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Sample records for urinary stone formation

  1. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

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    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  2. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  3. The relationship between serum and urinary Fetuin-A levels and kidney stone formation among kidney stone patients.

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    Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Guitynavard, Fateme; Nikoobakht, Mohammad Reza; Gooran, Shahram; Ahmadi, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Mineralization inhibitors are required to prevent the precipitation of minerals and inhibit the formation of kidney stones and other ectopic calcifications. In laboratory studies, Fetuin-A as a glycoprotein has inhibited hydroxyapatite precipitation in calcium and phosphate supersaturated solutions; however, information about patients with kidney stones is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of serum and urinary Fetuin-A levels with calcium oxalate kidney stones. In this case-control study, 30 patients with kidney stones and 30 healthy individuals without any history of urolithiasis who were referred to the urology ward of Sina Hospital of Tehran, Iran, in 2015 were entered into the study. All patients underwent computerized tomography scans. After collecting demographic information, serum and urine levels of Fetuin-A and some other calcification inhibitors and promoters, were measured and compared using T-test, Mann-Whitney and logistic regression between the two study groups. Patients with kidney stones, on average, had lower levels of Serum Fetuin-A (1522.27 ±755.39 vs. 1914.64 ±733.76 μg/ml; P = 0.046) as well as lower levels of Urine Fetuin-A (944.62 ±188.5 vs. 1409.68 ±295.26 μg/ml; P <0.001). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that urinary calcium and serum creatinine are the risk factors and Fetuin-A is a urinary protective factor for kidney stones. PFC Our study showed that patients with kidney stones had lower serum and urinary levels of Fetuin-A. In the logistic regression model, urinary Fetuin-A was reported as a protective factor for kidney stones.

  4. [Components of urinary crystallites in urine of uric acid stone formers and its relationship with formation of stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-jie; Tan, Jin; Ouyang, Jian-ming

    2010-09-01

    The components, zeta potential, morphology of nanocrystallites in urines of 10 uric acid stone formers as well as their relationship with the formation of uric acid stones were comparatively studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The urine pH of uric acid stone formers was relatively low within the range of 4.8 to 5.7. The main constituent of urinary crystallites was uric acid. Their particle size distribution was highly uneven, ranging from several nanometers to several tens of micrometers, and obvious aggregation was observed. The zeta potential of urinary crystallites in ten lithogenic patients was -6.02 mV, which was higher than that in ten normal subjects (-10.1 mV). After drug therapies (potassium citrate was taken), the urine pH value of the uric acid stone formers increased to 6.5 or so, and at this pH value most of the uric acid had changed to urate. Since the solubility of urate increased greatly than uric acid, the risk of the formation of uric acid stone reduced. The results in this paper showed that there was a close relationship among stone components, urinary crystallites composition and urine pH.

  5. Formation Mechanism of Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Stones: A Component Analysis of Urinary Nanocrystallites

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    Xin-Yuan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The components of urinary nanocrystallites in patients with magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP stones were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED, fast Fourier transformation (FFT, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The main components of the stones were MAP hexahydrate (MAP·6H2O, magnesium hydrogen phosphate trihydrate (MgHPO4·3H2O, and a small amount of calcium phosphate (CaP, while the main components of urinary nanocrystallites were MgHPO4·3H2O, CaP, and MAP monohydrate (MAP·H2O. MAP·H2O induced the formation of MAP stones as seed crystals. MgHPO4·3H2O was accompanied by the appearance of MAP·6H2O. The formation mechanism of MAP stones and influencing factors were discussed on the basis of the components of urine nanocrystallites. A model diagram of MAP stone formation was also put forward based on the results. Formation of MAP stones was closely related to the presence of high amounts of MAP crystallites in urine. Urinary crystallite condition and changes in urine components could indicate the activity of stone diseases.

  6. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidence-based guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. HYPERCALCIURIA: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary

  7. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

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    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  8. Fasting and Urinary Stones

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    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  9. Assessment of stone composition in the management of urinary stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijvikai, Kittinut; de la Rosette, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Several explanations have been suggested to account for the failure of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment in patients with urinary stones, including large stone volume, unfavorable stone location or composition and the type of lithotriptor used. Unfavorable stone composition is

  10. Rat strains differ in susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-induced urinary tract infection and struvite stone formation.

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    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'donell, L J; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B

    2006-12-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), and IL-1beta. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues.

  11. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

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    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  12. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

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    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  13. Do Urinary Cystine Parameters Predict Clinical Stone Activity?

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    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Canvasser, Noah E; Morgan, Monica S C; Mollengarden, Daniel; Best, Sara; Pearle, Margaret S

    2018-02-01

    An accurate urinary predictor of stone recurrence would be clinically advantageous for patients with cystinuria. A proprietary assay (Litholink, Chicago, Illinois) measures cystine capacity as a potentially more reliable estimate of stone forming propensity. The recommended capacity level to prevent stone formation, which is greater than 150 mg/l, has not been directly correlated with clinical stone activity. We investigated the relationship between urinary cystine parameters and clinical stone activity. We prospectively followed 48 patients with cystinuria using 24-hour urine collections and serial imaging, and recorded stone activity. We compared cystine urinary parameters at times of stone activity with those obtained during periods of stone quiescence. We then performed correlation and ROC analysis to evaluate the performance of cystine parameters to predict stone activity. During a median followup of 70.6 months (range 2.2 to 274.6) 85 stone events occurred which could be linked to a recent urine collection. Cystine capacity was significantly greater for quiescent urine than for stone event urine (mean ± SD 48 ± 107 vs -38 ± 163 mg/l, p stone activity (r = -0.29, p r = -0.88, p r = -0.87, p stone quiescence. Decreasing the cutoff to 90 mg/l or greater improved sensitivity to 25.2% while maintaining specificity at 90.9%. Our results suggest that the target for capacity should be lower than previously advised. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary Exertion Of Calcium By Urinary Stone Disease Patients And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the urinary excretion of calcium by subjects in a known area of high incidence of urinary stone disease, and a known area of low incidence, 12 adult male patients with idiopathic calcigerous urinary stone disease in south-East Nigeria and 55 similar patients from Scotland, United Kingdom were analyzed ...

