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Sample records for usa hexachlorobenzene

  1. Examining uncertainties in the linkage between global climate change and potential human health impacts in the western USA -- Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-30

    Industrial societies have altered the earth`s environment in ways that could have important, long-term ecological, economic, and health implications. In this paper the authors define, characterize, and evaluate parameter and outcome uncertainties using a model that links global climate change with predictions of chemical exposure and human health risk in the western region of the US. They illustrate the impact of uncertainty about global climate change on such potential secondary outcomes using as a case study the public health consequences related to the behavior environmentally of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), an ubiquitous multimedia pollutant. They begin by constructing a matrix that reveals the linkage between global environmental change and potential regional human-health effects that might be induced directly and/or indirectly by HCB released into the air and water. This matrix is useful for translating critical uncertainties into terms that can be understood and used by policy makers to formulate strategies against potential adverse irreversible health and economic consequences. Specifically, the authors employ a combined uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to investigate how the HCB that has been released is affected by increasing atmospheric temperature and the accompanying climate alterations that are anticipated and how such uncertainty propagates to affect the expected magnitude and calculational precision of estimates of associated potential human exposures and health effects.

  2. Compound list: hexachlorobenzene [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hexachlorobenzene HCB 00022 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/...Human/in_vitro/hexachlorobenzene.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LA...TEST/Rat/in_vitro/hexachlorobenzene.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/L...ATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/hexachlorobenzene.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp...://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/hexachlorobenzene.Rat.in_vivo.L

  3. Deliberative public participation and hexachlorobenzene stockpiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Lyn

    2009-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the quality of citizen involvement in relation to the governance of industrial risks. Specifically, it explores the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) case relative to best practice public participation, which is consistent with deliberative democratic theory. The case could be judged a public participation failure given that the community committee in combination with the corporate sponsor was unable to agree on a mutually acceptable technological pathway. This stalemate might have been attributable in part to the time spent on the task of review. A diligent participation working party could have created a much more effective public participation plan, grounded in the core values of professional public participation practice.

  4. Environmental Hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enroll...

  5. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  6. DEGRADATION OF QUINTOZENE, PENTACHLOROBENZENE, HEXACHLOROBENZENE AND PENTACHLOROANILINE IN SOIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Jørgen; Hansen, Knud E.

    1974-01-01

    The disappearance of quintozene (I) and its technical impurities and metabolites pentachlorobenzene (III), hexachlorobenzene (IV) and pentachloroaniline (V) from soil, was studied in laboratory experiments under controlled conditions during a period of about 600 days. The very high persistence...... found, was confirmed by the analysis of 22 samples collected from fields used for potato growing and treated regularly during the foregoing 11 years with commercial formulations of quintozene. In the laboratory experiments, III, V and methylthiopentachlorobenzene (VI) were found to be degradation...

  7. Hexachlorobenzene sources, levels and human exposure in the environment of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Han, Jingyi; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Wang, T.Y.; Sun, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the published scientific data on sources, levels and human exposure of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in China. Potential sources of unintended HCB emission were assessed by production information, emission factors and environmental policies. HCB was observed in various

  8. Dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene using ultrafine Ca-Fe composite oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaodong; Zheng Minghui; Liu Wenbin; Qian Yong; Zhang Bing; Liu Wenxia

    2005-01-01

    Ca-Fe composite oxides with different Ca/Fe atomic ratios were synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with elemental X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Their dechlorination activities were evaluated using hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a model compound. The results indicate that the dechlorination activity is related to the composition of metal oxides. Different compositions lead to the formation of different phases of Ca-Fe composite oxides. When Ca/Fe atomic ratio was 3.4, the dechlorination activity reached 97%, which was the highest in the dechlorination of HCB at 300 deg. C for 0.5 h. This may be related to the formation of Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 phase and small agglomerate size of oxide crystal of about 1 μm. The effect of reaction time on HCB dechlorination and the pathway of dechlorination were investigated using the Ca-Fe composite oxide with the highest activity. It was found that hydrodechlorination took place in the destruction of HCB, the dechlorination efficiency is almost 100% after 2 h reaction. After reaction, quantitative measurement of chloride ion and qualitative analysis of CaCO 3 indicate besides hydrodechlorination, other degradation routes may be present. The mechanism of synergic dechlorination using Ca-Fe composite oxides was discussed

  9. PLACENTAL TRANSFER AND FETAL DEPOSITION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN THE HAMSTER AND GUINEA PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was administered at dose levels of 0, 1.0, 10.0, or 50.0 mg HCB/kg body wt by gavage to pregnant hamsters and guinea pigs for 6 days up to the time of liver development in the fetus. Samples of maternal fat, thymus, skin, liver, lung, brain, spleen, urinar...

  10. Bioaccumulation of 14C-hexachlorobenzene in eggs and fry of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Biddinger, G.R.; Gloss, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread pollutant that is persistent once it enters the ecosphere. It bioaccumulates in both terrestrial and aquatic animals and is not readily metabolized. Although HCB bioaccumulation in fresh water fish has been reported, few data are available on bioaccumulation of this or other chemicals during early developmental stages of fish. The authors used the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to examine the rates of HCB bioaccumulation during early life stages subjected to both short term (24 h) and long term (14 day) aqueous exposure. The relatively rapid development and ease of laboratory maintenance made the medaka an ideal organism for this purpose

  11. Comparision hexachlorobenzene residues in placentas from Finland and Denmark (1997-2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.; Schramm, K.W. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. for Ecological Chemistry (Germany); Main, K.; M. Ida Schmidt; Boisen, K.; Chellakooty, M.; Damgaard, I.; Skakkebaek, N. [Univ. Dept. of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaleva, M.; Virtanen, H.; Haavisto, A.M.; Toppari, J. [Dept. of Paediatrics and Physiology, Univ. of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continues to be released in to the environment as an industry byproduct, although it has been banned as fungicide in most countries in the 1970s. The high persistence and bioaccumulation along the food chain cause that humans are almost exclusively exposed through their diet. Here we present the fetus exposure as the first step to investigate the possible relationship between the male reproductive system toxicity and environmental exposure of this compound. The two-cohort male placenta samples originate from Denmark and Finland, which have different incidences of male urogenital disorders.

  12. The role of thymus-dependent T cells in hexachlorobenzene-induced inflammatory skin and lung lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, CCPPC; Bloksma, N; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J; Vos, JG; van Dijk, JE

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of thymus-dependent T cells in the inflammatory skin and lung lesions and spleen effects induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated by using genetically athymic and euthymic WAG/Rij rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats with or without depletion of T cells by adult thymectomy,

  13. Contrastive Analysis of the Raman Spectra of Polychlorinated Benzene: Hexachlorobenzene and Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated benzene in environment in trace amounts is challenging, but important. It is more difficult to distinguish homologues and isomers of organic pollutantd when present in trace amounts because of their similar physical and chemical properties. In this work we simulate the Raman spectra of hexachlorobenzene and benzene, and figure out the vibration mode of each main peak. The effect on the Raman spectrum of changing substituents from H to Cl is analyzed to reveal the relations between the Raman spectra of homologues and isomers of polychlorinated benzene, which should be helpful for distinguishing one kind of polychlorinated benzene from its homologues and isomers by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  14. Thermogravimetric study of thermal decontamination of soils polluted by hexachlorobenzene, 4-chlorobiphenyl, naphthalene, or n-decane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risoul, V; Pichon, C; Trouvé, G; Peters, W A; Gilot, P; Prado, G

    1999-02-15

    To determine decontamination behavior as affected by temperature, shallow beds of a clay-rich, a calcerous, and a sedimentary soil, artificially polluted with hexachlorobenzene, 4-chlorobiphenyl, naphthalene, or n-decane, were separately heated at 5 degrees C min-1 in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Temperatures for deep cleaning of the calcerous and the sedimentary soil increased with increasing boiling point (bp) of the aromatic contaminants, but removal efficiencies still approached 100% well below the bp. Decontamination rates were therefore modelled according to a pollutant evaporation-diffusion transport model. For the calcerous and sedimentary soils, this model reasonably correlated removal of roughly the first 2/3 of the naphthalene, but gave only fair predictions for hexachlorobenzene and 4-chlorobiphenyl. It was necessary to heat the clay soil above the aromatics bp to achieve high decontamination efficiencies. Weight loss data imply that for temperatures from near ambient to as much as 150 degrees C, interactions of each aromatic with the clay soil, or its decomposition products, result in lower net volatilization of the contaminated vs. neat clay. A similar effect was observed in heating calcerous soil polluted with hexachlorobenzene from near ambient to about 140 degrees C. Decontamination mechanisms remain to be established, although the higher temperatures needed to remove aromatics from the clay may reflect a more prominent role for surface desorption than evaporation. This would be consistent with our estimates that the clay can accommodate all of the initial pollutant loadings within a single surface monolayer, whereas the calcerous and sedimentary soils cannot.

  15. Effects of biochar on dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene and the bacterial community in paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Herzberger, Anna; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic reductive dechlorination is an important degradation pathway for chlorinated organic contaminants in paddy soil. This study investigated the effects of amending paddy soil with wheat straw biochar on both the dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a typical highly chlorinated contaminant, and on the structure of soil bacteria communities. Soil amendment of 0.1% biochar did not significantly affect the dechlorination of HCB in the soil. However, biochar amendment at higher application levels (5%) stimulated the dechlorination of HCB in the first month of anaerobic incubation and inhibited the dechlorination of HCB after that period. The stimulation effect may be ascribed to the graphite carbon and carbon-centered persistent radicals, which are redox active, in biochar. The inhibiting effect could be partly ascribed to the reduced bioavailability of HCB in biochar-amended soils. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the amendment of biochar changed the soil bacterial community structure but not the bacterial abundances and diversities. The relative abundance of Dehalococcoidaceae in the tested soils showed a significant relationship with the dechlorination percentages of HCB, indicating that Dehalococcoidaceae may be the main HCB-dechlorinating bacteria in the studied paddy soil. The results indicated that low application levels of biochar did not affect the dechlorination of HCB in the paddy soil, while high application levels of biochar mainly inhibited the dechlorination of HCB due to the reduced bioavailability of HCB and the reduced abundances of certain dechlorinating bacteria in the biochar-amended paddy soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of composting organic fertilizer supplies on hexachlorobenzene dechlorination in paddy soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui-Ying; Jiang, Xin

    2013-04-01

    A rice pot experiment was conducted in two soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). Three treatments including control and additions of 1% or 2% composting organic fertilizer were designed for each soil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the reductive dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as affected by organic fertilizer supplies in planted paddy soils, and to analyze the relationship between methane production and HCB dechlorination. The results showed that the HCB residues were decreased by 28.6%-30.1% of the initial amounts in Ac, and 47.3% -61.0% in An after 18 weeks of experiment. The amount of HCB and its metabolite uptake by rice plants was only a few thousandths of the initial HCB amount in soils. The main product of HCB dechlorination was pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The rates of HCB dechlorination in An were higher than those in Ac, which was mainly attributed to the higher pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of An. The applications of both 1% and 2% composting organic fertilizer showed significant inhibition on PeCB production after the 6th and 10th week in Ac and An, respectively. In both tested soils, no significant difference of PeCB production rates was observed between the applications of 1% and 2% composting organic fertilizer. The role of methanogenic bacteria in HCB dechlorination was condition-dependent.

  17. Temporal change in the distribution patterns of hexachlorobenzene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane among various soil organic matter fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingjing; Wen Bei; Shan Xiaoquan; Zhang Shuzhen; Khan, Shahamat U.

    2007-01-01

    Residence time-dependent distribution patterns of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) among different soil organic matter fractions of three Chinese soils were investigated. Soil organic matter (SOM) was fractionated into fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA), bound-humic acid (BHA), lipid, and insoluble residue (IR) fractions using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) method. Results revealed that as the residence time prolonged, the amounts of HCB and DDT in the FA, HA and BHA fractions decreased, while those in the lipid and IR fractions increased. One- and two-compartment first order, and one- and two-parameter pore-diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the mobility of HCB and DDT from the FA, HA and BHA fractions. The results suggest that excellent agreements were achieved between the experimental data and fits to the two-compartment first order kinetic model (R 2 > 0.97). The transfer rates of HCB and DDT followed the order FA > HA > BHA. - HCB and DDT tend to transfer from FA, HA and BHA fractions to lipid and IR fractions with increasing residence time

  18. Biomagnification of hexachlorobenzene: influence of uptake routes in a laboratory test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeler, P.; Meller, M.; Roembke, J.; Spoerlein, P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate such a potential biomagnification, a laboratory test was developed. It consisted of a two-step food chain including the sediment dwelling freshwater oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Mueller) and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, Linne), a small teleost fish which often feeds primarily on benthic invertebrates. Artificial sediment and reconstituted water were used. To examine the influence of benthic prey on the bioaccumulation of a POP in the predator, fish were exposed to 14 C-labelled hexachlorobenzene via spiked water, spiked sediment, pre-contaminated prey organisms, and to combinations of these exposure routes. Summarising the results of these experiments, it could be shown that the exposure to HCB via different routes resulted in a significantly higher accumulation in fish than an exposure to single pathways. It was concluded that the major uptake routes for fish were the overlying water and the food, whereas the contribution of spiked sediment itself was relatively small. HCB was biomagnified in the tested laboratory food chain. Therefore, concerning secondary poisoning, the environmental risk assessment of POPs like HCB should not be based on existing bioaccumulation tests alone, since they focus only on exposure via the water pathway. Instead, the influence of food and sediment as exposure routes should be considered as well, using comprehensive food chain modelling and/or laboratory studies. (orig.) [de

  19. Systematic analysis and the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and hexachlorobenzene in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K.; Ogawa, M.; Takekuma, M.; Ohmura, A. [Dioxin Reasearch Group, Saitama Institute of Public Health, Saitama (Japan); Kawaguchi, M.; Ito, R.; Nakazawa, H. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Matsuki, Y. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Food Hygiene

    2004-09-15

    The hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a type of organochlorine pesticide (OCP), was used as a fungicide for seed, and as a wood preservative. Also, HCB exists in the by-products found in the manufacturing process of chlorinated organic chemicals, and is generated by garbage incineration. The HCB is a so-called, unintended toxic pollutant as well as dioxins, and HCB is then specified for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). According to a recent study, it was pointed out that HCB binds to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor, resulting in dioxin-like effects and bioaccumulates. Therefore, the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human body, especially in human milk, should be examined, because HCB is universally detected in human milk. Until now, many studies regarding the dioxins or OCPs polluted in human milk have been reported. However, there are only a few reports that analyze both dioxins and HCB in the same sample, because repeated sampling and large amounts of samples of human milk were generally difficult to acquire. Moreover, few studies are available for the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human milk. The aim of the present study was to develop the systematic analysis method of dioxins and HCB, and to obtain additional information about the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human milk. The correlation between the HCB residue level and each dioxin isomer in the human milk was also considered.

  20. Hexachlorobenzene stimulates uroporphyria in low affinity AHR mice without increasing CYP1A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, Nadia; Trask, Heidi S.; Robinson, Susan W.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Smith, Andrew G.; Sinclair, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), causes hepatic uroporphyrin (URO) accumulation (uroporphyria) in humans and animals. CYP1A2 has been shown to be necessary in the development of uroporphyria in mice. Using mice expressing the low affinity form of the AH receptor (AHRd), we investigated whether the enhancement of uroporphyria by HCB involves an obligatory increase in CYP1A2 as measured by specific enzyme assays and immunoblotting. We compared the ability of HCB, in combination with iron dextran and the porphyrin precursor, 5-aminolevulinate (ALA), to cause uroporphyria in a strain of mice (C57BL/6) which expresses the high affinity form of the receptor (AHRb 1 ), with three strains of mice (SWR and two 129 sublines) expressing the low affinity AHRd. In C57BL/6 mice, HCB-enhanced uroporphyria was associated with a doubling of CYP1A2. HCB treatment produced uroporphyria in iron-loaded mice expressing AHRd, even though there was little or no increase in CYP1A2. Cyp1a2(-/-) mice in a 129 background were completely resistant to HCB-induced uroporphyria, and female Hfe(-/-) 129 mice, in which the levels of hepatic CYP1A2 were half of those of the male levels, responded poorly. The effect of exogenous iron, administered in the form of iron dextran, on HCB enhancement of uroporphryia could be replicated utilizing the endogenous hepatic iron accumulated in 129 Hfe(-/-) mice. In conclusion, some minimal basal expression of CYP1A2 is essential for HCB-mediated enhancement of uroporphyria, but increases in CYP1A2 above that level are not essential

  1. How soil organic matter composition controls hexachlorobenzene-soil-interactions: adsorption isotherms and quantum chemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Leinweber, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soilsoilsoil+3 HWEsoil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HCB adsorption. To obtain a molecular level understanding, a test set has been developed on the basis of elemental analysis which comprises 32 representative soil constituents. The calculated binding energy for HCB with each representative system shows that HCB binds to SOM stronger than to soil minerals. For SOM, HCB binds to alkylated aromatic, phenols, lignin monomers, and hydrophobic aliphatic compounds stronger than to polar aliphatic compounds confirming the above adsorption isotherms. Moreover, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of the binding energy with independent physical properties of the test set systems for the first time indicated that the polarizability, the partial charge on the carbon atoms, and the molar volume are the most important properties controlling HCB-SOM interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Syntaxonomy of vegetation of Kalush hexachlorobenzene toxic waste landfill (Ivano-Frankivsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of a landfill of hexachlorobenzene toxic waste was studied. It is situated in the neighborhood of Kalush (Ivano-Frankivsk region and has an area of 4.5 ha. As a result of damage to the containers, hazardous waste has contaminated the air, soil and aquifers at the test site and adjacent areas. During the period 2010–2012 measures were taken to recover and remove the mixture of toxic waste and contaminated soil from the landfill. In its place, unpolluted soil was brought to the landfill. Work was carried out to recultivate the territory. Nowadays natural succession of vegetation cover is observed. There is closed herbaceous cover in the western part of the landfill. The total projective herbaceous cover in the central and eastern parts varies from 10% to 60%. Vegetation composition of the landfill contains eight syntaxa of association rank that belong to seven alliances, six orders and five classes. Communities of the Phragmito-Magnocaricetea and Bolboschoenetea maritimi classes (ass. Typhetum laxmanii grow in areas with excessive humidification. The central and eastern parts of the waste landfill are primarily occupied by halophytic communities of the Puccinellio distanti-Tripolietum vulgare association of the Asteretea tripolium class. Ruderal communities belong to three associations of the Artemisietea vulgaris class. These communities mainly occur in the periphery zone of Kalush landfill. Areas with a moderate moisture regime are occupied by ruderal communities of the Calamagrostietum epigeios association of the Agropyretea repentis class. The total number of vascular herbaceous plant species at the landfill is 119. The dominating groups are meadow, synanthropic and wetland species. The differentiation of vegetation cover is caused by heterogeneity of edaphic and hydrological conditions, also by different activity of succession processes.

  3. Action of hexachlorobenzene on tumor growth and metastasis in different experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontillo, Carolina Andrea; Rojas, Paola; Chiappini, Florencia; Sequeira, Gonzalo; Cocca, Claudia; Crocci, Máximo; Colombo, Lucas; Lanari, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread organochlorine pesticide, considered a possible human carcinogen. It is a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We have found that HCB activates c-Src/HER1/STAT5b and HER1/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and cell migration, in an AhR-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of HCB (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5 μM) on cell invasion and metalloproteases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, we examined in vivo the effect of HCB (0.3, 3, 30 mg/kg b.w.) on tumor growth, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and metastasis using MDA-MB-231 xenografts and two syngeneic mouse breast cancer models (spontaneous metastasis using C4-HI and lung experimental metastasis using LM3). Our results show that HCB (5 μM) enhances MMP2 expression, as well as cell invasion, through AhR, c-Src/HER1 pathway and MMPs. Moreover, HCB increases MMP9 expression, secretion and activity through a HER1 and AhR-dependent mechanism, in MDA-MB-231 cells. HCB (0.3 and 3 mg/kg b.w.) enhances subcutaneous tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and C4-HI in vivo models. In vivo, using MDA-MB-231 model, the pesticide (0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg b.w.) activated c-Src, HER1, STAT5b, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and increased MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels. Furthermore, we observed that HCB stimulated lung metastasis regardless the tumor hormone-receptor status. Our findings suggest that HCB may be a risk factor for human breast cancer progression. - Highlights: ► HCB enhances MMP2 and MMP9 expression and cell invasion in MDA-MB-231, in vitro. ► HCB-effects are mediated through AhR, HER1 and/or c-Src. ► HCB increases subcutaneous tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and C4-HI in vivo models. ► HCB activates c-Src/HER1 pathway and increases MMPs levels in MDA-MB-231 tumors. ► HCB stimulates lung metastasis in C4-HI and LM3 in vivo models

  4. Action of hexachlorobenzene on tumor growth and metastasis in different experimental models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontillo, Carolina Andrea, E-mail: caroponti@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Efectos Biológicos de Contaminantes Ambientales, Departamento de Bioquímica Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rojas, Paola, E-mail: parojas2010@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Carcinogénesis Hormonal, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME-CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chiappini, Florencia, E-mail: florenciachiappini@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Efectos Biológicos de Contaminantes Ambientales, Departamento de Bioquímica Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sequeira, Gonzalo, E-mail: chicon27_7@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Carcinogénesis Hormonal, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME-CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cocca, Claudia, E-mail: cm_cocca@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Radioisótopos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Crocci, Máximo, E-mail: info@crescenti.com.ar [Instituto de Inmunooncología Crescenti, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colombo, Lucas, E-mail: lucascol2003@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Oncología Angel Roffo, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires,Argentina (Argentina); Lanari, Claudia, E-mail: lanari.claudia@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Carcinogénesis Hormonal, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME-CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2013-05-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread organochlorine pesticide, considered a possible human carcinogen. It is a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We have found that HCB activates c-Src/HER1/STAT5b and HER1/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and cell migration, in an AhR-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of HCB (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5 μM) on cell invasion and metalloproteases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, we examined in vivo the effect of HCB (0.3, 3, 30 mg/kg b.w.) on tumor growth, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and metastasis using MDA-MB-231 xenografts and two syngeneic mouse breast cancer models (spontaneous metastasis using C4-HI and lung experimental metastasis using LM3). Our results show that HCB (5 μM) enhances MMP2 expression, as well as cell invasion, through AhR, c-Src/HER1 pathway and MMPs. Moreover, HCB increases MMP9 expression, secretion and activity through a HER1 and AhR-dependent mechanism, in MDA-MB-231 cells. HCB (0.3 and 3 mg/kg b.w.) enhances subcutaneous tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and C4-HI in vivo models. In vivo, using MDA-MB-231 model, the pesticide (0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg b.w.) activated c-Src, HER1, STAT5b, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and increased MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels. Furthermore, we observed that HCB stimulated lung metastasis regardless the tumor hormone-receptor status. Our findings suggest that HCB may be a risk factor for human breast cancer progression. - Highlights: ► HCB enhances MMP2 and MMP9 expression and cell invasion in MDA-MB-231, in vitro. ► HCB-effects are mediated through AhR, HER1 and/or c-Src. ► HCB increases subcutaneous tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and C4-HI in vivo models. ► HCB activates c-Src/HER1 pathway and increases MMPs levels in MDA-MB-231 tumors. ► HCB stimulates lung metastasis in C4-HI and LM3 in vivo models.

  5. Association of hexachlorobenzene in the serum and adipose tissue with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mosallanejad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic disease type 2 diabetes is increasing. Numerous studies have to take into consideration in addition to the factors such as low mobility, nutrition and inheritance, environmental factors such as hexachlorobenzene in creation of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it was tried in this study to obtain an exact result regarding the association of hexachlorobenzene with type 2 diabetes by doing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the cross-sectional and prospective studies which were received till 2 March 2016. After searching in the databases SID, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid, Embase, ISI and Cochrane, 10 studies with 19 subgroups were considered in final assessment. Geometric mean concentration of Hexachlorobenzene was 12.7 ng/ml and 64.77 ng/g lipids in serum and adipose tissues, respectively. The heterogeneity index of I2 :25.95% (I2<50% and t2 :0.075 were low and hence fixed model was used for meta-analysis of studies' results. The Pearson correlation coefficient between concentrations of hexachlorobenzene in serum and adipose tissue with the odds ratio of type 2 diabetes were R2 :0.27, P value=0.57 and R2 :0.25, P value=0.18, respectively. The highest and lowest odds ratios of type 2 diabetes was [OR:6.2 (0.6-68.1] and [OR:0.99 (0.3-2.6], respectively. Overall, the odds ratio for type 2 diabetes induced to hexachlorobenzene was OR:2.33 (1.82-2.74 P value<0.001. Results of this study supported the role of hexachlorobenzene significantly as an environmental risk factor in type 2 diabetes (P<0.001.

  6. Body burden of hexachlorobenzene in suckling rats and its effects on various organs and on liver porphyrin accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, C E; Grant, D L; Shields, J B

    1975-01-01

    The hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyrin accumulation in the organs of 18-day-old Wistar rats, whose mothers were fed a diet containing 80 ppM HCB, were studied. Among the organs examined, the highest HCB residue was in the liver greater than kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than brain greater than spleen greater than heart. The porphyrin level in the liver of the HCB-treated group was approximately 2.5 fold greater than that in the control liver. About equal porphyrin concentrations were found in the male and female pups. The analysis of variance indicated the liver weight was significantly increased by the HCB-treatment. On the contrary, the weights of the kidney, brain, spleen, and heart were significantly reduced. Sex did not influence the organ weight except that of the brain. The results suggested that accumulation of HCB in different organs and porphyrin in the liver of suckling Wistar rats was about equal for the males and females.

  7. Thermal degradation of hexachlorobenzene in the presence of calcium oxide at 340-400 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Keqing; Gao, Xingbao; Sun, Yifei; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the milligram range was co-heated with calcium oxide (CaO) powder in sealed glass ampoules at 340-400 °C. The heated samples were characterized and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and thermal/optical carbon analysis. The degradation products of HCB were studied at different temperatures and heated times. The amorphous carbon was firstly quantitatively evaluated and was thought to be important fate of the C element of HCB. The yield of amorphous carbon in products increased with heating time, for samples treated for 8h at 340, 380 °C and 400 °C, the value were 17.5%, 34.8% and 50.2%, respectively. After identification of the dechlorination products, the HCB degradation on CaO at 340-400 °C was supposed to through dechlorination/polymerization pathway, which is induced by electron transfer, generate chloride ions and form high-molecular weight intermediates with significant levels of both hydrogen and chlorine, and finally form amorphous carbon. Higher temperature was beneficial for the dechlorination/polymerization efficiency. The results are helpful for clarifying the reaction mechanism for thermal degradation of chlorinated aromatics in alkaline matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexachlorobenzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various foodstuffs before and after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Castell, Victoria; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2009-04-01

    The cooking-induced changes in the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various foodstuffs were investigated. Foods included fish (sardine, hake and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, boiled) samples were analyzed. There were some variations in the concentrations of PBDEs before and after cooking. However, they depended not only on the cooking process, but mainly on the specific food item. The highest HCB concentrations were found in sardine, being lower in cooked samples. All cooking processes enhanced HCB levels in hake, while very scarce differences could be noted in tuna (raw and cooked). In general terms, the highest PAH concentrations were found after frying by being the values especially notable in fish, excepting hake, where the highest total PAH levels corresponded to roasted samples. The results of this study show that, in general, cooking processes are only of a limited value as a means of reducing PBDE, HCB and PAH concentrations in food.

  9. Synergetic effect of alkaline earth metal oxides and iron oxides on the degradation of hexachlorobenzene and its degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guijin; Liu, Yexuan; Huang, Linyan; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Aiqian; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Wenbin; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was carried out over physical mixtures of a series of alkaline earth metal oxides (MO: M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and iron oxides with different crystal types (Fe(x)O(y):Fe(2)O(3) or Fe(3)O(4)) at 300°C. These physical mixtures all showed a synergetic effect toward the degradation of HCB. A range of degradation products were identified by various methods, including tri- to penta-chlorobenzenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), tri- to penta-chlorophenols, tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) and tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) by GC-MS after derivatization, and formic and acetic acids by ion chromatography. Two degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination and oxidative degradation, appear to occur competitively. However, more sequential chlorinated benzene and phenol congeners were formed over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4) than over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) under the same conditions. The oxidative reaction dominated over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) and was promoted as the major reaction by the synergetic effect, while both the oxidative and hydrodechlorination reactions were important over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4), and both pathways are remarkably promoted by the synergetic effect. The enhanced hydrodechlorination may be attributed to free electrons generated by the transformation of Fe(3)O(4) into Fe(2)O(3), and hydrogen provided by water adsorbed on the MO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dechlorination of Hexachlorobenzene in Contaminated Soils Using a Nanometallic Al/CaO Dispersion Mixture: Optimization through Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhui; Shang, Yixuan; Yu, Shuyao; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contamination of soils remains a significant environmental challenge all over the world. Reductive stabilization is a developing technology that can decompose the HCB with a dechlorination process. A nanometallic Al/CaO (n-Al/CaO) dispersion mixture was developed utilizing ball-milling technology in this study. The dechlorination efficiency of HCB in contaminated soils by the n-Al/CaO grinding treatment was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of three variables (soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage and grinding time) and the interactions between these variables under the Box-Behnken Design (BBD). A high regression coefficient value (R2 = 0.9807) and low p value (soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage, and grinding time were found to be 7% (m/m), 17.7% (m/m), and 24 h, respectively, in the experimental ranges and levels. Under optimal conditions, the dechlorination efficiency was 80%. The intermediate product analysis indicated that dechlorination was the process by stepwise loss of chloride atoms. The main pathway observed within 24 h was HCB → pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) → 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) and 1,2,4,5-TeCB. The results indicated that the moderate soil moisture content was crucial for the hydrodechlorination of HCB. A probable mechanism was proposed wherein water acted like a hydrogen donor and promoted the hydrodechlorination process. The potential application of n-Al/CaO is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective option for decontamination of HCB-contaminated soils. PMID:29702570

  11. Dechlorination of Hexachlorobenzene in Contaminated Soils Using a Nanometallic Al/CaO Dispersion Mixture: Optimization through Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexachlorobenzene (HCB contamination of soils remains a significant environmental challenge all over the world. Reductive stabilization is a developing technology that can decompose the HCB with a dechlorination process. A nanometallic Al/CaO (n-Al/CaO dispersion mixture was developed utilizing ball-milling technology in this study. The dechlorination efficiency of HCB in contaminated soils by the n-Al/CaO grinding treatment was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to investigate the effects of three variables (soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage and grinding time and the interactions between these variables under the Box-Behnken Design (BBD. A high regression coefficient value (R2 = 0.9807 and low p value (<0.0001 of the quadratic model indicated that the model was accurate in predicting the experimental results. The optimal soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage, and grinding time were found to be 7% (m/m, 17.7% (m/m, and 24 h, respectively, in the experimental ranges and levels. Under optimal conditions, the dechlorination efficiency was 80%. The intermediate product analysis indicated that dechlorination was the process by stepwise loss of chloride atoms. The main pathway observed within 24 h was HCB → pentachlorobenzene (PeCB → 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB and 1,2,4,5-TeCB. The results indicated that the moderate soil moisture content was crucial for the hydrodechlorination of HCB. A probable mechanism was proposed wherein water acted like a hydrogen donor and promoted the hydrodechlorination process. The potential application of n-Al/CaO is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective option for decontamination of HCB-contaminated soils.

  12. Hexachlorobenzene dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer and urea applications in two rice planted paddy soils in a pot experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.Y.; Jiang, X.; Yang, X.L.; Song, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Reductive dechlorination is a crucial pathway for HCB degradation, the applications of organic materials and nitrogen can alter microbial activity and redox potential of soils, thus probably influence HCB dechlorination. To evaluate hexachlorobenzene (HCB) dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer (OF) and urea applications in planted paddy soils, a pot experiment was conducted in two types of soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). After 18 weeks of experiment, HCB residues decreased by 28.2-37.5% of the initial amounts in Ac, and 42.1-70.9% in An. The amounts of HCB metabolites showed that dechlorination rates in An were higher than in Ac, which was mainly attributed to the higher pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of An. Both in Ac and An, the additions of 1% and 2% OF had negative effect on HCB dechlorination, which was probably because excessive nitrogen in OF decreased degraders' activity and the degradation of organic carbon in OF accepted electrons. The application of 0.03% urea could enhance HCB dechlorination rates slightly, while 0.06% urea accelerated HCB dechlorination significantly both in Ac and An. It could be assumed that urea served as an electron donor and stimulated degraders to dechlorinate HCB. In addition, the methanogenic bacteria were involved in dechlorination process, and reductive dechlorination in planted paddy soil might be impeded for the aerenchyma and O 2 supply into the rhizosphere. Results indicated that soil types, rice root system, methanogenic bacteria, OF and urea applications all had great effects on dechlorination process.

  13. An assessment of different extraction and quantification methods of penta- and hexa-chlorobenzene from SRF fly-ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris E. Balampanis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly chlorinated benzenes, produced in the presence of organic matter and chlorine, are considered PCDD/Fs precursors, and are used as cost and time convenient substitute indicators for the indirect measurement of the latter. In this study penta- and hexa-chlorobenzene are quantified for the determination of the organochloride load of fly ash from solid recovered fuel incineration. Some of the chlorobenzenes are formed under ‘de novo’ conditions, through heterogeneous (ash particles/flue gases reactions and are therefore deeply incorporated within fly ash. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE, along with the equivalent clean-up methods suggested by literature were compared to traditional Soxhlet. The extraction efficiencies achieved were 83 ± 7.5% for Soxhlet, 111 ± 19% for PFE, and 67 ± 17% for ultrasonication. Soxhlet extraction and clean-up through a multilayer silica gel column gave more precise results compared to the other sample preparation methods. Furthermore, performance comparison of gas chromatography fitted with either a mass spectrometer operated in single ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM, or electron capture detector (GC- ECD highlighted that ECD can be used for measuring chlorobenzenes traces down to 0.21 ng g−1, when the equivalent LOQ for MS-SIM was 3.26 ng g−1. The results further suggest that ECD can provide better peak integration than MS-SIM in the detection of chlorobenzenes in fly ash extracts, due to the detector's sensitivity to halogenated compounds.

