with magnetic field on). Soon after the end of CRAFT, it was possible to reproduce the phenomena using a waveform generator and to study possible modifications to be implemented in the grounding schema. Hardware actions have been already taken in order to reduce the detector sensitivity: star washers on the chamber front panels and additional shielding have been added where possible. During the shutdown maintenance activity many different problems were tackled on the barrel part. A few faulty high voltage connector/cable problems were fixed; now only two RPC chambers are left with single-gap mode operation. One chamber in YB+2 was replaced due to gas leakage. All the front-end electronic boards were replaced in 3 chambers (stations MB2 and MB3 in YB-2), that had been damaged after the coo...

  10. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli

    2010-01-01

    During the technical stop, the RPC team was part of the CMS task force team working on bushing replacements in the Endcap cooling system, also validating the repairs in terms of connectivity (HV, LV and signal cables), and gas leak, on RE chambers. In parallel, the RPC team profited from the opportunity to cure several known problems: six chambers with HV problems (1 off + 5 single gaps) were recovered on both gaps; four known HV problems were localized at chamber level; additional temperature sensors were installed on cooling pipes on negative REs; one broken LV module in RE-1 was replaced. During the last month, the RPC group has made big improvements in the operations tools. New trigger supervisor software has substantially reduced the configuration time. Monitoring is now more robust and more efficient in providing prompt diagnostics. The detector has been under central DCS control for two weeks. Improvements have been made to both functionality and documentation and no major problems were found. Beam s...

  11. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya

    2012-01-01

      The major activity of the DT group during this Year-End Technical Stop has been the reworking of LV modules. It has been a large campaign, carefully planned, to try to solve, once and for all, the long-standing problem of Anderson Power connectors overheating. The solution involved removing the 140 CAEN modules from the detector (6.5 kg each), soldering of “pigtails” in a temporary workshop in USC, and thorough testing of all the modules in a local system installed in USC. The operation has been satisfactorily smooth, taking into account the magnitude of the intervention. The system is now back in good shape and ready for commissioning. In addition, HV boards have been cleaned up, HV USC racks have been equipped with water detection cables, and the gas and HV have been switched back on smoothly. Other significant activities have also taken place during this YETS, such as the installation of a new and faster board for the Minicrates secondary link and the migration to Scienti...

  12. Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of γ-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

  13. Implementação da Técnica de Dessorção Térmica Programada (TPD) usando Espectrometria de Massa Quadrupolo

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Ana Marta Fortunato

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Física O projecto “Implementação da Técnica de Dessorção Térmica Programada (TPD) usando Espectrometria de Massa Quadrupolo”, apresentado nesta Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Física, surgiu como uma proposta de requalificação ao aparelho de análise de superfícies Multitécnica. A dessorção térmica é o fenómeno que permite a separação física de ...

  14. Predicción de los precios de contratos de electricidad usando una red neuronal con arquitectura dinámica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velásquez Henao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los contratos en los mercados liberalizados de electricidad constituyen una herramienta para proteger a los agentes de la volatilidad; en este contexto, los pronósticos de los precios son una entrada clave para la toma de decisiones estratégicas y operativas de los agentes. En este artículo, se pronostican los precios promedios de los contratos despachados en el mercado eléctrico colombiano, usando una red neuronal con arquitectura dinámica conocida como DAN2. El modelo desarrollado es capaz de capturar la dinámica intrínseca de la serie de precios y de pronosticar el precio para el siguiente mes con más precisión que la metodología ARIMA clásica, para horizontes de predicción de 12 y 24 meses

  15. Calculo y comparacion de la prima de un reaseguro de salud usando el modelo de opciones de Black-Scholes y el modelo actuarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Giron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación pretende calcular y comparar la prima de un reaseguro  usando el modelo de opciones de Black-Scholes y el modelo clásico actuarial tradicional. El período de análisis va desde enero de 2011 hasta diciembre de 2012. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo de Black-Scholes, que se utiliza normalmente para valorar opciones financieras, puede ser también usado para la estimación de primas de reaseguros de salud; y que la prima neta estimada a partir de este modelo se aproxima a las establecidas por el método actuarial, excepto cuando el deducible del reaseguro es muy alto (por encima de $200.000.000.

  16. Análisis de un sistema de almacenamiento de energía térmica usando cloruro de magnesio hexahidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Macía

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se simuló el comportamiento del cloruro de magnesio hexahidratado (MgCl2*6H2O como almacenador de energía térmica, que posee una temperatura de transición de fase de 117ºC; lo que lo convierte en un material con gran potencial en el área de las aplicaciones de mediana temperatura (aplicaciones industriales. Se desarrolló una simulación CFD usando el software FLUENT para describir la fusión/solidificación de la sal hidratada. Se observó el efecto del uso de aletas y las fuerzas boyantes producidas por los efectos gravitacionales.

  17. OTIMIZAÇÃO USANDO ALGORITMO GENÉTICO DE UM MODELO DE PROPAGÇÃO BASEADO EM EQUAÇÕES PARABÓLICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Vilanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma avaliação metodológica para otimizar parâmetros em um conhecido modelo de propagação de ondas de rádio na troposfera. O modelo de propagação é baseado no Divisor de passos de Fourier para resolver equações parabólicas. Nossa abordagem utiliza algoritmo genético para determinar os valores dos parâmetros que maximize a intensidade de campo em uma determinada posição do observador. Usando algoritmo genético o tempo necessário na busca dos parâmetros ótimos é reduzido significativamente. A avaliação preliminar dos resultados através da simulação mostra que a nossa abordagem é promissora.

  18. Estudio comparativo de flujo de fluido a través de una placa de orificio usando las ecuaciones de Stokes y de Navier-Stokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Lucía Guerra-Mazo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenta los resultados de la comparación entre las ecuaciones de Stokes y de Navier-Stokes para la simulación del flujo de agua líquida, a condiciones atmosféricas, a través de una placa orificio concéntrica. A partir de los datos experimentales que fueron tomados en el banco de fluidos, se evaluaron las simulaciones de ambas ecuaciones, usando el software libre Freefem++cs, que se basa en el método de los elementos finitos; las variables evaluadas son velocidad y presión en un intervalo de tiempo. Al analizar los resultados obtenidos con las simulaciones y comparar con los datos experimentales se encontró que las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes representan mejor el sistema que la ecuación de Stokes.