  15. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction......, fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference...... spectra and qualification of the staff for an accurate analysis of stone composition. Regular quality control is essential in carrying out routine stone analysis....

  16. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

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    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  17. [Pharmacotherapy for preventing calcium containing stone formation].

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    Nagata, Masao; Takayama, Tatsuya; Mugiya, Souichi; Ohzono, Seiichiro

    2011-10-01

    Many urinary tract stones consist of calcium, and has high relapse rate. Accordingly, it is very important to prevent calcium-containing stone formation. This paper describes about effects and mechanisms for Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, citrate formulation, magnesium formulation, thiazides, vitamin B(6), extract of Quercus salicina Blume and chorei-to (medical herb) . Recent new drugs and the elucidation of new metabolic pathways may lead to the development of prevention of urolithiasis.

  18. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

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    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-01-01

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  19. Solid Phases Precipitating in Artificial Urine in the Absence and Presence of Bacteria Proteus mirabilis—A Contribution to the Understanding of Infectious Urinary Stone Formation

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    Jolanta Prywer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate, called struvite, is the dominant component of infectious urinary stones. In addition to struvite, infectious urinary stones include solid phases with poor crystallinity as well as amorphous matter. This article is devoted to the analysis of these solid phases, because they have not been characterized well until now. The solid phases tested were obtained from artificial urine in the absence and presence of Proteus mirabilis. The solid phases were characterized by different techniques (X-ray Diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as Raman and Infrared Spectroscopies. According to the results these phases are carbonate apatite (CA, hydroxylapatite (HAP, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP and/or amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate (ACCP. Carbonate apatite and hydroxylapatite may occur in non-stoichiometric forms, i.e., various anions can be substituted for CO32−, OH−, and PO43− groups in them. The non-stoichiometry of carbonate apatite and hydroxylapatite also implies a deficiency of calcium ions, i.e., calcium ions may be partially replaced by other cations. Experimental techniques and chemical speciation analysis demonstrate that the presence of magnesium influences the formation of CA and HAP.

  20. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun

    1988-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization

  2. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

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    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  3. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

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    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  4. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  5. Pattern of urinary tract stone diseases in Mekelle, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Mekonnen Hagos

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate and analyze the pattern of patients with urinary stone diseases admitted to Mekelle Hospital. Between Sept 2003 to Sept 2006, 102 patients with urinary stone disease were admitted to Mekelle Hospital. In this descriptive retrospective audit, case notes were obtained from medical record office and were analyzed for age, sex, localization of the stone disease and the geographic back grounds. Seventy six (74.5%) of the patients were males and 26 (25.5%) were females. There were 102 (13.6%) cases of urinary stone disease admitted to Mekelle Hospital out of 750 total admissions for urological disease for intervention in the surgical ward during the study period. There were 76 (74.5%) males and 26 (25.5%) females and the sex ratio was (M: F: 2.9:1). Most (46.0%) of the urinary stone diseases were between 0-19 year age group both in males and females. The median age was 20 years (range from 2-74 years) and the mean was 25.4 years. Urinary bladder stones were the most common urinary tract stone diseases accounting for 47 (46.0%) followed by renal stones 29 (28.4%), ureteric 16 (15.6%) and urethral 10 (9.8%) stone disease; in that order of frequency. The geographical back ground of the patients with urinary tract stone disease in this report has shown that majorities (53.7%) were from urban and the remaining (44.2%) were from the rural areas. This study has depicted that urinary bladder stone diseases are the most common stone diseases affecting the younger age group. Since this is an institutional based study, it underestimates the magnitude and the pattern of urinary stone diseases at all level. Nevertheless, the audit provides useful information on the socio demographic variables, localization and the geographic back ground of the patients.

  6. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF) score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Benjamin; Robertson, William; Wiseman, Oliver; Amaro, Carmen Regina P. R.; Leitão, Victor A.; Silva, Isabela Leme da; Amaro, João Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation) changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers.Materials and Methods: Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate...

  7. Quantification of the risk of urinary calcium stone formation in the urine collected at 2 times of the day in a group of children studied to rule out prelithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. García Nieto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various genetic and environmental factors are involved in urolithiasis. The 2 most common metabolic abnormalities are the increase in urinary calcium and low urinary citrate excretion. The ratio calculated between the concentrations of both substances is a good risk marker for the formation of calcium stones. Objectives: To determine whether the risk of urinary calcium stone formation changes throughout the day in the same patient. Methods: We studied 56 children (23 V, 33 M to check if they had prelithiasis. Calcium, citrate, and creatinine concentrations were determined in two urine samples collected one before dinner and the other in the morning. It was collected if they had ultrasound stones and if there was a history of urolithiasis in first and/or second degree relatives. Results: In 25 patients (44.6%, renal ultrasound was positive for lithiasis (stones [n = 9] and microlithiasis [n = 16]. Forty of the 56 families (71.4% had a history of urolithiasis. The percentage of abnormal urinary calcium (28.6% concentrations and an abnormal calcium/citrate ratio (69.6% was higher in the first urine of the day. The calcium/citrate ratio was the only studied parameter that was related to a family history of urolithiasis. There were no differences in urinary parameters between patients with and without ultrasound-confirmed kidney stones. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of calcium and the calcium/citrate ratio vary throughout the day. Urine produced at night has a higher risk of urinary calcium stone formation. Resumen: Antecedentes: En la urolitiasis intervienen diversos factores genéticos y ambientales. Las 2 anomalías metabólicas más frecuentes son el incremento en la eliminación urinaria de calcio y la reducción en la de citrato. El cociente calculado entre las concentraciones de ambas sustancias es un buen marcador de riesgo de formación de cálculos cálcicos. Objetivos: Determinar si el riesgo litógeno en la orina de

  8. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Naqvi, S.Q.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  9. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Fahad A; Rabah, Danny M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients.