  14. The environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene causes eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation and in vitro airways hyperreactivity in the Brown Norway rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michielsen, C.; Zeamari, S.; Vos, J.; Leusink-Muis, A.; Bloksma, N.

    2002-01-01

    Based on observations that the persistent environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene (HCB) induces inflammatory skin lesions and eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology as well as in vivo airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat (Michielsen et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 172:11-20, 2001), which are features of human Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), we have investigated whether HCB induced other features of CSS such as asthma and systemic vasculitis involving the heart and kidneys in this strain of rat. To this end, BN/SsNOlaHsd rats received control feed or feed supplemented with 450 mg/kg HCB. On days 6, 14 or 21, tracheas were isolated to assess non-specific in vitro airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to cumulative concentrations of arecoline and serotonin. In addition, lungs were lavaged to count and differentiate lavage cells, and skin, lungs, heart, kidneys, and lymph nodes were processed for histopathological investigation. HCB induced eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat, which became more severe with time and was associated with significant in vitro AHR to arecoline. Moreover, as in CSS-patients, systemic effects on spleen and lymph nodes were observed in HCB-fed BN/SsNOlaHsd rats, as well as development of skin lesions with vascular changes and eosinophilic infiltrates. In contrast, cardiac or renal involvement, frequently seen in CSS-patients, was not seen in HCB-fed rats. More importantly, there were no indications of necrotizing vasculitis, a hallmark feature of CSS, in the lungs and skin of BN/SsNOlaHsd rats. Thus, it is concluded that the persistent environmental pollutant HCB possibly induces a mild or early stage of CSS in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat that may evolve into fully developed CSS after prolonged exposure to HCB. (orig.)

  15. The environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene causes eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation and in vitro airways hyperreactivity in the Brown Norway rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michielsen, C; Zeamari, S; Vos, J [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Leusink-Muis, A; Bloksma, N [Department of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences and Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-05-01

    Based on observations that the persistent environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene (HCB) induces inflammatory skin lesions and eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology as well as in vivo airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat (Michielsen et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 172:11-20, 2001), which are features of human Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), we have investigated whether HCB induced other features of CSS such as asthma and systemic vasculitis involving the heart and kidneys in this strain of rat. To this end, BN/SsNOlaHsd rats received control feed or feed supplemented with 450 mg/kg HCB. On days 6, 14 or 21, tracheas were isolated to assess non-specific in vitro airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to cumulative concentrations of arecoline and serotonin. In addition, lungs were lavaged to count and differentiate lavage cells, and skin, lungs, heart, kidneys, and lymph nodes were processed for histopathological investigation. HCB induced eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat, which became more severe with time and was associated with significant in vitro AHR to arecoline. Moreover, as in CSS-patients, systemic effects on spleen and lymph nodes were observed in HCB-fed BN/SsNOlaHsd rats, as well as development of skin lesions with vascular changes and eosinophilic infiltrates. In contrast, cardiac or renal involvement, frequently seen in CSS-patients, was not seen in HCB-fed rats. More importantly, there were no indications of necrotizing vasculitis, a hallmark feature of CSS, in the lungs and skin of BN/SsNOlaHsd rats. Thus, it is concluded that the persistent environmental pollutant HCB possibly induces a mild or early stage of CSS in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat that may evolve into fully developed CSS after prolonged exposure to HCB. (orig.)

  16. Determination of hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in waste incineration fly ash using ultrasonic extraction followed by column cleanup and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Tao; He, Zhiqiao; Huang, Xinwen; Chen, Jianmeng; Song, Shuang

    2018-03-01

    Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was listed as a new controlling persistent organic pollutant in the Stockholm Convention because of its wide industrial applications and potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. However, only limited information exists on the release of HCBD from unintentional sources, such as waste incineration. Identification and quantification of HCBD in fly ash, one of the major outputs of waste incineration, is imperative. This work presents a simple method for determining HCBD in waste incineration fly ash based on ultrasonic extraction coupled with a silica gel-Florisil column cleanup followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Two typical persistent organic pollutants, pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured simultaneously. The parameters that influence the extraction efficiency and the quality of instrument detection were studied. Under the optimum experimental conditions, high sensitivity (detection limit 0.25-0.53 ng g -1 ), acceptable recoveries (64.0-71.4%) at spiking levels of 5-500 ng g -1 , and good repeatability [relative standard deviation (n = 3) of 14% or less] were achieved for all target analytes. The validation of this method was performed by analysis of six real fly ash samples from different waste incinerators in eastern China. The concentrations of HCBD detected in these samples (1.39-97.6 ng g -1 ) were comparable to those of PeCB (1.22-150 ng g -1 ) and HCB (0.82-120 ng g -1 ), indicating that the residual HCBD as well as PeCB and HCB in waste incineration fly ash should not be ignored. The results confirm for the first time that waste incineration is an unintentional source of HCBD in China. Graphical abstract An analytical method for hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in fly ash from waste incineration. GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Ph-d10 phenanthrene-d 10 .

  17. Novel Biochar-Plant Tandem Approach for Remediating Hexachlorobenzene Contaminated Soils: Proof-of-Concept and New Insight into the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Bian, Yongrong; Boughner, Lisa A; Jiang, Xin

    2016-07-13

    Volatilization of semi/volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soils is a major source of global POPs emission. This proof-of-concept study investigated a novel biochar-plant tandem approach to effectively immobilize and then degrade POPs in soils using hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a model POP and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as a model plant growing in soils amended with wheat straw biochar. HCB dissipation was significantly enhanced in the rhizosphere and near rhizosphere soils, with the greatest dissipation in the 2 mm near rhizosphere. This enhanced HCB dissipation likely resulted from (i) increased bioavailability of immobilized HCB and (ii) enhanced microbial activities, both of which were induced by ryegrass root exudates. As a major component of ryegrass root exudates, oxalic acid suppressed HCB sorption to biochar and stimulated HCB desorption from biochar and biochar-amended soils, thus increasing the bioavailability of HCB. High-throughput sequencing results revealed that the 2 mm near rhizosphere soil showed the lowest bacterial diversity due to the increased abundance of some genera (e.g., Azohydromonas, Pseudomonas, Fluviicola, and Sporocytophaga). These bacteria were likely responsible for the enhanced degradation of HCB as their abundance was exponentially correlated with HCB dissipation. The results from this study suggest that the biochar-plant tandem approach could be an effective strategy for remediating soils contaminated with semi/volatile organic contaminants.

  18. Micrometeorological measurement of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyl compound air-water gas exchange in Lake Superior and comparison to model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Air-water exchange fluxes of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT substances are frequently estimated using the Whitman two-film (W2F method, but micrometeorological flux measurements of these compounds over water are rarely attempted. We measured air-water exchange fluxes of hexachlorobenzene (HCB and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on 14 July 2006 in Lake Superior using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method. Measured fluxes were compared to estimates using the W2F method, and to estimates from an Internal Boundary Layer Transport and Exchange (IBLTE model that implements the NOAA COARE bulk flux algorithm and gas transfer model. We reveal an inaccuracy in the estimate of water vapor transfer velocity that is commonly used with the W2F method for PBT flux estimation, and demonstrate the effect of use of an improved estimation method. Flux measurements were conducted at three stations with increasing fetch in offshore flow (15, 30, and 60 km in southeastern Lake Superior. This sampling strategy enabled comparison of measured and predicted flux, as well as modification in near-surface atmospheric concentration with fetch, using the IBLTE model. Fluxes estimated using the W2F model were compared to fluxes measured by MBR. In five of seven cases in which the MBR flux was significantly greater than zero, concentration increased with fetch at 1-m height, which is qualitatively consistent with the measured volatilization flux. As far as we are aware, these are the first reported ship-based micrometeorological air-water exchange flux measurements of PCBs.

  19. Alterations in c-Src/HER1 and estrogen receptor α signaling pathways in mammary gland and tumors of hexachlorobenzene-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Delfina; Pontillo, Carolina; García, María Alejandra; Cocca, Claudia; Alvarez, Laura; Chiappini, Florencia; Bourguignon, Nadia; Frahm, Isabel; Bergoc, Rosa; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana; Randi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide that acts as an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. The development of breast cancer strongly depends on endocrine conditions modulated by environmental factors. We have demonstrated that HCB is a tumor co-carcinogen in rats and an inducer of proliferation in MCF-7 cells, in an estrogen receptor α (ERα)-dependent manner, and of migration in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. In the present study, we examined HCB effect on c-Src/human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1) and ERα signaling pathways in mammary glands and in N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumors in rats. Furthermore, we evaluated histopathological changes and serum hormone levels. Rats were separated into four groups: control, HCB (100 mg/kg b.w.), NMU (50 mg/kg b.w.) and NMU-HCB. Our data show that HCB increases c-Src and HER1 activation, c-Src/HER1 association, and Y699-STAT5b and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in mammary glands. HCB also enhances Y537-ERα phosphorylation and ERα/c-Src physical interaction. In tumors, HCB also induces c-Src and HER1 activation, c-Src/HER1 association, as well as T308-Akt and Y699-STAT5b phosphorylation. In addition, the pesticide increases ERα protein content and decreases p-Y537-ERα levels and ERα/c-Src association in tumors. HCB increases serum 17-beta estradiol and prolactin contents and decreases progesterone, FSH and LH levels in rats without tumors, while the opposite effect was observed in rats with tumors. Taken together, our results indicate that HCB induces an estrogenic effect in mammary gland, increasing c-Src/HER1 and ERα signaling pathways. HCB stimulates c-Src/HER1 pathway, but decreases ERα activity in tumors, appearing to shift them towards a higher malignancy phenotype.

  20. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Partitioning of hexachlorobenzene in a kaolin/humic acid/surfactant/water system: Combined effect of surfactant and soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Wang, Lingling [Environmental Science Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Xiaohua, E-mail: hust-esri2009@hotmail.com [Environmental Science Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study HCB partitioning in a kaolin/humic acid/TX100/water system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reveal influence of TX100-HA interaction on TX100 and HA sorption to kaolin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We verify combined effect of TX100 and HA on HCB desorption from clay. - Abstract: Understanding the combined effect of soil organic matter (SOM) and surfactants on the partitioning of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil/water systems is important to predict the effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER). In the present study we investigate the partitioning of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) within a humic acid (HA)-coated kaolin/Triton X-100 (TX100)/water system, with special emphasis on the interaction between TX100 and HA, and their combined effect on HCB sorption. HA firstly enhanced then suppressed TX100 sorption to kaolin as the amounts of HA increased, while the addition of TX100 led to a consistent reduction in HA sorption. In the HA-coated kaolin/TX100/water system, TX100 played a primary role in enhancing desorption of HCB, while the role could be suppressed and then enhanced as HA coating amounts increased. Only at HA coating above 2.4%, dissolved HA outcompeted clay-bound HA for HCB partitioning, resulting in dissolved HA enhanced desorption. The presence of dissolved HA at these conditions further promoted the effectiveness of TX100 enhanced desorption. Despite a reduced TX100 sorption to clay was achieved due to the presence of dissolved HA, the effect on HCB desorption was comparatively slight. A reliable cumulative influence of HA and TX100 on HCB desorption was observed, although HCB desorption by HA/TX100 mixed was less than the sum of HA and TX100 individually. Our study suggests that for soils of high organic contents, the combined effect of SOM and surfactants on HOCs desorption can be applied to improve the performance of SER.

  2. Biomagnification of hexachlorobenzene: influence of uptake routes in a laboratory test; Aufnahmepfade von POPs in Biota. Biomagnifikation von Hexachlorobenzol im Labortest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeler, P.; Meller, M.; Roembke, J.; Spoerlein, P. [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim/Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In order to evaluate such a potential biomagnification, a laboratory test was developed. It consisted of a two-step food chain including the sediment dwelling freshwater oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Mueller) and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, Linne), a small teleost fish which often feeds primarily on benthic invertebrates. Artificial sediment and reconstituted water were used. To examine the influence of benthic prey on the bioaccumulation of a POP in the predator, fish were exposed to {sup 14}C-labelled hexachlorobenzene via spiked water, spiked sediment, pre-contaminated prey organisms, and to combinations of these exposure routes. Summarising the results of these experiments, it could be shown that the exposure to HCB via different routes resulted in a significantly higher accumulation in fish than an exposure to single pathways. It was concluded that the major uptake routes for fish were the overlying water and the food, whereas the contribution of spiked sediment itself was relatively small. HCB was biomagnified in the tested laboratory food chain. Therefore, concerning secondary poisoning, the environmental risk assessment of POPs like HCB should not be based on existing bioaccumulation tests alone, since they focus only on exposure via the water pathway. Instead, the influence of food and sediment as exposure routes should be considered as well, using comprehensive food chain modelling and/or laboratory studies. (orig.) [German] Zur standardisierten Bestimmung der Bioakkumulation und - magnifikation wurde eine einfache, zwei trophische Stufen umfassende Labornahrungskette etabliert. Diese bestand aus dem endobenthischen Oligochaeten Tubifex tubifex und dem Dreistachligen Stichling (Gasterosteus aculeatus) als Praedator. Die Experimente wurden mit {sup 14}C-markiertem Hexachlorbenzol in dotiertem kuenstlichem Sediment und rekonstituiertem Wasser durchgefuehrt. Um den Einfluss benthischer Beuteorganismen zu quantifizeren, wurden die

  3. Hexachlorobenzene modulates the crosstalk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and transforming growth factor-β1 signaling, enhancing human breast cancer cell migration and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miret, Noelia; Pontillo, Carolina; Ventura, Clara; Carozzo, Alejandro; Chiappini, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HCB enhances TGF-β1 expression and activation levels in breast cancer cells. • HCB activates TGF-β1 pathways: Smad3, JNK and p38. • The HCB- induced migration and invasion involves TGF-β1 signaling pathways. • HCB modulates AhR levels and activation. • HCB enhances TGF-β1 mRNA expression in an AhR-dependent manner. - Abstract: Given the number of women affected by breast cancer, considerable interest has been raised in understanding the relationships between environmental chemicals and disease onset. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a dioxin-like compound that is widely distributed in the environment and is a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We previously demonstrated that HCB acts as an endocrine disruptor capable of stimulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis in different breast cancer models. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) can contribute to tumor maintenance and progression. In this context, this work investigated the effect of HCB (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 μM) on TGF-β1 signaling and AhR/TGF-β1 crosstalk in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and analyzed whether TGF-β1 pathways are involved in HCB-induced cell migration and invasion. RT-qPCR results indicated that HCB reduces AhR mRNA expression through TGF-β1 signaling but enhances TGF-β1 mRNA levels involving AhR signaling. Western blot analysis demonstrated that HCB could increase TGF-β1 protein levels and activation, as well as Smad3, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, low and high doses of HCB were determined to exert differential effects on AhR protein levels, localization, and activation, with a high dose (5 μM) inducing AhR nuclear translocation and AhR-dependent CYP1A1 expression. These findings also revealed that c-Src and AhR are involved in HCB-mediated activation of Smad3. HCB enhances cell migration (scratch motility assay) and invasion (Transwell

  4. Efeito de alterações nas características do solo sobre a degradação de hexaclorobenzeno Effects of soil characteristics on hexachlorobenzene degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Emi Nakagawa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterações das características de solo contaminado com hexaclorobenzeno foram promovidas para estudo dos efeitos sobre a comunidade microbiana e sobre a degradação do composto. Essas alterações foram efetuadas pela adição de fontes de matéria orgânica, adição de cal ou alagamento das amostras de solo, em laboratório. Analisaram-se a atividade e a densidade microbiana, bem como a degradação total (mineralização e parcial (transformação em metabólitos do hexaclorobenzeno. A mineralização do hexaclorobenzeno foi analisada por meio da adição de uma solução de 14C-hexaclorobenzeno às amostras de solo, captura do 14CO2 e quantificação por Espectrometria de Cintilação em Líquido. A formação de metabólitos do hexaclorobenzeno nas amostras de solo foi estudada por meio da extração destas amostras e da análise dos extratos por Cromatografia Gasosa. A atividade microbiana foi analisada por meio da medida da respiração dos microrganismos e da densidade microbiana, pela contagem no número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC das amostras de solo. A atividade microbiana foi maior nas amostras com adição de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (máximo de 310 mg g-1 de CO2 no solo, assim como a densidade de bactérias (máximo de 152 x 10³ UFCs g-1 de solo e de fungos (máximo de 167 x 10³ UFCs g-1 de solo. A adição de vermicomposto, a adição de cal e o alagamento das amostras não influíram na atividade ou na densidade microbiana. Não se observou mineralização ou formação de metabólitos de hexaclorobenzeno. Portanto, a adição de matéria orgânica estimulou a comunidade microbiana, mas não resultou em degradação do hexaclorobenzeno.Artificial changes in the properties of a soil contaminated with hexachlorobenzene were promoted in order to study the effects on the microbial community and the degradation of this compound. The soil samples were flooded or enriched with organic material or lime under

  5. USA toetus Eestile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice kinnitas 3. mail 2007 telefonikõnes president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele USA toetust Eestile ning tõsist muret Venemaa käitumise üle oma naaberriigi suhtes. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 9. mai 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: USA riigisekretär Vabariigi Presidendile: Ühendriigid toetavad Eestit

  6. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  7. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  8. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  9. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  10. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  11. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  12. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  13. Recent developments: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a National Energy Stategy (NES) for the USA is discussed. On July 26, 1989 President Bush directed of the Secretary of Energy to submit to the President a NES based on the following guidelines: to develop a NES through the year 2030 that could be implemented as son as possible, rather than waiting until the next energy crisis; to formulate the program so that it will create public consensus; build upon market reliance, rather than coercion; and to take a can do approach, capitalizing on US scientific knowledge and common abuse

  14. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  15. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  16. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  17. Future USA development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, J.D.; Biancheria, A.; Leibnitz, D.; O'Reilly, B.D.; Liu, Y.Y.; Labar, M.P.; Gneiting, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    The planning for further development in the USA at this time is a mixture of expectation and guessing. Modeling development is certain to continue, but the target reactor is uncertain. The next plant may or may not use the FFTR driver fuel design. The planning, therefore, emphasizes fundamentals and flexibility. There are many options to be modeled. The FFTF driver fuel performance in FFTF must be evaluated; both the reference and improved designs. A decision to use the FFTR driver design in the large plant will demand predictions on the effects of axial blankets, constant power (rather than decreasing) throughout life, and power changes, behavior beyond breach and design basis transients in large plants. A decision favoring a lower doubling time oxide design adds the effects of higher strength/lower swelling alloys, increased pin diameter, reduced cladding thickness/diameter, increased smeared density, gap versus pellet density, and reduced pin pitch/diameter. A helium bonded carbide design adds concern about increased potential for fuel-cladding-assembly mechanical interactions. And blanket pin performance predictions, either in a homogeneous or a heterogeneous core, add an increasing power history and enhanced assembly interactions. It is possible that the decision will be to choose a first core and retain all options for later cores. The modeling objective, for whatever options are chosen, is to predict the effect of normal and off-normal design conditions on performance limits (i.e., fuel temperature, pin deformation, pin lifetime). Several significant uncertainties in the mechanisms associated with the performance limits remain and will be addressed. These include gap closure, gap conductance and fuel properties at higher burnup, fuel-fission product reactions, retained gas, breach mechanisms, assembly interactions and behavior beyond breach, plus establishing appropriate criteria. The LIFE system, with its elements of 1D and 2D fundamental modeling

  18. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  19. Nordkorea kan endelig ramme USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads.......Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads....

  20. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  1. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  2. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sourthern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H.; Kannan, K.; Jing, L.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT), HCHs (α-, β-, γ-isomers), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA, during 1992–96. The contamination pattern of organochlorines in sea otters from several locations was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > > CHLs > HCHs > > HCB, whereas those from Monterey Harbor contained greater concentrations of PCBs than of DDTs. Hepatic concentrations of PCBs and DDTs were in the ranges of 58–8700 and 280–5900 ng/g, wet weight, respectively, which varied depending on the geographic location. Sea otters collected from Monterey Harbor contained the greatest concentrations of PCBs and DDTs. In general, accumulation of DDTs, CHLs and PCBs was greater in kidney than in liver, whereas that of HCHs was similar in both the tissues. The gender difference in organochlorine concentrations was less than those reported in cetaceans. The composition of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs compounds in sea otter tissues indicated no recent inputs of these compounds in coastal California. Sea otters that died from infectious diseases, neoplasia and emaciation contained higher concentrations of DDTs than those that died from trauma.

  3. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 561-563 Experimental Particle Physics. Search for narrow-width t t ¯ resonances in p p ¯ collisons at ( s ) = 1.8 TeV · Supriya Jain DØ Collaboration at FNAL, ...

  4. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  5. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  6. USA asekaitseminister seisab Eesti eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eestis visiidil viibiv USA asekaitseminister poliitika alal Michele Flournoy ütles, et pooldab koostöökohtade otsimist Moskvaga, kuid on kindlal seisukohal, et Venemaa ei tohi end siin piirkonnas kehtestada. Flournoy tunnustas Eesti panust Afganistani ning samuti liitlassuhetesse laiemalt

  7. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  8. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  9. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  10. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  11. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  12. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  13. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  14. The energy situation in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analyses discusses the energy supplying security, the natural gas demand increase and its consequences, the climatic change in the long-dated, the long dated perspectives of the Usa energy policy, the law on the energy and the consequences for the nuclear activity, the financial incentives in favor of the construction of new nuclear power plants in the Usa and the good nuclear energy industry situation in the Usa. (A.L.B.)

  15. USA NCAP - a glance at harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.M.; Park, B.T.; Beuse, N.M.; Lowrie, J.C. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Swanson, J.L.; Rockwell, T.E. [ACE Systems Technologies, Inc. (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is separated roughly into four parts. First, the authors discuss the frontal tests of the USA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and then consider similarities and differences in the two different types of frontal tests worldwide. Second, the focus is placed on the side crash of the USA NCAP and comparisons are made between the results of the two different types of lateral tests worldwide. Third, the paper explains the Congressional requirements to establish a child safety rating system (in the USA) by model year 2003 and looks at the approach taken by NCAPs worldwide. Finally, the growth in requests for consumer information (in the USA) is measured. (orig.)

  16. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  17. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,089; TA-W-75,089A] Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 26, 2011, applicable to workers of StarTek USA, Inc...

  18. USA tankid jõudsid Tapale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Tapale saabus poolsada USA sõjamasinat, nende seas neli tanki Abrams M1A2 ja 15 jalaväe lahingumasinat Bradley. Tehnikat hakkab kasutama USA maaväe 4. jalaväediviisi 68. soomusrügemendi esimese pataljoni C-kompanii

  19. USA allveelaev uputas kalalaeva / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Hawaii lähistel õppustel kiiret pinnaletõusu harjutanud USA allveelaev USS Greeneville põrkas kokku Jaapani õppelaevaga Ehime Maru, õnnetuse tagajärjel hukkus tõenäoliselt 9 jaapanlast. Skeem: Õnnetused USA allveelaevadega

  20. Poola ootab USA maaväelasi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Poola kaitseministri Tomasz Siemoniaki sõnul saadab USA Poolasse maavägesid, et laeindada NATO kohalolekut ajal, mil pingeline olukord Ukrainas kestab, kirjutas Washington Post. Siemoniak ütles lehele, et sõjalised planeerijad juba töötavad vastava kava üksikasjade kallal. Ta lisas, et tõenäoliselt saadetakse USA sõdureid ka Baltimaadesse

  1. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  2. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  3. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  4. USA raport hoiatab tuumaterroristide eest / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tegutseva tuumaterrori vastase organisatsiooni Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) raport kinnitab maailma edusamme tuumamaterjali turvalisuses, kuid on ka palju ohuallikaid. Analüütikud kahtlevad Venemaa ja Pakistani armee usaldusväärsuses tuumamaterjali hoidmisel. Lisa: Tuumaterrori raport

  5. USA's litterære superstjerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?......Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?...

  6. Ideaalne torm USA majanduses / Ken Goldstein ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Ken

    2008-01-01

    USA majandusuuringute organisatsiooni The Conference Board analüütik USA majanduse olukorrast, mõjust maailmamajandusele, arenguvõimalustest ning uue presidendi vajalikest sammudest majanduses. Lisa: Enamuse arvates on USA valel teel

  7. Health status of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) collected along an organic contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Nilsen, Elena B.; Grove, Robert A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    The health of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) in the lower Columbia River (USA) was evaluated using morphometric and histopathological approaches, and its association with organic contaminants accumulated in liver was evaluated in males. Fish were sampled from three sites along a contaminant gradient In 2009, body length and mass, condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and hematocrit were measured in males and females; liver and gonad tissue were collected from males for histological analyses; and organ composites were analyzed for contaminant content in males. In 2010, additional data were collected for males and females, including external fish condition assessment, histopathologies of spleen, kidney and gill and, for males, liver contaminant content. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that biological traits in males, but not females, differed among sites in 2009 and 2010. Discriminant function analysis indicated that site-related differences among male populations were relatively small in 2009, but in 2010, when more variables were analyzed, males differed among sites in regards to kidney, spleen, and liver histopathologies and gill parasites. Kidney tubular hyperplasia, liver and spleen macrophage aggregations, and gill parasites were generally more severe in the downstream sites compared to the reference location. The contaminant content of male livers was also generally higher downstream, and the legacy pesticide hexachlorobenzene and flame retardants BDE-47 and BDE-154 were the primary drivers for site discrimination. However, bivariate correlations between biological variables and liver contaminants retained in the discriminant models failed to reveal associations between the two variable sets. In conclusion, whereas certain non-reproductive biological traits and liver contaminant contents of male Largescale Sucker differed according to an upstream-downstream gradient in the lower Columbia River, results from this study did not reveal

  8. Atomic power development in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggin, E.

    1976-01-01

    Many problems concerning the atomic power development in USA are investigated and discussed. (Introduction of fast breeder reactors is not considered in this paper). The first problem is the raising of capital for plant construction. The second problem is the supply of uranium. Estimated amount of yellow cake and its price are presented and compared with estimated demands. It is concluded that 3.5x10 6 tons of yellow coke is sufficient for generating 7x10 8 KW of electric power up to about 2000. The third problem is the enrichment service. Balance of supply and demand is discussed together with the projected extension of existing plants and the construction of new plants. The completion of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed as the fourth problem. According to the author's opinion, technological problems of reprocessing, storing, waste disposal, and the utilization of mixed oxide fuel are not difficult to solve. Definite judgement of NRC and ERDA is strongly required. The last problem discussed in this paper is the public acceptance. The movements of anti-nuclear groups and the opinion of general public are analyzed and the role of AIF in presenting paper informations is discussed. (Aoki, K.)

  9. Obchodní politika USA

    OpenAIRE

    Vaculíková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Práce se zabývá nástroji a cíli obchodní politiky USA - aktivitami, které liberalizují celosvětový obchod. V první části je popsáno postavení Spojených států amerických v mnohostranném obchodním systému a vývoj zahraničního obchodu v posledních letech. Druhá kapitola je zaměřena na autonomní a smluvní nástroje obchodní politiky ovlivňující import, export a domácí výrobu. O obchodních dohodách uzavřených na mnohostranné, regionální a dvoustranné úrovni pojednává třetí kapitola....

  10. Licensing reform in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The licensing process for nuclear power plants in the USA is currently in two distinct stages: the issuance of a construction permit followed later by the issuance of an operation license. The ''two-step'' process has come under heavy criticism from the U.S. nuclear industry on the grounds that it causes uncertainty and delays and therefore inhibits new commitments to nuclear power plants. In 1989 the NRC published new regulations for the licensing of nuclear power plants which provide for the issuance of early site permits, safety certifications of standard designs, and combined construction permits and operating licences. The new rule was challenged by intervenors representing antinuclear groups who filed a legal challenge seeking to have the rule set aside on the grounds that it violates the Atomic Energy Act which they allege makes two-step licensing mandatory. In November 1990 the US Court of Appeals upheld the NRC's authority to issue combined licenses. An appeal for a rehearing has been filed. The paper analyses the events and the possible consequences of an adverse court decision. It reviews the options open to the NRC and industry if the court decision is upheld. The possibility of congressional action to amend the Atomic Energy Act is discussed. (author)

  11. Endise USA vastuluuraja naasmine / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    USA poliitikateaduste professorist Christopher L. Kukest, kes käesoleval õppeaastal töötab Fulbright Scholar programmi stipendiaadina Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisa: CV. Kommenteerib Tartu Ülikooli riigiteaduste instituudi doktorant Mihkel Solvak

  12. Skandaal USAs : Obamat kujutati islamiterroristina / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    The New Yorkeri esiküljel ilmus karikatuur, kus USA demokraatide presidendikandidaati Barack Obamat ja tema abikaasat Michelle'i kujutati islamiterroristidena, karikaturisti väitel joonistas ta selle Obama laimajate naeruvääristamiseks

  13. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  14. LHV soovib USA-s kohtuvälist kokkulepet / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Kohtuväline kokkulepe LHV ja USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutuse SEC vahel tähendaks külmutatud väärtpaberikontode avamist, ent tõenäoliselt ka seda, et LHV peab maksma trahvi. Kohtuistungil USA-s esindavad LHV töötajaid Kristjan Lepikut ja Oliver Peeki advokaadid. Lisa: Teisedki on "sundpuhkusel"

  15. USA võtab hoogu maha / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2010-01-01

    Pärast riiklike soodustuste lõppu koduostjatele on USA-s vähenenud kinnisvara soetamine, jaemüüjate käive langes juunis võrreldes maiga 0,5%. USA keskpanga presidendi Ben Bernanke hinnangul on USA majandus ebatavaliselt ebamäärane

  16. Quo vadis, USA dollar? : finantsturgude viimastest arengutest / Robert Liljequist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liljequist, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Swedbank AB Soome strateegiajuht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA majandust alanud aastal, dollari n.-ö turvalise valuuta staatuse kaotamise ohtu, võlakirjade ostmise vähendamist ja selle mõju USA dollarile, Euroopa Keskpanga poliitika mõju euro ja USA dollari suhtele. Swebanki prognoos USA dollari kohta

  17. USA tahab Iraagilt täispuutumatust / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraagi läbirääkimised USA vägede staatuse üle venivad, USA soovib oma sõduritele täielikku immuniteeti. Iraak olevat nõus nende USA üksuste immuniteediga, kes on sõjalistes rajatistes või missioonil, milles on varem kokku lepitud

  18. Lahingustress ajab USA sõdurid jooma / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 15. märts 2007, lk. 10. USA kaitseministeeriumi siseuurimuse kohaselt kasvas alkoholi kuritarvitamine tegevteenistuses olevate USA sõjaväelaste seas aastatel 2002-2005 enam kui 30%. Alkoholi ja uimastite tarvitamisest Iraagis ja Afganistanis teenivate USA sõdurite hulgas. Vt. samas: USA relvajõududes puhkes uus homoskandaal

  19. USA suursaadik : hirmud on alistanud lootuse / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Eestist lahkuv USA suursaadik Joseph de Thomas andis USA iseseisvuspäeva kõnes hinnangu Eesti toetusele Iraagis ja USA Iraagi-poliitikale. Parlamendiliige Eiki Berg USA suursaadiku kõnest. Vt. ka: Suursaadiku sõnum lk. 10

  20. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  1. USA National Phenology Network observational data documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Marsh, R. Lee; Posthumus, Erin E.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-04-25

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to advance the science of phenology and facilitate ecosystem stewardship by providing phenological information freely and openly. To accomplish these goals, the USA-NPN National Coordinating Office (NCO) delivers observational data on plant and animal phenology in several formats, including minimally processed status and intensity datasets and derived phenometrics for individual plants, sites, and regions. This document describes the suite of observational data products delivered by the USA National Phenology Network, covering the period 2009–present for the United States and accessible via the Phenology Observation Portal (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F78S4N1V) and via an Application Programming Interface. The data described here have been used in diverse research and management applications, including over 30 publications in fields such as remote sensing, plant evolution, and resource management.

  2. Hvad SKER der med drikkevandet i USA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren Mark

    2017-01-01

    Forskellige lande har forskellige traditioner indenfor drikkevandsbehandling. Denne beretning fra ”Water Quality Technology Conference” i USA er set med en særlig vinkel, da forfatteren er amerikansk statsborger, men har arbejdet i den danske vandbranche i mere end 25 år.......Forskellige lande har forskellige traditioner indenfor drikkevandsbehandling. Denne beretning fra ”Water Quality Technology Conference” i USA er set med en særlig vinkel, da forfatteren er amerikansk statsborger, men har arbejdet i den danske vandbranche i mere end 25 år....

  3. "Riia ring, "luurepost ja tööjaotus USA esindustest Baltikumis 1920. aastatel / Eero Medijainen""

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Medijainen, Eero, 1959-

    2012-01-01

    Diplomaatilisest taustast. USA esinduste rajamisest Baltikumi. Olukorrast USA saatkonnas 1922. aastal. USA sõjalisest vaatlejast "Balti provintsides" 1919-1922. Luurekeskusest ja Sergius Riisist. "Vene sektsiooni" formaliseeerumisest.