  19. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    Self-powered gamma radiation detector composed of a conducting emitter surrounded by an insulating medium and a conducting tubular collector, the emitter being a hollow tube containing an electrical insulator [fr

  20. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.C.; Bauer, R.F.; Goldstein, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a self powered radiation detector requiring no excitation potential to generate a signal indicating a radiation flux. Such detectors comprise two electrically insulated electrodes, at a distance from each other. These electrodes are made of conducting materials having a different response for neutron and/or gamma ray radiation flux levels, as in nuclear power stations. This elongated detector generates an electric signal in terms of an incident flux of radiations cooperating with coaxial conductors insulated from each other and with different radiation reaction characteristics. The conductor with the greatest reaction to the radiations forms the central emitting electrode and the conductor with the least reaction to the radiations forms a tubular coaxial collecting electrode. The rhodium or cobalt tubular emitting electrode contains a ductile central conducting cable placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector. The latter is in high nickel steel with a low reaction to radiation [fr

  1. Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

  2. Computational studies of BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay within the active volume of germanium detectors. Simulations of the physical processes within such detectors are vital to gain a better understanding of the measurements. The simulation procedure follows three steps: First it calculates the electric potential, next it simulates the electron and hole drift within the germanium crystal and finally it generates a corresponding signal. The GERDA collaboration recently characterized newly produced Broad Energy Germanium Detectors (BEGe) in the HADES underground laboratory in Mol, Belgium. A new pulse shape simulation library was established to examine the results of these measurements. The library has also proven to be a very powerful tool for other applications such as detector optimisation studies. The pulse shape library is based on ADL 3.0 (B. Bruyneel, B. Birkenbach, http://www.ikp.uni-koeln.de/research/agata/download.php) and m3dcr (D. Radford, http://radware.phy.ornl.gov/MJ/m3dcr).

  3. Microscopic Simulation of Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Heinrich

    Detailed computer simulations are indispensable tools for the development and optimization of modern particle detectors. The interaction of particles with the sensitive medium, giving rise to ionization or excitation of atoms, is stochastic by its nature. The transport of the resulting photons and charge carriers, which eventually generate the observed signal, is also subject to statistical fluctuations. Together with the readout electronics, these processes - which are ultimately governed by the atomic cross-sections for the respective interactions - pose a fundamental limit to the achievable detector performance. Conventional methods for calculating electron drift lines based on macroscopic transport coefficients used to provide an adequate description for traditional gas-based particle detectors such as wire chambers. However, they are not suitable for small-scale devices such as micropattern gas detectors, which have significantly gained importance in recent years. In this thesis, a novel approach, bas...

  4. Gas chromatography: mass selective detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapinskas, R.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of mass spectrometry technique directed for detecting molecular structures is described, with some considerations about its operational features. This mass spectrometer is used as a gas chromatography detector. (author)

  5. Detector Fundamentals for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-03

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy course and provides an overview of the following concepts: detector system components, intrinsic and absolute efficiency, resolution and linearity, and operational issues and limits.

  6. Signal processing for radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakhostin, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a clear understanding of the principles of signal processing of radiation detectors. It puts great emphasis on the characteristics of pulses from various types of detectors and offers a full overview on the basic concepts required to understand detector signal processing systems and pulse processing techniques. Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors covers all of the important aspects of signal processing, including energy spectroscopy, timing measurements, position-sensing, pulse-shape discrimination, and radiation intensity measurement. The book encompasses a wide range of applications so that readers from different disciplines can benefit from all of the information. In addition, this resource: * Describes both analog and digital techniques of signal processing * Presents a complete compilation of digital pulse processing algorithms * Extrapolates content from more than 700 references covering classic papers as well as those of today * Demonstrates concepts with more than 340 origin...

  7. Radiation emitter-detector package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.T.; Limm, A.C.; Nyul, P.; Tassia, V.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Mounted on the metallic base of a radiation emitter-detector is a mounting block is a first projection, and a second projection. A radiation detector is on the first projection and a semiconductor electroluminescent device, i.e., a radiation emitter, is on the second projection such that the plane of the recombination region of the electroluminescent device is perpendicular to the radiation incident surface of the radiation detector. The electroluminescent device has a primary emission and a secondary emission in a direction different from the primary emission. A radiation emitter-detector package as described is ideally suited to those applications wherein the secondary radiation of the electroluminescent device is fed into a feedback circuit regulating the biasing current of the electroluminescent device

  8. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  9. Calibration of Nuclear Track Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, J.B; Antanasijevic, R.; Novakovic, V.; Tasic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this work we compare some of our preliminary results relating to the calibration Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) with corresponding results obtained from other participants at the First International Intercomparison of Image Analyzers (III 97/98). Thirteen laboratories from Algeria, China, Czech Rep., France. Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia and Yugoslavia participated in the III A 97/98. The NTD was 'Tustrack', Bristol. This type of CR-39 detector was etched by the organizer (J.Paltarey of al, Atomic Energy Research Institute, HPD, Budapest, Hungary). Etching condition was: 6N NaOH, 70 0C . Seven series detectors were exposed with the sources: B(n,a)Li, Am-241, Pu-Be(n,p), Radon and Am-Cm-Pu. Following parameters of exposed detectors were measured: track density of different sorts of tracks (circular, elliptical, track overlapping, their diameters, major and minor axis and other). (authors)