  10. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  11. Stone Formation in the Infected Pediatric Enterocystoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Proteus mirabilis is one of the most frequent bacterial agents that can induce infection stone formation by urease production. In recent years the influence of Proteus mirabilis on stone formation in enterocystoplasties has been primarily related to the presence of

  12. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones.

  13. Another Method for Localization of Radiolucent Urinary Stones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility and safety of localization of radiolucent urinary stones during ESWL utilising the refluxing intravesically injected contrast medium along indwelling ureteral stents. 2. To identify the optimum volume of contrast medium and the intravesical pressure at which adequate vesicoureteral reflux ...

  14. A pilot study of the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urinary lithogenicity and associated metabolic acid load in non-stone formers and stone formers with hypercalciuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyeka W Okonkwo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sodium thiosulfate (STS reduced calcium stone formation in both humans and genetic hypercalciuric stone forming (GHS rats. We sought to measure urine chemistry changes resulting from STS administration in people. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS MEASUREMENTS: STS was given to healthy and hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Five normal non-stone forming adults (mean age 33 years, and 5 people with idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium kidney stones (mean age 66 years participated. Two baseline 24-hour urine collections were performed on days 2 and 3 of 3 days of self-selected diets. Subjects then drank STS 10 mmol twice a day for 7 days and did urine collections while repeating the self-selected diet. Results were compared by non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. The primary outcome was the resulting change in urine chemistry. RESULTS: STS administration did not cause a significant change in urinary calcium excretion in either group. In both groups, 24 hour urinary ammonium (P = 0.005 and sulfate excretion (P = 0.007 increased, and urinary pH fell (P = 0.005; citrate excretion fell (P<0.05 in hypercalciuric participants but not in non-stone formers. Among stone formers with hypercalciuria, 3 of 5 patients had measurement of serum HCO3 concentration after the STS period: it did not change. The net effect was an increase in supersaturation of uric acid, and no change in supersaturation of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. CONCLUSIONS: The basis for studies demonstrating that STS prevented stones in rats and people was not reflected by the changes in urine chemistry reported here. Although serum HCO3 did not change, urine tests suggested an acid load in both non-stone forming and hypercalciuric stone-forming participants. The long term safety of STS needs to be determined before the drug can be tested in humans for long-term prevention of stone recurrence.

  15. The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tefekli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”. Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929. With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives.

  16. Analysis of urinary stone constituents using powder X-ray diffraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    drug and bacteria induced factors are all external factors causing urinary stones. ... gion of hot climate, low rain fall, and increased salin- ity of ground water, is a ... Gender the patient stones the stones habit and age. Stone removal procedure. KSHP. 1. KSHP1 Vegetarian. Male, 50. Natural excretion in the urine. KSHIM. 1.

  17. Comparison of Electrohydraulic and Electromagnetic Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Upper Urinary Tract Stones in Elderly Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Zhong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Our study showed that elderly patients with upper urinary tract stones undergoing ESWL with EH and EM machines had comparable stone free rates and complication rates, but a higher retreatment rate was seen with EM machines.

  18. Simplified methods for the evaluation of the risk of forming renal stones and the follow-up of stone-forming propensity during the preventive treatment of stone-formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    Renal lithiasis is a complex multifactorial disease in which recurrence is common. Thus, simple and reliable procedures are needed to evaluate patients with previous kidney stones to determine the risk of recurrence. In this paper we review simple biochemical procedures that can be used to determine the risk for renal stone formation when the stone is available or unavailable for analysis. Our present knowledge of renal lithiasis indicates that renal stones form due to several well-defined factors. Analysis of the renal stone itself can provide important information about clinical factors that require further investigation. When the stone is unavailable, it is necessary to perform a general evaluation of main urinary risk factors associated to renal stone formation, but this study should be complemented considering information related to direct familial antecedents, recidivant degree, radiological images, medical history, and life style habits. Finally, tools for patient follow-up of stone-forming propensity during the preventive treatment are discussed .

  19. Ultrastructural Analysis of Urinary Stones by Microfocus Computed Tomography and Comparison with Chemical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Karakan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the ultra-structure of urinary system stones using micro-focus computed tomography (MCT, which makes non-destructive analysis and to compare with wet chemical analysis. Methods: This study was carried out at the Ankara Train­ing and Research hospital. Renal stones, removed from 30 patients during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL surgery, were included in the study. The stones were blindly evaluated by the specialists with MCT and chemi­cal analysis. Results: The comparison of the stone components be­tween chemical analysis and MCT, showed that the rate of consistence was very low (p0.05. It was also seen that there was no significant relation between its 3D structure being heterogeneous or homogenous. Conclusion: The stone analysis with MCT is a time con­suming and costly method. This method is useful to un­derstand the mechanisms of stone formation and an im­portant guide to develop the future treatment modalities.