  4. Professional Training of Economists in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitska, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the peculiarities of American professional undergraduate and graduate training in economics. The analysis of documents, scientific and educational literature demonstrates the diversity of the US training courses and combinations of disciplines in economics. It has been defined that leading position of the USA in the world…

  5. Cultural-Based Development in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubadji, A.; Osoba, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between culture and regional development in USA counties by explicitly including an arts variable in an attitudes-driven culture-based development (CBD) production function. The main aims of the research are (1) to revisit the standard CBD model in order to examine

  6. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Meningitis and Myelitis, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammoud, Roukaya; Nayes, Stacy L; Murphy, James R; Heresi, Gloria P; Butler, Ian J; Pérez, Norma

    2017-06-01

    Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.

  7. USA abandons K1 - or does it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The controversy over the USA's Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) policy to distribute potassium iodide to emergency workers and institutionalised individuals in the event of a nuclear reactor accident but not to recommend the predistribution or stockpiling of potassium iodide for the general public is discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA. The netCDF grid and ArcGIS ASCII file include multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM3002d, and...

  9. Babesia microti infection, eastern Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Marcela E Perez; Ender, Peter T; Smith, Erin M; Jahre, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

  10. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  11. Euroopa ja USA: liidus tulevikuks / Barack Obama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obama, Barack, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president kirjutab 19.-20. novembril Lissabonis toimuvast NATO tippkohtumisest, USA ja Euroopa vastastikusest vajalikkusest ning NATO-sisesest koostööst. Barack Obama leiab, et NATO ja Venemaa võiksid taaskäivitada oma suhted

  12. USA suursaadik : toetame Eestit / Stanley Davis Phillips ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Stanley Davis Phillips vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA positsiooni Tõnismäe pronkssõduri suhtes, Eesti saatkonna piiramist Moskvas, USA ja Venemaa suhteid ning koostööd, sõda terrorismiga, USA kava paigutada Tšehhi ja Poolasse raketitõrjebaasid, Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiiti USAsse. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips. Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. mai lk. 5

  13. Võidurelvastumise tagasitulek : USA kiiluvees Venemaa ja Hiina / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    USA eelarvekavas on ette nähtud kaitsekulutuste jätkuv suurenemine, suureneda võib ka relvajõudude isikkoosseis. Relvajõududele kulub USA-s ligi 4% SKT-st. Globaalselt liidetuna tõusid kõikide riikide kulutused relvajõududele 1990. aasta tasemele. Hiina ja Venemaa kaitsekulutustest. Lisad: Aasia riigid kasvatavad sõjalisi kulutusi; 25 riigil pole oma sõjaväge. Graafik: USA sõjalised kulutused

  14. Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billi de Catabbi, Silvia C.; Faletti, Alicia; Fuentes, Federico; San Martin de Viale, Leonor C.; Cochon, Adriana C.

    2005-01-01

    Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg -1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ω-OH/ω-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA 2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA 2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA 2 in the early increase of AA metabolism cannot be excluded. However, the existence of other pathway(s) for metabolizable AA generation different from cPLA 2 activation is also proposed

  15. USA-reis nõuab biomeetrilist passi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    USA-s pikendati viisavabastusprogrammi biomeetrilise passi tähtaega 2005. aasta 26. oktoobrini. USA Eesti-saatkonna töötaja Christopher Smithi sõnul ei kehti viisavabadusprogrammi raames reisimise puhul passid, mida ei saa masinaga lugeda

  16. USA tunnistab valge fosfori relvana kasutamist Iraagis / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Kui varem USA eitas valge fosfori kasutamist Iraagis Falluja linnas, siis nüüd on ta eitamisest loobunud. USA välisministeeriumi pressiteate kohaselt ei kasutatud fosforit keemiarelvana. Sütitavate relvade kasutamine tsiviilisikute vastu on keelatud. Vt. samas: Ahto Lobjakas. Europarlamendis USA hukkamõist

  17. Tšehhid protestisid USA raketikilbi vastu / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    USA soovib rajada oma ballistiliste rakettide eest kaitsva süsteemi rajatisi Poola ja Tšehhi territooriumile, mille vastu on protestinud ka Venemaa. Tšehhi Trokaveci küla elanike korraldatud referendumist ja Prahas toimunud meeleavaldustest USA raketikilbi radarijaama vastu. Lisa: USA raketikilp

  18. 76 FR 35715 - Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the... unnecessary obstacles to investment. Sec. 2. SelectUSA Initiative. (a) Establishment. There is established the SelectUSA Initiative (Initiative), a Government-wide initiative to attract and retain investment in the...

  19. Genomic and transcriptomic differences in community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and USA400 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marcus B; Montgomery, Christopher P; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Maybank, Rosslyn; Frank, Bryan C; Peterson, Scott N; Daum, Robert S

    2014-12-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality through its ability to cause a number of human infections including bacteremia, pneumonia and soft tissue infections. Of great concern is the emergence and dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA) that are resistant to nearly all β-lactams. The emergence of the USA300 MRSA genetic background among community associated S. aureus infections (CA-MRSA) in the USA was followed by the disappearance of USA400 CA-MRSA isolates. To gain a greater understanding of the potential fitness advantages and virulence capacity of S. aureus USA300 clones, we performed whole genome sequencing of 15 USA300 and 4 USA400 clinical isolates. A comparison of representative genomes of the USA300 and USA400 pulsotypes indicates a number of differences in mobile genome elements. We examined the in vitro gene expression profiles by microarray hybridization and the in vivo transcriptomes during lung infection in mice of a USA300 and a USA400 MRSA strain by performing complete genome qRT-PCR analysis. The unique presence and increased expression of 6 exotoxins in USA300 (12- to 600-fold) compared to USA400 may contribute to the increased virulence of USA300 clones. Importantly, we also observed the up-regulation of prophage genes in USA300 (compared with USA400) during mouse lung infection (including genes encoded by both prophages ΦSa2usa and ΦSa3usa), suggesting that these prophages may play an important role in vivo by contributing to the elevated virulence characteristic of the USA300 clone. We observed differences in the genetic content of USA300 and USA400 strains, as well as significant differences of in vitro and in vivo gene expression of mobile elements in a lung pneumonia model. This is the first study to document the global transcription differences between USA300 and USA400 strains during both in vitro and in vivo growth.

  20. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R.; Reid, C.; Snell, V.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  1. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Reid, C. [Bechtel Power Corporation, San Fransisco, California (United States); Snell, V. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  2. Nuclear power in Japan and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The development of the nuclear power industry in Japan and the USA is discussed. The author lists the number of nuclear power plants operating, under construction and planned and considers the contribution made by nuclear power stations to the total electricity generated. The advantages of nuclear power to both countries are outlined and forecasts are made of the role to be played by nuclear power in future years

  3. USA asepresident vihastas Venemaad / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 15. mai lk. 9. Läänemere ja Musta mere piirkonna riikide tippkohtumisel Vilniuses esinenud USA asepresident Dick Cheney märkis, et Ameerikal ja Euroopal on raske näha Venemaad demokraatlike riikide seas, kuna reformivastased püüavad Venemaal hävitada möödunud kümnendi edusamme. Vt. samas: Eesti pakub abiks oma kogemusi

  4. Utility procurement policies in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.; Nikazmerad, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; market history (historical uranium demand and production in the USA); recent long-term contract activity (expected US reactor demand and uranium production; expected US reactor demand and contracted uranium supplies); utility procurement attitudes; impact of inventories on procurement; current regulatory environment (spot-market price vs average long-term contract price); embargo and imports; conclusion. (U.K.)

  5. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  6. USA erisaadik : USA investorid Eestis rahul / J. Frank Mermoud ; interv. Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mermoud, J. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide välisministri nõunik ja erisaadik majandusküsimustes kiidab Eesti edu, räägib USA investorite rahuolust Eesti majanduskeskkonnaga ja väljendab muret Euroopa Liidu kavade pärast maksude ühtlustamiseks

  7. The birth and growth of neuroradiology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, C.; Goettingen Univ. Germany, F.R. Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie)

    1981-01-01

    Neuroradiology in the USA was started by the neurosurgeons Harvey Cushing, who personally made the first X-rays used to treat a patient with a neurological disability, and Walter Dandy, who first performed air ventriculography, ventriculoscopy, air encephalography and air myelography. The father of neuroradiology in the USA was Merrill Sosman, Cushing's associate. Modern neuroradiology was introduced into the USA from Europe by Mannie Schechter who was one of the original team of three Chief Editors of Neuroradiology. (orig.)

  8. USA relvastab araabia maid miljardite dollaritega / Kunnar Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kukk, Kunnar

    2007-01-01

    USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice ja kaitseminister Robert Gates tegid visiidi Saudi-Araabiasse. Arvatakse, et nad on pehmendamas katastroofi, mis järgneks USA vägede järk-järgulisele taandumisele Iraagist. USA kavatseb anda Pärsia riikidele sõjalist abi, et tuua Iraan kolmepoolsetele läbirääkimistele. Lisa: Kodusõda võib olla vältimatu

  9. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.

    2011-01-01

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  10. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K

    2011-05-01

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Overview of the USA inertial fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahalas, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The next step in the USA inertial fusion program is to begin planning for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility or LMF. The LMF would have an output energy of between 200 and 1000 MJ, the latter energy being equivalent to a quarter ton of high explosive, with an input driver energy of 5-10 MJ. This implies a high target gain, 100-200 or more, with either a laser or particle beam driver. The LMF would cost a half billion to a billion dollars and would require a serious commitment by the country and the Department of Energy. The Department is in the stage of preliminary planning for an LMF and beginning a process by which a driver selection can be made in the fiscal year 1991-1992 timeframe. Construction initiation will require that a departmental decision be made as well as appropriation of funds within the Congressional funding cycle. In this paper, we review recent progress leading to the new USA program planning for the next facility and describe the status of this preliminary planning as well as characteristics of the LMF. (orig.)

  12. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.K., E-mail: hkhuang@aol.com [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2011-05-15

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  13. Läbikatsumine USA lennujaamades riivab siin tehtavast vähem / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    USA sisejulgeoleku ministeeriumi privaatsuse ja andmekaitse juht Mary Ellen Callahan kinnitab, et USA-sse reisivate inimeste krediitkaardiandmeid kasutatakse vaid elektroonilise reisi autoriseerimise süsteemi jaoks ning andmeid säilitab USA rahandusministeerium. Ta on arvamusel, et USA-s on kehaskannerite kasutamisel reisija privaatsuse kaitse parem kui Euroopas

  14. USA üritab leida Teherani agente Iraagist / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    USA süüdistab Iraani, et see abistab Iraagis mahdiste, mida juhib Muqtada al-Sadri. Autori sõnul on Iraani eliitüksuse Qudsi korpuse koostööd al-Sadriga aga sama vähe tõestatud kui omal ajal USA väidet Saddam Husseini ja al-Qaida vahel

  15. Ruslands betændte forhold til USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Rusland udgør en anden stormagtsudfordring for USA. Rusland er en stormagt i forfald, som imidlertid har genopfundet sin gamle sovjetiske 'Manifest Destiny'.......Rusland udgør en anden stormagtsudfordring for USA. Rusland er en stormagt i forfald, som imidlertid har genopfundet sin gamle sovjetiske 'Manifest Destiny'....

  16. Oletus : USA luurevanglad on Poolas ja Rumeenias / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    USA ajalehe Washington Post andmeil hoiab USA terrorismis kahtlustavaid Ida-Euroopa riikides. Poola ajalehe allikate väitel on üks neist riikidest Poola. Poola, Rumeenia, Bulgaaria tõrjuvad kahtlustusi, Tšehhi väitel on ameeriklaste palvele vange majutada ära öeldud

  17. USA kliimamuutuse vastu: Kopenhaagenis ja edaspidi / Michael C. Polt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Polt, Michael C., 1954-

    2009-01-01

    Käsitledes Kopenhaageni kliimakonverentsi, märgib USA Eesti-suursaadik, et USA on valmis paika panema eesmärgi vähendada kohalike seadustega kooskõlas 2020. aastaks kasvuhoonegaaside heitmete emissiooni tasemeni, mis oleks 17% väiksem 2005. aasta tasemest

  18. Valitsus vaeb USA viisavabadusenõudeid / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    USA viisavabaduse aluseks oleva vastastikuse mõistmise memorandumi projekt on täna valitsuse istungi päevakorras. Tšehhi ja USA on juba sõlminud kahepoolse memorandumi, mõnedel hinnangutel on Tšehhi järele andnud kogu ameeriklaste nõudmiste paketile. Lisa: Andmekaitsjad pole viimase seisuga kursis

  19. USA toetab Lähis-Ida konfliktides Iisraeli / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA kasutas ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogus vetoõigust resolutsiooni suhtes, milles nõuti Iisraelilt Gaza sektoris toimuvate rünnakute kohest lõpetamist, USA ÜRO suursaadiku John Boltoni sõnul oleks dokumendi vastuvõtmine õõnestanud Julgeolekunõukogu usaldusväärsust

  20. Distribution, hosts and identification of Meloidogyne partityla in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan, Carya illinoensis, is an economically important nut crop and member of the Juglandaceae native to the southern USA. Discovered in South Africa in 1986, Meloidogyne partityla was first found infecting pecan in USA in 1996 and currently occurs in Texas, New Mexico, Georgia, Arizona, Oklahoma a...

  1. 77 FR 38039 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity for... Corporation for Travel Promotion (Board) (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the Corporation...

  2. 78 FR 53728 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an... the Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the...

  3. 78 FR 44531 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an... the Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the...

  4. FY2015 Analysis of the Teamwork USA Program. Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Research and Evaluation (DRE) has completed an analysis of the performance of students who participated in the Teamwork USA Program, administered in FY2014 at three District schools. Teamwork USA hopes to improve student achievement at select Title I elementary schools via its Instrumental Music Program grant. This memorandum to…

  5. Tropical Trametes lactinea is widely distributed in the eastern USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Josef; Kout, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2011), s. 271-279 ISSN 0093-4666 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Basidiomycota, USA new record, taxonomy * USA new record * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.709, year: 2011

  6. Nuclear reactor safety in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear reactor safety in the USA has emphasized a defense-in-depth approach to protecting the public from reactor accidents. This approach was severely tested by the Three Mile Island accident and was found to be effective in safeguarding the public health and safety. However, the economic impact of the TMI accident was very large. Consequently, more attention is now being given to plant protection as well as public-health protection in reactor-safety studies. Sophisticated computer simulations at Los Alamos are making major contributions in this area. In terms of public risk, nuclear power plants compare favorably with other large-scale alternatives to electricity generation. Unfortunately, there is a large gulf between the real risks of nuclear power and the present public perception of these risks

  7. SAT for NPP personnel training in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinney, R.

    1995-01-01

    This discussion addressed the experience with the application of SAT at USA NPPs. In particular, the transition of NPP training processes, staff composition, and reporting structure from the TMI accident to present. As well, oversight and guidance activities of the INPO and more intensive inspection by the NRC began during this period. The average NPP training staff grew to 30-40 per unit, along with a change in reporting line from plant to corporate management. With the reduction of resources occurring in the late 1980s, overall training staff size decreased, the composition changed, and reporting line reverted to plant management. The overall lessons-learned for application of the SAT consisted of the need for simplification, management involvement, and exploitation of the technology

  8. Report of a mission to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, A.

    1959-01-01

    As the personnel working with radioactive products is facing hazards due to irradiation and to contamination by absorption, glove boxes provide a sufficient protection against pure alpha and low beta or gamma emitters, but beta and gamma emitters such as irradiated uranium alloys require the protection by thick lead or concrete walls and handling alpha and gamma emitters (such as polonium, plutonium and uranium 233) requires alpha-tight and gamma-protective enclosures. In some cases, inert or semi-inert atmosphere are required. In this report, the author present and describe how these protections are provided or projected in installations visited in the USA (in Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Brookhaven, and Argonne laboratories). They distinguish the conventional design of beta-gamma cells, the transformation of gamma cells into alpha-gamma cell, and different types of alpha-gamma cells (glove boxes in gamma enclosure, tight enclosure with possible staff entrance, tight enclosure with forbidden entrance)

  9. Snus use and rejection in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Roman, Anthony M; Mc Inerney, Scott A; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Hatsukami, Dororthy K; Loukas, Alexandra; O'Connor, Richard J; Romito, Laura

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether snus might become a strategy for reducing the harm associated with cigarette smoking in the USA as appears to be the case in Sweden, we examined receptivity to snus use in two cities with the greatest exposure to the major brands. A dual frame, telephone survey and a brief mail survey were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Indianapolis, Indiana and Dallas/Fort Worth Texas. Over 5000 adults completed surveys. Trial, ever use, current use and reasons for using or quitting snus after trial were measured. Among male smokers, 29.9% had ever tried snus (CI 22.7 to 38.1) and 4.2% were current users (CI 1.6 to 10.7). Among female smokers, 8.5% ever tried snus (CI 4.4 to 15.7) and current use was unknown. Current use was virtually absent among former smokers and never smokers. A major predictor of any level of snus use was current use of conventional smokeless tobacco. Those who tried and gave up snus cited curiosity (41.3%) and the fact that it was available at low or no cost (30%) as reasons for trial; reasons for not continuing included preferring another form of tobacco (75.1%) and disliking the mouth feel (34.6%). Almost all current snus users indicated that they were trying to cut down on cigarettes, but few (3.9%) were using it to quit smoking entirely. The low rate of adoption of snus suggests that neither the hopes nor the fears surrounding this new product are likely to be realised in the USA with the current marketing patterns. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Strontium-90 migration in Hanford sediments, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Carroll, S.A.; Roberts, S.; Zachara, J.M.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Strontium-90 is an important risk-driving contaminant at the Hanford site in eastern Washington, USA. Disposal operations at the Hanford 100-N area released millions of liters of reactor cooling water containing high concentrations of strontium-90 into the vadose zone immediately adjacent to the Columbia River. The effectiveness of pump-and-treat methods for remediation have been questioned, largely because the strontium is strongly sorbed on subsurface sediments via ion exchange reactions and co-precipitation in carbonates. In addition, groundwater monitoring wells show a fluctuating seasonal behavior in which high strontium-90 concentrations correlate with high Columbia River stage, even while average concentrations remain approximately constant. A series of fully saturated reactive transport column experiments have been conducted to investigate the important controls on strontium migration in Hanford groundwater [1]. The experiments were designed to investigate the multicomponent cation exchange behavior of strontium in competition with the cations Na + , Ca +2 , and Mg +2 , the concentration of which differs between river water and groundwater. Reactive transport modeling of the experiments indicates that the Sr +2 selectivity coefficient becomes larger with increasing NaNO 3 concentration, a behavior also shown by the divalent cations Ca +2 and Mg +2 . A new set of column experiments investigates the effect of wetting and drying cycles on strontium- 90 sorption and migration by considering episodic flow in Hanford sediments. In addition, the effect of fluctuating aquifer chemistry as a result of changes in the Columbia River stage on Sr +2 sorption is addressed. Modeling of multicomponent reactive transport under variably saturated conditions is used to interpret the results of the episodic flow/chemistry experiments. [1] Experimental and modeling studies of the migration behavior of strontium in Hanford sediments, USA. C

  11. A geostatical model for USA uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence exists which suggests that the frequency distributions of both grade and size of metal deposits may be well approximated by lognormal distribution functions. Using data on presently viable deposits and a simplified function which links production cost to deposit grade and size, a bivariate lognormal deposit grade/size distribution may be calibrated for a given geological environment. Exploration is introduced by assuming that the proportion discovered of the potential uranium reserve available at or below a given production can be represented by a fraction of the average deposit size and the limit exploration expenditure. As output, the model derives estimates of total reserves linked to maximum production costs and to exploration expenditure where the latter may be expressed either as expenditure per lb of mineral discovered or as a given percentage of operating profit. Reserve/price functions have been derived for the USA based on USAEC data. Tentative conclusions which may be drawn from the results are: (1) Assuming that a similar proportion of profits continues to be allocated to exploration in the future, then the USA should be able to meet its own national demand for uranium up to the end of the century (say 2 M tons U) at prices up to US$35/lb U 3 O 8 (1.1.75$ values). (2) If instead of all exploration being funded from a fixed maximum proportion of mining company profits, consumers were to fund additional exploration separately, then it is possible that the total unit cost of uranium to the consumers would thereby be reduced. It should be stressed that these conclusions are tentative and are only as reliable as the input data and assumptions of the model. In particular no account is taken of commercial or political forces which could artificially restrict supplies or raise prices. The model should be regarded as a first attempt and is offered as a basis for discussion leading to further development. (author)

  12. President Meri näitas USA-le vabaduse ilu / Daniel Fried ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fried, Daniel, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    USA abivälisminister Daniel Fried USA välispoliitika ühest eesmärgist - demokraatia levitamisest maailmas, demokraatia olukorrast Venemaal ning USA ja Venemaa vahelistest suhetest. Lisa: Daniel Fried

  13. Riskiäri USA kõrbes / Tarmo Vahter, Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahter, Tarmo, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia ostis USA kõrbes mahajäetud kaevanduse koos põlevkivivaruga, millest Brasiilia naftagigant Petrobras ja Jaapani suurfirma Mitsui ja Co loobusid. Eesti Energia põlevkiviprojektist USA-s

  14. Vaiksed professionaalid USA erivägedes on tulevased liidrid / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA eriüksuste juhid kinnitavad esiterrorist Osama bin Ladeni peatset tabamist. Floridas Tampas asuvast USA Lähis-Ida operatsioonide peastaabist. Lisa: USA erioperatsioonide keskused. Vt. samas: Ameerika pikk ja väsitav sõda

  15. Ameerikat sõtta õhutanud Iraagi prominent kaotas USA soosingu / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Iraaklase Ahmed Chalabi tegevusest ja lubadustest USA Iraagi-vastase sõja alustamiseks. USA toetuse kahanemisest Chalabile ja süüdistustest, et ta andis salajast infot Iraanile USA vägede tegevuse kohta Iraagis

  16. USA ja EL vähendavad kaubandustõkkeid / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Tippkohtumisel Washingtonis arutasid Euroopa Komisjoni president Jose Manuel Barroso ja USA president George W. Bush, kuidas EL-i ja USA majandussuhteid vabamaks muuta. Diagramm: EL-i kaubavahetus USA-ga

  17. USA politoloogid : Obama võit oleks ka Eesti oma / Laura Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Laura

    2008-01-01

    USA politoloogide sõnul oleks pingestunud Venemaa ja USA suhete taustal Eestile kasulikum, kui 56. USA presidendivalimised võidaks demokraat Barack Obama. Erinevate politoloogide hinnanguid. Vt. samas: Obama ja McCain loovad kabinette

  18. Pricing behavior of USA exporter in wheat international market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, R. P.; Sumono; Iddrisu, Y.; Darus, M.; Sihombing, L. P.; Jufri

    2018-02-01

    The number of wheat producing countries is changing over time. It is expected the change in wheat supply will lead world wheat market become more competitive and reduce market power of major exporter country. This paper tries to identify and examined the degree of market power on wheat international market for USA by using the Pricing to Market (PTM) method. USA is the biggest producer and exporter in wheat market. The PTM method found that USA impose noncompetitive strategy by applying price discrimination and apply market power to their importer country.

  19. Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

    2004-06-01

    Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

  20. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C.; Arai, K.; Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B.

    2015-09-01

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  1. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J.P.; Pool, D.R.; Konieczki, A.D.; Carpenter, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000 m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6 m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2 m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods.

  2. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Arai, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  3. Recurrent Kawasaki disease: USA and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Ryan A; Holman, Robert C; Uehara, Ritei; Callinan, Laura S; Guest, Jodie L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Belay, Ermias D

    2015-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiologic studies of recurrent and non-recurrent Kawasaki disease (KD) may identify other potentially important differences between these illnesses. Data from the USA and Japan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national KD surveillance(1984-2008) and the 17th Japanese nationwide survey (2001-2002), respectively, were analyzed to examine recurrent KD patients <18 years of age meeting the CDC KD case or atypical KD case definition. These patients were compared with non-recurrent KD patients. Of the 5557 US KD patients <18 years of age during 1984-2008, 97 (1.7%) were identified as having had recurrent KD. Among the US Asian/Pacific Islander KD patients, 3.5% had recurrent KD, which was similar to the percentage identified among KD patients (3.5%) in the Japanese survey. Compared with non-recurrent KD patients, KD patients [with recurrent KD] were more likely to be older, fulfill the atypical KD case definition, and have coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) despite i.v. immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. Differences in the age, race, and frequency of CAA exist between recurrent and non-recurrent KD patients. The increased association of CAA with recurrent KD suggests that more aggressive treatment strategies in conjunction with IVIG may be indicated for the second episode of KD. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Ameerika suursaadik Aldona Sofia Wos : toon kättpidi USA suurfirmad Eestisse / Aldona Zofia Wos ; interv. Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wos, Aldona Zofia

    2005-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud Londonis USA riigidepartemangu korraldatud konverentsiga, kus Balti riikide juhid rääkisid USA ettevõtete esindajatele, miks tuleks investeerida Balti riikidesse. USA tehtud investeeringutest Eestisse, Eesti ettevõtjate võimalustest USA-s. Lisa: Tõhus rahapüüdja

  5. The climate protection policy of the USA under president Obama; Die Klimaschutzpolitik der USA unter Praesident Obama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Schenk, Olga [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieforschung - Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung; Holtrup-Mostert, Petra [Transatlantic Networks - Foreign Policy Analysis, Koenigswinter (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Barack Obama's slogan 'Are you ready for a Change?' may become the motto fo the future climate protection policy of the USA. While the USA is slowly beginning to play a more active role in this area, there are many political and institutional obstacles to overcome before the USA can become one of the big global players here. The authors analyse the status quo of the US climate protection policy in an attempt to indicate national and international perspectives of climate protection. (orig.)

  6. 2002 Bird Strike Committee USA/Canada Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolbeer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Over 380 people from 20 countries and 17 exhibitors attended the 4th annual joint meeting of Bird Strike Committee-USA and Bird Strike Committee Canada in Sacramento, California on October 21-24, 2002...

  7. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.

  8. Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö saab uue aluspaberi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Valitsus kiitis eilsel istungil heaks Eesti ja Ameerika Ühendriikide valitsuse kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe ning volitas kaitseminister Margus Tsahknat allkirjastama selle USA suursaadikuga Eestis. Leppe peab ratifitseerima ka riigikogu

  9. Film teeb USA valmistumise Iraagi okupatsiooniks maatasa / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Lõppu ei ole näha" ("No End in Sight") : autor ja režissöör professor Charles Ferguson : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Lisa: USA vead Iraagis. Vt. samas: Sunniidid lahkusid Iraagi valitsusest

  10. USA uus ÜRO saadik alustas pealetungi / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide uus ÜRO suursaadik John Bolton nõuab 190 liikmesriigile saadetud kirjas ÜRO reformikavades suurte ja oluliste muudatuste tegemist: reformikavast peaks USA arvates kustutama vähemalt 400 paragrahvi

  11. Gridded bathymetry of Barbers Point, Oahu Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (1m) of Barbers Point ship grounding site, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. The data include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson 8101 multibeam sonar collected...

  12. News and Features Updates from USA.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Stay on top of important government news and information with the USA.gov Updates: News and Features RSS feed. We'll update this feed when we add news and featured...

  13. Ämari baas sobib USA-le ja brittidele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Eelmisel nädalal Eestit külastanud USA ja Ühendkuningriigi sõjalised esindajad NATO juures kindralleitnandid David R. Hogg ja Christopher Harper kinnitasid, et on valmis oma lennukeid Ämari baasist opereerima

  14. Reson 8101 Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  15. Biochar in the USA. Starting new methods for green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Companies in the USA develop pyrolysis and gasification systems to generate electricity from biomass and sell the by-product. Up to now it is interesting for agriculture and livestock producers. (orig.)

  16. USA Balti-spetsialist maandus Eestisse / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2004-01-01

    USA välispoliitika ekspert Paul Goble kavatseb Tartus elades tõmmata oma artiklitega ameeriklaste ja eurooplaste tähelepanu Tartule kui aknale Euraasiasse. Lisa: Välispoliitika ekspert Paul A. Goble

  17. Comparison of Cancer Incidence between China and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Chuan; Wei, Li-Juan; Liu, Jun-Tian; Li, Shi-Xia; Wang, Qing-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cancer varies around the globe, especially between less-developed and developed regions. The aim of this study is to explore differences in cancer incidence between China and the USA. Data were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. Estimated numbers of new cancer cases in the USA were obtained from the American Cancer Society, while the numbers of cases in China, including those in urban and rural areas, were obtained from 36 cancer registries (2003-2005). Cancer incidence for major sites between China and the USA were analyzed. In China, lung cancer was the predominant type of cancer detected in males; in females, breast cancer was the main type of cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers, such as those of the liver, stomach, and esophagus, were more commonly seen in China than in the USA. A significant difference in the incidence of melanoma of the skin was observed between China and the USA. During comparison of differences in the age-standardized rates by world population (ASRWs) of major cancer sites between the two countries, 4 sites in males (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, and liver) and 6 sites in females (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, and cervix uteri) showed higher cancer incidence rates in China than in the USA. Significant differences in cancer incidence sites were found between the two countries. Cancer may be prevented through public education and awareness. Programs to promote cancer prevention in China, especially those of the lung, breast, and gastrointestinal region, must also be implemented.

  18. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  19. Physical protection of plutonium in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaseda, Noboru

    1974-01-01

    The present situation of nuclear substance protection in USA is introduced for reference sake. The protection regulation has been revised since 1973 as follows: the protection plan once approved by AEC shall not be modified without the prior approval by AEC; AEC shall inspect the execution of the approved protection plan by measuring and testing nuclear substances and related equipments, and by checking the records of retention, use and transportation of nuclear substances; in the event of finding some imperfection, those concerned with the facilities shall improve the imperfection, and shall report the results to AEC: in the event of danger of theft or obstruction, report shall be made to AEC, and AEC shall contact with FBI, custom bureau, coast guard or CIA according to the matter. The requisites of AEC are briefly described. For atomic power plants, AEC has not prescribed requirements, but regulates by tentative system. In transportation, the protection requirements of AEC are applied to the cases of 2 kg or more Pu and 5 kg or more U-235 in 20% or more enriched U, and the regulations for road, rail, sea and air transport are prescribed separately. AEC has published a regulation guide concerning ten fields, e.g. power reactor, research reactor, fuel processing facility and environment. Although AEC has strengthened the protection system, several documents have been published and aroused argument, which forced AEC to examine them. Two documents are introduced. One is ''Profiles - the curve of binding energy'' published in the ''New Yorker'' in 1973, and the other is ''Nuclear theft: risks and safeguards'', published in 1974. AEC staff evaluation report, GESMO report and others are outlined. (Iwakiri, K.)

  20. Clinton: USA kaotab infosõjas Hiina, Venemaa ja Al Jazeeraga / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    USA välisministri Hillary Clintoni hinnangul on USA propaganda nõrgenenud ning USA mõjuvõim väheneb pidevalt. H. Clintoni vastusest Senati väliskomisjonis senaator Richard Lugari küsimusele USA pingutustest diplomaatilise kommunikatsiooni vallas

  1. USA salajane riigiametnike komisjon võib panna ka oma kodanikud tapanimekirja / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    Jeemenis USA droonirünnakus hukkunud Anwar al-Awlaki, keda USA valitsusesindajad nimetasid al-Qaida talendiotsijaks ja värvatute motiveerijaks, oli väidetavalt esimene USA kodanik, kes oli pandud USA vastu võitlevate terroristide nn. tapanimekirja

  2. Iraagis on surma saanud juba 2000 USA sõjaväelast / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    USA-s suri 2000. sõjaväelane Iraagis saadud haavadesse. Kui USA juhitud välismaiste relvajõudude esindaja Bagdadis kutsus meediat seda arvu mitte üle tähtsustama, siis USA meedia seevastu pidas seda just oluliseks märgiks. Diagrammid: Iraagi sõja inimkaotused

  3. USA kindral ei soovita sõjalist kohalolekut Iraagis niipea vähendada / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    USA vägede juhataja Iraagis David Petraeus ja suursaadik Iraagis Ryan Cocker käsitlesid USA Esindajatekoja relvajõudude ja väliskomitee ühisistungil olukorda Iraagis ja USA sõjalist kohalolekut. Nad soovisid Kongressilt USA vägede säilitamist enam-vähem praegusel tasemel kuni 2008. aasta suveni

  4. USA järelevalve e-side üle maailmas tugevneb / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    USA Kongress võttis vastu seaduse, mis annab eriteenistustele suurema tegutsemisvabaduse rahvusvahelise e-side jälgimisel ning nõuab USA-d külastavate viisavabade riikide ärimeestelt eelinfot oma tegevuse kohta. Lisa: USA-s heakskiidetud terrorismivastased abinõud

  5. 76 FR 59167 - Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical Solutions USA... Solutions USA, Inc. (Siemens), Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, California (subject firm). The...., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, California (TA-W-73,158) and Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc...