  10. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  11. Detector module for gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radioactive source detector module for use in a gas monitor. It is adapted to contain the source and other detector components to allow sealed coupling of those components with other portions of the gas monitor. It is particularly concerned with the use of radioactive materials used as electron sources in gas monitors. The module is used to detect changes in electron flow caused by partial absorption of the electron capture gas flowing between two electrodes. The assembly includes a gas flow source, a gas receiver and an electronic assembly for receiving a signal from the detector. The radioactive source and electrodes are housed so that they are connected to the gas flow source so as to prevent accidental or undesired disconnection. It is designed so that the detector module may be removed or replaced into the gas monitor assemblies by untrained personnel so as to prevent exposure to the radioactive material. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  12. In-core monitoring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitelman, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The main task of in-core monitoring consists in securing observability of the reactor installation in all possible operation modes (normal, transient, accident and post-accident). Operation safety at acceptable cost can be achieved by optimized measurement errors. The range of sensors applied as in-core detectors for operative measurements in the industry is very limited in number. Among them might be cited self powered neutron detectors (SPND) and thermocouples. Sensors are incorporated in the in-core detectors assemblies (SVRD). The presentation makes an effort to touch upon the problems of assuring and increasing quality of in-core on-line measurements. So we do not consider systems using movable detectors, as the latter do not assure on-line measurements. (Authors)

  13. Producción de carbones ultralimpios usando flotación burbujeante y lixiviación con ácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Barraza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los carbones ultralimpios representan una importante materia prima para la elaboración de productos de alto valor agregado tales como fibra de carbono, electrodos, espumas de carbón, entre otros. En este trabajo, carbones ultralimpios con concentraciones menores a 0,50% de ceniza (p/p, base seca, bs se obtuvieron usando flotación burbujeante en columna y lixiviación con ácidos fluorhídrico (HF y nítrico (HNO3. Los contenidos de ceniza se redujeron desde 19,60 % en los carbones alimentados hasta 8,70 % en los carbones flotados usando tres etapas en serie en una columna de flotación. Al usar lixiviación química con HF 7,53M y HNO3 2,3M, los carbones presentaron contenidos de 1,42% de ceniza, 0,86% de azufre y 2,00% de materia mineral, mientras que cuando se usó un proceso combinado de flotación seguido de lixiviación ácida con HF 19,2M y HNO3 8,12M se obtuvo un carbón con 0,48 % de ceniza 0,71 % de azufre y 0,96 % de materia mineral. Sin embargo, al usar carbón original (no flotado a las mismas concentraciones ácidas utilizadas en el proceso combinado se produjo un carbón ultralimpio de contenido de ceniza 0,33%.

  14. Modelos de pérdida de masa de acero por corrosión atmosférica en Colombia usando inteligencia computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Velilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de clasificar la corrosividad de las diferentes atmósferas colombianas, como parte de un proyecto de investigación extenso [1], se expusieron placas de acero al carbono en 21 estaciones distribuidas a lo largo de la infraestructura eléctrica del país (líneas de transmisión y subestaciones. En estas estaciones se midieron entre otros, el tiempo de humectación y la deposición de sulfatos y cloruros durante 12 meses; además, bimensualmente se tomaban placas de acero para medir en laboratorio la pérdida de masa sufrida por estas durante el tiempo de exposición. La clasificación de las 21 estaciones se hizo en 4 grupos, considerando: el tiempo de humectación, contenidos de cloruros y sulfatos, la altura sobre el nivel del mar y el tiempo de exposición de las placas; variables consideradas linealmente independientes según la técnica de descomposición en valores singulares (SVD realizada. El criterio utilizado para la clasificación fue el de similitud de las variables utilizando la norma Euclidiana considerada en la red neuronal no supervisada tipo Kohonen. Adicionalmente, se implementaron modelos para la pérdida de masa del acero para cada uno de los grupos usando redes neuronales (RN tipo Feed-Forward, definiéndose como entradas las variables antes mencionadas y como única salida la pérdida de masa. Complementariamente se presenta una comparación entre el modelo de RN para el grupo 1, con otros modelos obtenidos usando Algoritmos Genéticos (AG y el método Simplex.

  15. Extração do óleo de manjericão usando fluido supercrítico: analise experimental e matemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nídia Alves de Barros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é valorizado no mercado internacional e amplamente usado nas indústrias de condimentos, cosméticos e medicinais. Entre todos os processos que podem ser aplicados na obtenção do óleo, a extração usando fluido supercrítico (EFS pode ser um método seletivo e eficiente, dependendo das condições operacionais, como temperatura e pressão, que precisam ser otimizadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficiência da extração supercrítica, utilizando planejamento experimental, na extração do óleo de manjericão com os métodos convencionais (hidrodestilação e soxhlet. Para a realização da parte experimental, foi utilizado dióxido de carbono como solvente para a EFS e hexano, para aplicação no soxhlet. Foi realizado um delineamento central composto rotacional (DCCR, aplicando três pressões (100, 200 e 300 bar e três temperaturas (30, 40 e 50ºC. Através da hidrodestilação, obteve-se o menor rendimento (0,26%, usando o Soxhlet, o rendimento foi de 2,39% sendo superior, comparado á EFS, que foi de 0,43%. O DCCR mostrou que, para otimizar o processo, é necessário aumentar a pressão e a temperatura para o alcance de maiores rendimentos. Foi possível constatar que o modelo matemático representou bem o processo de extração, propiciando o "scale-up" deste.

  16. Physical principles of semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micek, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The general properties of semiconductors with respect to the possibilities of their use as the ionization radiation detectors are discussed. Some chosen types of semiconductor junctions and their characteristics are briefly presented. There are also discussed the physical phenomena connected with the formation of barriers in various types of semiconductor counters. Finally, the basic properties of three main types of semiconductor detectors are given. (author)

  17. Quantum biological gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopvillem, U.Kh.

    1985-01-01

    A possibility of producing biological detectors of gravitational waves is considered. High sensitivity of biological systems to outer effects can be ensured by existence of molecule subgroups in Dicke states. Existence of clusters in Dicke state-giant electric dipoles (GED) is supposed in the Froehlich theory. Comparison of biological and physical detectors shows that GED systems have unique properties for detection of gravitational waves if the reception range is narrow

  18. Silicon micropattern detector: a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijne, E H.M.; Jarron, P; Olsen, A; Redaelli, N

    1988-12-15

    The present use of silicon microstrip detectors in elementary particle physics experiments is described and future needs are evaluated. Possibilities and problems to be encountered in the development of a true two-dimensional detector with intelligent data collection are discussed. This paper serves as an introduction to various other contributions to the conference proceedings, either dealing with futuristic device designs or with cautious steps on the road of technology development.