  20. Treatment Approaches to Urinary Stones Caused by Forgotten DJ Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergun Alma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral DJ stents have been used widely for years in urology practice. With increased use, complications have been increased and forgotton stents have started to cause problems. The most common complications are early pain and irritative symptoms. Late complications are bacterial colonization and stone formation because of the biofilm covering the stents. Treatment for a forgotten stent varies on many factors, such as stent localization and stone formation. In this article, we aimed to discuss our clinic approach on two different cases in light to current literature. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 58-63

  1. Outcome from 5-year live surgical demonstrations in urinary stone treatment: are outcomes compromised?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legemate, Jaap D.; Zanetti, Stefano P.; Baard, Joyce; Kamphuis, Guido M.; Montanari, Emanuele; Traxer, Olivier; de la Rosette, Jean Jmch

    2017-01-01

    To compare intra- and post-operative outcomes of endourological live surgical demonstrations (LSDs) and routine surgical practice (RSP) for urinary stones. Consecutive ureterorenoscopic (URS) and percutaneous (PNL) urinary stone procedures over a 5-year period were reviewed. Procedures were divided

  2. Inhibition of Mineralization of Urinary Stone Forming Minerals by Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Mohamed Farook

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mineralization of urinary stone forming minerals by medicinal plants i.e. Achyranthes aspera Linn, Passiflora leschenaultii DC, Solena amplexicaulis (Lam. Gandhi, Scoparia dulcis Linn and Aerva lanata (Linn. been investigated. The inhibition efficiency was studied. Increased intake of fruits juice and seed extract of our plants would be helpful in urinary stone prophylaxis.

  3. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt T.O.B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets (TEPs observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs, the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young or accretion growth (being smaller when young. We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  4. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Alok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  5. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  6. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Norsworthy, Allison N; Sun, Tung-Tien; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-04-19

    The catheter-associated uropathogenProteus mirabilisfrequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found thatP. mirabilisrapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an intracellular niche. Instead, it forms extracellular clusters in the bladder lumen, which form foci of mineral deposition consistent with development of urinary stones. These clusters elicit a robust neutrophil response, and we present evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap generation during experimental urinary tract infection. We identified two virulence factors required for cluster development: urease, which is required for urolithiasis, and mannose-resistantProteus-like fimbriae. The extracellular cluster formation byP. mirabilisstands in direct contrast to uropathogenicEscherichia coli, which readily formed intracellular bacterial communities but not luminal clusters or urinary stones. We propose that extracellular clusters are a key mechanism ofP. mirabilissurvival and virulence in the bladder.

  7. Biochemical and dietary factors of uric acid stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Montanari, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of "pure" uric acid renal stone formers (UA-RSFs) with that of mixed uric acid/calcium oxalate stone formers (UC-RSFs) and to identify which urinary and dietary risk factors predispose to their formation. A total of 136 UA-RSFs and 115 UC-RSFs were extracted from our database of renal stone formers. A control group of 60 subjects without history of renal stones was considered for comparison. Data from serum chemistries, 24-h urine collections and 24-h dietary recalls were considered. UA-RSFs had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher body mass index (26.3 ± 3.6 kg/m 2 ) than UC-RSFs, whereas body mass index of UA-RSFs was higher but not significantly than in controls (24.6 ± 4.7) (p = 0.108). The mean urinary pH was significantly lower in UA-RSFs (5.57 ± 0.58) and UC-RSFs (5.71 ± 0.56) compared with controls (5.83 ± 0.29) (p = 0.007). No difference of daily urinary uric acid excretion was observed in the three groups (p = 0.902). Daily urinary calcium excretion was significantly (p = 0.018) higher in UC-RSFs (224 ± 149 mg/day) than UA-RSFs (179 ± 115) whereas no significant difference was observed with controls (181 ± 89). UA-RSFs tend to have a lower uric acid fractional excretion (0.083 ± 0.045% vs 0.107+/-0.165; p = 0.120) and had significantly higher serum uric acid (5.33 ± 1.66 vs 4.78 ± 1.44 mg/dl; p = 0.007) than UC-RSFs. The mean energy, carbohydrate and vitamin C intakes were higher in UA-SFs (1987 ± 683 kcal, 272 ± 91 g, 112 ± 72 mg) and UC-SFs (1836 ± 74 kcal, 265 ± 117, 140 ± 118) with respect to controls (1474 ± 601, 188 ± 84, 76 ± 53) (p = 0.000). UA-RSFs should be differentiated from UC-RSFs as they present lower urinary pH, lower uric acid fractional excretion and higher serum uric acid. On the contrary, patients with UC-RSFs show urinary risk factors

  8. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70–2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76–2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  9. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones.

  10. Population-based estimate of urinary stones from Ballabgarh, northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, Ayush; Kant, Shashi; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Stones in the urinary tract are a common condition but there is paucity of data on their population-based estimates in India. We describe our findings of the burden of urinary stones during a cross-sectional study with another primary goal. We conducted the study at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Haryana, among residents aged 18 years or above. We used simple random sampling to enrol participants. Self-reported history of urinary stones was elicited through an interview schedule. Results of the descriptive analysis were described as proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI) or as mean wherever applicable. Bivariate analysis was done using t-test and chi-square test as applicable. The response rate for our study was 86.6%; lifetime prevalence (95% CI) of urinary stones was 7.9% (5.7, 10.8). In a majority of participants, urinary stones were diagnosed at an age of 20-40 years (55.9%), mostly by an ultrasonography examination (94.1%). A high burden of urinary stones is indicated in the working-age population in northern India at the community level. Untreated urinary stones can lead to an acute emergency (colic) or may have long-term adverse consequences, e.g. hydronephrosis, which have implications for the healthcare delivery system.