  6. Nuclear chemistry and Radiochemistry in the USA; Kern- und Radiochemie in den USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Stoyer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry are very young sciences which developed at an extremely brisk pace within a very short period of time after the discovery of nuclear fission in 1938, and caused profound societal changes. In the United States, nuclear chemistry developed very differently from Germany, where nuclear research initially had been banned after the Second World War. The prime mover in the development in the United States was the Manhattan Project, the construction of the atomic bomb. The counteract the impending shortage of qualified personnel, important institutions have begun to establish training and support programs in the field. The National Laboratories in the United States introduced a National Security Internship Program, while the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tries to promote cooperation, and thus the training of personnel, by launching programs of its own. Yet, a greater shortage of qualified personnel is becoming apparent. The situation of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry in the United States can be summarized in the finding that research at the National Laboratories is very wide ranging. It receives sufficient funds from the DOE. However, the National Laboratories show a very high proportion of elderly personnel, a problem which will have to be corrected in the years to come. This may be helped by the Summer Schools financed by the DOE, though a summer school of six weeks cannot replace a sound training in nuclear chemistry of the kind still to be found in Germany. (orig.) [German] Kern- und Radiochemie sind sehr junge Wissenschaften, die sich nach der Entdeckung der Kernspaltung 1938 innerhalb kuerzester Zeit extrem rasant entwickelt und tiefe gesellschaftliche Veraenderungen bewirkt haben. In den USA hat sich die Kernchemie sehr unterschiedlich im Vergleich zu Deutschland entwickelt, wo die Kernforschung nach dem 2. Weltkrieg vorerst verboten war. Massgeblich in den USA war dabei das Manhatten-Projekt zum Bau von Nuklearwaffen

  7. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  8. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  9. 77 FR 27082 - StarTek USA, Inc., 244 Dundee Avenue, Greeley, CO; StarTek USA, Inc., 1250 H Street, Greeley, CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,850; TA-W-74,850A] StarTek USA, Inc., 244 Dundee Avenue, Greeley, CO; StarTek USA, Inc., 1250 H Street, Greeley, CO; Amended... workers and former workers of StarTek USA, Inc., Greeley, Colorado. The Department's notice of...

  10. Comparative epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection: England and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alice; Mullish, Benjamin H; Williams, Horace R T; Aylin, Paul

    2017-10-01

    To examine whether there is an epidemiological difference between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) inpatient populations in England and the United States. A cross-sectional study. National administrative inpatient discharge data from England (Hospital Episode Statistics) and the USA (National Inpatient Sample) in 2012. De-identifiable non-obstetric inpatient discharges from the national datasets were used to estimate national CDI incidence in the United States and England using ICD9-CM(008.45) and ICD10(A04.7) respectively. The rate of CDI was calculated per 100 000 population using national population estimates. Rate per 100 000 inpatient discharges was also calculated separated by primary and secondary diagnosis of CDI. Age, sex and Elixhauser comorbidities profiles were examined. The USA had a higher rate of CDI compared to England: 115.1/100 000 vs. 19.3/100 000 population (P USA (OR 1.20 95% CI [1.18,1.22] P USA compared to England apart from dementia, which was greater in England (9.63% vs. 1.25%, P USA was much higher than in England. Age and comorbidity profiles also differed between CDI patients in both countries. The reasons for this are likely multi-factorial but may reflect national infection control policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. IVF global histories, USA: between Rock and a marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis Thompson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The USA has played, and continues to play, a distinctive and significant part in the history of IVF and assisted reproductive technology worldwide. American IVF emerged in the scientific context of contraceptive and fertility research, in the social context of a wealthy nation without universal healthcare, and in the political context of the abortion debate and its impact on federal versus state funding and regulation. IVF had its first clinical success in the USA in 1981. Since then, IVF in the USA has become known for procedures involving third, fourth and fifth parties as gamete donors and surrogates. The USA has also been one of the pioneers in domestic and transnational deployment of IVF for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT parenthood, and a pioneer of the social egg-freezing revolution. US IVF has been marked by professional and patient advocacy for such things as the honest reporting of success rates, recognition of the risks of postponed childbearing, and the need for insurance coverage. Certain landmark legal custody disputes over IVF embryos and offspring, as well as media attention to gendered, racialized, and class-based access to and pricing of assisted reproductive technology, have also driven the development of IVF in the USA.

  12. Integration of GCAM-USA into GLIMPSE: Update and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to (i) discuss changes made to the GCAM-USA model to more fully support long-term, coordinated environmental-climate-energy planning within the U.S., and (ii) demonstrate the graphical user interface that has been constructed to construct modeling scenarios, execute GCAM-USA, and visualize and compare model outputs. GLIMPSE is intended to provide insights into linkages and synergies among the goals of air quality management, climate change mitigation, and long-range energy planning. We have expanded GLIMPSE to also incorporate the open-source Global Change Assessment Model-USA (GCAM-USA), which has state-level representation of the U.S. energy system. With GCAM-USA, GLIMPSE can consider more aspects of the economy, linkages to the water and climate systems, and interactions with other regions of the world. A user-friendly graphical interface allows the system to be applied by analysts to explore a range of policies, such emission taxes or caps, efficiency standards, and renewable portfolio standards. We expect GLIMPSE to be used within research and planning activities, both within the EPA and beyond.

  13. The situation of nuclear energy in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the fact that peaceful utilization of nuclear energy receives much coverage in the mass media, at party congresses and lately even in respectable journals in a way characterized by much emotional commitment and little factual knowledge, there is a danger of transferring the situation in the USA too easily to the Federal Republic of Germany along with all those well-known arguments. In the article, the author points out the differences between the continent USA and the comparatively small country Federal Republic of Germany reading the conclusion that any sweeping comparison of both countries is misleading so, too, in energy supply. In detail, there is a brief overview on the historical development of nuclear power utilization in the USA, a discussion of the reasons for cancelling/shutting-down nuclear power plants in the USA, an analysis of the effects of modified demand predictions on power station construction and of funding problems as well as an investigation into the profitability of nuclear energy in the USA. (orig./UA) [de

  14. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  15. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  16. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nikolaj K. Andersen: USA skal ikke give kineserne frit spil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj K.

    2016-01-01

    Den amerikanske rebalancering til Asien har haft større betydning, end mange anerkender. Og det er godt, for USA skal fortsat holde sig engageret i Sydøstasien og lægge pres på Kina. Muligheden for en amerikansk-kinesisk krig kan nemlig ikke afskrives.......Den amerikanske rebalancering til Asien har haft større betydning, end mange anerkender. Og det er godt, for USA skal fortsat holde sig engageret i Sydøstasien og lægge pres på Kina. Muligheden for en amerikansk-kinesisk krig kan nemlig ikke afskrives....

  18. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods. Résumé Des effondrements en forme d'entonnoir se sont produits sur et près d'exploitations agricoles de Pima (Arizona). Ces entonnoirs apparaissent dans les alluvions le long de la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz ; ils ont rendu ces terrains dangereux et inexploitables pour l'agriculture. Plus de 1700 entonnoirs existent dans la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz et sont groupés en deux bandes orientées nord-nord-ouest, approximativement parallèles à la rivière et aux autres chenaux de la plaine d'inondation. Un volume de sédiments estim

  19. USA investor loodab raha teenida Brasiilias ja Hiinas / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 14. juuni lk. 25. USA investeerimisfirma Cumberland Advisors juht David Kotok osales Äripäeva korraldatud majanduskollokviumil. Tema investeerimisfirma on paigutanud raha Ida-Euroopasse, Hiinasse ja Lõuna-Ameerikasse. Vt. samas: Väikeinvestoril tuleb aktsiaid ostes kodutööd teha

  20. What drives low-severity fire in the southwestern USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Matthew H. Panunto

    2018-01-01

    Many dry conifer forests in the southwestern USA and elsewhere historically (prior to the late 1800’s) experienced fairly frequent surface fire at intervals ranging from roughly five to 30 years. Due to more than 100 years of successful fire exclusion, however, many of these forests are now denser and more homogenous, and therefore they have a greater probability of...

  1. Opsigtsvækkende nyt om derivater fra USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank

    1997-01-01

    Der er opsigsvækkende nyt fra USA om den regnskabsmæssige behandling af derivater som terminskontrakter, futures, optioner, swaps m.v. Glem alt om historiske anskaffelsespriser. For derivater er der kun ét mål, som kan bruges: markedsværdier (fair-values). Glem alt om snakken om 'off-balance-sheet...

  2. Native as Political Identity, by Mahmood Mamdani. USA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... USA: Harvard. University Press ... In this short but enlightening book of three chapters that began their life as Du Bois memorial lectures .... In the two-volume study named History of the Arabs in Sudan he wrote the history of ...

  3. Clintonite uus tulek USA tipp-poliitikasse / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    USA presidendiks pürgiv Hillary Clinton on suutnud koguda oma valimisfondi rohkem raha kui tema konkurendid, ta on ka populaarseim kandidaat. Kui Valgest Majast lahkudes olid Clintonid võlgu miljon dollarit, siis nüüd läheneb nende isiklik vara 50 miljonile dollarile

  4. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates in 2 pet iguanas, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Ashley M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Koski, Marilyn A; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A; Swanson, Alexandra A; Rood, Michael P; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A; Blaney, David D; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Beeler, Emily S

    2014-02-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  5. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA .  Created: 9/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2014.

  6. Comparing Teacher Dispositions in China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kun; Tamashiro, Roy

    2013-01-01

    In studies conducted in the USA, teacher dispositional factors such as enthusiasm, professional esteem and learning motivation often emerge as the most significant variables affecting student learning and achievement from the primary grades through higher education. Do these factors play as significant a role in student learning and achievement in…

  7. Õhuvägi loobus USA pakutud lennukitest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Eesti õhuvägi loobus USA poolt kingituseks pakutud kahest sõjaväe transportlennukist Sherpa C-23B+. Põhjalikuma analüüsi tulemusel on kaalumisel alternatiivsed variandid ja Sherpasid õhuvägi praeguse seisuga kasutusse ei võta, ütles kaitseväe peastaabi pressiesindaja

  8. Social Justice and Resisting Neoliberal Education Reform in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to reform public education along free-market, corporate-styled models have swept across many nations. In the USA these reforms have included an intense focus on the use of high-stakes, standardized tests to quantify students, teachers, and schools for market comparisons, the deprofessionalization of teaching, and the establishment of…

  9. Forests and Climate Change in the Southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven McNulty; Peter Caldwell; Thomas W. Doyle; Kurt Johnsen; Yongqiang Liu; Jacqueline Mohan; Jeffrey Prestemon; Ge Sun

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsWarming air temperatures will likely increase regional drying regardless of changes in precipitation, and this drying will likely increase wildfire risk across southeastern USA forests.Longer growing seasons will likely increase the risk of insect outbreak and very likely will expand the northern range of some...

  10. Euroopa tootjad ei ole rahul USA survega / Ain Lember

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lember, Ain

    2006-01-01

    Seoses USA survega Euroopa turgude avanemiseks ning probleemidega Brasiilia toidukaupade ekspordi osas, kutsub üleeuroopalise põllumajandustootjate liit COPA ja põllumajandustööandjate organisatsioonide liit COGECA Euroopa valitsusjuhte üles lõpetama järeleandmiste tegemise

  11. Miks USA ründab Iraani? / Gwynne Dyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dyer, Gwynne

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii 6. märts lk. 12. 20. märtsil avab Iraan uue börsi, kus kõik maad saavad osta ja müüa naftat ja gaasi mitte ainult dollarite, vaid ka eurode eest, selle mõju USA finantspositsioonile

  12. Field investigations of historic covered timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...

  13. USA ajakirjaniku teos paljastab CIA nõrkusi / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 30. juuli 2007, lk. 6. New York Timesi ajakirjanik Tim Weiner annab oma äsjailmunud raamatus "Legacy of ashes: the history of the USA" põhjaliku ülevaate CIA ajaloost. Lisa: CIA läbikukkumiste jada

  14. Museums USA: Art, History, Science, and Other Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC.

    The results and analysis of an earlier museum survey, presented in "Museum U.S.A.: Highlights" (ED 093 777), are given in this document. The purpose is to present a comprehensive picture of museums in the United States--their numbers and locations, types and functions, facilities and finances, personnel and trustees, and activities and attendance.…

  15. USA esindajad Iraagis soovitasid Bushi kurssi / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    USA vägede juht Iraagis kindral David Petraeus ja suursaadik Iraagis Ryan Crocker rõhutasid Kongressis esinedes, et Ameerika sõjaline kohalolu on Iraagis vajalik, sest vägivald on riigis vähenenud, vägede lahkumise korral hakkaks julgeolek vähenema

  16. EL nõuab USA vangilaagri sulgemist / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    EL on seisukohal, et Guantanamo vangla tuleb sulgeda. Amnesty International nimetas kolme enesetappu Guantanamo vanglas aastatepikkuse õigusevastase ja lõputu vangistuse tagajärjeks. Vangilaagi komandant aga peab neid enesetappe osaks USA-vastasest asümmeetrilisest sõjast. Lisa: Enam kui 40 enesetapukatset

  17. Introduction: Exotic annual Bromus in the western USA [Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Germino; Jeanne C. Chambers; Cynthia S. Brown

    2016-01-01

    The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to...

  18. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  19. USA leiab maailmas aina enam hukkamõistu / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 25. jaan. 2007, lk. 9. 25 maailma riigis korraldatud BBC küsitlusuurimus näitas, et üha suurem osa maailmast mõistab hukka USA praeguse kursi, eriti pälvib kriitikat sõda Iraagis ja terroristide vangilaagri pidamine Kuubal Guantanamo Bays

  20. An assessment of agroforestry systems in the southern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. C. Zinkhan; D. Evan Mercer

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the southern USA, based on a survey of land-use professionalsand a review of theliterature, revealed that it is a diverse region with substantial potential for agroforestry to address a combination of problems and opportunities. The survey indicated that silvopastoml systems are the most common form of agroforestry in the region. Increased economic...

  1. Sexual Orientation Topics in Educational Leadership Programmes across the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines the inclusion of sexual orientation topics within the formal curriculum of 55 public college and university educational administration/leadership programmes across the USA. The findings indicate that programmes place a low priority upon sexual orientation compared to other diversity topics and that 59.5% of programmes…

  2. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  3. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  4. President Ilves töövisiidil USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves alustas töövisiiti USA läänerannikul, teadus- ja kõrgtehnoloogia keskuses Silicon Valley's. Riigipea kohtus ka San Francisco linnapea Gavin Newsom'iga ja Stanfordi Ülikooli rektori John L. Hennessy'ga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 9.-16.06.2009

  5. USA kiidetud noise-rock Eestis / Annika Haas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haas, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel ja annab kaks kontserti - 13. nov. Tallinnas klubis Tapper ja 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv)

  6. Comparing Nigeria With Other Countries – USA, China & India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined education for the world of work comparing Nigeria with other countries like USA, China and India. This was a theoretical survey carried out to showcase what happened in these countries over the years. Findings reveal a positive significant relationship between education and the world of works.

  7. USA folkloristid tutvustavad Eestis afroameerika rahvamuusikat / Andres Roost

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roost, Andres

    2008-01-01

    9. veebruaril tutvustavad USA folkloristid Anna Lomax Wood ja Todd Dunham Harvey Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi saalis Tartus John A. Lomaxi (1867-1948) ja Alan Lomaxi (1915-2002) kogutud afroameerika folkloori, näidatakse dokumentaalfilmi "Land Where the Blues Began"

  8. Rough passage in USA for first breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) programme in the USA is reviewed, including administrative and technical problems. This programme is stated to be the highest priority energy research and development project supported by public funds, estimated at present to cost more than 10,000 million dollars, but it is beset by difficulties and criticism. (U.K.)

  9. USA kapitalivoog jõuab Eestisse / Roland Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Autor leiab, et on soodne hetk hakata arendama rohkem start-up ettevõtteid, kuna USA Föderaalreserv on aasta jooksul juurde trükkinud 600 miljardit dollarit ning Eesti Arengufondil ja riskikapitalifondidel nagu ASI on vajalik investeerimisraha olemas

  10. Policy and innovation: Nanoenergy technology in the USA and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Na; Guan, JianCheng

    2016-01-01

    The USA is a leading country while China is an up-and-coming one in nanotechnology. We carried out a cross-country comparative study on policy and innovation of the two countries in subset nanoenergy field. They both created favorable policy environments for nanotechnology involving applications of nanotechnology in the energy sector. However, Chinese policy deployments for nanotechnology lack coordinated arrangements and effective assessment mechanisms. China performs better than the USA in technological quantity, but weaker in technological influence. The USA expresses an industry-oriented model in nanoenergy technological research and development, but China exhibits a university-and-institute-oriented model. Interorganizational collaboration relationships in the two countries are both still very rare and have huge development space. They both have a long way to go in converting their technological achievements into commercial products, especially China. Finally, we provide the policy implications of this study. In particular, the Chinese government should strengthen its efforts in policies by changing the national S&T evaluation system to set up the basic idea that quality is better than quantity in order to raise the original innovation motivations of innovators. - Highlights: •We compare development status of nanoenergy technologies between China and the USA. •We mainly focus on their policies, innovation performance and pattern in nanoenergy. •Differences are observed in nanoenergy technologies developed in these two countries. •We propose their endeavor directions in nanoenergy based on this study.

  11. USA sõdib terrorismi vastu sobimatul moel / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Mõttekoja Rand Corporation analüüsi kohaselt ei piisa USA-l islamiekstremistidega võitlemisel vaid vägede suurendamisest, panustada tuleb kohalike võimude tõhustamisse, nende paremasse koolitamisse ja infovahetusse. Lisa: Guantanamo kuuik kohtu all

  12. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin R. Risch; John F. DeWild; David P. Krabbenhoft; Randall K. Kolka; Leiming. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall frompredominately deciduous forestswas measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry depositionwas significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (µg/m2), range 3.5-23.4 µg/m2...

  13. USA meedia kritiseerib Obama välispoliitikat / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2009-01-01

    ÜRO peaassambleel võeti vastu Ameerika Ühendriikide presidendi juhtimisel resolutsioon, kus kinnitatakse taas tahet muuta maailm tuumarelvavabaks, kuid USA ajakirjanikud ja poliitikud leiavad, et president ei ole maailmapoliitikas eriti midagi saavutanud. 25. septembril toimunud G20 tippkohtumisel otsustati, et globaalset majandust puudutavates küsimustes võetakse G8-lt juhiroll üle

  14. Kui Kerry saab USA presidendiks, siis... / Anvar Samost

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Samost, Anvar, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Autor võrdleb USA presidendi George W. Bushi ja presidendikandidaat John Kerry välispoliitilisi seisukohti ning leiab, et peaaegu kõigis välispoliitika küsimustes on nad ühel meelel ja mõnes küsimuses on Kerry vaated pigem radikaalsemad

  15. Napier ootab USA aktsiatelt 30% tõusu / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa suurpanga Credit Agricole üksuse CLSA strateegi Russell Napieri arvates on USA aktsiad karjuvalt madalalt hinnatud võrrreldes aktsiate dividendide ja ettevõtete kasumitega. Investeerimisel on tema soosingus kõrge dividenditootlusega aktsiad. Tema arvates hakkavad võlakirja tootlused järjekindlalt tõusma

  16. Experiencing Second-Wave Feminism in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biklen, Sari; Marshall, Catherine; Pollard, Diane

    2008-01-01

    How has feminism mattered in the lives of particular academic feminists? Three scholars in education whose careers developed during the era of second-wave feminism describe how their personal and political stances were affected by theories, methodological advances, the milieus of academia as well as legal, and political events in the USA. The…

  17. USA on Iraagis ülbe ja rumal? / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    USA välisministeeriumi ühe büroo avaliku diplomaatia direktor Alberto Fernandez tunnistas väidetavalt Al-Jazeera telekanalis esinedes, et ameeriklased olid Iraagis ülbed ja rumalad ning nüüd on vaja kõigi sealsete esindajatega läbirääkimisi pidada

  18. Julma USA sõdurit ootab elu vanglas / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    USA sõjavägi hakkab mõistma kohut veebel Calvin Gibbsi üle, keda peetakse afgaani tsiviilisikuid tapnud ja ohvrite laipu rüvetanud jõugu eestvedajaks. Calvin Gibbs eitab kõiki talle esitatud süüdistusi

  19. Genomovirus Genomes Recovered from Echinothrips americanus Sampled in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraberger, Simona; Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, Heather M.; Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Fontenele, Rafaela S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four genomovirus genomes were recovered from thrips (Echinothrips americanus) collected in Florida, USA. These represent four new species which are members of the Gemycircularvirus (n = 2), Gemyduguivirus (n = 1), and Gemykibivirus (n = 1) genera. This is the first record, to our knowledge, of genomoviruses associated with a phytophagous insect. PMID:28546499

  20. USA kriitikud pärjasid Clint Eastwoodi / A. F.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    A. F.

    2006-01-01

    USA rahvuslik filmikriitikute ühing (National Society of Film Critics) valis aasta parimaks filmiks Clint Eastwoodi "Kirjad Iwo Jimalt" ("Letters from Iwo Jima"), parimaks režissööriks Martin Scorsese ja parimaks võõrkeelseks filmiks Pedro Almodovari "Tagasitulek" ("Volver"). Sõnumis on ekslikult Iowa pro Iwa ja Almadovar pro Almodovar

  1. USA eitab Afganistani valimiste promomõju / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA suursaadiku Afganistanis Zalmay Khalilzadi väitel ei ole 9. oktoobril toimuvad valimised katse näidata enne Ameerika Ühendriikide valimisi, et valitsuse Afganistanis ja Iraagis võetud kurss on õige ja edukas. Lisa: Afganistani presidendivalimised

  2. The Current Landscape of the School Librarianship Curricula in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan; Turner, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The current landscape of the School Librarianship educational programs and curricula of master's degrees in the USA has been explored. The master's programs are currently offered in the following four venues: (1) programs that are American Library Association (ALA) accredited but not American Association of School Librarians (AASL) recognized,…

  3. Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates in 2 Pet Iguanas, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Ashley M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Koski, Marilyn A.; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A.; Swanson, Alexandra A.; Rood, Michael P.; Gee, Jay E.; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A.; Blaney, David D.; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Beeler, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  4. Reflections on Women and the Law in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs

    2008-01-01

    The USA has undergone extraordinary changes over the past 35 years with respect to women's access to equality in education, employment and participation in political life. This has come about because of the introduction of anti-discrimination legislation and because of the activities of professional organisations in activating the implementation…

  5. USA väikesed sõbrad Valges Majas / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2018-01-01

    President Kersti Kaljulaid külastab Washingtoni ja kohtub USA riigipea Donald Trumpiga. Eesti presidentide eelmistest kohtumistest USA riigipeadega ning Eesti ja Ameerika Ühendriikide kaitsekoostööst

  6. Enamik Mõtteloo Sihtkapitali rahast kasvab USA aktsiates / Mart Trummal ; interv. Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trummal, Mart

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu Eesti Mõtteloo Sihtkapitali juhi Mart Trummaliga. Tabel: Mõtteloo Sihtkapitali vara on USA-s noteeritud indeksifondides; Investeeringud Eesti aktsiatesse. Diagramm: Finantsinvesteeringute maht. Vt. samas: Anne Oja. Dividendisaajate esirinnas. Kommenteerib Annika Matson

  7. USA kongresmen Chandler - sõber, kes aitas Eestil tunnustust leida / Eric A. Johnson, Oliver Prits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Advokaadi ja USA kongressi liikme Walter M. Chandleri (1867-1935) tegevusest Balti riikide de jure tunnustamiseks. Lisatud: USA valitsuse avaldus Balti riikide tunnustamisest ; väike elulugu : Jeesuse advokaat

  8. Euroliit palus USA-l sulgeda Guantanamo vangla / Kaarel Kaas, Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 22. juuni lk. 8. Euroopa Liidu ja USA tippkohtumisel Viinis oli arutluse all Guantanamo vangilaagri sulgemine, kõneldi Iraani tuumaprogrammist, maailmakaubandusest ning USA viisavabaduse kehtestamisest kõigile Euroopa Liidu liikmetele

  9. Alar Laneman siirdub USA-sse kaitseatašeeks / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Brigaadikindral Alar Lanemanist võib saada Eesti kaitseatašee USA-s. Endise kaitseministri Jürgen Ligi sõnul oli A. Laneman osaline mitmetes juhtimisvigades ning neist ühe puhul kestab senini kriminaalasi

  10. National Assessment of Tree City USA Participation According to Geography and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree City USA is a national program that recognizes municipal commitment to community forestry. In return for meeting program requirements, Tree City USA participants expect social, economic, and/or environmental benefits. Understandingthe geographic distribution and socioeconomi...

  11. USA seab tõkkeid odavatele Hiinas toodetud kaupadele / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    USA kaubandusdefitsiit Hiinaga kasvab, USA Kongress süüdistab Hiinat ebaausas konkurentsis ja on seadmas Hiina kaupadele impordipiiranguid. Hiina kaalub vastusanktsioone. Diagramm: Kaubandusdefitsiit Hiinaga süveneb

  12. Acculturation, depression and oral health of immigrants in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huabin; Hybels, Celia F; Wu, Bei

    2017-12-21

    The objectives were to describe the oral health status of immigrants in the USA, describe the association between acculturation and oral health by accounting for the effects of depression and to explore the effects of interaction between acculturation and depression on the oral health of immigrants. Data were from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Oral health status was assessed by both self-rated oral health and clinically diagnosed periodontitis, each coded as a binary outcome. Acculturation was operationalised as length of stay in the USA and speaking English at home. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of acculturation and depression status with oral health. In 2011-2012, 36.6% immigrants reported poor oral health and 53.0% were diagnosed with periodontitis. A length of stay in the USA of 30+ years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.43, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.21-0.89) reduced the odds of having periodontitis in comparison with a length of stay in the USA of fewer than 5 years. Speaking English at home (AOR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.96) reduced the odds of having periodontitis compared with speaking other languages. Depression was negatively associated with self-reported good oral health (AOR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.92) and positively associated with clinically diagnosed periodontitis (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.18-3.04). The effects of acculturation did not differ according to depression status. A longer stay in the USA and speaking English at home were associated with less periodontitis among the immigrants. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. The evolution of nuclear power in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    The development and deployment of commercial nuclear power in the USA has been impressive since the programme began in the early 1950s. Today there are 73 commercial power reactors operating in the USA with combined capacity of about 56 GW(e). By 1990, an additional 64 nuclear power plants with a total capacity of approximately 123 GW(e) will be in operation supplying about 25% of US electrical energy requirements. Despite the cancellation of 91 new units since 1972 and lack of any new plant orders, there is a clear and continuing role for nuclear energy in the USA if we are to experience continued economic growth. New growth for US nuclear industry requires several things to happen. The prospective demand for electricity and new generating plants must increase; the US Government must show that it will fulfill its responsibilities to dispose of nuclear waste; a more stable regulatory process must be implemented so that nuclear power plants can be built with a reasonable degree of assurance beforehand as to what the final design, cost and schedule will be. President Reagan's July 1981 policy statement on Non-Proliferation and Peaceful Nuclear Co-operation and October 1981 Domestic Nuclear Policy Statement provide the policy framework necessary for the USA to maintain a viable domestic nuclear industry to enable nuclear power to make its essential contribution to future US energy needs and to re-establish the USA as a predictable and reliable partner for international nuclear co-operation under adequate safeguards. The US Government has structured its programmes and activities to implement these policies and initiatives. (author)

  14. Afganistan ja USA tülitsevad vangide ja oopiumi pärast / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushiga kohtumise järel nõudis Afganistani president Hamid Karzai USA käes olevate Afganistani vangide väljaandmist, ta oli nördinud teadete üle, kuidas vange on koheldud. Karzai nõudis kontrolli Afganistanis viibivate USA sõdurite üle ja relvastatud reidide lõpetamist afgaanide kodudesse. Lisa: USA ründab Afganistani narkoäri

  15. Eesti saab tõenäoliselt USA-lt pooletoobise viisavabaduse / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    Algasid läbirääkimised USA-ga viisavabaduse saavutamiseks. USA eksperdid tulevad hindama Eesti riigipiiri pidavust, koostatakse vastastikuse arusaamise memorandum. Tõenäoliselt hakkab Eesti puhul kehtima teistsugune süsteem kui on praegu 27 riigil, kellel on USA-ga viisavabadus ja kellest 15 on EL-i nn vanad riigid. USA sisejulgeoleku ministeeriumi asekantsleri Richard Barthi seisukohti. Vt. samas: Eesti näide võib tekitada vastuolulist reaktsiooni

  16. USA ärritab Poolat ideega ehitada raketikilp hoopis Leetu / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Kuigi USA ja Poola vahel jätkuvad läbirääkimised raketikilbi üle, on rahvusvahelisse meediasse imbunud oletus, et USA võib raketikilbi paigutada hoopis Leetu. Poola asevälisministri Witold Waszczykowski hinnangul kasutab USA Leedut survestusvahendina. Nii Leedu välisministeerium kui ka USA-poolne kõneluste juht John Rood kinnitavad, et raketikilbiküsimust on riigid omavahel arutanud

  17. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts.

  18. Tšehhi võimud tahavad endale USA raketikilpi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    USA rajab 2011. aastaks raketirünnakute tõrje süsteemi. Raketikilbi Euroopa-keskuse asukohale kandideerivad Tšehhi ja Poola, samas on suur osa tshehhe USA baasi rajamise vastu. Skeem: USA tähesõdade programm. Lisa: Peaminister vaid nime poolest

  19. 78 FR 30333 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (Usa), Llc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (Usa), Llc. By Notice dated November 19, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on November 27, 2012, 77 FR 70825, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road... 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Siegfried (USA), LLC., to manufacture the...

  20. 77 FR 30027 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (USA) By Notice dated January 6, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2323, Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey... U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Siegfried (USA), to manufacture the listed...

  1. 78 FR 64020 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried USA, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...; Notice of Registration; Siegfried USA, LLC By Notice dated May 22, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on May 30, 2013, 78 FR 32458, Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey... determined that the registration of Siegfried USA, LLC., to manufacture the listed basic class of controlled...

  2. 78 FR 64020 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Siegfried USA, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ..., Notice of Registration, Siegfried USA, LLC The Notice dated July 23, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2013, 78 FR 46613, page 18338, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road...), and Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670). On August 6, 2013, Siegfried (USA), LLC., subsequently withdrew...

  3. Die territorialen Grenzen der Human Rights Litigation in den USA / Michael Stürner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stürner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Kahju hüvitamisest rahvusvaheliste õigusnormide rikkumise puhul, territoriaalsetest piiridest inimõiguste alases kohtuvaidluses USA-s. Kohtuasjast Kiobel versus Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. Ameerika Ühendriikide kohtutesse saab esitada inimõiguste rikkumisega seotud hagisid ka USA kodakondsust mitteomavad inimesed

  4. Ravimitööstuse tuleviku kujundavad USA pensionärid / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Kolmveerand maailma ravimitööstuse kasumist tuleb USA-st. Ravimitootjate tähelepanu pälvivad need haigused, mis USA-s enim levinud - kõige rohkem on raha eraldatud ülekaalulisusega seotud haiguste, samuti vähi raviks

  5. Homeschooling as an Alternative Form of Educational Provision in South Africa and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Esther; Theron, Tinie

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies homeschooling as an alternative form of educational provision in South Africa and USA to determine what knowledge and experiences from research on homeschooling in the USA may be relevant to the South Africa situation. Homeschooling in the USA has a sound legal foundation and has become an acceptable educational alternative.…

  6. USA saadik loodab võita eestlaste poolehoiu / Joseph M. DeThomas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DeThomas, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Joseph DeThomas vastab on-line intervjuus Eesti Päevalehe lugejate küsimustele Iraagi ründamise, USA ja Euroopa vahelise lõhe, USA Eesti saatkonna võimaliku ümberkolimise kohta

  7. USA saadik : Lihula sammas oli solvav / Aldona Zofia Wos ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wos, Aldona Zofia

    2005-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti-USA suhteid, eestlaste võimalust saada kunagi sõita USA-sse ilma viisata, Lihula mälestusmärgi mahavõtmist, valimisi ja jätkuvat vägivalda Iraagis, HI-viiruse levikut

  8. ÜRO asesekretäri kriitika USA suunal ajas viimase marru / Liise Lehtsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtsalu, Liise

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO asesekretär Malloch Brown kritiseeris oma kõnes USA tahtmatust teavitada ameeriklasi ÜRO osast USA välispoliitikas. USA ÜRO-suursaadiku John Boltoni reageering Browni märkustele. Lisa: Rikaste ja vaeste riikide vastuolud

  9. Blair üritab muuta USA Euroopa-meelsemaks / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi ja Suurbritannia peaministri Tony Blairi kohtumine Valges Majas. Blairi parteikaaslase Helen Jacksoni kriitika Blairi USA-poliitika kohta. Suurbritannia endise välisministri Robin Cooki sõnul on USA ja Euroopa poliitilised väärtushinnangud pigem lahknemas kui ühtimas

  10. USA : rünnak võib olla parim kaitse / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA uues rahvusliku julgeoleku strateegias rõhutatakse, et tuumaambitsioonidega Iraak kujutab USA jaoks suurimat strateegilist väljakutset ning märgitakse, et teatud juhtudel on ohtude ennetamiseks vajalik jõu kasutamine. Vt. samas: Ameeriklaste toetus Iraagi sõjale väheneb. Lisa: Pessimistlik USA

  11. USA moos määrib Eesti naabritest mõjukamaks / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2007-01-01

    Sel sügisel on toimunud mitu Eesti ja USA poliitikute kohtumist. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja kaitseminister Jaak Aaviksoo USA-visiitide korraldamisega kursis olevad ametnikud ei nõustu, et kohtumiste taga oleks olnud USA lobitöö Iraagi missiooni pikendamiseks

  12. Valge Maja hämab USA vägede tulevikust Iraagis / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Kuigi USA president George W. Bush on kõnelenud ja USA vägede ülemjuhataja Iraagis George Casey esitanud konkreetse plaani USA vägede väljatoomisest Iraagist, pole Valge Maja konkreetset plaani ametlikult kinnitanud. Lisa: Sõjatandrilt lahkumine

  13. Eesti-USA suhetes loevad väärtused / Vello Andres Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Vello, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Järva Teataja 30. nov. lk. 6 lüh. Tartu Ülikooli võrdleva poliitika professor vastab Postimees Online'i lugejate küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA presidendi visiiti Eestisse, viisavabadust USA-ga, USA presidendi võimu, NATO-t, välispoliitikat, riikidevahelisi suhteid, ajakirjandusvabadust, inimõigusi ja demokraatiat

  14. EL taotleb USA-lt viisavabaduse võrdsust / Ahto Lobjakas, Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjon soovib, et USA kiirendaks EL-i uute liikmesriikide kaasamist oma viisavabastusprogrammi. USA peab illegaalseid tööotsijaid üheks peamiseks tõkkeks viisavabaduse saavutamise teel. Kriteeriumidest, millele peavad USA-ga viisavabadust taotlevad riigid vastama

  15. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... in the business of purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG, and is a customer of the Cameron... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-161-LNG] Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket..., by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA Gas Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export...