  19. The MINERνA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentini, G. A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    MINERνA (Main INjector Experiment for ν-A) is a dedicated neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab. It uses a fine-grained fully active detector to make precision measurements of neutrino and antineutrino interactions on a variety of different nuclear targets (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O) for energies up to few GeV. An overview of the experiment and a description of the detector are presented.

  20. LHC Detectors and Early Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dissertori, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    In this review I sketch the basic criteria and boundary conditions which have guided the design of the LHC detectors. The discussion will concentrate on the so-called general-purpose experiments, ATLAS and CMS. After an overview of the detector's characteristics and performance, I will elaborate on the expected measurements of hard processes, with emphasis on jet and vector boson production, i.e., tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Electroweak Physics.

  1. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented

  2. Self-powered radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A self-powered nuclear radiation detector has an emitter electrode of an alloy of a first major constituent metal having a desired high radiation response, and a second minor constituent which imparts to the alloy a desired thermal or mechanical characteristic without diminishing the desired high radiation response. A gamma responsive self-powered detector is detailed which has an emitter with lead as the major constituent, with the minor constituent selected from aluminum, copper, nickel, platinum, or zinc. (author)

  3. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The thin-walled, tube-shaped emitter electrode of the gamma flux-sensitive detector consists of Pt, Pb, Bi, Ta or W. At some distance it is enclosed by a coaxial collector tube made of inconel. The interspaces are filled with Al 2 O 3 or MgO. The outer diameter of the detector amounts to about 3.56 mm. (DG) [de

  4. The atmosphere as particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Todor

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  5. Standardization of detector control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    2000-01-01

    Current and future detectors for high-energy and/or nuclear physics experiments require highly intelligent detector control systems. In order to reduce resources, the construction of a standardized template for the control systems based on the commercially available superviser control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been proposed. The possibility of constructing this template is discussed and several key issues for evaluation of SCADA as the basis for such a template are presented. (author)

  6. The WASA detector at CELSIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilger, R.; Blom, M.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Bondar, A.; Brodowski, W.; Calen, H.; Chuvilo, I.; Clement, H.; Dunin, V.; Dyring, J.; Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K.; Friden, C-J.; Gustafsson, L.; Haeggstroem, S.; Hoeistad, B.; Jacewicz, M.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kilian, K.; Kimura, N.; Koch, I.; Kolachev, G.; Komogorov, M.; Kullander, S.; Kupsc, A.; Kurdadze, L.; Kuzmin, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Martemyanov, A.; Martemyanov, B.; Morosov, B.; Moertsell, A.; Nawrot, A.; Oelert, W.; Oreshkin, S.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Przestrzelska, K.; Paetzold, J.; Reistad, D.; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Sandukovsky, V.; Schuberth, U.; Sefzick, T.; Sidorov, V.; Shwartz, B.; Sopov, V.; Stepaniak, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Sukhanov, A.; Sundberg, P.; Tchernychev, V.; Tikhomirov, V.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamaoka, H.; Zabierowski, J.; Zernov, A.; Zlomanczuk, J.

    2000-01-01

    The assembly of the WASA 4π detector at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala is now completed. The superconducting solenoid, the vacuum chambers and all of the sensitive parts of the detector have been installed at the CELSIUS accelerator and storage ring. The pellet generator, providing internal hydrogen (and deuterium) targets, has been installed on top of WASA. The first test run together with the CELSIUS proton beam was carried through in May 1999

  7. Electromagnetic disturbance neutralizing radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripentog, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation detector of the Neher-White type is described which automatically neutralizes induced negative charges on the electrometer tube control grid which shut off the electrometer tube. The detector includes means for establishing a voltage of one polarity in response to plate current and voltage of opposite polarity in response to an absence of plate current and means for connecting the control grid to a reference potential for draining the negative charge in response to the voltage of opposite polarity. (author)

  8. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  9. Radiation Hazard Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

  10. SSC detector solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Kephart, R.D.; Krebs, H.J.; Stone, M.E.; Theriot, E.D.; Wands, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A detector utilizing a superconducting solenoid is being discussed for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A useful field volume of 8 m diameter x 16 m length at 1.5-2 T (--1 GJ at 2T) is required. It has been decided that all of the particle physics calorimetry will be inside the bore of the solenoid and that there is no need for the coil and cryostat to be ''thin'' in radiation lengths. An iron yoke will reduce the excitation required and will provide muon identification and a redundant momentum measurement of the muons. The authors have developed a conceptual design to meet these requirements. The magnet will use a copper-stabilized Nb-Ti conductor sized for a cryostable pool boiling heat flux --0.025 W/cm/sup 2/. A thermosiphon from a storage vessel above the cryostat will be used to prevent bubble stagnation in the liquid helium bath. The operating current, current density, coil subdivision and dump resistor have been chosen to guarantee that the coil will be undamaged should a quench occur. The axial electromagnetic force will be reacted by metallic support links; the stainless steel coil case will support the radial force. The 5000 metric tons of calorimetry will be supported from the iron yoke through a trussed cylindrical shell structure separate from the cryostat. The coil and case, radiation shield and stainless vacuum vessel would be fabricated and cryogenically tested as two 8-m sections. These would be lowered into the underground experimental hall and installed into the iron flux return yoke to provide the required 16-m length

  11. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  12. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  13. Modeling of diamond radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries

  14. Proposed Hall D Detector Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Smith

    1998-01-01

    With nearly 10**5 channels, the signal processing and data acquisition electronics system will present a significant challenge. We envisage much of the electronics being physically located on or near the detectors to avoid the long and expensive low-level signal cables otherwise required. CERN detectors such as COMPASS and ATLAS provide a good model, and we should build on their experience as much as possible. Radiation hardness and minimal power dissipation are additional constraints. The high beam rate will necessitate good time resolution, integrated low level triggering capability and sufficient pipelining of the data to accommodate the trigger decision time. A proposed architecture is shown in the figure. Detector channels are either ''pixels'', e.g. PWCs, drift chambers, and ring cerenkovs, or charge detectors, e.g. CSI or lead glass. Pixel detectors are discriminated, while charge detectors are digitized by Flash ADCs (FADC). The digitized information is pipelined in shift registers which provide a time window for the first level of triggering to consider. After passing through the shift registers, the data are further pipelined in RAM to provide time for the level 1 trigger decision. In the event of a level 1 trigger, the RAM contents are transferred to a level 2 processor farm where more detailed trigger decisions take place