  11. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2013-11-01

    To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient was also sent for serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and calcium. Mean age of patients was 38 ± 7.75 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The main presenting complaint was lumber pain and 82.5% patients were found to have calcium oxalate stones on chemical analysis. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 90.5% patients, whereas there were no metabolic abnormalities in 19 (9.5%) patients. Forty patients (21.5%) only had one metabolic abnormality and 157 (78.5%) patients had multiple metabolic abnormalities. Hyperoxaluria was the most commonly observed metabolic abnormality and was found in 64.5% patients. Other significant metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, hypocitraturia and hyperuricemia. This study concludes that frequency of metabolic abnormalities is very high in patients with urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most important metabolic abnormalities observed in these patients.

  12. Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepperson, M.A.; Cernigliaro, J.G.; Sella, D.; Ibrahim, E.; Thiel, D.D.; Leng, S.; Haley, W.E.

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

  13. Association between chronic kidney disease and urinary calculus by stone location: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Joseph J; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Disease prevalence study (cohort design) Level of Evidence 2a. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. We found that patients with CKD were consistently more likely than comparison subjects to have been previously diagnosed with kidney calculus (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-2.27), ureter calculus (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51-1.85), bladder calculus (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.98), and unspecified calculus (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74-2.06). We concluded that there was an association between CKD and UC regardless of stone location. • To explore the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with prior kidney calculus, ureter calculus, and bladder calculus using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with CKD. However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. • We identified 21,474 patients who received their first-time diagnosis of CKD between 2001 and 2009. • The 21,474 controls were frequency-matched with cases for sex, age group, and index year. • We used conditional logistic regression analyses to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an estimation of association between CKD and having been previously diagnosed with UC. • The results show that compared with controls, the OR of prior UC for cases was 1

  14. Abdominal colic due to ureteric diverticulum with stone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodhooft, A.M.; Boven, K.; Acker, K.J. van; Gentens, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a 15-year-old boy right lower abdominal colicky pain was caused by intermittent obstruction of the ureter by stones which had accumulated in a ureteric diverticulum. As was shown by repeated X-rays, each of these stones had moved to the ureter and back to the diverticulum. Ureteric diverticulum mostly remains asymptomatic in children: stone formation and obstruction of the ureter by the stones is one of the instances which may cause symptoms. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of urinary stone based on a spectrum absorption FTIR-ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asyana, V; Haryanto, F; Fitri, L A; Ridwan, T; Anwary, F; Soekersi, H

    2016-01-01

    This research analysed the urinary stone by measuring samples using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and black box analysis. The main objective of this study is to find kinds of urinary stone and determine a total spectrum, which is a simple model of the chemical and mineral composition urinary stone through black box analysis using convolution method. The measurements result showed that kinds of urinary stone were pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate, a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with calcium phosphate, a mixture of ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate,pure uric acid, ion amino acid uric acid, and a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with ion amino acid uric acid. The results of analysis of black box showed characteristics as the most accurate and precise to confirm the type of urinary stones based on theregion absorption peak on a graph, the results of the convolution, and the shape of the total spectrum on each urinary stones. (paper)

  16. Dual-source dual-energy CT for the differentiation of urinary stone composition: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qifang; Zhang Wanshi; Meng Limin; Shi Huiping; Wang Dong; Bi Yongmin; Li Xiangsheng; Fang Hong; Guo Heqing; Yan Jingmin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dual-source dual-energy CT (DSCT) for the differentiation of' urinary stone composition in vitro. Methods: Ninety-seven urinary stones were obtained by endoscopic lithotripsy and scanned using dual-source dual-energy CT. The stones were divided into six groups according to infrared spectroscopy stone analysis: uric acid (UA) stones (n=10), cystine stones (n=5), struvite stones (n=6), calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones (n=22), mixed UA stones (n=7) and mixed calcium stones (n=47). Hounsfield units (HU) of each stone were recorded for the 80 kV and the 140 kV datasets by hand-drawing method. HU difference, HU ratio and dual energy index (DEI) were calculated and compared among the stone groups with one-way ANOVA. Using dual energy software to determine the composition of all stones, results were compared to infrared spectroscopy analysis. Results: There were statistical differences in HU difference [(-17±13), (229±34), (309±45), (512±97), (201±64) and (530±71) HU respectively], in HU ratio (0.96±0.03, 1.34±0.04, 1.41±0.03, 1.47±0.03, 1.30±0.07, and 1.49±0.03 respectively), and DEI (-0.006±0.004, 0.064±0.007, 0.080± 0.007, 0.108±0.011, 0.055±0.014 and 0.112±0.008 respectively) among different stone groups (F= 124.894, 407.028, 322.864 respectively, P<0.01). There were statistical differences in HU difference, HU ratio and DEI between UA stones and the other groups (P<0.01). There were statistical differences in HU difference, HU ratio and DEI between CaOx or mixed calcium stones and the other four groups (P< 0.01). There was statistical difference in HU ratio between cystine and struvite stones (P<0.01). There were statistical differences in HU difference, HU ratio and DEI between struvite and mixed UA stones (P< 0.05). Dual energy software correctly characterized 10 UA stones, 4 cystine stones, 22 CaOx stones and 6 mixed UA stones. Two struvite stones were considered to contain cystine. One cystine stone, 1 mixed UA stone, 4

  17. Role of cellular oxalate in oxalate clearance of patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Fuessel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Herrmann, Jana; Froehner, Michael; Albrecht, Steffen; Wirth, Manfred P