  16. USA välisminister kaitses CIA salaaktsioone vangidega / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice kaitses Berliinis USA Luure Keskagentuuri (CIA) salaaktsioone. Välisminister teatas, et USA ei piina vange ning kinnipeetavate välisriikidesse toimetamise eesmärk on vältida terrorirünnakuid ja päästa inimelusid

  17. 75 FR 8920 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose, Galactose and Mannose); Thomson, IL... subzone at the xylitol, xylose, galactose and mannose manufacturing facility of Danisco USA, Inc... xylitol, xylose, galactose and mannose at the facility of Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division, located...

  18. S&P: meie kohus oli USA riigireitingut alandada / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Standard & Poor´s langetas USA reitingut tasemelt AAA tasemeni AA+. Agentuuri esindaja sõnul oli reitingu alandamine nende kohustus, sest nende arvates oli USA senine reiting liiga kõrge. Hiina nõuab, et USA hakkaks oma võlaprobleemiga tegelema. AAA reiting on nüüd vaid 15 riigil või territooriumil maailmas

  19. 76 FR 87 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Skechers USA, LLC (Distribution of Footwear); Moreno...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Status; Skechers USA, LLC (Distribution of Footwear); Moreno Valley, California Pursuant to its authority... distribution facility of Skechers USA, LLC, located in Moreno Valley, California, (FTZ Docket 5- 2008, filed 2... activity related to footwear warehousing and distribution at the facility of Skechers USA, LLC, located in...

  20. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ..., USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source... Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), including on- site leased... of February 2013, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology...

  1. 75 FR 6397 - AMC USA, Inc. v. International First Service S.A. a/k/a IFS S.A, its Agents, Affiliated, Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Service USA, Inc. a/k/a IFS USA, Inc. d/b/a Global Wine Logistics USA Inc. a/k/a GWL USA, Inc., and Global... Wine Logistics USA Inc. a/k/a GWL USA, Inc. (``GWL USA''); Anita McNeil; International First Service... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 10-01] AMC USA, Inc. v. International First Service S.A. a...

  2. International strategies of business incubation: the USA, Germany and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Tsaplin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine strategies of business incubation in the following countries: the USA, Germany and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies. We find that there are more differences than similarities between the strategies of business incubation in these countries. The USA prove to be far ahead of Germany and especially Russia in supporting start-ups. The study might impact a business practice in the way of clarifying the most significant characteristics and general trends of business incubation strategies in the countries mentioned to take them into account in the process of launching and developing startup companies in one or another country.

  3. Distant education of gifted children in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogozhkina I. B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Distant teaching which helps to realize the main principles of contemporary education: «teaching throughout» and «lifelong teaching» becomes more and more indemand. The possibility to get education for the residents of remote districts, excess to contemporary data bases, scientific libraries and learning materials of high quality, possibility to study at a time convenient for a student and in a tempo acceptable to the one makes distant education one of the most effective form of work with gifted children. System of distant education in the USA which is one of the most sophisticated one involves a big variety of programs and courses for both ordinary and gifted students. The article analyzes the existing in the USA on-line programs for gifted children, reveals their advantages and disadvantages, discusses the distant forms of work applicable to teaching of gifted children in Russia.

  4. Prevention of injury and violence in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I; Degutis, Linda C

    2014-07-05

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  6. National Fire Risk Map for Continental USA: Creation and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q; Wollersheim, M; Griffiths, S; Maddox, I

    2014-01-01

    A nation-wide fire risk map for the continental USA has been created based on a hybrid fire risk model, incorporating a combination of static risk indicators which change very slowly over time, and dynamic risk indicators that may vary significantly from week-to-week. Static risk indicators include: terrain elevation, terrain slope, terrain aspect, and distance from roads and settlements. Each of the static risk indicators are derived from Intermap's high-accuracy NEXTMap ® USA database. The dynamic risk indicators are derived from satellite-based multi-spectral imagery and provide a snapshot of the fuel-moisture conditions during fire seasons. Each of these risk indicators are combined to produce a map provided at 5m posting and normalized to the range of 0 (very low risk) and 255 (very high risk). The map has been validated in two selected areas using historical fire information

  7. New directions for psychiatric rehabilitation in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G R; Drake, R E

    2017-06-01

    American researchers have led the world in developing, evaluating, and disseminating evidence-based psychiatric rehabilitation practices for people with serious mental illness. Paradoxically, however, the USA lags behind most industrialized nations in providing access to high-quality mental health and psychiatric services. This essay examines several evidence-based practices developed in the USA, the spread of these practices, the barriers to ensuring availability to people who could benefit from these services, and some promising directions for overcoming the barriers. Factors influencing the growth and sustainment of effective client-centred practices include the availability of adequate and stable funding, committed leadership, and the influence of vested interests. Two strategies for promoting the spread and sustainment of well-implemented evidence-based practices are the adoption of fidelity scales and learning communities.

  8. Case study : power distribution PBR plans of National Grid USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation described the progressive approach taken by the Northeastern United States towards electric power restructuring and performance based ratemaking (PBR) with reference to National Grid USA and the NEES tradition of pursuing regulatory matters. The catalyst for change was the NEES acquisition of EUA (and National Grid USA acquisition of NEES). Another catalyst for change was the desire to merge operating companies and consolidate rates. This paper described the settlement negotiations of the New England Process with reference to meeting the customer's desire for lower electricity prices and rate stability.The paper also described a multi-year PBR-based plan proposed for Niagara Mohawk which offers incentives for both cost efficiency and service quality. It was concluded that PBR is a sound basis for optimizing customer and shareholder benefits. It was emphasized that while PBR has universal application, detailed implementation must be sensitive to local issues and priorities. tabs., figs

  9. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONCEPTS OF PHILOLOGICAL EDUCATION IN THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bidyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodical foundations of higher philological education in the USA have been considered. Modern trends in the development of philology as a scientific field and a direction of professional training in the USA have been found out. Sociocultural peculiarities of philological education in the USA have been revealed. The essence of transformation processes in the philologists’ training at present time has been considered. They are: diversity and flexibility of educational programs; close relationship of higher education and linguistic communities; «major-minor» specialization; using of innovative forms and methods; reducing stress and increasing classroom time for independent students’ work; providing free access to education; improving elective education system; academic students’ mobility; implementing of «expert systems» into the quality of educational outcomes; creating conditions for ethnic minorities education. The transformation of the philological education system at conceptual, legal and normative, organizational and pedagogical, content-based, institutional and sociocultural levels has been analyzed. It has been found out that the content of the training provides for the integration of social and humanitarian, linguistic, literature-based, translational components of learning outcomes directed at forming a competent philologist-researcher, philologist-translator/interpreter, philologist-literary scholar, thus a highly moral, cultured personality. Key competencies of a philologist (linguistic, literature-based, translational, cross-cultural, information, research have been singled out and characterized. Special attention has been paid to the problem of providing quality philological education; in particular, the criteria and their indicators have been singled out. Perspectives for further researches on the problem of philological education in the USA have been outlined.

  10. Federal support for health physics education in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    In the USA there is a critical shortage of highly trained and educated health physicists. The university programmes in health physics have had difficulties in keeping up with this high employment demand. In order to solve this problem the US Department of Energy has instituted two graduate fellowship programmes to encourage talented students to enter education and eventually accept a career in health physics. (author). 8 refs

  11. Forschungspolitik USA weisen zunehmend ausländische Physikstudenten ab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührke, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    In keinem anderen Land der Erde ist der Anteil ausländischer Studenten im Fach Physik größer als in den USA. Nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September werden jedoch zunehmend ausländische Studenten, insbesondere aus China und dem mittleren Osten, abgewiesen - zum Leidwesen der Studenten und der Universitäten.http://www.aip.org/statistics

  12. Development of Teachers’ Alternative Certification in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals the prerequisites of appearance of alternative ways to train teachers in the USA at the end of the XX century as main mechanisms to increase qualitative and quantitative characteristics of teaching staff. The author concentrates the attention on the advantages and disadvantages of non-traditional ways to acquire teaching profession. The peculiarities of the development in different states of the country, main characteristics of the training with the help of alternative pro...

  13. USA kahepaiksest mängust / Jüri Lina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lina, Jüri, 1949-

    2000-01-01

    Sama artikkel on ilmunud ka Eesti 2000 : sõltumatu almanahh ühiskonna ja vaimuelu küsimustes nr. 4 ja nr. 6. Autori väitel on USA muu hulgas huvitatud maakera rahvastiku drastilisest vähendamisest, seepärast ongi pärast Teist maailmasõda kunstlikult lõkkele puhutud sadu sõjalisi konflikte. Lisatud Jüri Lina lühielulugu lk. 23

  14. Travel and tourism in the USA: industry development trends

    OpenAIRE

    Smal, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    The travel and tourism industry has evolved over the past six decades into one of the world’s most significant economic sectors. Travel and tourism are critical to the American economy. This growing industry offers significant potential for job creation across all regions of the country. A considerable competitive advantage of the USA as a tourism destination lies in the variety of experiences the country offers, ranging from large cities and small-town to the many unique historic places and ...

  15. Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA Chelsea L. Wright, Robyn M. Nadolny, Ju Jiang, Allen L. Richards, Daniel E...Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in...or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen. Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging

  16. Maintenance program developmentandImport /Export of Aircraft in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Takele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...

  17. USA toetab arvatust enam Ukraina opositsiooni / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Briti ajalehe The Guardian kommentaatori Ian Traynor'i sõnul on Ukraina sündmuste puhul tegemist viimase nelja aasta jooksul juba neljanda USA poolt korraldatud ja finantseeritud ettevõtmisega endises idablokis, kus soovitakse vanameelseid režiime võimult tõugata. Sarnase skeemi järgi on tema hinnangul toimunud valimistejärgsed rahutused Jugoslaavias, Gruusias ja Valgevenes

  18. GIS tool to locate major Sikh temples in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saumya

    This tool is a GIS based interactive and graphical user interface tool, which locates the major Sikh temples of USA on a map. This tool is using Java programming language along with MOJO (Map Object Java Object) provided by ESRI that is the organization that provides the GIS software. It also includes some of the integration with Google's API's like Google Translator API. This application will tell users about the origin of Sikhism in India and USA, the major Sikh temples in each state of USA, location, name and detail information through their website. The primary purpose of this application is to make people aware about this religion and culture. This tool will also measure the distance between two temple points in a map and display the result in miles and kilometers. Also, there is an added support to convert each temple's website language from English to Punjabi or any other language using a language convertor tool so that people from different nationalities can understand their culture. By clicking on each point on a map, a new window will pop up showing the picture of the temple and a hyperlink that will redirect to the website of that particular temple .It will also contain links to their dance, music, history, and also a help menu to guide the users to use the software efficiently.

  19. USA hCG reference service, 10-year report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A; Laidler, Laura L; Muller, Carolyn Y

    2010-08-01

    The USA hCG Reference Service has been dealing with cases of persistent low levels of hCG and gestational trophoblastic diseases for 10years. Here we present the complete experience. Total hCG in serum and urine was measured using the Siemen's Immulite 1000 assay. Hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, free ss-subunit and ss-core fragment were measured using microtiterplate assays with antibodies B152, B151, FBT11 and B210, respectively. The USA hCG Reference Service has identified 83 cases of false-positive hCG, 71 cases of aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), 52 cases of minimally invasive GTD, 168 cases of quiescent GTD and 22 cases of placenta site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT). In addition, 103 cases of pituitary hCG have been identified, 60 cases of nontrophoblastic tumor, 4 cases of inherited hCG and 2 cases of Munchausen's syndrome. This is 565 cases total. Multiple new methods are described and tested for diagnosing all of these disorders. The USA hCG Reference Service experience shows new methods for detecting multiple hCG-related disorders and recommends new approaches for detecting these hCG-related disorders. 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Capital costs of light water reactors: the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, G.

    1979-10-01

    The cost of building a modern nuclear power plant is greater than that of almost any other single civilian project - costs of individual plants are reckoned in hundreds of millions of pounds in the UK, and up to a billion dollars or more in the USA. Hence, depending on the size of nuclear programmes and their funding, escalation of nuclear capital costs may have important economic and social consequences through its effects on overall resource allocation. It is therefore important to analyse the extent and, as far as possible, the sources of cost increases and escalation, in order to see if the experience yields implications for technology policy. The USA has much the greatest experience in nuclear construction: it also has by far the largest amount of published information on the subject of capital costs. As all other countries lack either sufficient experience and/or adequate published cost information, it is impossible to conduct a genuine international comparison, and this paper is confined to an examination of US experience. This paper therefore assembles and evaluates currently available data on light water reactor (PWR and BWR) capital costs in the USA. (author)

  1. Energy conservation in ICT-businesses. Green computing in the USA; Energiereductie topprioriteit ICT-bedrijven. Green computing is hot in de USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulsebos, M.

    2007-09-15

    A brief overview of the initiatives in ICT-businesses in the USA to save energy, also known as 'green computing'. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht van de initiatieven bij ICT-bedrijven in de USA om energie te besparen, ook bekend onder de naam 'green computing'.

  2. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. National energy programmes and plans of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fri, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Following President Carter's direction, the United States of America has developed a major new national energy policy which places greater emphasis on energy conservation as well as the intensified use of alternate technologies to reduce US dependence on petroleum and natural gas. The President's programme includes a multi-pronged coal conversion effort, the goal of installing two-and-a-half million US solar-equipped homes by 1985, and continued US execution of a wide-ranging programme of research and development. Nuclear power also continues to figure prominently in the US energy programme, with significant reliance being placed on the light water reactor which has proven its safety and value through years of reliable experience. The US Government is taking major steps to facilitate further the wide-scale domestic use of light water reactors by seeking major simplifications in the domestic licensing process; by expanding US enrichment capacity; by conducting a major effort to exploit its resources of natural uranium feed and by moving decisively to resolve effectively the problem of waste disposal by targeting to install a prototypical long-term waste repository by 1985. The USA, however, recognizes that uranium reserves ultimately may run out and to this end it is launching a comprehensive assessment of the type of second-generation facilities that it should construct, giving higher priority than ever before to the investigation of alternate systems that may be more attractive from a non-proliferation standpoint. (This includes an examination of the feasibility of options that might serve to reduce or avoid access to weapons-usable materials.) The USA is approaching this evaluation without preconceptions and believes its review can occur on a timely basis without adversely impacting on continued timely use of light water systems. The USA, however, recognizes that, depending on their energy circumstances, various nations have differing views as to how best to

  4. by shale gas producers in USA and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Galimska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is analysis and comparison of the standards used for preparation of financial statementsby enterprises looking for and extracting shale gas in Poland and in the USA. The author reviewsthe different accounting regulations underlying financial reporting of companies operating in this field.Nowadays, globalization and constant development of financial markets cause intensified expectations ofshareholders regarding the attributes of financial statements. The author points out the high level of specializationand comprehensiveness of American regulations. In contrast, international accounting standardsaddress only the initial phase of the process of alternative hydrocarbons extraction, which results ina lack of financial reports’ consistency and decline of investors’ interest.

  5. USA kindral: muutustel on kõrge hind / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves alustas 5. oktoobril 2010. a. töövisiiti Afganistanis, kohtudes pealinnas Kabulis Afganistani presidendi Hamid Karzaiga. Eesti riigipea kohtus ka rahvusvaheliste julgeolekutagamisjõudude (ISAF) komandöri, USA kindrali David Petraeusega. Vt. samas: 3 küsimust president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele. Tsitaat T.H. Ilveselt vt. ka lk. 13. Artikkel lühend. ilmunud ka: Sakala 6. okt. 2010, lk. 5, pealk.: President Toomas Hendrik Ilves sõitis Afganistani. Töövisiit Afganistani 03.-08.10.2010

  6. SEGMENTING THE U.S.A. NON-TRAVEL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne W. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism marketers focus on understanding the many different segments that comprise their visitors. Understanding these segments’ motivations for travel is important in order to motivate repeat visitation and to attract like-minded consumers to visit. But how about those who do not travel? This surprisingly large percentage of the population is a lost opportunity for the industry. The research that follows, based upon a very significant USA-based sample of non-travelers, suggests that non-travelers can be effectively segmented and targeted. Understanding these segments will better allow vacation marketers to craft their product and their message, hopefully bringing more travelers to the mix.

  7. Inflation, GDP growth and population change in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kitov

    2005-01-01

    Inflation in the USA between 1960 and 2004 is studied in the framework of the revealed rigidity of the personal income distribution normalized to the total nominal GDP. Inflation is found to be a mechanism, which prevents changes in the relative incomes induced by economic growth and population changes - both in number and age structure. A model is developed linking CPI to GDP growth rate and relative change of the number of people of some specific age. The GDP growth rate is characterized by...

  8. Targeted initiatives. Support for nuclear engineering education in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, John

    2001-01-01

    Recruitment and education of a new generation of nuclear engineers stands to benefit in the USA from a range of programmes involving governmental bodies, universities, and industry groups. They are part of efforts to attract more students to consider and prepare for careers in the nuclear industry, and to provide financial support for nuclear research and education. Career prospects in the nuclear field are brightening. The demand for nuclear engineers and nuclear trained personnel is on the rise as the new century opens. During the past year several studies were completed in an attempt to ascertain the problems in nuclear engineering education and define initiatives to address these problems

  9. [Molecular imaging; current status and future prospects in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the definition, current status, and future prospects of the molecular imaging, which has recently been a hot topic in medicine and the biological science in USA. In vivo imaging methods to visualize the molecular events and functions in organs or animals/humans are overviewed and discussed especially in combinations of imaging modalities (machines) and contrast agents(chemicals) used in the molecular imaging. Next, the close relationship between the molecular imaging and the nanotechnology, an important part of nanomedicine, is stressed from the aspect of united multidisciplinary sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  10. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Chestnoy; Dinara Gershinkova

    2017-01-01

    In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in address...

  11. Here comes the sun. Solar energy technology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wees, G.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the energy policy in the USA with respect to solar energy technology and the marketing of solar energy applications. In particular, attention is paid to the Million Solar Roofs programme, small-scale and medium-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems (Residential PV and Utility Scale PV), solar thermal systems (Parabolic Trough, Power tower, and Solar Dish/Engine). Also examples of passive solar systems are given. Finally, a number of aspects with regard to market implementation, e.g. net-metering. 9 refs

  12. Graphite development for gas-cooled reactors in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) graphite activities in the USA which currently include the following research and development tasks: coke examination; effects of irradiation; variability of physical properties (mechanical, thermal-physical, and fracture); fatigue behavior, oxidation behavior; NDE techniques; structural design criteria; and carbon-carbon composite control rod clad materials. These tasks support nuclear grade graphite manufacturing technology including nondestructive examination of billets and components. Moreover, data shall be furnished to support design and licensing of graphite components for the MHTGR

  13. Space Weather Forecasting and Supporting Research in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevtsov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the United State, scientific research in space weather is funded by several Government Agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). For civilian and commercial purposes, space weather forecast is done by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Observational data for modeling come from the network of groundbased observatories funded via various sources, as well as from the instruments on spacecraft. Numerical models used in forecast are developed in framework of individual research projects. The article provides a brief review of current state of space weather-related research and forecasting in the USA.

  14. USA program on the waste disposal of nuclear military complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, I.

    1992-01-01

    The USA program on the nuclear military complex waste disposal which focuses on the problems of environment protection and recovery is briefly considered. A group of works on the updating of the existing and on the construction of new nuclear weapon undustries is chosen to be the priority direction. The problem of radioactive waste burial in the Hunford nuclear complex is discussed. Total expenses for military enterprise purification from radioactive wastes are estimated as 91.2-129 billion dollars, and expenses for realization of the whole program are estimated as 180 billion dollars for 50 years

  15. Atmospheric mercury deposition to forests in the eastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Gay, David A.; Zhang, Leiming; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007–2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data. Rates of litterfall-Hg deposition were higher than or equal to precipitation-Hg deposition rates in 70% of the annual data, which indicates a substantial contribution from litterfall to total atmospheric-Hg deposition. Annual litterfall-Hg deposition in this study had a median of 11.7 μg per square meter per year (μg/m 2 /yr) and ranged from 2.2 to 23.4 μg/m 2 /yr. It closely matched modeled dry-Hg deposition, based on land cover at selected NADP Hg-monitoring sites. Mean annual atmospheric-Hg deposition at forest study sites exhibited a spatial pattern partly explained by statistical differences among five forest-cover types and related to the mapped density of Hg emissions. Forest canopies apparently recorded changes in atmospheric-Hg concentrations over time because litterfall-Hg concentrations decreased year to year and litterfall-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in 2007–2009 than in 2012–2014. These findings reinforce reported decreases in Hg emissions and atmospheric elemental-Hg concentrations during this same time period. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in all litterfall samples at all sites, compared with MeHg detections in less than half the precipitation samples at selected sites during the study. These results indicate MeHg in litterfall is a pathway into the terrestrial food web where it can

  16. Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Jiratchariyakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

  17. Water hammer in USA nuclear power plants and it's evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuqian.

    1987-01-01

    The results of evaluations about the water hammer events in USA nuclear power plants in recent years are summarily reported. The evaluations included underlying causes and frequency of water hammer events, damages incurred and systems affected. Through the evaluations about water hammer events and on the basis of past operation experiences in nuclear power plants, the design and operational modifications to prevent or mitigate water hammer events were presented. The NRC's current opinions relating to the water hammer problems are summarized, the importance of water hammer events for nuclear power plants construction in China is indicated

  18. Print og netaviser i Danmark, USA og Frankrig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Willig, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Denne artikel undersøger forskelle og ligheder mellem print og netaviser i Danmark, USA og Frankrig, både på tværs af platforme og på tværs af de tre analyserede lande. Den komparative analyse sker med udgangspunkt i mediesystemteori, hvor Danmark er placeret i den korporative/demokratiske model,...... vinde indpas på bekostning af de andre modeller. Denne artikels resultater peger dog på, at kommercielle aspekter muligvis har større indflydelse på tværs af alle tre modeller, når det komparative fokus skifter fra print til net....

  19. The Great Recession: a comparison of recession magnitudes in Europe, USA and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    In this article recession magnitudes in Europe, the USA and Japan during the Great Recession are compared. The strongest recessions (of severe category) occurred in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, while recessions in Japan and the USA were significantly weaker. Even the strongest recession (in Latvia) was found smaller in its magnitude than the Great Depression 1929-1933 in the USA. Hence, comparisons of the Great Recession to the Great Depression in the literature are somewhat exaggerated.

  20. Eesti ja USA juhtide kohtumiste peateema on NATO ja demokraatia / Vahur Koorits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koorits, Vahur, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi visiidi ajal toimuvatel USA ja Eesti riigijuhtide kohtumistel räägitakse NATO ja demokraatia tulevikust, samuti tulevad kõne alla missioonid Afganistanis ja Iraagis ning eestlaste viisavabadus USA-sse reisimisel. Lisa: Millest kavatsevad riigijuhid kohtumistel rääkida: Ansip, Ilves, Bush. Vt. samas: Bushi visiidi ajal vilksatab Eesti üheks õhtuks ameeriklaste teleekraanidel

  1. USA väed võivad hakata Iraagist lahkuma / Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    USA on Iraagis toimuvate valimiste eel saatnud sinna lisavägesid. Vägivalla tõttu võivad mõnes Iraagi piirkonnas valimised ära jääda. USA välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul võivad USA sõdurid juba sel aastal hakata järk-järgult Iraagist lahkuma, kui Iraagil endal õnnestub saada suurem roll turvalisuse tagamisel. Lisa: Kaotused Iraagis

  2. Viisavabadus USA-ga läheneb vaidlustes / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    USA soovib Eesti kodanike viisanõudest vabastamiseks kõrgendatud turvameetmeid. Viisavabadust taotlev Tšehhi sõlmis USA-ga vastastikuse mõistmise memorandumi, EL-i nn. vanad liikmesriigid ja Euroopa Komisjon süüdistavad USA-ga kahepoolsete lepingute sõlmijaid Euroopa ühtsuse lõhestamises. Lisa: Eesti sõlmib lepingu ilmselt märtsi keskel

  3. Nuclear electricity in the U.S.A. - A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, W B [American Nuclear Society, Hinsdale, IL (United States)

    1990-06-01

    The status of nuclear electricity programs in the USA is reviewed. About 20% of the electricity in the USA comes from nuclear generating stations. The potential impact of greenhouse concerns is prominent in plans for the future. Advanced reactor programs for water, liquid metal and gas cooled systems is reviewed. Safety and plant economics feature prominently in future considerations. The increasing average availability of nuclear stations in the USA provides some insights on lessons to be learned for the future. (author)

  4. Nuclear electricity in the U.S.A. - A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The status of nuclear electricity programs in the USA is reviewed. About 20% of the electricity in the USA comes from nuclear generating stations. The potential impact of greenhouse concerns is prominent in plans for the future. Advanced reactor programs for water, liquid metal and gas cooled systems is reviewed. Safety and plant economics feature prominently in future considerations. The increasing average availability of nuclear stations in the USA provides some insights on lessons to be learned for the future. (author)

  5. Fossil fuels and air pollution in USA after the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuveliov, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses environmental issues in the USA after the Clean Air Act. Economic damage assessment to population and environment due to air pollution from stationary and mobile sources producing and utilizing fossil fuels in the USA for the period of 1970--1986 is determined and discussed. A comparison of environmental damage assessments for the USA and USSR is provided. The paper also addresses ecologo-economical aspects of hydrogen energy and technology. The effectiveness of hydrogen use in ferrous metallurgy and motor vehicles in the USA is determined and discussed

  6. Photoperiod, temperature, and regional patterns of conceptions in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Walter

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-two years of monthly values of birth data for the USA, 1967 through 1988, were analyzed by visual inspection. The data were transformed to remove the influence of length of month and of linear trend, and the values were lagged 9 months to approximate the time of conception. Then, 11-year monthly averages were obtained and plotted as standard scores. Thus two 11-year sets of data were independently analyzed, providing the opportunity of replication. Four distinct temporal patterns were found, differing in month of occurrence of the initial trough and peak and the relative sizes of the two troughs; these characteristics of the temporal pattern change systematically with latitude in the eastern and midwestern states. Data from two other continents, the United Kingdom and Australia, also were analyzed using the same method and found to exhibit a temporal pattern during the year similar to the northern states of the USA. Two biologically relevant variables, temperature and photoperiod, were considered as possible controllers and regulators of the annual rhythmicity. Comparisons of the trends in conceptions with these environmental variables, and inspections of the temperatures and photoperiods at which peaks and troughs in conceptions were found, indicated that these environmental variables could not account for the annual rhythmicity in conceptions.

  7. Finite Difference Time Domain Modeling at USA Instruments, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Due to the competitive nature of the commercial MRI industry, it is essential for the financial health of a participating company to innovate new coil designs and bring product to market rapidly in response to ever-changing market conditions. However, the technology of MRI coil design is still early in its stage of development and its principles are yet evolving. As a result, it is not always possible to know the relevant electromagnetic effects of a given design since the interaction of coil elements is complex and often counter-intuitive. Even if the effects are known qualitatively, the quantitative results are difficult to obtain. At USA Instruments, Inc., the acquisition of the XFDTDâ electromagnetic simulation tool from REMCOM, Inc., has been helpful in determining the electromagnetic performance characteristics of existing coil designs in the prototype stage before the coils are released for production. In the ideal case, a coil design would be modeled earlier at the conceptual stage, so that only good designs will make it to the prototyping stage and the electromagnetic characteristics better understood very early in the design process and before the testing stage has begun. This paper is a brief overview of using FDTD modeling for MRI coil design at USA Instruments, Inc., and shows some of the highlights of recent FDTD modeling efforts on Birdcage coils, a staple of the MRI coil design portfolio.

  8. Drugs, Violence, and Trauma in Mexico and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyana, Juan Carlos; Puyana, Juan Carlos Jacob; Rubiano, Andres Mariano; Montenegro, Jorge Hernan; Estebanez, Glyn O.; Sanchez, Alvaro Ignacio; Vega-Rivera, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    The impact of illicit drug markets on the occurrence of violence varies tremendously depending on many factors. Over the last years, Mexico and the USA have increased security border issues that included many aspects of drug-related trade and criminal activities. Mexico experienced only a small reduction in trauma deaths after the enforcement of severe crime reinforcement policies. This strategy in the war on drugs is shifting the drug market to other Central American countries. This phenomenon is called the ballooning effect, whereby the pressure to control illicit drug-related activities in one particular area forces a shift to other more vulnerable areas that leads to an increase in crime and violence. A human rights crisis characterized by suffering, injury, and death related to drug trafficking continues to expand, resulting in the exorbitant loss of lives and cost in productivity across the continent. The current climate of social violence in Central America and the illegal immigration to the USA may be partially related to this phenomenon of drug trafficking, gang violence, and crime. A health care initiative as an alternative to the current war approach may be one of the interventions needed to reduce this crisis. PMID:28329741

  9. BIRTH, GROWTH AND CHALLENGES OF "KINESMETRICS" IN THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimo Zhu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term "Kinesmetrics" was coined by Weimo Zhu in 1999 when he created a new doctoral program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, USA, with a focus to "develop and apply measurement theory, statistics and mathematical analysis to the field of Kinesiology." Since then, a number of Ph.D. scholars in Kinesmetrics have been trained at UIUC, which also regularly hosts visiting scholars from all over the world. In fall 2008, a new Kinesmetrics program was established at Middle Tennessee State University by Minsoo Kang, a UIUC Kinesmetrics Ph.D. graduate, and the International Forum of Kinesiometrics was held at the University of Primorska in Koper, Slovenia, in 2009. Meanwhile, Kinesmetrics scholars/programs in the USA are experiencing many challenges, e.g., reduced faculty positions, limited funding resources, a variety of data characteristics and measurement issues due to the interdisciplinary nature of Kinesiology, etc. After a brief review of the historical background and foundation of Kinesmetrics, this paper focused on the current challenges faced by Kinesmetrics, as a subdiscipline within Kinesiology, and how these challenges can best be addressed. Future directions of Kinesmetrics were also outlined.

  10. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  11. GIS learning tool for USA's tallest skyscrapers and their construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajah Nagarajasetty, Kanaka Nethra

    Urban development in the twenty-first century takes many forms, but for many none quite so interesting as the skyscraper. With swelling cities and growing concerns about the environment, vertical living has become the preferred way of life for millions of people around the world. But just how these tall buildings are designed, constructed and operated remains a mystery to many--even to those who live in them. The motivation behind this application is to build an interactive and one-stop Geographic Information systems (GIS) learning tool that will help users learn about structural facts and geography of tallest skyscrapers around the metro cities of USA. For purpose of this application development, any building more than 700ft (213m) is considered as one of the tallest skyscrapers. The points displayed on USA map are the metro cities hosting these skyscrapers. When users click on cities, a brief description about the city along with a link to the top three skyscrapers is displayed. The links of the skyscrapers opens a HTML page that has a photo gallery, embedded video, facts, structural information etc., in a web browser. Map Objects Java Objects (MOJO), a set of Java API's provided by ESRI, is used to display a map of the United States of America and skyscrapers locations in the form of points. Along with MOJO, other technical languages used to develop this application are HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript and Java Swing.

  12. Secular trends in opioid prescribing in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezalla EJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Edmund J Pezalla,1 David Rosen,2 Jennifer G Erensen,2 J David Haddox,2,3 Tracy J Mayne2 1Bioconsult, LLC, Wethersfield, 2Purdue Pharma L.P., Stamford, CT, 3Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Opioid abuse and misuse in the USA is a public health crisis. The use of prescription opioid analgesics increased substantially from 2002 through 2010, then plateaued and began to decrease in 2011. This study examined prescriptions of branded and generic immediate- and extended-release opioid analgesics from 1992 to 2016. This was juxtaposed against state and federal policies designed to decrease overutilization and abuse, as well as the launch of new opioid products, including opioids with abuse-deterrent properties (OADPs. The data indicate that these health policies, including the utilization and reimbursement of OADPs, have coincided with decreased opioid utilization. The hypothesis that OADPs will paradoxically increase opioid prescribing is not supported. Keywords: OADP, prescription, utilization trends, legislation, opioids

  13. Introduction: Exotic Annual Bromus in the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brown, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to synthesize current knowledge, research needs, and management implications for Bromus. Exotic plant invasions are multifaceted problems, and understanding and managing them requires the biological, ecological, sociological, and economic perspectives that are integrated in this book. Knowing how well information from one geographic or environmental setting can transfer to another is a key need for broadly distributed Bromus species especially given ongoing climate change. Thus, the chapters in the book compare and contrast invasibility of different ecoregions and invasiveness of different Bromus species. A universal theme is managing for ecosystems that are resilient to disturbance and resistant to invasion which will be essential for adaptation to the human-caused problem of Bromus in the Western USA.