  15. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  16. Department of Radiation Detectors: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1998-01-01

    (full text) Work carried out in 1997 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification using Ion and Plasma Beams. Semiconductor detectors: Semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation are among the basic tools utilized in such fields of research and industry as nuclear physics, high energy physics, medical (oncology) radiotherapy, radiological protection, environmental monitoring, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence non-destructive analysis of chemical composition, nuclear power industry. The Department all objectives are: - search for new types of detectors, - adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, - producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, - manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments, - scientific development of the staff. These 1997 objectives were accomplished particularly by: - research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. transmission type Si(Li) detectors with extremely thin entrance and exit window), - development of technology of high-resistivity (HRSi) silicon detectors and thermoelectric cooling systems (KBN grant), - study of the applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, - manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. In accomplishing of the above, the Department cooperated with interested groups of physicists from our Institute (P-I and P-II Departments), Warsaw University, Warsaw Heavy Ion Laboratory and with some technology Institutes based in Warsaw (ITME, ITE). Some detectors and services have been delivered to customers on a commercial basis. X-Rat tube generators: The Department conducts research on design and technology of producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. In 1997, work on a special

  17. Silicon drift detectors, present and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, J.; Bellwied, R.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Caines, H.; Chen, W.; Dyke, H.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Humanic, T.; Kotov, I.; Kuczewski, P.; Leonhardt, W.; Li, Z.; Lynn, D.; Minor, R.; Munhoz, M.; Ott, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Schambach, J.; Soja, R.; Sugarbaker, E.; Willson, R. M.

    2001-04-01

    Silicon drift detectors provide unambiguous two-dimensional position information for charged particle detection with a single detector layer. A large area silicon drift detector was developed for the inner tracking detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC. In this paper, we discuss the lessons learned and the future prospects of this technology.

  18. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  19. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  20. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported

  1. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; (i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and (ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. A low-Z PET detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, C.A.; Kaufman, D.E.; Chesler, D.A.; Stearns, C.W.; Correia, J.A.; Brownell, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to examine the potential of low-Z detector materials for PET, a small field imaging system using plastic detectors has been designed. In this system the site of a photon interaction in the detector is located using light produced by the first Compton electron. This is in contrast to high-Z detectors where multiple interactions occur. The calculated performance of the detector and supporting measurements are presented

  3. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2017-09-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.

  4. Detector for atomic particles and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, Georges; Ythier, Christian.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of this invention is to provide improved detectors of atomic particles and of ionising radiations, having maximum sensitivity, by virtually suppressing all absorption of the radiation scattered by the main detector, so that these detectors are particularly suitable for fitting to anti-Compton spectrometers. Reference is particularly made to detectors of the Ge(Li) type, lithium compensated germanium, which are the most used. It is however made clear that this choice is not restrictive and that this invention not only applies to all known types of detectors and particularly to scintillator detectors, for instance to detectors such as NaI (Tl), composed of a monocrystal of a thallium activated alkaline halogenide, but also to gas, ionisation chamber and luminescent chamber type detectors and in general to all the known devices that convert the energy of particles into electric signals. Owing to the fact that the walls of the enclosure containing the main detector are composed, in the part around this detector, of an auxiliary detector, the latter detects virtually all the radiations scattered by the main detector. It does so without any loss due to the absorption of these radiations (a) by the metal walls of the enclosure usually containing the main detector and (b) by the walls of the auxiliary detector casing. It results from this that the detectors of the invention enable coincidence or anti-coincidence spectrometers with a very high performance to be made [fr

  5. Detector problems at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.G.

    1985-02-01

    During the last couple of years there has been considerable concern expressed among the US high energy community as to whether detector limitations would prevent one from being able to fully exploit a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 at a hadron-hadron high energy collider. As a result of these concerns, a considerable amount of work has been done recently in trying to understand the nature of potential difficulties and the required R and D that needs to be performed. A lot of this work has been summarized in the 1984 DPF Summer Study at Snowmass. This paper attempts to review some of these results. This work is limited to the discussion of detector problems associated with the study of high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We shall start with the discussion of the desirable features of the detectors and of the SSC environment in which they will have to work. After a brief discussion of the model 4π detectors, we shall discuss specific detector aspects: lepton identification, tracking, calorimetry and computing and triggering. We shall end with some remarks about possible future course of events. 15 refs., 10 figs

  6. The performance of ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is an apparatus of unprecedented complexity, designed to probe physics in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV. It was installed in its underground cavern at the LHC during the period 2004 to 2008. Testing of individual subsystems began immediately with calibration systems and cosmic rays, and by 2008 full detector systems could be operated with the planned infrastructure, readout, and monitoring systems. Several commissioning runs of the full detector were organized in 2008 and 2009. During these runs the detector was operated continuously for several months with its readout triggered by cosmic ray muons. At the same time, regular calibrations of individual detector systems were made. In the course of these runs, signals from tens of millions of cosmic ray events were recorded. These commissioning runs continued until the first beam-beam collisions in late 2009. This volume is a collection of seven performance papers based on d...