    2009-03-01

    To examine the cellular, plasma, and urinary oxalate and erythrocyte oxalate flux in patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation vs normal controls. Pathologic oxalate clearance in humans is mostly integrated in calcium oxalate stone formation. An underlying cause of deficient oxalate clearance could be defective transmembrane oxalate transport, which, in many tissues, is regulated by an anion exchanger (SLC26). We studied 2 groups: 40 normal controls and 41 patients with COM stone formation. Red blood cells were divided for cellular oxalate measurement and for resuspension in a buffered solution (pH 7.40); 0.1 mmol/L oxalate was added. The supernatant was measured for oxalate immediately and 1 hour after incubation. The plasma and urinary oxalate were analyzed in parallel. The mean cellular oxalate concentrations were significantly greater in the normal controls (5.25 +/- 0.47 micromol/L) than in those with COM stone formation (2.36 +/- 0.28 micromol/L; P stone formation (0.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) than in the controls (0.24 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; P r = 0.49-0.63; P r = -0.29-0.41; P r = -0.30; P r = 0.25; P stone formation. Our data implicate the presence of a cellular oxalate buffer to stabilize plasma and urinary oxalate concentrations in normal controls.

  18. Upper urinary tract stone disease in patients with poor performance status: active stone removal or conservative management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shimpei; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Yasuo; Iguchi, Takashi; Iba, Akinori; Higuchi, Masatoshi; Koike, Hiroyuki; Wakamiya, Takahito; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Hara, Isao

    2017-11-16

    It remains controversial as to whether active stone removal should be performed in patients with poor performance status because of their short life expectancy and perioperative risks. Our objectives were to evaluate treatment outcomes of active stone removal in patients with poor performance status and to compare life prognosis with those managed conservatively. We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 3 or 4 treated for upper urinary tract calculi at our four hospitals between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were classified into either surgical treatment group or conservative management group based on the presence of active stone removal. Stone-free rate and perioperative complications in surgical treatment group were reviewed. In addition, we compared overall survival and stone-specific survival between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to investigate predictors of overall survival and stone-specific survival. Fifty-two patients (70.3%) underwent active stone removal (surgical treatment group) by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (n = 6), ureteroscopy (n = 39), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 6) or nephrectomy (n = 1). The overall stone-free rate was 78.8% and perioperative complication was observed in nine patients (17.3%). Conservative treatment was undergone by 22 patients (29.7%) (conservative management group). Two-year overall survival rates in surgical treatment and conservative management groups were 88.0% and 38.4%, respectively (p performance status could be performed safely and effectively. Compared to conservative management, surgical stone treatment achieved longer overall survival and stone-specific survival.

  19. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K 3 cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K 3 cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K 3 cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K 3 cit > patients before taking K 3 cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K 3 cit > patients before taking K 3 cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K 3 cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K 3 cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K 3 cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K 3 cit

  20. Surgical management of urinary stones with abnormal kidney anatomy

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    Giray Ergin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that urologic surgical techniques used by urologists are becoming more and more minimally invasive and easier because of developing technologies, surgical approaches for the urinary stones in kidneys with abnormal anatomy are still confusing. The objective of this article is to determine the treatment options in these kidneys. For this purpose, between 2005 and 2015, we retrospectively evaluated patients operated for urolithiasis with various congenital renal anomalies in five referral urology clinics in our country. Of the 178 patients (110 male, 60 female, 96 had horseshoe kidneys, 42 had pelvic ectopic kidneys (PEKs, and 40 had isolated rotation anomalies (IRAs of the kidney. We evaluated the patients for stone-free rate (SFR, mean operation time, mean hospitalization time, and complication rate. In horseshoe kidney, SFRs for retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL groups were 72.2% and 90%, respectively. In PEKs, these rates were 83.6% and 100% for RIRS and laparoscopic pyelolithotomy, respectively. SFRs in kidneys with IRA were 75% for RIRS and 83.3% for PNL. The mean operation time for RIRS and PNL groups in horseshoe kidney was 40.5±11.2 minutes and 74.5±19.3 minutes, respectively. In PEKs, these times were 52.1±19.3 minutes and 53.1±24.3 minutes for RIRS and laparoscopic pyelolithotomy, respectively. Mean operation time in kidneys with IRA was 48.7±14.4 minutes for RIRS and 53.2±11.3 minutes for PNL. Mean hospitalization times for RIRS and PNL groups in horseshoe kidneys were 1.4±0.7 days and 2.2±1.4 days, respectively. In PEKs, these times were 2.7±1.8 days and 1.9±0.4 days for RIRS and laparoscopic pyelolithotomy, respectively. Mean operation time in kidneys with IRA was 1.5±0.9 days for RIRS and 1.8±0.6 days for PNL. The results of our study showed that RIRS could be used in all of types of abnormal kidneys with small- and medium-sized renal calculi safely and

  1. Urinary tract stone in patients with spinal cord injury: a retrospective radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eun Joo; Lee, Jong Koo; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    To compare the incidence between author's first and current report on urinary tract stone in patient with spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effectiveness of recent developed in medical technology and care on in treating the patients. We reviewed urinary tract stone in 257 patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia after spinal cord injury. These patients were diagnosed retrospectively by KUB and intravenous urography at the Korea Veterans Hospital during 10 years from January, 1984 to December, 1993. We evaluated and compared the overall incidence, incidence of specific location of urinary tract, recurrent rate, incidence according to the level of spinal cord injury, and the duration of development in urinary tract stone. Total patients were 257 with 186 (72.4%) paraplegia and 71 (27.6%) quadriplegia. Overall incidence of the stone was 16.0% in this study and 38.1% in the first study. Incidence of the stone in individual organ; 5.5% in kidney, 1.2% in ureter, and 13.6% in urinary bladder. The recurrent rate was 29.3% in this study and 40.6% in the first study. Incidence of the stone according to the level of spinal cord injury was as follows; 15.6% in cervix, 17.1% in upper thorax, 17.9% in lower thorax and 13.9% in lumbar. The stone developed during the first 4 years and between 12 to 16 years following spinal cord injury was 28.3% each. Overall incidence and recurrent rate of urinary tract stone was obviously decreased since the first study. Highest incidence of the stone occurred in urinary bladder and in patient with lower thoracic spinal cord injury, which is similar to first report. Peak incidence of the stone was in the first 4 years, and another peak was in 12-16 years after spinal cord injury. The decreased overall incidence of urinary tract stone maybe attributable to the development in medical technology and care, and active rehabilitation.