  14. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training: Underutilization in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamin, Eliza; Parrillo, Lisa M; Newman, Diane K; Smith, Ariana L

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are highly prevalent in women of all ages and can greatly impair quality of life. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is a viable treatment option for several pelvic floor conditions including urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. PFMT is a program of therapy initiated by an experienced clinician (e.g., women's health or urology nurse practitioner (NP), physical therapist (PT)) that involves exercises for women with stress urinary incontinence (UI) and exercises combined with behavioral or conservative treatments (lifestyle changes, bladder training with urge suppression) for women with urgency or mixed UI. These exercise programs are more comprehensive than simple Kegel exercises. Despite evidence-based research indicating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness for treatment of urinary incontinence, PFMT is not commonly used as a first-line treatment in clinical practice in the USA (Abrams et al., 2012). This article will review PFMT for the treatment of UI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and theorize how this conservative therapy can be utilized more effectively in the USA.

  15. A critical assessment of renewable energy usage in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The displacement of non-renewable fossil fuels by renewable energy resources has occurred at a low rate in the USA. But a large number of drivers is expected to cause significant expansion of the US renewable energy industry in the near future. Included among the extrinsic drivers, or those that are not directly related to renewable energy resources, are reductions in natural gas and crude oil supplies and the OPEC Effect. An assessment of petroleum crude oil and natural gas consumption and reserves supports the position that supply problems and significant cost increases will start to occur in the first and second quarters of this century. Among the intrinsic drivers, or those that are directly related to renewable energy resources, are global warming and specific government incentives and mandates such as Renewable Portfolio and Fuel Standards that require the commercial use of renewable energy resources. The increasing US dependence on imported crude oil and environmental and political issues will drive the growth of the renewable energy industry and result in the gradual phase-out of what can be called the Fossil Fuel Era. By the end of this century, the dominant commercial energy mix in the USA is projected to include major contributions by renewable energy resources to help satisfy energy and fuel demands. Practical solutions to the problems of disposing of spent nuclear fuels and the development of clean coal applications will enable these energy resources to afford major contributions also

  16. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): USA/5790/BLF (ERDA-AL) and USA/5791/BLF (ERDA-AL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.F.; Bertram, R.E.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Edling, D.A.; Flanagan, T.M.; Peterson, J.B.; Prosser, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) satisfies the request of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration for a formal safety analysis of the two insulated drum shipping containers identified as USA/5790/BLF ERDA-AL and USA/5791/BLF ERDA-AL. Discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control are included. Much of the information was previously submitted to ERDA/OSD/ALO and the Department of Transportation (DOT) and provided the basis for obtaining special permits DOT-SP-5790 and DOT-SP-5791 as well as the Interim Certificates of Compliance until the SARP could be prepared. Complete physical and technical descriptions of the packages are presented. Each package consists of a modified DOT Specification 2R cylindrical steel inner container centered within an insulated steel drum. The contents may be any radioactive materials which satisfy the requirements established in this SARP. A shipment of Plutonium-238 in the form of a solid oxide is evaluated in this SARP as an example. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis show how much of the fissile isotopes may be shipped as Fissile Class I, II, or III for each container. Design and development considerations, the test and evaluations required to prove the ability of the containers to withstand normal transportation conditions, and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion) are discussed

  17. Complete genome sequence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (strain USA400-0051, a prototype of the USA400 clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Farrel Côrtes

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, commonly referred as S. aureus, is an important bacterial pathogen frequently involved in hospital- and community-acquired infections in humans, ranging from skin infections to more severe diseases such as pneumonia, bacteraemia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and disseminated infections. Here, we report the complete closed genome sequence of a community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain, USA400-0051, which is a prototype of the USA400 clone.

  18. Mati Vanni firma Neoqi paneb USAs saunad püsti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Ärimees Mati Vanni firma Neoqi saunakomplekse Cube paigaldatakse tänavu mitmesse USA firma KWC America salongi, seni on Neoqi lõõgastusseadmeid müüdud rohkem kui 50 riiki. USA firma Sybaritic hagist Neoqi vastu ja Neoqi avaldusest Sybariticu tegevuse kohta, saavutatud leppest

  19. 78 FR 54298 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application August 27, 2013. AGENCY... Management (USA) LLC (``Horizons'') and Horizons ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of Application... of the Trust will be the Horizons Active Global Dividend ETF (the ``Initial Fund''), which will seek...

  20. USA terroriekspert süüdistab Bushi lootuste petmises / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA-s toimuvad erikomisjoni kuulamised 11. septembri 2001 terrorirünnakute asjus, kus tunnistusi andnud terrorivastast võitlust juhtinud Richard Clarke kinnitas, et president George W. Bushi valitsus ei pidanud terrorismivastast võitlust kõige tähtsamaks

  1. USA jälgib Valgevenet valimiste eel pingsalt / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. märts lk. 10. USA pöörab suurt tähelepanu 19. märtsil Valgevenes toimuvatele presidendivalimistele. USA välisministeeriumi Euroopa ja Euraasia osakonna asejuhataja David Krameri sõnul tuleb Valgevene võimudel tagada presidendivalimiste ausus ja kandidaatide turvalisus. Lisa. Valimised

  2. 78 FR 46613 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on June 10, 2013, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road...

  3. Hybrid Lives of Teaching and Artistry: A Study of Teaching Artists in Dance in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates teaching artists in the USA whose work is rooted in dance and dance-related disciplines. Teaching artists, although the descriptor itself remains both ambiguous and debated in the USA, provide a good deal of arts education delivery in K12 schools and afterschool programs. Based on survey data from a range of dance teaching…

  4. Teaching the USA in South Korean Secondary Classrooms: The Curriculum of "the Superior Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won-Pyo; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise

    2014-01-01

    By examining teacher interviews and student survey data through the lens of multiculturalism and post-colonialism, this study investigates how the USA is taught in secondary school social studies in South Korea. Specifically, the study examines the teachers' goals, the representation of the USA in Korean textbooks and its influence on the…

  5. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA) Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on June 19, 2012, Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville...

  6. New records and new host plants of powdery mildews (Erysiphales) from Idaho and Oregon (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Braun; S. Krishna Mohan

    2013-01-01

    In the course of routine examinations of powdery mildews collected in Idaho and Oregon, USA, some of the identified species proved to be new to North America, in some cases on new host plants. Leveillula papilionacearum and L. picridis are first records from the USA. Astragalus filipes, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae are new hosts for Leveillula papilionacearum....

  7. 77 FR 70825 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on November 5, 2012, Siegfried (USA) LLC, 33 Industrial Park Road...

  8. 78 FR 49546 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC This is notice that on June 10, 2013, Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by letter to the Drug Enforcement Administration...

  9. 78 FR 32458 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on April 18, 2013, Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road...

  10. 78 FR 30295 - Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ..., 13-37-NG, 13-24-NG, 13-28-LNG, and 13-32-LNG] Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA... natural gas from/to Canada. Group, Inc. 3247 03/05/13 12-161-LNG...... ENI USA Gas Order granting blanket...

  11. "USA Today": Comparative Analysis with Two National and Two Los Angeles Daily Newspapers. Research Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steve; And Others

    Sections of the newspaper "USA Today" were compared with corresponding sections of four major newspapers--the "New York Times," the "Wall Street Journal," the "Los Angeles Herald Examiner," and the "Los Angeles Times"--to determine what editorial components made "USA Today" different and…

  12. USA tööviljakus kasvab Euroopast kiiremini / Bradford J. DeLong

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DeLong, Bradford J.

    2003-01-01

    Vaatamata tööpuuduse suurenemisele on USA-s tööjõu tootlikkuse kasvutempo väga kõrge. Ameerika majandusteadlane Robert Gordoni hinnangul hoogustus tööviljakuse kasvutempo tänu infotehnoloogia kiiresti langevatele hindadele, mida omakorda soodustas konkurents ja avatus uutele ettevõtluse viisidele.

  13. Filters and templates: stonefly (Plecoptera) richness in Ouachita Mountains streams, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Sheldon; Melvin L. Warren

    2009-01-01

    1. We collected adult stoneflies periodically over a 1-year period at 38 sites in twoheadwater catchments in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, U.S.A. The 43 speciescollected were a subset of the Ozark-Ouachita fauna and the much larger fauna of theeastern U.S.A. We estimated 78–91% species coverage in...

  14. USA kaitseminister Robert Gates süüdistas liitlasvägesid oskamatuses / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    USA kaitseminister Robert Gates väitis ajalehes The Los Angeles Times avaldatud intervjuus, et Lõuna-Afganistani olukord on halvenenud seal võitlevate USA liitlasvägede puuduliku väljaõppe tõttu. Liitlasriikide reageeringuid. Arvamust avaldavad Jaak Aaviksoo, Kaarel Kaas

  15. USA-Hiina luurelennukitüli ähvardab suureks paisuda / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    USA-Hiina tüli luurelennuki pärast võib kahjustada Hiina pääsu WTO-sse. Analüütikute arvates näitavad mitmed hiljutised intsidendid USA huvi Hiina sõjasaladuste vastu. Vt. samas "Eesti rannikut seirab Vene lennuk"

  16. USA ja Iraak mängivad ÜROs kassi ja hiirt / Kadri Liik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liik, Kadri, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Arengutest USA-Iraagi konfliktis: ÜRO-sse saadetud Iraagi kirjast kutsuda relvastusinspektorid Iraaki tagasi; USA soovist võtta ÜRO-s vastu uus resolutsioon, mis lubaks relvastusinspektorid ka Saddam Husseini paleedesse, kaasaks sõjaväe, annaks õiguse Iraagi rünnata. Skeem: Iraaki puudutavad ÜRO resolutsioonid. Vt. samas kommenteerib Jüri Luik

  17. College Students' Use of Social Media for Health in the USA and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sanghee; Kim, Soojung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study aims to understand college students' use and perception of social media for health information by comparing college students in the USA and Korea. Method. This study surveyed 342 college students from two state-level universities in the USA and Korea (one from each country) using a convenience sample. Analysis:…

  18. 75 FR 22411 - Fonterra (USA) Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...] Fonterra (USA) Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of... that a food additive petition (FAP 0A4781) has been filed by Fonterra (USA), Inc., c/o Burdock Group...

  19. 78 FR 70033 - Encana Marketing (USA) Inc. v. Rockies Express Pipeline LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Marketing (USA) Inc. v. Rockies Express Pipeline LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on November 15... Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Encana Marketing (USA) Inc. (Encana Marketing or Complainant), filed... Rockies Express has unlawfully denied Encana Marketing's request to make changes to the primary delivery...

  20. 76 FR 65710 - Decision and Order Amending Waivers Granted to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Case No. CAC-037] Decision and Order Amending Waivers Granted to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department... Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Decision and Order In the Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA...

  1. Rice nimetas Iraani USA suurimaks väljakutseks / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice sõnas välissuhete komitees esinedes, et tuumatehnoloogiale ja piirkondlikule hegemooniale suuna võtnud Iraan on USA-le Lähis-Idas suurim strateegiline väljakutse. Vt. samas: Pariis: Iraanil on sõjaline tuumaprojekt

  2. 78 FR 38452 - Price for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing a price of $54.95 for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set. FOR...

  3. Parasite Prevalence and the Distribution of Intelligence among the States of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Christopher; Fincher, Corey L.; Thornhill, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the parasite-stress hypothesis for the distribution of intelligence among the USA states: the hypothesis proposes that intelligence emerges from a developmental trade-off between maximizing brain vs. immune function. From this we predicted that among the USA states where infectious disease stress was high, average…

  4. Physicochemical and sensory analysis of USA rice varieties developed for the basmati and jasmine markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a steady demand for imported basmati and jasmine rice in The USA. Rice varieties that can be domestically produced and compete with these imports, have been developed from basmati, jasmine, and other aromatic germplasm sources. This study evaluated differences among eight USA aromatic varie...

  5. P1 Morgen: Konfliktløsning over skolemaden i USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Valg af materiale/medie/form: Radio Valg af arbejdsform: Formidling Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: Formidling af erfaring og forskning fra USA......Valg af materiale/medie/form: Radio Valg af arbejdsform: Formidling Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: Formidling af erfaring og forskning fra USA...

  6. USA välispoliitiliste hoiakute muutumine XXI sajandi alguses / Aap Neljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neljas, Aap, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    USA poliitikas on olnud ilmne tendents jagada "rahulikes piirkondades" korrahoidmise koormat teiste suurriikidega ja säilitada vabad käed suuremate kriiside lahendamiseks, kus kaalul on otseselt USA rahvuslikud huvid (nt ligipääs naftale või juhtroll maailmas)

  7. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  8. The USA policy evolution in the Caspian sea from Clinton to Bush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafalian, A.

    2003-01-01

    The author analyzes the USA policy in the Caspian Sea area and its evolution with the election of Bush. If no major orientation appear, some sensible evolutions are presented concerning the pipelines management in this area. The author presents then, the new definition of the economical variables and the reinforcement of the security dimension of the USA policy. (A.L.B.)

  9. USA näeb tuumaenergias oma võimalust / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi ja energiaministri asetäitja Clay Sell'i sõnul on USA administratsiooni uue globaalse tuumaenergia partnerluse programmi eesmärgiks leida võimalusi maailma üha suurenevate energiavajaduste rahuldamiseks tuumaenergia abil. Lisa: Tuumaenergia

  10. USA luureinfo sumbub üle pea kasvanud bürokraatiasse / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    USA ajalehes Washington Post ilmusid mitme aasta uurimise tulemusel artiklid, milles käsitleti riigi luureteenistusi ja nende tööd. USA luurebürokraatia on kasvanud hiiglasuureks, ajaleht suhtub kriitiliselt asjaolusse, et luuretöösse on kaasatud palju eraisikuid. Skeem: Luureinfo kogumisega seotud valitsusametid ja agentuurid

  11. USA passib Iisraeli-Liibanoni konfliktis oma võimalust / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Mitmete USA ajalehtede andmeil on USA ja Iisrael jõudnud kulisside taga kokkuleppele, et lähipäevadel ei sekku Ühendriigid veel Lähis-Ida konflikti, mis võimaldab Iisraelil jätkata äärmusrühmituse Hezbollah tugipunktide hävitamist

  12. Earliest Cucurbita from the Great Lakes, Northern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, G. William; Lovis, William A.; Egan-Bruhy, Kathryn C.

    2006-03-01

    Directly dated Cucurbita from archaeological sites near Lake Huron expand the range and human usage of adventive, cultivated wild gourds or squash into the Great Lakes region, USA, by 4000 14C yr BP. The data also show that domesticated C. pepo squash was cultivated there by 3000 14C yr BP. Although milder Hypsithermal climate may have been a contributing factor, squash and gourds expanded northward during the mid-Holocene mainly by human agency and may be the first human-introduced adventive plant in temperate North America. Even after 3000 14C yr BP, when domesticated squash generally replaced wild varieties at northern sites, squash stands were probably informally managed rather than intensively cultivated.

  13. Investment in the electricity economy of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The basic capital of the USA electricity economy is estimated to be about 140 to 150 billion dollars with a total installed power plant capacity of about 420 GW. The structure of the capital investment is given in tables and more closely explained in the text, a) (1965-1973) in the power plants, the transmission lines and distribution networks as well as b) (1973) in the various types of power plants (thermal power, nuclear power, gas turbine, hydraulic power, pumped storage) depending on the various supporting societies or institutions (private societies, town or state administrations, cooperative societies, federal authorities). In the financial year 1973/74, the federal means reached 850 million dollars for financing the energy economy. (GG/LH) [de

  14. Investeringsbeskyttelse i en kommende frihandelsaftale mellem EU og USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl

    2016-01-01

    Det traktatbaserede regime til beskyttelse af udenlandsk investering har de seneste år været genstand for kritik, der dækker over en grundlæggende juridisk problemstilling, der analyseres i artiklen som et stabilitets-fleksibilitets dilemma. Kritikken aktualiseres i forhandlingerne af en større h...... handels- og investeringsaftale mellem EU og USA, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).......Det traktatbaserede regime til beskyttelse af udenlandsk investering har de seneste år været genstand for kritik, der dækker over en grundlæggende juridisk problemstilling, der analyseres i artiklen som et stabilitets-fleksibilitets dilemma. Kritikken aktualiseres i forhandlingerne af en større...

  15. Zika Virus Testing and Outcomes during Pregnancy, Florida, USA, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Colette; Starker, Rebecca; Kwal, Jaclyn; Bartlett, Michelle; Crane, Anise; Greissman, Samantha; Gunaratne, Naiomi; Lardy, Meghan; Picon, Michelle; Rodriguez, Patricia; Gonzalez, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can lead to congenital Zika syndrome. Implementation of screening programs and interpretation of test results can be particularly challenging during ongoing local mosquitoborne transmission. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,327 pregnant women screened for Zika virus in Miami–Dade County, Florida, USA, during 2016. Of these, 86 had laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection; we describe 2 infants with probable congenital Zika syndrome. Delays in receipt of laboratory test results (median 42 days) occurred during the first month of local transmission. Odds of screening positive for Zika virus were higher for women without health insurance or who did not speak English. Our findings indicate the increase in screening for Zika virus can overwhelm hospital and public health systems, resulting in delayed receipt of results of screening and confirmatory tests and the potential to miss cases or delay diagnoses. PMID:29260671

  16. Sericea lespedeza biomass composition for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosjidis Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont G. Don is used for forage or as a soil conservation plant that has shown potential for the production of ligno-cellulosic biomass in the Southeastern USA. Four genotypes of sericea lespedeza were grown at Tallassee, Alabama. Plant canopy of those genotypes was divided into three 10-cm strata. Year of harvest affected NDF, protein and hemicellulose content of leaves and stems. Cut affected NDF, cellulose and hemicellulose content and protein of leaves. No differences were measured among the four genotypes except for protein content in the stems. Leaves had a much higher protein content than stems which makes them undesirable for biofuel use. Large strata effects on stem composition were measured on all traits except lignin which had the same value across the strata. Values of NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose increased from the top of the stem to the base whereas protein content was reduced.

  17. Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, B.

    1997-01-01

    Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

  18. Progress in fuel pin modelling in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, J D; Biancheria, A; Leibnitz, D; O' Reilly, B D; Liu, Y Y; Labar, M P; Gneiting, B C [General Electric Company, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1979-12-01

    In the USA, the focus for theoretical fuel pin modeling is the LIFE system. This system of codes, algorithms, criteria and analysis guidelines is intended to provide a common basis for communication amongst the development groups, a reference set of analysis guidelines for design, and eventually a consensus on the state-of-the-art for licensing. The technical objective is to predict the effect of design options on fuel pin performance limits, which include fuel temperature, pin deformation and cladding breach during normal operation and design basis transients. The mechanistic approach to modeling is taken in LIFE to the extent possible. That is, the approach is to describe the key phenomena in sufficient detail to provide a fundamental understanding of their synergistic effect on the fuel pin performance limits.

  19. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana J. Ehret

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world’s oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon. Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  20. Demand and supply of hydrogen as chemical feedstock in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Tang, K.; Kelley, J. H.; Berger, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Projections are made for the demand and supply of hydrogen as chemical feedstock in USA. Industrial sectors considered are petroleum refining, ammonia synthesis, methanol production, isocyanate manufacture, edible oil processing, coal liquefaction, fuel cell electricity generation, and direct iron reduction. Presently, almost all the hydrogen required is produced by reforming of natural gas or petroleum fractions. Specific needs and emphases are recommended for future research and development to produce hydrogen from other sources to meet the requirements of these industrial sectors. The data and the recommendations summarized in this paper are based on the Workshop 'Supply and Demand of Hydrogen as Chemical Feedstock' held at the University of Houston on December 12-14, 1977.

  1. New investigations in the USA into formation of nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1983-06-01

    This paper discusses laboratory investigations in the USA on air pollution by nitrogen oxides during coal combustion. Laboratory combustors used for combustion of black coal, anthracite and brown coal are described. Measuring systems and measuring instruments used for flue gas analyses and determining nitrogen oxide, hydrocyanic acid and ammonia content in flue gas are evaluated. Effects of excess air on nitrogen oxide formation are analyzed. Analyses show that excess air influences relation between nitrogen oxides, hydrocyanic acid and ammonia. Recommendations on the optimum excess air rate are made. In the case of all coal typs, with the exception of anthracite, the optimum excess air rate is 0.7 which guarantees the highest transformation rate of nitrogen in fuel into molecular nitrogen. Effects of excess air on oxidation of hydrocyanic acid and ammonia are described. The analyses consider effects of excess air on chemical reactions during coal combustion under laboratory conditions. (4 refs.) (In Russian)

  2. The export of weapons grade plutonium to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollerstrom, N.

    1986-01-01

    Reprocessed spent Magnox fuel from British nuclear power plants has led, it is claimed, to the production of plutonium, some of weapons grade. Some of this has been exported to the USA where, it is assumed, it is used for military purposes. The route and agreements which make this possible and the quantities involved are reported. Inspection by IAEA is insufficient to check the Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) claim that no CEGB plutonium has been used for a military purpose. The CEGB case, presented at the Sizewell Inquiry is discussed. In the United States it is not clear whether plutonium from Britain, at present in a civil stockpile, will be transferred to military use or not. (U.K.)

  3. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Chestnoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in addressing international climate issues. There are other international forums (Such as G8 and G20, which also have an interest in climate related topics. The Article analyses the U.S. position in negotiations and its commitments assumed the moment the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC came into effect until now: the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, financial aid and reporting. It also provides general analysis of national legal obligations under the Paris Accord, ratification of that agreement in general and in particularly another that took place in the USA, it focuses on the specifics of withdrawal. The specified three-year period from the Agreement becoming active, after which any party may withdraw from it (2019, is a noteworthy detail. It is well-known that the Paris Agreement provides a framework that does not impose individual national commitments or a commitment to a compliance system. In essence, and from a legal point of view, it is nonbinding. This was what allowed the USA to accept the terms of the accord relatively quickly and to use the simplified procedure, which by-passed Congress. In the opinion of the authors, President Trump’s resolution to withdraw should, possibly, be considered as a simple continuation of his election discourse and the fulfilment of a campaign promise. Additionally, President Trump’s declared intent to review the Paris Accord has legal grounds on which to launch further international negotiations

  4. Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes.

  5. Nuclear fuel financing by USA investor-owned utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Investor-owned utilities in the USA currently have almost 60 nuclear plants in commercial operation and an additional 90 plants under construction or awaiting operating licenses. To understand the specific techniques implemented to finance nuclear fuel and the advantages which they provide to individual companies, the total financing needs of the industry, the traditional pattern which utility external financing has taken, and the varied financial and regulatory bodies whose often conflicting objectives management must attempt to reconcile, must be understood. The aim of this paper is to aid such an understanding. The subject is discussed under the following headings: industry background; regulation and rating agencies; management objectives; financing structure; advantages (low financing cost; regulatory treatment; freer nature of agreement; access to commercial paper market; appropriate financing time-span; rating benefits; accounting treatment); conclusions. (U.K.)

  6. From USA operation experience of industrial uranium-graphite reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdakov, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The review on materials, presented by a group of the USA specialists at the seminar in Moscow on October 9-11, 1995 is considered. The above specialists shared their experience in operation of the Hanford industrial reactors, aimed at plutonium production for atomic bombs. The purpose of the above visit consisted in providing assistance to the Russian specialists by evaluation and modernization of operational conditions safety improvement of the RBMK type reactors. Special attention is paid to the behaviour of the graphite lining and channel tubes with an account of possible channel power interaction with the reactor structural units. The information on the experience of the Hanford reactor operation may be useful for specialists, operating the RBMK type reactors

  7. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  8. TRIGA 14 MW spent fuel shipment to USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, C.; Barbos, D.; Preda, M.; Covaci, St.; Ciocanescu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Romania has begun to convert Pitesti TRIGA 14 MW reactor having HEU fuel in its first loading and has agreed to complete conversion of the reactor to LEU fuel by May 12, 2006. Thus it became possible to benefit of US policy as set forth in the Record of Decision (ROD) issued by the Department of Energy (DOE ) on May 13 , 1996 directed for acceptance, management and disposition of the Authorized Material which has been discharged from the foreign research reactors. Consequently, United States, DOE Idaho Operations Office and Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti, Romania have mutually agreed the terms and conditions set forth in a contract applicable to the receipt of the Authorized Material. Irradiated and spent nuclear fuel rods from TRIGA reactor containing uranium enriched in the United States that have met the requirements set forth in the Environmental Impact Statement and the ROD have been designated as 'Authorized Material' and transferred to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)- USA during the summer of 1999 in a joint shipment. 267 TRIGA spent fuel rods loaded in a Legal Weight Truck Shipping Cask belonging to the NAC International have been transported through an overland truck route from Pitesti, Romania to Koper, Slovenia and from there it was shipped to USA. The paper has the following contents: 1.Introduction; 2.Fuel rods selection; 3.Fuel rods characterization; 4.Evaluation of TRIGA fuel in wet storage; 5.Fuel rods transfer from TRIGA pool to the transport cask; 6.Supporting documentation for transfer approval; 7. Conclusions. In conclusion one is stressed that, on site fuel evaluation process evidenced the existence of very good running and storage conditions in reactor pool during reactor operation and fuel storage. Only one fuel rod had to be packaged prior to placement in the shipping cask because of damaged cladding during negligent handling

  9. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Kolka, Randall K.; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall from predominately deciduous forests was measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry deposition was significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (μg/m 2 ), range 3.5–23.4 μg/m 2 ) than annual Hg wet deposition (median 9.6 μg/m 2 , range 4.4–19.7 μg/m 2 ). The mean ratio of dry to wet Hg deposition was 1.3–1. The sum of dry and wet Hg deposition averaged 21 μg/m 2 per year and 55% was litterfall dry deposition. Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of Hg in litterfall and ranged from 0.6 to 1.5%. Annual litterfall Hg and wet Hg deposition rates differed significantly and were weakly correlated. Litterfall Hg dry deposition differed among forest-cover types. This study demonstrated how annual litterfall Hg dry deposition rates approximate the lower bound of annual Hg dry fluxes. - Highlights: ► Annual litterfall mercury dry deposition was significantly higher than wet deposition. ► The mean ratio of dry to wet mercury deposition was 1.3–1. ► The sum of dry and wet mercury deposition averaged 55% litterfall dry deposition. ► Litterfall mercury deposition was highest in the oak-hickory forest-cover type. ► Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of mercury in litterfall and ranged to 1.5%. - A multi-year study of Mercury Deposition Network sites found that annual mercury dry deposition from litterfall in predominately deciduous forests exceeded annual mercury wet deposition in the eastern USA.

  10. Hexachlorobenzene impairs glucose metabolism in a rat model of porphyria cutanea tarda: a mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzetti, Marta Blanca; Taira, Maria Cristina; Lelli, Sandra Marcela; Viale, Leonor Carmen San Martin de [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dascal, Eduardo; Basabe, Juan Carlos [Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinologicas (CEDIE). Hospital de Ninos, Dr. Ricardo Gutierrez, C1425EDF, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, induces porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of HCB on some aspects of glucose metabolism, particularly those related to its neosynthesis in vivo. For this purpose, a time-course study on gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and on pyruvate kinase (PK), a glycolytic enzyme, was carried out. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, hepatic glycogen, tryptophan contents, and the pancreatic insulin secretion pattern stimulated by glucose were investigated. Oxidative stress and heme pathway parameters were also evaluated. HCB treatment decreased PC, PEPCK, and G-6-Pase activities. The effect was observed at an early time point and grew as the treatment progressed. Loss of 60, 56, and 37%, respectively, was noted at the end of the treatment when a considerable amount of porphyrins had accumulated in the liver as a result of drastic blockage of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) (95% inhibition). The plasma glucose level was reduced (one-third loss), while storage of hepatic glucose was stimulated in a time-dependent way by HCB treatment. A decay in the normal plasma insulin level was observed as fungicide intoxication progressed (twice to four times lower). However, normal insulin secretion of perifused pancreatic Langerhans islets stimulated by glucose during the 3rd and 6th weeks of treatment did not prove to be significantly affected. HCB promoted a time-dependent increase in urinary chemiluminiscence (fourfold) and hepatic malondialdehide (MDA) content (fivefold), while the liver tryptophan level was only raised at the longest intoxication times. These results would suggest that HCB treatment does not cause a primary alteration in the mechanism of pancreatic insulin secretion and that the changes induced by the fungicide on insulin levels would be an adaptative response of the organism to stimulate gluconeogenesis. They showed for the first time that HCB causes impairment of the gluconeogenic pathway. Therefore, the reduced levels of glucose would thus be the consequence of decreased gluconeogenesis, enhanced glucose storage, and unaffected glycolysis. The impairment of gluconeogenesis (especially for PEPCK) and the related variation in glucose levels caused by HCB treatment could be a consequence of the oxidative stress produced by the fungicide. Tryptophan adds its effect to this decrease in the higher phases of HCB intoxication, where its levels overcome the control values possibly owing to the drastic decline of URO-D. This derangement of carbohydrates leads porphyric hepatocytes to have lower levels of free glucose. These results contribute to our understanding of the protective and modulatory effect that diets rich in carbohydrates have in hepatic porphyria disease. (orig.)

  11. Investeerija märksõnad : USA ning tervishoiu- ja IT-sektor / Uwe Zöllner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zöllner, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    USA elanike tarbimise mõjust globaalsele majandusruumile. Aktsiainvesteeringuid plaanides tasuks silmas pidada tervishoiu- ja infotehnoloogiasektori ettevõtteid ning vaadata USA poole. Lisa: Hiina eksport võrreldes riigisisese tarbimisega

  12. 77 FR 47671 - TA-W-81,520, T-Mobile USA, Inc., Call Center, Allentown, PA; TA-W-81,520G, T-Mobile USA, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TA-W-81,520, T-Mobile USA, Inc., Call Center, Allentown, PA; TA- W-81,520G, T-Mobile USA, Inc., Headquarters Office, Bellevue, WA; Amended... of T-Mobile USA, Inc., Call Center, Allentown, Pennsylvania (TA-W-81,520), Fort Lauderdale, Florida...

  13. USA ja Iraak püüavad jõuda sel aastal vägede lepinguni / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraak püüavad enne 31. juulit sõlmida lepingu, mis käsitleb USA vägede viibimist Iraagis. Washington Posti andmeil on valitsused loobunud laiahaardelise ja pikaajalise vägede lepingu sõlmimisest, keskendudes nn. sillakavale, mis oleks üleminekuleping ja peaks võimaldama USA sõjaliste operatsioonide jätkamist pärast ÜRO mandaadi lõppu. Lisa: USA taandub roheliset tsoonist?

  14. Euroopat väisav Rice kaitseb USA karme võtteid terrorisõjas / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    EL päris USA-lt ametlikult aru seoses CIA lennukite liikumisega Euroopas ja spekulatsioonidega salavanglate ümber. USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice teatas avalduses, et USA ei piina vange ega vea neid selleks ühest riigist teise. Analüütikute hinnangul üritab enamik EL-ist konfrontatsiooni USA-ga vältida

  15. 76 FR 73684 - Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,472] Tiger Drylac USA, Inc... of Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Reading, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged in activities related to... Reading, Pennsylvania location of Tiger Drylac USA, Inc. The Department has determined that these workers...

  16. 78 FR 17450 - Notice of Issuance of Materials License Renewal, Operating License SUA-1341, Uranium One USA, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... License Renewal, Operating License SUA-1341, Uranium One USA, Inc., Willow Creek Uranium In Situ Recovery.... SUA- 1341 to Uranium One USA, Inc. (Uranium One) for its Willow Creek Uranium In Situ Recovery (ISR... Commission License No. SUA-1341 For Uranium One USA, Inc., Irigaray and Christensen Ranch Projects (Willow...

  17. 3 CFR 8357 - Proclamation 8357 of April 3, 2009. Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... economy and to contribute to their communities. Commemorating Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., we... Sharing Day, U.S.A., 2009 8357 Proclamation 8357 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8357 of April 3, 2009 Proc. 8357 Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., 2009By the President of the United States of...

  18. USA 2008 : maailma ilmselt mõjukaima mehe või naise valik sai hoo sisse / Liisa Past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Past, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    USA riigipea institutsiooni muutumisest. Autori sõnul on USA riigipea institutsioon võimsam kui kunagi varem ja pidevalt lisandunud uued rollid on muutunud selle lausa ohtlikult tugevaks. Kõige olulisemalt on viimase poole sajandi jooksul muutunud presidendi suhted kodumaise avalikkusega. Lisad: 2008. aasta USA presidendivalimised; Valimistsükkel

  19. USA soovib relvatarnete abil vähendada Iraani mõjuvõimu / Jürgen Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 31. juuli 2007, lk. 5. USA president George W. Bushi administratsioon soovib Kongressi heakskiitu plaanile, mis näeb ette Pärsia lahe piirkonnas asuvate USA liitlaste rahaliste toetuste suurendamist ja neile relvastuse saatmist. Lisa: USA tarned

  20. 76 FR 40714 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... and Order Granting a Waiver to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department of... Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) a waiver from the existing DOE test procedures... Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) (Case No. CAC-030). Background Title...

  1. 77 FR 42653 - United States Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Gulf Coast Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Gulf Coast Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; Restricted Area... restricted area established around the AUSTAL, USA shipbuilding facility located in Mobile, Alabama. The...) assumed the duties of administering new construction contracts at AUSTAL USA in Mobile, AL, on October 9...

  2. 77 FR 55455 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 72, Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 72, Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine Gear Boxes), Yorktown, IN Pursuant to... Wind USA, Inc., within FTZ 72 in Yorktown, Indiana (FTZ Docket 54-2011, filed 8-11-2011); Whereas... procedures within FTZ 72 on behalf of Brevini Wind USA, Inc., as described in the application and Federal...