  7. Accelerating ROP detector layout optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastanya, D.; Fodor, B.

    2012-01-01

    The ADORE (Alternating Detector layout Optimization for REgional overpower protection system) algorithm for performing the optimization of regional overpower protection (ROP) system for CANDU® reactors have been recently developed. The simulated annealing (SA) stochastic optimization technique is utilized to come up with a quasi optimized detector layout for the ROP systems. Within each simulated annealing history, the objective function is calculated as a function of the trip set point (TSP) corresponding to the detector layout for that particular history. The evaluation of the TSP is done probabilistically using the ROVER-F code. Since during each optimization execution thousands of candidate detector layouts are evaluated, the overall optimization process is time consuming. Since for each ROVER-F evaluation the number of fuelling ripples controls the execution time, reducing the number of fuelling ripples used during the calculation of TSP will reduce the overall optimization execution time. This approach has been investigated and the results are presented in this paper. The challenge is to construct a set of representative fuelling ripples which will significantly speedup the optimization process while guaranteeing that the resulting detector layout has similar quality to the ones produced when the complete set of fuelling ripples is employed. Results presented in this paper indicate that a speedup of up to around 40 times is attainable when this approach is utilized. (author)

  8. Progress on CMS detector lowering

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    It was an amazing engineering challenge - the lowering of the first hugeendcap disc (YE+3) of the CMS detector slowly and carefully 100 metres underground. The spectacular descent took place on 30 November and was documented by a film crew from Reuters news group. The uniquely shaped slice is 16 m high, about 50 cm thick, and weighs 400 tonnes. It is one of 15 sections that make up the complete CMS detector. The solid steel structure of the disc forms part of the magnet return yoke and is equipped on both sides with muon chambers. A special gantry crane lowered the element, with just 20 cm of leeway between the edges of the detector and the walls of the shaft! On 12 December, a further section of the detector (YE+2) containing the cathode strip chamber made the 10-hour journey underground. This piece is 16 m high and weighs 880 tonnes. There are now four sections of the detector in the experimental cavern, with a further 11 to follow. The endcap disc YE+3 (seen in the foreground) begins its journey down the ...

  9. Management of disused smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Smoke detectors containing radioisotopes with long half-life (such as 241 Am and 239 Pu), are widely used all over the world. Very small activities are required for this application but in each country, the smoke detectors are present by thousands. The volume of the radioactive sources being so small compared to the overall volume of the device, the volume reduction is the only responsible option for their management and storage. These sources, collected as such, require deep geological repository that so far are not operational anywhere. The conditioning and the packaging should try to meet the requirement for future repository. The National Institute for Radioelements, in Belgium, (IRE) has acquired a wide experience in the field of handling, conditioning and storage of disused smoke detectors and lightning preventers mainly based on 241 Am sources. Up to now, more than forty different types of smoke detectors were dismantled in the IRE facilities representing a total amount of more than 30,000 items. This report presents a practical management option for disused smoke detectors sources and provides an example of specific technical procedure for 241 Am sources handling and conditioning for long term storage. This management option does not request heavy infrastructure. For this reason this practical approach can be implemented in every waste treatment facility including those in the developing countries. (author)

  10. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  11. High precision thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Two-dimensional position sensitive detectors are indispensable in neutron diffraction experiments for determination of molecular and crystal structures in biology, solid-state physics and polymer chemistry. Some performance characteristics of these detectors are elementary and obvious, such as the position resolution, number of resolution elements, neutron detection efficiency, counting rate and sensitivity to gamma-ray background. High performance detectors are distinguished by more subtle characteristics such as the stability of the response (efficiency) versus position, stability of the recorded neutron positions, dynamic range, blooming or halo effects. While relatively few of them are needed around the world, these high performance devices are sophisticated and fairly complex, their development requires very specialized efforts. In this context, we describe here a program of detector development, based on {sup 3}He filled proportional chambers, which has been underway for some years at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Fundamental approaches and practical considerations are outlined that have resulted in a series of high performance detectors with the best known position resolution, position stability, uniformity of response and reliability over time, for devices of this type.

  12. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  13. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterr. Akademie d. Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorferg. 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bauer, C. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R. [LEPSI, CRN Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E. [LEPES, Grenoble (France); Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Foulon, F. [Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Hall-Wilton, R. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Han, S.; Ziock, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Research Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kania, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mishina, M. [FNAL, Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, L.S. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-11-21

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Status of diamond particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R.; Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M.; Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E.; Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Ziock, H.; Kania, D.; Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Mishina, M.; Pan, L.S.; Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J.; Trischuk, W.

    1998-01-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Metal detector technology data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, L.K.; Gallo, L.R.; Murray, D.W.

    1990-08-01

    The tests described in this report were conducted to obtain information on the effects target characteristics have on portal type metal detector response. A second purpose of the tests was to determine the effect of detector type and settings on the detection of the targets. Although in some cases comparison performance of different types and makes of metal detectors is found herein, that is not the primary purpose of the report. Further, because of the many variables that affect metal detector performance, the information presented can be used only in a general way. The results of these tests can show general trends in metal detection, but do little for making accurate predictions as to metal detector response to a target with a complex shape such as a handgun. The shape of an object and its specific metal content (both type and treatment) can have a significant influence on detection. Thus it should not be surprising that levels of detection for a small 100g stainless steel handgun are considerably different than for detection of the 100g stainless steel right circular cylinder that was used in these tests. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    The commissioning effort is presently addressing two main areas: the commissioning of the hardware components at the pit and the coordination of the activities of the newly constituted Detector Performance groups (DPGs). At point 5, a plan regarding the service cavern and the commissioning of the connections of the off-detector electronics (for the data collection line and trigger primitive generation) to the central DAQ and the central Trigger has been defined. This activity was started early February and will continue until May. It began with Tracker electronics followed so far by HCAL and CSC. The goal is to have by May every detector commission, as much as possible, their data transfer paths from FED to Central DAQ as well as their trigger setups between TPGs and Global Level 1 trigger. The next focus is on connections of front-ends to the service cavern. This depends strongly on the installations of services. Presently the only detector which has its link fibers connected to the off-detector electr...

  17. CCD-based vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Damerell, C J S

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, CCD-based vertex detectors have been used to construct some of the most precise 'tracking microscopes' in particle physics. They were initially used by the ACCMOR collaboration for fixed target experiments in CERN, where they enabled the lifetimes of some of the shortest-lived charm particles to be measured precisely. The migration to collider experiments was accomplished in the SLD experiment, where the original 120 Mpixel detector was later upgraded to one with 307 Mpixels. This detector was used in a range of physics studies which exceeded the capability of the LEP detectors, including the most precise limit to date on the Bs mixing parameter. This success, and the high background hit densities that will inevitably be encountered at the future TeV-scale linear collider, have established the need for a silicon pixel-based vertex detector at this machine. The technical options have now been broadened to include a wide range of possible silicon imaging technologies as well as CCDs (mon...