  2. Urinary tract stone in patients with spinal cord injury: a retrospective radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Eun Joo; Lee, Jong Koo; Shin, Hyun Ja

    1995-01-01

    To compare the incidence between author's first and current report on urinary tract stone in patient with spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effectiveness of recent developed in medical technology and care on in treating the patients. We reviewed urinary tract stone in 257 patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia after spinal cord injury. These patients were diagnosed retrospectively by KUB and intravenous urography at the Korea Veterans Hospital during 10 years from January, 1984 to December, 1993. We evaluated and compared the overall incidence, incidence of specific location of urinary tract, recurrent rate, incidence according to the level of spinal cord injury, and the duration of development in urinary tract stone. Total patients were 257 with 186 (72.4%) paraplegia and 71 (27.6%) quadriplegia. Overall incidence of the stone was 16.0% in this study and 38.1% in the first study. Incidence of the stone in individual organ; 5.5% in kidney, 1.2% in ureter, and 13.6% in urinary bladder. The recurrent rate was 29.3% in this study and 40.6% in the first study. Incidence of the stone according to the level of spinal cord injury was as follows; 15.6% in cervix, 17.1% in upper thorax, 17.9% in lower thorax and 13.9% in lumbar. The stone developed during the first 4 years and between 12 to 16 years following spinal cord injury was 28.3% each. Overall incidence and recurrent rate of urinary tract stone was obviously decreased since the first study. Highest incidence of the stone occurred in urinary bladder and in patient with lower thoracic spinal cord injury, which is similar to first report. Peak incidence of the stone was in the first 4 years, and another peak was in 12-16 years after spinal cord injury. The decreased overall incidence of urinary tract stone maybe attributable to the development in medical technology and care, and active rehabilitation

  3. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  4. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF) score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin; Robertson, William; Wiseman, Oliver; Amaro, Carmen Regina P R; Leitão, Victor A; Silva, Isabela Leme da; Amaro, João Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation) changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77%) had a high PSF score (> 0.5). Of the 26 patients, 17 (65%) showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42%) changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5) to a low risk (PSF 0.5) during both assessments. The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  5. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Turney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77% had a high PSF score (> 0.5. Of the 26 patients, 17 (65% showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42% changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5 to a low risk (PSF 0.5 during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  6. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age

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    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and polarizing microscope (PM techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system.

  7. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

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    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  8. Factors influencing bladder stone formation in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Terry; Midha, Meena; Martin, Jessicca; Grob, B Mayer

    2004-01-01

    Bladder stones that form in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause significant morbidity. This study sought to analyze factors associated with bladder stone formation to determine which patients might be at increased risk to develop bladder stones. A review of 56 SCI patients treated for bladder calculi over a 10-year period at a single institution was performed. These patients were compared with a control population of general SCI patients known to be stone free. The factors compared were patient age, duration of injury, level of injury, completeness of injury, method of bladder management, and the presence of documented urinary tract infections with urease-producing organisms. All patients with stones were male and had a median age of 58.5 years. The median level of injury was C6, the median time since injury was 21 years, 66% had complete injuries, 68% managed their bladders with indwelling catheters or suprapubic tubes, and 83% had a history of infections with urease-producing organisms. When compared with the control group, patients forming bladder stones were older (P = 0.03), were more likely to have indwelling catheters (P < 0.0001), had a history of infections with urease-producing organisms (P = 0.04), and had complete injuries (P = 0.018). This information can be used to identify patients who have an increased risk of bladder stones and measures can be taken to reduce their incidence and morbidity.

  9. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm(-1) (I(COM)), 1473 cm(-1) (I(COD)), 961 cm(-1) (I(HAP)) and 1282 cm(-1) (I(UA)) were used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term.

  11. Transperitoneal laparoscopic management of urinary tract stone disease: experience in a third level hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Jaime Alejandro; García, Herney Andrés; Castillo, Diego Fernando; Carbonell, Jorge G

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical-surgical characteristics of patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures for the management of urinary tract stone disease when performing extracorporeal, percutaneous or endourological procedures was not available. A descriptive study based on information from the medical records of patients who underwent surgical laparoscopic management of urinary stone disease between January 2001 and May 2010 at a third level hospital. Epidemiological, clinical and procedure-related variables were taken from the medical records. Univariate analysis was performed with the statistical software STATA 10.1. There were 29 procedures (27 patients) for treatment of urinary stone disease in adults. The average age was 45 years. 55% of patients were men. 17 stones were found on the right side, 5 were pyelic, 19 of the proximal ureter, 4 of the medium ureter and 1 distal. All patients underwent laparoscopic surgery as first surgical option. Average operative time was 142 ± 32 minutes. Three procedures were defined as failures. Hospital stay presented a median of 2 days. There were seven complications. Laparoscopic surgery is a good surgical option for the management of urinary tract stone disease in adults.