  3. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D; Karlsdóttir, Sólveig; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2013-07-01

    Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare with that in the USA. The authors identified the most commercially successful movies screened in six European countries (Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and UK) and the USA between 2004 and 2009. The authors coded the 464 movies that were screened in both Europe and the USA according to whether or not they portrayed smoking. 87% of the movies were 'youth' rated in Europe (ratings board classification as suitable for those younger than 16 years) compared to only 67% in the USA (suitable for those younger than 17 years). Smoking was portrayed in 319 (69%) movies. 85% of the movies that portrayed smoking were 'youth' rated in Europe compared with only 59% in the USA (pUSA. None of the seven countries examined followed the WHO recommendations on restricting youth access to movies that portray smoking. Compared to the USA, European youths have access to substantially more movies in general, and this gives them access to more movies that portray smoking in particular.

  4. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D; Karlsdóttir, Sólveig; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. Objective To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare with that in the USA. Methods The authors identified the most commercially successful movies screened in six European countries (Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and UK) and the USA between 2004 and 2009. The authors coded the 464 movies that were screened in both Europe and the USA according to whether or not they portrayed smoking. Results 87% of the movies were ‘youth’ rated in Europe (ratings board classification as suitable for those younger than 16 years) compared to only 67% in the USA (suitable for those younger than 17 years). Smoking was portrayed in 319 (69%) movies. 85% of the movies that portrayed smoking were ‘youth’ rated in Europe compared with only 59% in the USA (pfilms shown in European countries and the USA. None of the seven countries examined followed the WHO recommendations on restricting youth access to movies that portray smoking. Compared to the USA, European youths have access to substantially more movies in general, and this gives them access to more movies that portray smoking in particular. PMID:22184208

  5. Integrated safety analysis to operate while constructing Urenco USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohrt, Rick; Su, Shiaw-Der; Lehman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The URENCO USA (UUSA) site in Lea County, New Mexico, USA is authorized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility under 10 CFR 70 (Ref 1). The facility employs the gas centrifuge process to separate natural uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) feed material into a product stream enriched up to 5% U-235 and a depleted UF 6 stream containing approximately 0.2 to 0.34% U-235. Initial plant operations, with a limited number of cascades on line, commenced in the second half of 2010. Construction activities continue as each subsequent cascade is commissioned and placed into service. UUSA performed an Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) to allow the facility to operate while constructing the remainder of the facility. The ISA Team selected the What-If/Checklist method based on guidance in NUREG-1513 (Ref 2) and AIChE Guidelines (Ref 3). Of the three methods recommended for high risk events HAZOP, What-If/Checklist, or Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), the What-If/Checklist lends itself best to construction activities. It combines the structure of a checklist with an unstructured 'brainstorming' approach to create a list of specific accident events that could produce an undesirable consequence. The What-If/Checklist for Operate While Constructing divides the UUSA site into seven areas and creates what-if questions for sixteen different construction activities, such as site preparation, external construction cranes, and internal construction lifts. The result is a total of 112 nodes, for which the Operate While Constructing ISA Team created hundreds of what-if questions. For each what-if question the team determined the likelihood, consequences, safeguards, and acceptability of risk. What-if questions with unacceptable risk are the accident sequences and their selected safeguards are the Items Relied on For Safety (IROFS). The final ISA identified four (4) new accident sequences that, unless

  6. Radiotherapy physics quality audit networks in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.F.; Aguirre, J.F.; Stovall, M.

    1997-01-01

    Two programs within the Section of Outreach Physics, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, provide quality assurance and quality audit to 1240 radiotherapy facilities, 80% of all facilities in the USA and Canada. These programs have been in existence since 1968. The backbone of both programs is a routine postal TLD program for both photon and electron beams. Discrepancies identified by the TLD are resolved by phone conversations with the participating physicists, follow-up TLD and, if necessary, an on-site review of the facility by one of our physicists with a portable dosimetry system. The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) program has additional quality audit activities including periodic on-site review of the participating facilities, regardless of the postal TLD results, to verify the quality of the dosimetry data used clinically. The on-site visit includes a review of basic data such as output factors, depth dose data, off-axis factors, etc., to verify the institution's data and its consistency with other machines of the same make and model. To assess the quality of treatment planning, the local physicist is asked to plan the treatment for typical ''benchmark'' test cases, with data and methods which are used clinically. At each step of the dosimetry process, the reviewing physicist and the local physicist work together to resolve any results which seem to be discrepant. One program, Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS), is a voluntary service-for-a-fee program dealing with highly motivated and cooperative physicists. The cost is reasonable and the user chooses the frequency of the TLD, usually monthly, quarterly or semi-annually. The other program, The Radiological Physics Center (RPC), is sponsored by the USA National Cancer Institute to monitor all institutions providing megavoltage therapy to patients on cooperative clinical trials, so participation is mandatory. The results of these two programs will be

  7. Predicting thermal reference conditions for USA streams and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan A.; Hawkins, Charles P.; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is a primary driver of the structure and function of stream ecosystems. However, the lack of stream temperature (ST) data for the vast majority of streams and rivers severely compromises our ability to describe patterns of thermal variation among streams, test hypotheses regarding the effects of temperature on macroecological patterns, and assess the effects of altered STs on ecological resources. Our goal was to develop empirical models that could: 1) quantify the effects of stream and watershed alteration (SWA) on STs, and 2) accurately and precisely predict natural (i.e., reference condition) STs in conterminous USA streams and rivers. We modeled 3 ecologically important elements of the thermal regime: mean summer, mean winter, and mean annual ST. To build reference-condition models (RCMs), we used daily mean ST data obtained from several thousand US Geological Survey temperature sites distributed across the conterminous USA and iteratively modeled ST with Random Forests to identify sites in reference condition. We first created a set of dirty models (DMs) that related STs to both natural factors (e.g., climate, watershed area, topography) and measures of SWA, i.e., reservoirs, urbanization, and agriculture. The 3 models performed well (r2 = 0.84–0.94, residual mean square error [RMSE] = 1.2–2.0°C). For each DM, we used partial dependence plots to identify SWA thresholds below which response in ST was minimal. We then used data from only the sites with upstream SWA below these thresholds to build RCMs with only natural factors as predictors (r2 = 0.87–0.95, RMSE = 1.1–1.9°C). Use of only reference-quality sites caused RCMs to suffer modest loss of predictor space and spatial coverage, but this loss was associated with parts of ST response curves that were flat and, therefore, not responsive to further variation in predictor space. We then compared predictions made with the RCMs to predictions made with the DMs with SWA set to 0. For most

  8. School shootings during 2013-2015 in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Lagast, Kinan; Villarreal, Marcos; Pino, Elizabeth; Fagan, Jeffrey; Galea, Sandro

    2017-10-01

    Data on the factors associated with school shootings in the USA are limited. The public conversation has often suggested several factors that may be linked to these events, however with little empirical support. Aiming to fill this gap, we describe the characteristics of school shooting incidents in the USA between 2013 and 2015 and explore whether four factors that represent domains of firearm policy, educational policy and epidemiological risk factors for intentional firearm injuries-background check (BC) policies, per capita mental health expenditures (MHE), K-12 education expenditure (KEE) and urbanicity-were associated with school shootings during this period. We searched LexisNexis, a newspaper and broadcast media databases for school shooting incidents from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Presence of BC laws was extracted from legal information in LexisNexis. State-level covariates of per capita MHE (2013), KEE (2013) and urbanicity (2010) rates were obtained from publicly available data sources. We used negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering by state to explore unadjusted associations between the BC laws, state-level covariates and school shootings to report IRR and 95% CI. We documented 154 school shootings (35, 55 and 64 each year). In unadjusted models, BC for firearm purchase (IRR=0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.76), ammunition purchase (IRR=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.27), log per capita MHE (IRR=0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.90), log per-capita KEE (IRR=0.09, 9% CI 0.02 to 0.29) and urbanicity (IRR=0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) were associated with school shooting. School shootings are less likely in states with BC laws, higher MHE and KEE, and with greater per cent urban population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Atmospheric mercury deposition to forests in the eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R; DeWild, John F; Gay, David A; Zhang, Leiming; Boyer, Elizabeth W; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007-2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data. Rates of litterfall-Hg deposition were higher than or equal to precipitation-Hg deposition rates in 70% of the annual data, which indicates a substantial contribution from litterfall to total atmospheric-Hg deposition. Annual litterfall-Hg deposition in this study had a median of 11.7 μg per square meter per year (μg/m 2 /yr) and ranged from 2.2 to 23.4 μg/m 2 /yr. It closely matched modeled dry-Hg deposition, based on land cover at selected NADP Hg-monitoring sites. Mean annual atmospheric-Hg deposition at forest study sites exhibited a spatial pattern partly explained by statistical differences among five forest-cover types and related to the mapped density of Hg emissions. Forest canopies apparently recorded changes in atmospheric-Hg concentrations over time because litterfall-Hg concentrations decreased year to year and litterfall-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 2012-2014. These findings reinforce reported decreases in Hg emissions and atmospheric elemental-Hg concentrations during this same time period. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in all litterfall samples at all sites, compared with MeHg detections in less than half the precipitation samples at selected sites during the study. These results indicate MeHg in litterfall is a pathway into the terrestrial food web where it can

  10. China vs. USA: energy consumption of the two giants markets in 2010. Very strong growth in energy consumption in China and USA in 2010 which is well beyond the pre-crisis trend; this allows anticipation of a very strong global growth in 2010; China surpasses 10% of U.S.A's Energy consumption in 2010 - March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Enerdata compares 2010 energy consumption between China and USA: China surpasses 10% of U.S.A's Energy consumption in 2010; Very strong growth in energy consumption in China and USA in 2010 which is well beyond the pre-crisis trend; this allows anticipation of a very strong global growth in 2010. (authors)

  11. About the treaty of complete nuclear test ban: the USA between unilateralism and multilateralism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses the possible reasons that have led the US Senate to reject the treaty of comprehensive nuclear test ban. Even if this decision did not retained the attention of the international public opinion, it appears as surprising because the USA have worked a lot for the elaboration of this treaty and were considered as the main beneficiaries of it. Three interpretations are proposed by the author: some purely internal disputes inside Clinton's administration, a real will of the USA to abandon the arms control policy, or an intermediate attitude which allows the USA to act on different levels and to get rid of common rules. (J.S.)

  12. Palliative care for patients in the USA with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houseman G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gail Houseman,1 Mary Kelley2 1The ALS Association Greater Philadelphia Chapter, Ambler, PA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, ALS Center at Penn Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a motor neuron disease that results in eventual paralysis of all voluntary muscles. Cognitive impairment may be a co-occurring condition with the ALS patient. Palliative care, which involves symptom management, is the most utilized treatment of choice. Managing the symptoms of ALS can be challenging. This paper provides experience-based facts on daily care provision in the USA and some practical guidelines. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, palliative care, challenges, symptom management

  13. Short history of regulations and approved indications of antimicrobial drugs for food animals in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, V V; DeMars, Z

    2017-06-01

    We review historical availability and regulation, and recent indications of antimicrobial drugs for food animals in the USA. We summarize the timeline of introduction of individual antimicrobial drug classes from the 1930s to present, history of regulation of antimicrobial drugs from the 1930s to present and indications of antimicrobial drugs in 1996-2014 for food animals in the USA. The history of antimicrobial drug regulation demonstrates a historical precedent for harmonized regulations of antimicrobials 'for human and other animals' in the USA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ilves : usk vabadusse on Eesti ja USA liitlasteks sõlminud / Lauri Birkan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Birkan, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud ligi kahe tunni pikkusel kohtumisel arutlesid USA president George W. Bush ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilves arengute üle Afganistanis ja Iraagis, rääkisid küberjulgeolekust, viisavabadusest, USA ja Venemaa ning Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetest. T.H. Ilves kutsus USAd osalema NATO küberkaitsekeskuse (Center of Excellence) loomisel Tallinnas. Kohtumise juures viibis ka USA asepresident Dick Cheney. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  15. Liquid natural gas occupies an increasing position in the energy mix of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the profitability of using liquid natural gas (LNG) depends on the fluctuations of the gas price, LNG will play an increasing role in the ''energy mix'' of the USA. The amount of LNG imported by the USA rose by 175% from 1998 to 2001. There are at present four receiving stations for LNG in the USA and they will probably be extended. Plans to build gas-powered power stations in California will increase the demand for natural gas in the coming years. Several companies have announced their desire to build receiving stations for LNG. There is, however, some opposition from environmentalists

  16. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  17. A. The nuclear power industry in U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear industry in the USA at present is on the defensive - opposition to nuclear power is growing, costs are escalating, new orders are outweighed by cancellations and spent fuel is accumulating as no commercial fuel reprocessing plants are operating. This latter is probably the greatest problem facing the industry and the lack of a decision on the use of mixed oxide fuel is a complicating factor. Other controversial subjects are the safety of power plants, the long term disposal of high level waste, the supply of uranium, enrichment facilities and safeguards. However nuclear power is already supplying 10% of the nations electricity and it may be that some of the current problems stem directly from the rapid growth of the industry. Thus, the current slowing of the growth rate could be advantageous. The industry has an enviable safety record and referenda held in a number of states on various nuclear issues have all suggested that in spite of the well-publicised problems, the public does not want nuclear power to be abandoned or too seriously constrained

  18. Honey bee success predicted by landscape composition in Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsler, D B; Johnson, R M

    2015-01-01

    Foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) can routinely travel as far as several kilometers from their hive in the process of collecting nectar and pollen from floral patches within the surrounding landscape. Since the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale is a function of landscape composition, apiculturists have long recognized that landscape composition is a critical determinant of honey bee colony success. Nevertheless, very few studies present quantitative data relating colony success metrics to local landscape composition. We employed a beekeeper survey in conjunction with GIS-based landscape analysis to model colony success as a function of landscape composition in the State of Ohio, USA, a region characterized by intensive cropland, urban development, deciduous forest, and grassland. We found that colony food accumulation and wax production were positively related to cropland and negatively related to forest and grassland, a pattern that may be driven by the abundance of dandelion and clovers in agricultural areas compared to forest or mature grassland. Colony food accumulation was also negatively correlated with urban land cover in sites dominated by urban and agricultural land use, which does not support the popular opinion that the urban environment is more favorable to honey bees than cropland.

  19. Botulism mortality in the USA, 1975-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kelly A; Mahon, Barbara E; Copeland, John; Fagan, Ryan P

    2015-01-01

    Botulism had mortality rates >60% before the 1950s. We reviewed confirmed botulism cases in the USA during 1975-2009 including infant, foodborne, wound, and other/unknown acquisition categories, and calculated mortality ratios. We created a multivariate logistic regression model for non-infant cases (foodborne, wound, and other/unknown). Overall mortality was 3.0% with 109 botulism-related deaths among 3,618 botulism cases [18 (<1%) deaths among 2,352 infant botulism cases, 61 (7.1%) deaths among 854 foodborne botulism cases, 18 (5.0%) deaths among 359 wound botulism cases, and 12 (22.6%) deaths among 53 other/unknown botulism cases]. Mortality among all cases increased with age; it was lowest among infants (0.8%) and highest among persons ≥80 years old (34.4%). Toxin type F had higher mortality (13.8%) than types A, B, or E (range, 1.4% to 4.1%). Efforts to reduce botulism mortality should target non-infant transmission categories and older adults.

  20. Botulism mortality in the USA, 1975–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kelly A.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Copeland, John; Fagan, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    Botulism had mortality rates >60% before the 1950s. We reviewed confirmed botulism cases in the USA during 1975–2009 including infant, foodborne, wound, and other/unknown acquisition categories, and calculated mortality ratios. We created a multivariate logistic regression model for non-infant cases (foodborne, wound, and other/unknown). Overall mortality was 3.0% with 109 botulism-related deaths among 3,618 botulism cases [18 (<1%) deaths among 2,352 infant botulism cases, 61 (7.1%) deaths among 854 foodborne botulism cases, 18 (5.0%) deaths among 359 wound botulism cases, and 12 (22.6%) deaths among 53 other/unknown botulism cases]. Mortality among all cases increased with age; it was lowest among infants (0.8%) and highest among persons ≥80 years old (34.4%). Toxin type F had higher mortality (13.8%) than types A, B, or E (range, 1.4% to 4.1%). Efforts to reduce botulism mortality should target non-infant transmission categories and older adults. PMID:28603554

  1. Administration of the natural gas shortage in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluge, W [Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1978-05-01

    The natural gas deficit is basically a consequence of the price policy of the U.S. government which keeps the prices of natural gas transported from one state to another subject to a maximum-price regulation. In the course of this development, the U.S. natural gas market has been characterized by three different types of shortage since the early seventies. There are regional differences in the administration of the shortage. Compared to the alternatives the rationing plan of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the best solution from on overall economic point of view, but it is rather impracticable and hard to put through completely. Natural gas rationing in the USA did not prevent temporary production losses and unemployment due to shortage. If the maximum-price regulation policy for natural gas is continued, the supply deficit for this energy carrier will become even greater. If, as the National Energy Plan proposes, the maximum-price regulation for natural gas would also pertain to the intrastate market in the future, natural gas shortages would occur there, too.

  2. Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (T E) for East Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Keri; Mahmood, Rezaul; Goodrich, Gregory; Pielke, Roger A.; Durkee, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate near surface mesoscale equivalent temperatures (T E) in Kentucky (located in east central USA) and potential land cover influences. T E is a measure of the moist enthalpy composed of the dry bulb temperature, T, and absolute humidity. Kentucky presents a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 69 research-grade, in-situ weather and climate observing stations across the Commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high-quality observations from 33 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (T E - T) were greatest in the summer (smallest in the winter), with an average of 35 °C (5 °C). In general, the differences were found to be the largest in the western climate division. This is attributed to agricultural land use and poorly drained land. These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture.

  3. Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Erica C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA, and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground over two days (AvgAUCg; males = 1.38, females = 1.60; P = 0.415. AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (PPPP

  4. Bydlení v USA po roce 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Dočekalová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Příspěvek se zabývá tématem moderního bydlení v USA v poválečném období, které bylo soustředěno kolem časopisu Arts and Architecture. Tato část je doplněna o další dva příklady realizovaných prototypových domků z období stavebního boomu poválečných let, které jsou ale svým přístupem naprosto odlišné. První z nich byl realizován v městské části Lakewood Park u Los Angeles, a dokládá masivní rozrůstání stereotypní zástavby samostatně stojících domů do okolí měst. Druhý příklad představuje monto...

  5. Mining environmental policy: comparing Indonesia and the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Hamilton [University of Southern Maine in Portland, MA (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Illustrated by a detailed comparative examination of mining regulations and environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the USA (the second largest producer of coal in the world) and Indonesia (the eighth largest and most rapidly growing), this book argues that the degree of policy integration often determines the success or failure in controlling environmental effects of mining operations. Comparison of surface mining regulation in the two countries provides some stark contrasts, some surprising results concerning the diffusion of policy innovations from one country to another, and instances of both policy success and failure. The book provides significant new insights into international relations and comparative environmental policy, particularly as they affect rainforests and biodiversity. It also suggests that if mining environmental policy were to be effectively implemented, the environmental degradation caused need not be permanent. Contents: Introduction: mining environmental policy implementation in two countries; Mining regulatory policy in Indonesia; Mining regulatory policy in the United States; Environmental assessment policy in two countries; Lost profits, royalties, and environmental quality; Developing mining environmental policy in Indonesia; Improving Indonesian regulatory program; Development of institutional capacity; Motivations for assistance; Conclusions.

  6. eLearning in the USA: The Standard? The Benchmark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Schulmeister

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 3 million enrolments in online courses in the USA are reported by American sources. The essay investigates the role of online studies within the American educational system and tries to find out more about the exact meaning of these extremely high figures. The research discovers astonishing facts and relations: Public schools offer more online courses (82% than private schools, and 52% of all online courses are offered by 2-year colleges for the associate degrees (and only 8% for the bachelor. A majority of online courses fulfill the role as "remedial courses" that serve for "credit recovery" (U.S. department of Education.The quality of these courses is not very high. This applies to the use of media as well as to the didactic concept. The teaching staff mainly consists of hired part-time lecturers who are still at the very entrance level to an academic career.The essay wants to initiate a discussion about the question if the European study system is in danger to imitate the shortcomings and consequences of the American educational system, because the European system is approximating the American due to recent political decisions. Can we still pursue the aims that we proclaimed when starting with eLearning, if in future eLearning will have to be used to repair the consequences of the bachelor?

  7. Watershed monitoring and modelling and USA regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B G; Boner, M C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the Columbus program was to implement a comprehensive watershed monitoring-network including water chemistry, aquatic biology and alternative sensors to establish water environment health and methods for determining future restoration progress and early warning for protection of drinking water supplies. The program was implemented to comply with USA regulatory requirements including Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) rules of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Source Water Assessment and Protection (SWAP) rules under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The USEPA Office of Research and Development and the Water Environment Research Foundation provided quality assurance oversight. The results obtained demonstrated that significant wet weather data is necessary to establish relationships between land use, water chemistry, aquatic biology and sensor data. These measurements and relationships formed the basis for calibrating the US EPA BASINS Model, prioritizing watershed health and determination of compliance with water quality standards. Conclusions specify priorities of cost-effective drainage system controls that attenuate stormwater flows and capture flushed pollutants. A network of permanent long-term real-time monitoring using combination of continuous sensor measurements, water column sampling and aquatic biology surveys and a regional organization is prescribed to protect drinking water supplies and measure progress towards water quality targets.

  8. An Optimal Centralized Carbon Dioxide Repository for Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Poiencot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Florida’s electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels, from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s is also presented.

  9. Residential Mobility and Breast Cancer in Marin County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Jacquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marin County (California, USA has among the highest incidences of breast cancer in the U.S. A previously conducted case-control study found eight significant risk factors in participants enrolled from 1997–1999. These included being premenopausal, never using birth control pills, lower highest lifetime body mass index, having four or more mammograms from 1990–1994, beginning drinking alcohol after age 21, drinking an average two or more alcoholic drinks per day, being in the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking, and being raised in an organized religion. Previously conducted surveys provided residential histories; while  statistic accounted for participants’ residential mobility, and assessed clustering of breast cancer cases relative to controls based on the known risk factors. These identified specific cases, places, and times of excess breast cancer risk. Analysis found significant global clustering of cases localized to specific residential histories and times. Much of the observed clustering occurred among participants who immigrated to Marin County. However, persistent case-clustering of greater than fifteen years duration was also detected. Significant case-clustering among long-term residents may indicate geographically localized risk factors not accounted for in the study design, as well as uncertainty and incompleteness in the acquired addresses. Other plausible explanations include environmental risk factors and cases tending to settle in specific areas. A biologically plausible exposure or risk factor has yet to be identified.

  10. HOUSING MARKETS IN SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gostkowska-Drzewicka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the changes taking place in housing markets in selected European countries and in the USA. The basic research period covers the years 1998-2009. However, wherever availability of data allowed so, we covered with our research also the years 1963-2010. The development of domestic housing markets is determined both by specific features of local markets and by macroeconomic factors influencing the economic situation. The availability of capital to finance investment is of primary importance for the changes taking place in housing markets. This factor can be expressed by the volume of mortgage debt related to GDP and inflation and the level of interest rates on mortgage loans. The evaluation of the changes occurring in domestic housing markets was based on the identification of such structural characteristics as: the volume of the housing stock, the number of ready-to-use flats, the number of issued building permits, the indices of housing prices, and the number of transactions concerning purchase of flats or houses.

  11. Honey bee success predicted by landscape composition in Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DB Sponsler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L. can routinely travel as far as several kilometers from their hive in the process of collecting nectar and pollen from floral patches within the surrounding landscape. Since the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale is a function of landscape composition, apiculturists have long recognized that landscape composition is a critical determinant of honey bee colony success. Nevertheless, very few studies present quantitative data relating colony success metrics to local landscape composition. We employed a beekeeper survey in conjunction with GIS-based landscape analysis to model colony success as a function of landscape composition in the State of Ohio, USA, a region characterized by intensive cropland, urban development, deciduous forest, and grassland. We found that colony food accumulation and wax production were positively related to cropland and negatively related to forest and grassland, a pattern that may be driven by the abundance of dandelion and clovers in agricultural areas compared to forest or mature grassland. Colony food accumulation was also negatively correlated with urban land cover in sites dominated by urban and agricultural land use, which does not support the popular opinion that the urban environment is more favorable to honey bees than cropland.

  12. Some comments on reconstructing the historical climate of California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes some examples of historical climate reconstruction pertaining to California, USA, focusing mostly on winter climate given the expected strongest teleconnection signals for this season. Climatic data consist of early instrumental data from the US Army Surgeon General at military forts, observers of the Smithsonian Institution, the Signal Service, and some private observers. Documentary (non-instrumental) data were also used in assessing extreme events. Original daily records of these data were carefully assessed for discontinuities from examining diurnal temperature ranges and daily precipitation amounts. The climatic reconstructions conducted were as follows: 1) winter precipitation time series for selected locations since 1850, particularly for Sacramento and San Francisco, 2) winter temperature time series for selected locations since 1850, and 3) analyses of an extreme flooding event in January 1862 and a landfalling tropical cyclone of September 1939. Results indicate distinctive wetter winters for central and northern California in the late nineteenth century, and some of these wetter years correspond to well-known very strong El Ni no events. Connections to weaker El Nino and La Nina events, however, are not clearly evident. The flood of January 1862 is considered unprecedented when compared to other floods of the last 130 years. The reconstruction of a landfalling tropical cyclone for September 1939 near Los Angeles suggests its intensity at just below hurricane strength

  13. Issues of public policy in the USA raised by amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzioni, A

    1976-03-01

    Amniocentesis, a procedure which can detect during pregnancy whether or not the fetus will develop into a mongol or one affected by other serious chromosomal defects, if given to all pregnant women aged 40 and over, would save both human suffering and economic loss to the community. The procedure is not at present widely used for various reasons, not all of them medical, and, if the test result is positive abortion is the remedy. The author describes an important clinical trial being conducted in the USA at the present time but suggests that an educational programme should be undertaken to inform the public of the existence of this procedure and its applications even before the results of the American large-scale trial can be known and evaluated. Amniocentesis and its use, Professor Etzioni concludes, is not the only genetic tool which should be reviewed in a manner which would give an overall picture. He compares those who are concerned with these matters to the citizens of Britain when they saw the first steam engine. They did not perceive the social changes--the industrial revolution--that would follow. In our time a 'genetic revolution' may not be long delayed.

  14. IN SEARCH OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC SUPREMACY: CHINA VERSUS USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN-GEORGE TOMA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The roots of the global economy can be found in the 15th century. It started with the expansion of trade and distribution and continued with the development of industry and services. The global economy has changed significantly during the past decades, especially after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Governments, policymakers, researchers, businessmen, managers or social activists, are highly interested in understanding the way the global economy works today. As the topic of global economy is interdisciplinary and complex it can be studied from different perspectives and levels of analysis. The macro level deals with international organizations and regimes, the meso level emphasizes the role played by countries and companies, and the micro level insists on the literature related to globalization and transnational movements. The aims of the paper are to present the evolution of the world’s ten largest economies by gross domestic product in the period 2015-2016 and to emphasize the economic competition between the USA and China. The research methodology is based on a quantitative method. The results of the paper show that these two powerful economies are the main protagonists in the race for economic supremacy and emphasize the Chinese challenge to the American dominance.

  15. The 22 March 2014 Oso landslide, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, Joseph; Montgomery, David R.; Anderson, Scott A.; Keaton, Jeffrey R.; Benoît, Jean; dela Chapelle, John; Gilbert, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The Oso, Washington, USA, landslide occurred on the morning of Saturday, 22 March 2014 and claimed the lives of 43 people. The landslide began within an 200-m-high hillslope comprised of unconsolidated glacial and previous landslide/colluvial deposits; it continued as a debris avalanche/debris flow that rapidly inundated a neighborhood of 35 single-family residences. An intense three-week rainfall that immediately preceded the event most likely played a role in triggering the landslide; and other factors that likely contributed to destabilization of the landslide mass include alteration of the local groundwater recharge and hydrogeological regime from previous landsliding, weakening and alteration of the landslide mass caused by previous landsliding, and changes in stress distribution resulting from removal and deposition of material from earlier landsliding. Field reconnaissance following the event revealed six distinctive zones and several subzones that are characterized on the basis of geomorphic expression, styles of deformation, geologic materials, and the types, size, and orientation of vegetation. Seismic recording of the landslide indicate that the event was marked by several vibration-generating episodes of mass movement. We hypothesize that the landslide occurred in two stages, with the first being a sequential remobilization of existing slide masses from the most recent (2006) landslide and from an ancient slide that triggered a devastating debris avalanche/debris flow. The second stage involved headward extension into previously unfailed material that occurred in response to unloading and redirection of stresses.

  16. Recent trends on NMR imaging in UK and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Masahiro [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1981-12-01

    The development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by major research centers and manufacturers is reviewed. The spin warp method is used at Aberdeen University, and the T1 images of esophageal cancer and hepatic metastasis obtained by this method are shown. The Moore group at Nottingham University developed an instrument to scan the head region, and it produces spatial resolution comparable to x-ray computed tomography. The transverse image of the thorax obtained by the QED-80 developed by FONAR (U.S.A.) is shown. It uses field focusing NMR, and can measure spin density, T1, T2 and NMR spectrum, but its precision is slightly lowered because fewer proton spins are activated. These methods all measure the proton distribution in vivo, but with the TMR developed by Oxford Research Co. (U.K.) high resolution spectra of phosphorus 31 compounds can be obtained. The NMR spectra obtained for the phosphorus compounds in the muscle is shown. The rate of the phosphorus compounds such as ATP, ADP creatine phosphate and inorganic phosphate are markedly changed by exercise or depending on the blood flow.

  17. Risk factors of moyamoya disease in Canada and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerless, S J

    1997-10-01

    Over the past 28 years, 39 patients with Moyamoya disease or syndrome defined as spontaneous occlusion of the circle of Willis with extensive basal collateral vessels have been treated by the author in Canada and the USA. All patients presented with clinical or radiologic evidence of hemorrhage (23) or ischemia and infarction (16). A total of 12 patients had associated cerebral aneurysms and seven of these patients with aneurysms presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patients ages ranged from 5 to 47 years. Of these 58% were female. The patients racial origin included North American Indian, Innuit, East Indian/Pakistani, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Malayasian, Hispanic, African American and Caucasian. Familial clustering was seen in North American Indian, Innuit and Caucasian patients. Associated disorders (tuberculosis, pharyngitis, thalassemia, fibromuscular hyperplasia, polycystic kidney, sickle cell trait and hypertension) were common in these patients, as was the use of tobacco, alcohol and in the adult females, oral contraceptives. It may be concluded from this series that the etiology of Moyamoya disease or syndrome is probably multifactorial, but that some racial and familial groups are more susceptible. Furthermore, in that the clinical and angiographic features are identical, the separation between Moyamoya disease and syndrome may not be helpful in understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this disorder.

  18. USA perspectives. Safety and security of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the 103 licensed nuclear power plants in the United States, there are about 157,000 licenses that authorize the use of radioactive materials subject to US Atomic Energy Act. as amended. Each year the NRC receives about 200 reports of lost, stolen or abandoned radioactive sources and devices. The NRC has established a programme to review and analyze reports and other information on losses, thefts, abandonments, and discoveries of radioactive sources that helped to identify and characterize the problem with safety and security of radioactive sources in devices used under the general license programme. In summary, a large number of radioactive sources in use in the USA have a very good safety record. When used properly by trained personnel with effective regulatory oversight, the many uses of radioactive sources are safe and provide a net benefit to society. If problems occur such as overexposures or contamination of property, it is essential that hey are promptly reported to the regulatory authority. If necessary appropriate emergency response measures can be taken, and the problems analysed. In that way, effective risk-informed regulatory measures can be activated to assure the continued safety and security of radioactive sources

  19. A Method for Snow Reanalysis: The Sierra Nevada (USA) Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Manuela; Margulis, Steven; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a state-of-the art methodology for constructing snow water equivalent (SWE) reanalysis. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model and snow depletion curve model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and snow cover area for a given set of (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the satellite observed depletion of the fractional snow cover time series. This method was applied over the Sierra Nevada (USA) based on the assimilation of remotely sensed fractional snow covered area data from the Landsat 5-8 record (1985-2016). The verified dataset (based on a comparison with over 9000 station years of in situ data) exhibited mean and root-mean-square errors less than 3 and 13 cm, respectively, and correlation greater than 0.95 compared with in situ SWE observations. The method (fully Bayesian), resolution (daily, 90-meter), temporal extent (31 years), and accuracy provide a unique dataset for investigating snow processes. This presentation illustrates how the reanalysis dataset was used to provide a basic accounting of the stored snowpack water in the Sierra Nevada over the last 31 years and ultimately improve real-time streamflow predictions.

  20. Contaminant exposure of birds nesting in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Franson, J Christian; Jones, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In earlier studies, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were reported in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings collected from lower Green Bay (WI, USA) in 1994 and 1995 and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs collected in 1991. Comparable samples collected in 2010 and 2011 indicated that concentrations of PCBs were 35%, 62%, 70%, and 88% lower than in the early 1990s in tree swallow eggs, tree swallow nestlings, double-crested cormorant eggs, and black-crowned night-heron eggs, respectively; concentrations of DDE were 47%, 43%, 51%, and 80% lower, respectively. These declines are consistent with regional contaminant trends in other species. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in herring gull (Larus argentatus) than in black-crowned night-heron eggs collected from Green Bay in 2010; PCB concentrations in double-crested cormorant and tree swallow eggs were intermediate. The estimated toxicity of the PCB mixture in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow was the equal to or greater than toxicity in the 3 piscivorous bird species. A multivariate analysis indicated that the composition percentage of lower-numbered PCB congeners was greater in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow than in eggs of the 3 piscivorous species nesting in Green Bay. Dioxin and furan concentrations and the toxicity of these chemicals were also higher in tree swallows than these other waterbird species nesting in Green Bay. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Distribution patterns of invasive alien species in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwen Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species (IAS cause environmental and economical problems. How to effectively manage all IAS at a large area is a challenge.Hypotheses about IAS (such as the “human activity” hypothesis, the “biotic acceptance” and the “biotic resistance” have been proposedfrom numerous studies. Here the state of Alabama in USA, widely occupied by IAS, is used as a case study for characterizing the emergentpatterns of IAS. The results indicate that most IAS are located in metropolitan areas and in the Black Belt area which is a historical intensiveland use area. There are positive relationships between the richness of IAS and the change of human population, the species richness and thenumber of endangered species, as well as the total road length and farmland area across Alabama. This study partially supports the abovethree hypotheses and provides a general pattern of local IAS. Based on possible processes related with IAS, some implications forstrategically managing local IAS are discussed.