  18. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) proposes to use personnel dosimetry radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for safeguards purposes. It plans to place these YES/NO monitors at barrier penetration points declared closed under IAEA safeguards to detect the passage of plutonium-bearing nuclear material, usually spent fuel. For this application, commercially available dosimeters were surveyed as well as other radiation detectors that appeared suitable and likely to be marketed in the near future. No primary advantage was found in a particular detector type because in this application backgrounds vary during long counting intervals. Secondary considerations specify that the monitor be inexpensive and easy to tamper-proof, interrogate, and maintain. On this basis radiophotoluminescent, thermoluminescent, and electronic dosimeters were selected as possible routine monitors; the latter two may prove useful for data-base acquisition

  19. Department of Radiation Detectors: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Work carried out in 1998 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS: Semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation are among the basic tools utilized in such fields of research and industry as nuclear physics, high energy physics, medical (oncology) radiotherapy, radiological protection, environmental monitoring, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence non-destructive analysis of chemical composition, nuclear power industry. The departmental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors; producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments; manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments; scientific development of the staff. These objectives were accomplished in 1998 particularly by: research on unique thin silicon detectors for identification of particles in E-ΔE telescopes, modernization of technology of manufacturing Ge(Li) detectors capable of detecting broader range of gamma energies, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. In accomplishment of the above the Department co-operated with groups of physicists from IPJ, PAN Institute of Physics (Warsaw), and with some technology Institutes based in Warsaw (ITME, ITE). Some detectors and services have been delivered to customers on a commercial basis. X-Ray TUBE GENERATORS: The Department conducts research on design and technology of manufacturing X-ray generators as well as on imaging and dosimetry of X-ray beams. Various models of special construction X-ray tubes and their power supplies are under construction. In 1998 work concentrated on: completing laboratory equipment for manufacturing X-ray tubes and their components, developing technology of manufacturing X-ray tubes and their components, completing a laboratory set-up with

  20. Thermoelectric single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Kuzanyan, A S

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect a single photon is the ultimate level of sensitivity in the measurement of optical radiation. Sensors capable of detecting single photons and determining their energy have many scientific and technological applications. Kondo-enhanced Seebeck effect cryogenic detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage conversion and voltage readout. We evaluate the prospects of CeB 6 and (La,Ce)B 6 hexaboride crystals for their application as a sensitive element in this type of detectors. We conclude that such detectors can register a single UV photon, have a fast count rate (up to 45 MHz) and a high spectral resolution of 0.1 eV. We calculate the electric potential generated along the thermoelectric sensor upon registering a UV single photon.

  1. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  2. Physical motivations for thermal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, E.

    1993-01-01

    Low temperature bolometers can be complementary and sometimes superior to open-quotes classicalclose quotes ionization detectors in many experiments without accelerators in nuclear, subnuclear and astroparticle physics. After a short review of the open-quotes toolsclose quotes that cryogenics offer for the detection of particles the author first considers a few practical applications of bolometers in the spectroscopy of α, γ and X rays, in the detection of neutrons, and in measurements of weak radioactive contaminations. Searches with this technique on single and double beta decay, of which some are already being carried out, are then considered and discussed. The various properties which make thermal detectors particularly suitable for searches on dark matter are reviewed, stressing the potentiality of this technique. The promising, but still far, potentiality of thermal detectors in solar neutrino experiments is finally discussed

  3. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  4. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  5. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  6. Semiconductor radiation detectors. Device physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    2007-01-01

    Starting from basic principles, the author, whose own contributions to these developments have been significant, describes the rapidly growing field of modern semiconductor detectors used for energy and position measurement radiation. This development was stimulated by requirements in elementary particle physics where it has led to important scientific discoveries. It has now spread to many other fields of science and technology. The book is written in a didactic way and includes an introduction to semiconductor physics. The working principles of semiconductor radiation detectors are explained in an intuitive way, followed by formal quantitative analysis. Broad coverage is also given to electronic signal readout and to the subject of radiation damage. The book is the first to comprehensively cover the semiconductor radiation detectors currently in use. It is useful as a teaching guide and as a reference work for research and applications. (orig.)

  7. STAR PIXEL detector mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieman, H H; Anderssen, E; Greiner, L; Matis, H S; Ritter, H G; Sun, X; Szelezniak, M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: hhwieman@lbl.gov

    2009-05-15

    A high resolution pixel detector is being designed for the STAR [1] experiment at RHIC. This device will use MAPS as the detector element and will have a pointing accuracy of {approx}25 microns. We will be reporting on the mechanical design required to support this resolution. The radiation length of the first layer ({approx}0.3% X{sub 0}) and its distance from the interaction point (2.5 cm) determines the resolution. The design makes use of air cooling and thin carbon composite structures to limit the radiation length. The mechanics are being developed to achieve spatial calibrations and stability to 20 microns and to permit rapid detector replacement in event of radiation damage or other potential failures from operation near the beam.

  8. Detectors plans for LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessi, M.

    2012-01-01

    All experiments plan an effective usage of the LS1 shutdown period. After three years of running they will go through a consolidation phase, mostly to fix problems that have emerged over time, like single points of failure in the infrastructure, failures of low-voltage power supplies and optical links. Upgrades of some detector components will start, mainly related to the beam pipe, the innermost tracker elements and the trigger system. Detector components, which had to be staged for cost reasons in 2003, will then enter into the detector setup. The goal is to be fully ready for the new energy regime at nominal luminosity. This article reviews the planned maintenance and modification works for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE experiments. (author)

  9. The ALICE detector data link

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, G; Csató, P; Dénes, E; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Sulyán, J; Vesztergombi, G; Eged, B; Gerencsér, I; Novák, I; Soós, C; Tarján, D; Telegdy, A; Tóth, N

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE detector data link has been designed to cover all the needs for data transfer between the detector and the data-acquisition system. It is a 1 Gbit/s, full-duplex, multi-purpose fibre optic link that can be used as a medium for the bi-directional transmission of data blocks between the front-end electronics and the data- acquisition system and also for the remote control and test of the front-end electronics, In this paper the concept, the protocol, the specific test tools, the prototypes of the detector data link and the read-out receiver card, their application in the ALICE-TPC test system and the integration with the DATE software are presented. The test results on the performance are also shown. (14 refs).

  10. SVX/silicon detector studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagby, L.; Johnson, M.; Lipton, R.; Gu, W.

    1995-11-01

    AC coupled silicon detectors, being used for the DO upgrade, may have substantial voltage across the coupling capacitor. Failed capacitors can present ∼50 V to the input of the SVX, Silicon Vertex, device. We measured the effects that failed detector coupling capacitors have on the SVXD (rad soft 3μm), SVXH (rad hard 1.2μm), and SVXIIb (rad soft 1.2μm) amplifier / readout devices. The test results show that neighboring channels saturate when an excessive voltage is applied directly to a SVX channel. We believe that the effects are due to current diffusion within the SVX substrate rather than surface currents on the detectors. This paper discusses the magnitude of the saturation and a possible solution to the problem

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of a CZT detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Sung Dae; Park, Se Hwan; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Cho, Yoon Ho; Kang, Sang Mook; Kim, Yong Kyun; Hong, Duk Geun

    2008-01-01

    CZT detector is one of the most promising radiation detectors for hard X-ray and γ-ray measurement. The energy spectrum of CZT detector has to be simulated to optimize the detector design. A CZT detector was fabricated with dimensions of 5x5x2 mm 3 . A Peltier cooler with a size of 40x40 mm 2 was installed below the fabricated CZT detector to reduce the operation temperature of the detector. Energy spectra of were measured with 59.5 keV γ-ray from 241 Am. A Monte Carlo code was developed to simulate the CZT energy spectrum, which was measured with a planar-type CZT detector, and the result was compared with the measured one. The simulation was extended to the CZT detector with strip electrodes. (author)

  12. Report of the detector laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynen, U.; Stelzer, H.; Fischer, B.

    1975-01-01

    Parallel plate detectors with sizes up to 30 x 30 cm 2 have been built and time resolutions of 350 psec for α-particles and approximately 200 psec for 25 MeV 16 O have been obtained. For these detectors a fast preamplifier was developed. Two digital processers for multiplication and division of 13-bit numbers have been built. For a PDP 11/40 a program has been developed which allows the on- and off-line data analysis. (orig.) [de

  13. Signal generation in gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.

    1993-01-01

    This tutorial describes the generation of electrical signals in gas detectors. Ionization of the gas by the passage of charged particles generates these signals. Starting with the Bethe-Bloch equation, the treatment is a general introduction to the production of ion-pairs in gas devices. I continue with the characterization of the ionization as an electrical signal, and calculate the signal current in a simple example. Another example demonstrates the effect of space charge on the design of a detector. The AGS Booster ionization profile monitor is a model for this calculation

  14. The micro slit gas detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claude Labbe, J.; Gomez, F. E-mail: fgomez@cern.ch; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Vazquez, P

    1999-06-01

    We describe the first tests with a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of slits opened in a copper metallized kapton foil with 30 {mu}m anode strips suspended in these openings. In this way, the multiplication process is similar to a standard MSGC. The fundamental difference is the absence of an insulating substrate around the anode. Also the material budget is significantly reduced, and the problems related to charging-up or polarization are removed. Ageing properties of this detector are under study.

  15. The micro slit gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claude Labbe, J.; Gomez, F.; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Vazquez, P.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the first tests with a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of slits opened in a copper metallized kapton foil with 30 μm anode strips suspended in these openings. In this way, the multiplication process is similar to a standard MSGC. The fundamental difference is the absence of an insulating substrate around the anode. Also the material budget is significantly reduced, and the problems related to charging-up or polarization are removed. Ageing properties of this detector are under study

  16. Automatic control of movable detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassel, W.W.; Remley, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described, relating to a microprocessor based control system for a plurality of movable detectors, e.g. a nuclear reactor flux mapping system, with new system architecture which increases system availability by preventing faults on any of the detection channels from disabling the remaining channels. The system has, say, four drive trains for a number of detectors. Functional separation is realized by having two channels control their associated two drive trains. Redundancy is provided by having dual channels for operator interface. Communications between the functionally separate channels is accomplished by employing two-ported memories in conjunction with multiple microprocessors. (author)

  17. Neutron detector with monitoring elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.

    1976-01-01

    To check the reliable reading of a neutron detector the signal of which results from (n,e) processes and which is used for neutron flux supervision in the reactor core of pressurized-water reactors, a circuit is given which makes it possible to record the isolation resistivity of the cable connected to the input of the current amplifier and of the neutron detector, this resistivity determining, among others, the output signal. For supervision, the input offset voltage of the current amplifier is modulated by a low-frequency ac voltage and a filter is assigned to the output of an op amplifier, this filter feeding a limiting value recorder. (ORU) [de

  18. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Boscardin, M.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Corti, D.; Galeazzi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm 3 , cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  19. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  20. The OPAL muon barrel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, R.J.; Allison, J.; Ashton, P.; Bahan, G.A.; Baines, J.T.M.; Banks, J.N.; Barlow, R.J.; Barnett, S.; Beeston, C.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Clowes, S.G.; Davies, O.W.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Hinde, P.S.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Lafferty, G.D.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McGowan, R.F.; Moss, M.W.; Murphy, P.G.; Nijjhar, B.; O'Dowd, A.J.P.; Pawley, S.J.; Phillips, P.D.; Richards, G.E.; Skillman, A.; Stephens, K.; Tresillian, N.J.; Wood, N.C.; Wyatt, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    The barrel part of the OPAL muon detector consists of 110 drift chambers forming four layers outside the hadron absorber. Each chamber covers an area of 1.2 m by up to 10.4 m and has two cells with wires parallel to the beam and a drift distance of 297 mm. A detailed description of the design, construction, operation and performance of the sub-detector is given. The system has been operating successfully since the start of LEP in 1989. ((orig.))