  2. Public Views on Climate Change. European and USA Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzoni, I.; Pidgeon, N.F.

    2006-01-01

    If uncontrolled, human influences on the climate system may generate changes that will endanger various aspects of life on Earth. The precise implications of the scientific claims about climate change, and the extent to which they pose dangers to various populations, are becoming intensely debated at many levels in relation to policy. How 'danger' is interpreted will ultimately affect which actions are taken. In this paper, we examine how climate change is conceptualised by publics in Europe and in the USA. Although there is widespread concern about climate change, it is of secondary importance in comparison to other issues in people's daily lives. Most individuals relate to climate change through personal experience, knowledge, the balance of benefits and costs, and trust in other societal actors. We analyse these factors through findings from various surveys and studies, which highlight both the distinctiveness and some shared perspectives at a generalised level. We reflect upon these in relation to trust and responsibility for climate change action, and risk communication, supporting the call for discourses about climate change to also be situated in people's locality, as a means of increasing its saliency

  3. Benefits of NASA to the USA and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    During his 28+ as a NASA employee, Mr. Duarte has had the privilege to work in several programs and projects (Space Shuttle Main Engine; Advanced Solid Rocket Booster; X-33; X-34; X-36; External Tank for the Space Shuttle; Space Shuttle missions and others) related to the NASA aerospace exploration program. At the VIII version of F-AIR COLOMBIA, the organizers want to have Colombian born aerospace professionals with experience in aerospace matters to contribute as panelists for this years theme, Benefits of Space Development for A Country. For more than 50 years NASA has lead the world in exploration through continuous advancement in science and innovative technologies. The results have been not only of a service to the nation but to humankind, as well. Those remarkable developments have resulted in positive impact in social and economic growth, enhancements in academics and educational horizons, creation of numerous investment opportunities for large corporations and small business, and a more comprehensive understanding of the universe. NASA has layout path for space exploration and has been of inspiration for scientist, academics and students. Benefits of NASA to the USA and Humanity, will provide a relevant contribution to the theme and objectives of this national event in Colombia.

  4. Plants as indicators of photochemical oxidants in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    Plant indicators have been important in identifying the photochemical oxidant problem in the USA since the 1940's. They continue to serve as an inexpensive means of detecting oxidants in the atmosphere and determining the geographical extent and frequency of occurrence of oxidants. Plant indicators are particularly useful for land-use planning and in the evaluation of air pollution effects on agriculture, forestry, and native vegetation. Plant indicators are not satisfactory substitutes for chemical monitoring of the atmosphere because their responses lack specificity and are affected by climatic, edaphic, and cultural factors, as well as the concentration and frequency of occurrence of oxidants. Because they integrate many environmental variables, plant indicators may be valuable models for the response of other species but only to the extent that they respond to oxidants in the same manner as these other species. The four most important factors for the successful use of plant indicators are: genetic uniformity of plant material; standardization of cultural conditions; standardization of procedures for scoring foliar symptoms; and uniformity of climatic and edaphic factors among study sites. The species used most frequently as indicators of oxidants in the US have been Bel W-3 tobacco and Pinto bean for 0/sub 3/ and petunia for peroxyacyl nitrate. 41 references, 1 table.

  5. Cigarette sales in pharmacies in the USA (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.

  6. Recovery in Level 7-10 Women's USA Artistic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Stephen B; Bacon, Nicholas T; Bishop, Phillip A

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed physical performance in women's artistic gymnastics following three variable recovery periods. Participants included fifteen female gymnasts (mean age = 13.5 ± 1.1) who had competed at USA Gymnastics (USAG) levels 7 - 10 within at least one year prior to the study. Each testing session consisted of a warm-up followed by four muscular endurance tests and one explosive maximal test. Assessments included pull-ups, leg lifts, handstand push-ups, vertical jump, and push-ups. After the performance assessments, the participants completed a typical practice session. The performance measures were reassessed at the beginning of each of the recovery periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours in a counterbalanced design. Performance assessments were converted into Z-scores and then averaged for a composite session Z-score. The composite session Z-scores were compared to evaluate the recovery duration. Composite Z's were significantly lower (p=0.000), after the 24 (z=-1.10) and the 48 hour (z=-0.71) recovery periods compared to baseline (z=0.00). However, there was no difference in scores (p=1.00) between the baseline and 72 hours (z=0.004) recovery. Full recovery required 72 hours under the conditions of this study.

  7. Surveillance of Bungowannah pestivirus in the upper Midwestern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahante, J E; Zhang, J W; Rossow, K; Zimmerman, J J; Murtaugh, M P

    2014-08-01

    Pestiviruses, a genetically and antigenically highly diverse group, include one of the most historically significant swine pathogens, that is, classical swine fever virus. In Australia, investigations into swine outbreaks characterized by neonatal mortality, stillbirths and mummified foetuses resulted in the discovery of a new pestivirus, Bungowannah virus. This finding raised the possibility that Bungowannah virus, or a variant thereof, was circulating in swine herds elsewhere in the World. If so, it raised the possibility of a pestivirus emerging as a new swine disease with unknown consequences for animal health and food safety. Thus, we developed three specific qRT-PCR assays to evaluate tissue samples from undiagnosed cases of abortion or respiratory disease for evidence of Bungowannah virus. Examination of 64 samples collected between the Fall of 2007 and Spring of 2010 tested negative for all three genes examined. We conclude that Bungowannah-like pestivirus is unlikely to be present in swine in the upper Midwestern USA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Population diversity in Pacific herring of the Puget Sound, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siple, Margaret C; Francis, Tessa B

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, functional, or habitat diversity can confer stability on populations via portfolio effects (PEs) that integrate across multiple ecological responses and buffer against environmental impacts. The prevalence of these PEs in aquatic organisms is as yet unknown, and can be difficult to quantify; however, understanding mechanisms that stabilize populations in the face of environmental change is a key concern in ecology. Here, we examine PEs in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Puget Sound (USA) using a 40-year time series of biomass data for 19 distinct spawning population units collected using two survey types. Multivariate auto-regressive state-space models show independent dynamics among spawning subpopulations, suggesting that variation in herring production is partially driven by local effects at spawning grounds or during the earliest life history stages. This independence at the subpopulation level confers a stabilizing effect on the overall Puget Sound spawning stock, with herring being as much as three times more stable in the face of environmental perturbation than a single population unit of the same size. Herring populations within Puget Sound are highly asynchronous but share a common negative growth rate and may be influenced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The biocomplexity in the herring stock shown here demonstrates that preserving spatial and demographic diversity can increase the stability of this herring population and its availability as a resource for consumers.

  9. Iraagi sõjas on USA sõduritele suurim oht keemia- ja biorelv / Markus Larsson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Larsson, Markus

    2003-01-01

    Kuveidis viibiv keemiarelva avastamise lahingüksus on valvel võimalikeks Iraagi ennetusrünnakuteks Kuwait City või riigis paiknevate USA sõjaväebaaside vastu. Skeem: Kaitseriietus keemiarelva vastu

  10. Kurt Volker: USA peab uue entusiasmiga lahendama vanu probleeme / Kurt Volker ; intervjueerinud Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volker, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    USA NATO suursaadik president Barack Obamat ootavatest välispoliitilistset probleemidest, NATO poliitikast Gruusia jt. Ida-Euroopa riikide suhtes, Venemaa ja Ukraina gaasitülist ja suhetest Venemaaga

  11. Year-round presence of neonicotinoid insecticides in tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the transport of neonicotinoid insecticides to a sensitive freshwater ecosystem, monthly samples (October 2015-September 2016) were collected from 10 major tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA. For the monthly tributary samples, neonicotinoids were detected in...

  12. USA maksumaksja nuriseb HIV-ennetusraha kulutamise üle / Anti Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Anti, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    Henry J. Kaiseri perekonna sihtasutus uuris tänavu, kuidas on USA maksumaksjad rahul nende raha kinkimisega välisriikidele HIV-vastaseks võitluseks. Autori arvates oleks ka Eestis aeg selliseid uuringuid korraldada

  13. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Nihoa Island, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20m) of the shelf and slope environments of Nihoa Island, Hawaii, USA. The ASCII includes multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM120, Simrad...

  14. Thanks to shale gas, the rebirth of the petrochemical industry in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    America's competitive advantage is a strong incentive for petrochemical companies to invest in the USA. Petrochemicals are thus one of the high energy intensity sectors to benefit the most from the shale gas revolution. (author)

  15. USA valik : kas uus peatükk või retro? / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendikandidaatide demokraat Barack Obama ja vabariiklase John McCaini debattidel pakutud erinevatest kurssidest. President George W. Bushi kriitikast tõenäolise demokraatide kandidaadi B. Obama seisukohtade suhtes. Lisa: Välispoliitilised seisukohad

  16. Population structure of Cylindrocladium parasiticum infecting peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Georgia, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, L.P.; Davis, A.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Crous, P.W.; Brenneman, T.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Cylindrocladium parasiticum is an important pathogen of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) causing the disease Cylindrocladium black rot. The genetic structure of this haploid pathogen was determined for populations associated with peanut in Georgia, USA. Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to

  17. USA suurpanga krahh mõjutab siiski ka Eestit / Helga Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helga, 1945-

    2008-01-01

    USA suuruselt neljas investeerimispank Lehman Brothers andis kohtusse avalduse pankrotimenetluseks. Endise Hansapanga juhatuse esimees Erkki Raasuke ei näe emapank Swedbanki positsioonidest tulenevalt Eesti või Balti pangandusega mingeid seoseid. Lisa: Lehmaniga seotud varad

  18. Briti valitsus usub USA mõjutamise võimalusse / Maris Lillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillak, Maris, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Suurbritannia endiste kõrgete diplomaatide kirjast, milles nad kritiseerivad peaminister Tony Blairi lähedasi suhteid USA presidendi George W. Bushiga seoses Iraagi ja Iisraeli poliitikaga. Briti välisministeeriumi ministri Mike O'Brien'i vastusest

  19. USA meelitab Iraani läbirääkimistelaua taha / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice tegi ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogu kohtumisel Iraanile pakkumise, et Ameerika liitub mitmepoolsete kõnelustega Iraani tuumaprogrammi üle, kui Iraan peatab uraani rikastamise. Lisa: Kommentaarid ajalehtedest

  20. ICT literacy – the requirement of foreign countries modern education systems (experience of the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Malitskaya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the development and present days situation of information and communication technologies and Technological standards implementation in an education system of the USA is analysed.

  1. Midagi ebatavalist: Chavez andis vangi USA-le välja / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela andis USA-le välja Colombias tegutsenud ja Venezuelas tabatud narkokartelli juhi ja tema kaks kaasosalist. Venezuela on peamine kokaiini transiidikanal Aafrikasse ja Euroopasse, Colombia süüdistab Venezuelat terroristide varjamises

  2. USA terrorismivastane seadus ja jälitustegevuse erivolitused / Piibe Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Piibe, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    24. okt. 2001 Ameerika Ühendriikides vastu võetud terrorismivastase seaduse (nn USA Patriot Act) paragrahvist 215, mis käsitleb andmete salajast kogumist ja paragrahvist 213 salajaste läbiotsimisite kohta

  3. USA kongresmen : afgaanide oopium ründab ka Eestit / Howard Coble ; interv. Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Coble, Howard

    2006-01-01

    USA staazhikas poliitik Howard Coble käis Eestis kuulamas kogemusi võitlusest narkokaubandusega, mida peab terrorismi üheks põhimootoriks. Afganistani narkootikumid ja stabiilsus, Guantanamo vangilaagrid

  4. Current evolutionary stage of L/ILW management at operating NPP in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    The volume of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L/ILW) from commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) buried annually in the USA has decreased dramatically over the last two decades. The reduction in disposal volume has occurred for both dry active wastes (DAW) and wet wastes (e.g., resins, filters and sludges). Decreased disposal volume has occurred at both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). The reduction in disposal volume occurred in stages. The major driver to reduce disposal volume in the commercial sector of the USA has been increasing burial costs. The current drive to further reduce overall NPP operating costs to meet a deregulated electric market in the USA has unexpectedly resulted in further waste reductions. This paper will review the stages of waste reduction and describe the current stage for NPP in the USA. (author)

  5. Simrad em3002d Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  6. Four Sectors of Industry in USA and Europe compared. Business Strategies and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Woerd, F.; De Wit, K.; Vellinga, P.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.

    2000-01-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in implementation of successful climate policies. However, until now little is known about triggers to develop corporate climate strategies. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have investigated emerging climate strategies in the oil, automobile, chemical and bank and insurance industries. A focal question was whether strategies of EU based corporations differ systematically from USA based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks, European corporations generally tend to have more advanced climate policies than their USA counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. In the automobile industry, USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible

  7. USA uus luuresheff tõhustab spioonivõrku / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA Luure Keskagentuuri uueks peadirektoriks saab senati poolt kinnitatud Porter Goss, kelle esimesteks sammudeks uuel ametikohal on luureohvitseride motiveerimine suuremate riskide võtmisele ja globaalse agentide võrgu tõhustamine

  8. Endine USA sõdur : vihkan oma armeed / Canyon Porter ; interv. Liisa Past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Porter, Canyon

    2007-01-01

    Pärast 11. septembri terrorirünnakut armeega liitunud, Iraagis missioonil viibinud endine luurespetsialist räägib Abu Ghraibi vanglas toimunust ning armeest lahkumisest. Tema arvates poleks USA üldse pidanud Iraaki minema

  9. Virginia Tech among Princeton Review's and USA Today's top 10 'best value' public universities

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech was ranked eighth "best value" public university for 2010, according to "The Princeton Review," who teamed with USA Today, to present its list, "'The Princeton Review' Best Value Colleges for 2010."

  10. Hiigelsaastaja USA võitleb kliimarindel üksinda kõigi vastu / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2001-01-01

    Suurim maailma kasvuhoonegaasidega saastaja USA paistab olevat jäänud üksinda kõigi teiste riikide vastu kliimakõnelustel, mis toimuvad Saksamaal ja kus ka Jaapan on soostunud globaalse soojenemisega võitlema

  11. USA juhtivpoliitik sai süüdistuse pettuses / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    USA Kongressi vabariiklaste juht Tom DeLay astus ametist tagasi, kuna Texase osariigi Travise maakonna kohus esitas talle süüdistuse seotuse eest Texase valimiskampaania rahastamisskeemiga. Esindajatekoja uueks vabariiklaste juhiks sai Missouri osariigi kongresmen Roy Blunt

  12. CMS: LiDAR-derived Tree Canopy Cover for Pennsylvania, USA, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimated high-resolution (1-m) tree canopy cover for the state of Pennsylvania, USA, in 2008. The data were derived from 2006-2008...

  13. USA tõstis tõkkepuu Vene WTO-püüdlustelt / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    USA ja Venemaa leppisid põhimõtteliselt kokku tingimustes, mille täitmise korral saab Venemaa WTO-ga liituda. Liitumise peavad heaks kiitma kõik WTO liikmesmaad, raskeks võib osutuda heakskiidu saamine Gruusialt

  14. USA kindral: liitlased panustavad hästi, eelarvetest hoolimata / Mark Hertling ; intervjueerinud Lauri Tankler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hertling, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Intervjuu õppust "Saber Strike" külastanud USA Euroopa vägede ülema kindralleitnant Mark Hertlingiga. Tema sõnul ei ole Euroopa kaitse-eelarvete vähenemine siinsete liitlaste panust kehvemaks teinud

  15. Evaluation of air pollutant emissions projections from the GCAM-USA integrated assessment model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains 2010 emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fine particulate matter by sector and state as modeled using the GCAM-USA integrated...

  16. USA president näeb Ukrainat ja Gruusiat alliansi liikmetena / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush toetab Ukraina ja Gruusia püüdlusi saada NATO liikmesuse tegevuskava (MAP), Prantsusmaa ja Saksamaa on neile riikidele MAP-i andmise vastu. Riikidest, kellele on NATO valmis andma liitumiskutse

  17. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Island, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This ASCII includes multibeam bathymetry from...

  18. Langus USAs kukutas ka teisi börse / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Probleemid USA riskantsemate hüpoteeklaenude ehk subprime-laenude turul viisid langusesse kogu maailma börsid. Diagrammid: Enim kukkunud olulisemad börsiindeksid; New Century Financiali aktsia hind. Kommenteerib Kristjan Lepik

  19. Thomas M. Prymak. Gathering a Heritage: Ukrainian, Slavonic, and Ethnic Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Morrissette

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Thomas M. Prymak. Gathering a Heritage: Ukrainian, Slavonic, and Ethnic Canada and the USA. U of Toronto P, 2015. xiv, 370 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Appendix. Notes. Index. $29.95, paper.

  20. Notes on Pauropoda (Myriapoda from U.S.A. with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Scheller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pauropoda are described from USA, Kionopauropus alyeskaensis sp. n. (Pauropodidae, and Eurypauropus arcuatus sp. n. (Eurypauropodidae. The genus Kionopauropus is reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time.

  1. Winter swarming behavior by the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi Sars, 1885 in a Kentucky (USA) reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, John R.; Renicker, Thomas R.; Tausz, Claudia E.; Young, Jade L.; Thomason, Jennifer C.; Wolf, Zachary L.; Russell, Amber L.; Cherry, Mac A.; Scotese, Kyle C.; Koenig, Dawn T.

    2018-01-01

    We describe swarming behavior in the invasive cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi Sars, 1885 in a Kentucky, USA, reservoir during winter 2017. The taxon is a highly successful tropical invader and has spread throughout the lower latitude systems in the USA since its discovery in 1991. Other than a few isolated reports, the abundance of D. lumholtzi is often 10,000 organisms L-1) of sexually reproducing females of this exotic cladoceran at water column temperatures <10°C.

  2. The Bakou-Ceyhan pipeline: paradoxes and coherence of the USA strategy of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafalian, A.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the construction of the Bakou-Ceyhan pipeline, from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, is begun, in spite of the the controversies of industrialists against politicians and experts. The diplomatic USA activity in favor this pipeline largely contributes to the problems solution. The author presents the USA policy and strategy in the region, the economic constraints and the negotiations. (A.L.B.)

  3. International College of Dentists-USA Section: a brief history, 1934-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Richard G; Galeone, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Inspiration for the International College of Dentists can be traced to a Tokyo dinner in 1920, with the College being founded in 1927 and the USA Section following in 1934. The College has always held a focus on international relations and service. The USA Section has also developed a firm commitment to leadership. The origins of the College are traced in this article, and the organizational structure and a sampling of its many programs are also presented.

  4. How arguments are justified in the media debate on climate change in the USA and France

    OpenAIRE

    Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Kukkonen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the differences in the values that are evoked to justify arguments in the media debate on climate change in USA and France from 1997 to 2011. We find that climate change is more often discussed in terms of justice, democracy, and legal regulation in France, while monetary value plays a more important role as a justification for climate policy arguments in the USA. Technological and scientific arguments are more often made in France, and ecological arguments equally in both...

  5. Terrorihirmus USA võimud jälgisid pangatehinguid / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    New York Times esitatud andmete kohaselt on president Bushi administratsioon neli ja pool aastat rahvusvahelise pangandustehinguid koordineeriva organisatsiooni SWIFT vahendusel kontrollinud riigi elanike rahvusvahelisi pangatehinguid. Mitmete kolumnistide arvates on eraelu puutumatuse põhimõttega mindud vastuollu. President Bushi administratsioon kinnitas, et jälitustegevus oli vajalik USA julgeoleku tagamiseks. Lisa: USA jälgib. Vt. samas: Iraagi mässulised ähvardavad Briti sõdurite peresid

  6. History of development of acceleration weapons with relativistic electron beam in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    Technological aspects of creating in the USA the accelerating weapon (AW) on the intensive electron beams is discussed. The analysis of the works process on the accelerating topics with priority studies on creating the means for destruction of intercontinental ballistic missiles at 500 km distance is given. Projects on creating perspective board electron high-gradient purposeful accelerators are elucidated and data on the accomplished cosmic experiments with electron beams in the USA are presented

  7. Calculation of embodied energy in Sino-USA trade: 1997–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ranran; Long, Ruyin; Yue, Ting; Shi, Haihong

    2014-01-01

    In order to find efficient trade measures to reduce China's energy consumption and to provide theoretical support for the climate talks between China and America, we investigate the impact of Sino-USA trade on energy consumption from the perspective of embodied energy. An Environmental Input–Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model was established to calculate the total energy consumption coefficient, the direct consumption coefficient and the complete consumption coefficient of the sectors of the national economies of China and America. After taking into consideration the data of every sector of the national economy in Sino-USA trade, energy embodied in the import and export trade between China and America was calculated to verify the real energy flows in Sino-USA trade. The research results suggest the following: China is the net exporter of embodied energy in Sino-USA trade, and coal, crude oil and natural gas are the major components. In 1997–2011, the net exports of China's embodied energy totaled 1523,082,200 t of standard coal, the amount of China's energy consumption increased by 895,527,900 t of standard coal, and America's energy consumption decreased by 11,871,200 t of standard coal as a result of Sino-USA trade. On this basis, corresponding policies and recommendations are proposed. - Highlights: • An EIO-LCA model is established to examine China's embodied energy in Sino-USA trade. • Embodied energy is calculated from the perspective of energy sources. • China is found to be the net exporter of embodied energy in Sino-USA trade. • Coal, crude oil and natural gas are the major components of China's net embodied energy exports. • China's energy consumption has increased and America's has shifted to China in Sino-USA trade

  8. Study on safety subsidiary objective of nuclear power plant in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Zhang Chunming; Fu Zhiwei; Song Wei; Li Chaojun; Wang Zhe; Zuo Jiaxu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of the quantitative safety objective and subsidiary objective in USA. The expressions of CDF and LERF were obtained according to NUREG-1150. The relationship between the subsidiary objective and the quantitative safety objective was derived. The method was compared with that used in NUREG-1860. The requirements of safety objective for the future nuclear power plant and the development of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) technology in USA were studied and can be used as reference in China. (authors)

  9. Exploring, Documenting, and Improving Humanitarian Service Learning through Engineers Without Borders USA

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Berg, Devin; Lee, Tina; Buchanan, Elizabeth; Lacksonen, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Exploring, Documenting, and Improving Humanitarian Service Learning through Engineers without Borders-USA is a four-year project exploring a variety of challenges and opportunities in university-based service learning programs. Specifically, this project looks holistically at the inception and evolution of a new Engineers Without Borders USA chapter, while analyzing characteristics, values, and demographics of individuals involved in EWB community-based humanitarian projects in multiple chapt...

  10. Sõda kahel rindel ähvardab murda USA armee selgroo / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Kaks äsja avaldatud raportit hoiatavad, et USA armeel on Iraagis ja Afganistanis ettevõetud operatsioonide ulatuse tõttu suuri probleeme. W. Perry ja M. Albrighti tellitud uurimus süüdistab G. Bushi valitsust, et ressursse pole õigesti hinnatud. USA kaitseminister Donald Rumsfeld lükkas mõlemad väited tagasi. Lisa: Iraagi ülesehitus terava kriitika all

  11. Problem of spent fuel storage from commercial nuclear reactors in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem on spent fuel storage in the USA is considered. According to the law and agreement, concluded with electrical companies, the USA should begin to receive the spent fuel from commercial reactors in 1998, however they are not ready for it. The consortium for constructing a centralized storage, financed from private sources for its temporary disposition is established recently. The spent fuel receipt is planned for 2002

  12. Cross cultural comparison of constipation profiles at tertiary care centers between India and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Surana, R; Soni, S; Agnihotri, A; Ahuja, V; Makharia, G K; Staller, K; Kuo, B

    2018-03-09

    Despite potential differences in patient perception of chronic constipation (CC) in geographically and culturally distinct regions, head-to-head studies comparing the clinical profile, constipation severity, impact on quality of life (QOL) and economic impact are lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study of patients presenting with CC to tertiary care centers in the USA and India. Standardized instruments were used to assess constipation subtype, disease severity, disease-specific QOL, somatization, and psychiatric comorbidities. We used multivariable linear regression to determine the predictors of QOL and number of healthcare visits. Sixty-six and 98 patients with CC were enrolled in the USA and India, respectively. Indian patients with CC had significantly more frequent bowel movements/week compared to their USA counterparts (Median 5 vs 3, P USA compared to India (65.5% vs 48%, P = .04). Higher depression score (P = .001), more severe constipation symptoms (P = .001) and site of the study being USA (P = .008) independently predicted worse QOL. Indian patients (P USA suggesting significant differences in perception of CC in different geographic and cultural settings. QOL and economic impact related to constipation varies with geographic/cultural setting irrespective of other clinical and psychosomatic features. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Estimating recharge at yucca mountain, nevada, usa: comparison of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for and environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 nun/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than I to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface. [References: 57

  14. Urbanization effects on the hydrology of the Atlanta, Georgia (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Rose, S.

    2001-01-01

    For the period from 1958 to 1996, streamflow and rainfall characteristics of a highly urbanized watershed were compared with less-urbanized and non-urbanized watersheds in the vicinity of Atlanta, Georgia (USA). Water levels in several wells completed in surficial and crystalline-rock aquifers also were evaluated. Annual runoff coefficients (runoff as a fractional percentage of precipitation) ranged from 0.31 to 0.34 and were not significantly different for the urban stream (Peachtree Creek). Peak flows for the largest 25 stormflows at Peachtree Creek were 30% to 80% greater than peak flows for the other streams. A 2-day storm recession constant for Peachtree Creek was much larger, that is streamflow decreased more rapidly than for the other streams. Average low flow of Peachtree Creek was 25 to 35% less than the other streams, possibly the result of decreased infiltration caused by the more efficient routing of storm water and the paving of groundwater recharge areas. The timing of groundwater level variations was similar annually in each well, reflecting the seasonal recharge. Although water level monitoring only began during the late 1970s and early 1980s for the two urban wells, water levels in these wells have been declining compared to non-urban wells since then. The water level decline is attributed to decreased groundwater recharge in the urban watersheds due to increased imperviousness and related rapid storm runoff. Likewise, the increased urbanization from the 1960s to the 1990s of the Peachtree Creek watershed produced more runoff than urbanization in the less urbanized Big Creek and Sweetwater Creek watersheds.

  15. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  16. A workplace farmstand pilot programme in Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertmann, Farryl M W; Fricke, Hollyanne E; Carpenter, Leah R; Schober, Daniel J; Smith, Teresa M; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-09-01

    To explore the feasibility of a workplace farmstand programme through the utilization of an online ordering system to build awareness for local food systems, encourage community participation, and increase local fruit and vegetable availability. A 4-week pilot to explore feasibility of workplace farmstand programmes through a variety of outcome measures, including survey, mode of sale, weekly sales totals and intercept interviews. A large private company in Sarpy County, Omaha, Nebraska, USA. Employees of the company hosting the farmstand programme. Pre-programme, a majority of employees indicated that quality (95·4 %), variety (94·6 %) and cost of fruits and vegetables (86·4 %) were driving factors in their fruit and vegetable selection when shopping. The availability of locally or regionally produced fruits and vegetables was highly important (78·1 %). Participants varied in their definition of local food, with nearly half (49·2 %) reporting within 80·5 km (50 miles), followed by 160·9 km (100 miles; 29·5 %) and 321·9 km (200 miles; 12·1 %). Weekly farmstand purchases (both walk-ups and online orders) ranged from twenty-eight to thirty-nine employees, with weekly sales ranging from $US 257·95 to 436·90 for the producer. The mode of purchase changed throughout the pilot, with higher use of online ordering in the beginning and higher use of walk-up purchasing at the end. The workplace farmstand pilot study revealed initial interest by both employees and a producer in this type of programme, helped to establish a sustained producer-employer relationship and led to additional opportunities for both the producer and employer.

  17. Early work patterns for gynaecological cancer survivors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachreiner, N M; Ghebre, R G; Virnig, B A; Shanley, R

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the balance between work demands and treatment plans for >4.3 million working-age cancer survivors in the USA. To describe changes in work status for gynaecological cancer survivors during the first 6 months following diagnosis and their experience with their employers' programmes and policies. One hundred and ten gynaecological cancer survivors who were working at the time of their cancer diagnosis completed a survey. Case record reviews documented their clinical characteristics and treatment details. Ninety-five women (86%) had surgery; 81 (74%) received chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both in addition to surgery. Nine per cent of women said that they changed their treatment plan because of their jobs; in contrast, 62% of women said that they changed their work situation to accommodate their treatment plan. Overall, the most common month for women to stop working was Month 1 (41%), to decrease hours was Month 2 (32%) and to increase hours was Month 6 (8%). Twenty-eight per cent of women were aware of employer policies that assisted the return to work process; 70% of women were familiar with the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and 56% with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Only 26% completed a formal request for work accommodations. After 6 months, 56 of 83 women (67%) remained working or had returned to work. Work patterns varied for these gynaecological cancer survivors over the first 6 months following diagnosis. Opportunities exist to improve communication about work and treatment expectations between cancer survivors, occupational health professionals, employers and treating clinicians.

  18. Processes of arroyo filling in northern New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Scott, Michael L.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2015-01-01

    We documented arroyo evolution at the tree, trench, and arroyo scales along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA. We excavated 29 buried living woody plants and used burial signatures in their annual rings to date stratigraphy in four trenches across the arroyos. Then, we reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution by combining trench data with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. Burial signatures in annual rings of salt cedar and willow dated sedimentary beds greater than 30 cm thick with annual precision. Along both arroyos, incision occurred until the 1930s in association with extreme high flows, and subsequent filling involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. A strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. The 55 km study reach along the Rio Puerco demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. We conclude that the occurrence of upstream progression within large basins like the Rio Puerco makes precise synchrony across basins impossible. Arroyo wall retreat is now mostly limited to locations where meanders impinge on the arroyo wall, forming hairpin bends, for which entry to and exit from the wall are stationary. Average annual sediment storage within the Rio Puerco study reach between 1955 and 2005 was 4.8 × 105 t/yr, 16% of the average annual suspended sediment yield, and 24% of the long-term bedrock denudation rate. At this rate, the arroyo would fill in 310 yr.

  19. Curriculum content in geriatric dentistry in USA dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Goettsche, Zachary S; Qian, Fang

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to re-examine the teaching of geriatric dentistry in the USA dental schools, to identify curriculum content and compare the findings to previous reports. All dental schools in the United States were contacted via email with a questionnaire to assess the teaching of geriatric dentistry. Non-responding schools were sent a minimum of three reminder emails to complete the survey. A statistical analysis was performed. Descriptive statistics were conducted to profile the variables of interest. Bivariate analysis was performed to explore if any of the variables were related using Fisher's exact test, non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Fifty-six of the 67 dental schools completed the questionnaire. Geriatric dentistry was taught in all dental schools; for 92.8%, the course was compulsory. We found that 62.5% were teaching it as an independent course, 25% as an organised series of lectures and 8.9% as occasional lectures in parts of other courses. Clinically, 84.2% have some form of compulsory education in geriatric dentistry. Public schools were marginally associated with an increased interest in expanding the geriatric dentistry curriculum (P = .078). No differences were found between these variables and school location. Geriatric dentistry is now required in 92.8% of dental schools. The teaching of traditional topics has not changed much; however, the number of gerontological topics has increased. Clinical teaching needs to be expanded, as in only 57.1% of schools was it a requirement. The ageing imperative will require research to determine the impact of teaching on services to the geriatric community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Scroll bar growth on the coastal Trinity River, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The processes leading to the formation and growth of scroll bars remain relatively mysterious despite how often they are referenced in fluvial literature. Their definition is descriptive; they are characterized as arcuate topographic highs present on the inner banks of channel bends on meandering rivers, landward of point bars. Often, they are used as proxies for previous positions of point bars. This assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between point bars and scroll bars should be reconsidered as 1) planform curvature for scroll bars is consistently smaller than the curvature for adjacent point bars, and 2) deposition on the scroll bar is typically distinct and disconnected from the adjacent point bar deposition. Results from time-lapse airborne lidar data as well as from trenches through five separate scroll bar - point bar pairings on the Trinity River in east TX, USA, will be discussed in relation to formative scroll bar processes and their connection to point bars. On the lidar difference map, scroll bar growth appears as a strip of increased deposition flanked on both the land- and channel-ward sides by areas with no or limited deposition. Trenches perpendicular to these scrolls typically show a base of dune-scale cross stratification interpreted to be associated with a previous position of the point bar. These dune sets are overlain by sets of climbing-ripple cross-strata that form the core of the modern scroll bar and preserve a record of multiple transport directions (away from, towards, and parallel to the channel). Preliminary Trinity River grain-size analyses show that the constructional scrolls are enriched in all grain sizes less than 250 microns in diameter, while point bars are enriched in all grain sizes above this cut off. Scroll bars are hypothesized to be akin to levees along the inner banks of channels-flow expansion caused by the presence of point bars induces deposition of suspended sediment that defines the positions of the scroll bars.