  12. ESWL treatment of urinary stones in children--the overview of 14 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvezdić, Hrvoje; Tucak, Antun; Perić, Nikica; Prlić, Damir; Zorić, Ivan; Galić, Radoslav

    2003-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment has been used at Department of Urology, University Hospital "Osijek", Croatia, since July 1988. Until December 2001 seven thousand and eight hundred patients underwent ESWL for urinary stones, 68 of them were children (0.87%). Sixty-eight children aged 4 to 15 years (average 10.14 years) underwent ESWL. They were treated for the total of 91 stones: 35 (38.46%) caliceal, 23 (25.27%) in pyelon, 7 (7.69%) in pyeloureteric segment and 14 (15.38%) ureteral. Staghorn calculi were found in 6 (6.59%) patients and multiple stones (four or more stones in the same kidney) in 6 (6.59%). There was total of 95 ESWL sessions performed in 68 patients (1.39 session per patient). Fifty-six patients (82.35%) without residual stones found at the control plain film and sonography of urinary tract were considered "stone free". Addition of 5 patients with clinically insignificant residual fragments (less than 4 mm) increases overall success rate to 89.70%. ESWL is a simple, safe and effective procedure in the management of urolithiasis in childhood. Clinical experience of our institution confirms ESWL as the first line treatment for kidney stones in the pediatric age patients.

  13. Study of stone composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Chen, YiRong; Zhang, Wei; Huang, XiaoGang; Li, WenHui; Ru, XiaoRui; Meng, Min; Xi, Xinsheng; Huang, Gang; Shi, BaoGuang; Liu, Gang; Li, WeiHua; Xu, Hui

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and their clinical significance. A total of 49 melamine-related urinary calculi were included from 49 children (age 4-82 months, mean 22). The qualitative analysis of stone composition was determined using Fourier transform infrared. The quantitative analysis of the stone computed tomography (CT) attenuation value, stone uric acid level, and stone calcium level were measured using spiral CT, high-performance liquid chromatography, and flame atomic absorption spectrum, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that 41 (84%) of the 49 stones contained uric acid and 25 (51%) contained calcium compounds. The data from the qualitative and quantitative analysis were available for 15 stones because of sample consumption in the detection process (Fourier transform infrared, atomic absorption spectrum, and high-performance liquid chromatography). A negative correlation was observed between stone uric acid level and stone calcium level (n = 15, r = -0.629, P = .009). A positive correlation was observed between the stone calcium level and stone CT attenuation value (n = 25, r = 0.855, P = .000). Compared with the ≤1-year-age group and the 1-2-year-age group, the stone calcium level in the >2-year-age group was significantly greater (27.51% ± 12.65% vs 1.60% ± 1.68% or 10.12% ± 8.69%, P = .000 and P = .003, respectively). Compared with the alkalization-alone group, the stone calcium level in the nonalkalization-alone group was significant greater (19.83% ± 7.48% vs 1.25% ± 1.43%, n = 19, P = .000). The stones from children >2 years old were not amenable to medical treatment because they contained greater levels of calcium, which can be demonstrated by the radiologic "positive stone image" or stone CT attenuation value. We believe that surgical invention will be the best choice for such patients if extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has failed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Bilateral same-session ureterorenoscopy: A feasible approach to treat pan-urinary stone disease

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    Bora Özveren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess treatment effectiveness and safety of bilateral same-session ureterorenoscopy (BSSU for the management of stone disease involving the entire urinary system. Patients and methods: We reviewed the records of 64 patients who underwent BSSU for the treatment of bilateral ureteric and/or kidney stones. Size, number, location per side, and the total burden of stones were recorded. Data on stenting, lithotripsy, and stone retrieval, and details of hospital stay and operation times were investigated. Treatment results were assessed using intraoperative findings and postoperative imaging. The outcome was considered successful in patients who were completely stone-free or who had only residual fragments of ≤2 mm. Results: The outcome was successful in 82.8% of the patients who received BSSU (54.7% stone-free and 28.1% insignificant residual fragments. The success rate per renal unit was 89.8%. There were no adverse events in 73.4% of the patients. The most common intraoperative complication was mucosal injury (36%. The complications were Clavien–Dindo Grade I in 9.4% and Grade II in 7.8%. Grade IIIa and IIIb (9.4% complications required re-treatments. Statistical evaluation showed no association between complication grades and stone, patient, or operation features. Stone burden had no negative impact on BSSU results. The presence of impacted proximal ureteric stones was significantly related to unsuccessful outcomes. Conclusion: BSSU is safe and effective for the management of bilateral urolithiasis. BSSU can prevent recurrent surgeries, reduce overall hospital stay, and achieve a stone-free status and complication rates that are comparable to those of unilateral or staged bilateral procedures. Keywords: Ureteroscopy, Bilateral, Kidney stones, ureter stones, Flexible ureterorenoscopy, Treatment outcomes

  15. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-15

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K{sub 3}cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K{sub 3}cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K{sub 3}cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K{sub 3}cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K{sub 3}cit.

  16. Comparison of laparoscopic stone surgery and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of large upper urinary stones: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenming; Yang, Huan; Tang, Kun; Xia, Ding; Xu, Hua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-11-01

    For the treatment of large upper urinary stones percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is generally considered the first choice, and Laparoscopic Stone Surgery (LSS) is an alternative. We aim to compare the efficiency and safety of PCNL with LSS, as far as the management of large upper urinary stones is concerned. A systematic search from Pubmed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and Elsevier was performed up to August 1, 2015 for the relevant published studies. After data extraction and quality assessment, meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 software. 15 eligible trials evaluating LSS vs. PCNL were identified including 6 prospective and 9 retrospective studies with 473 patients undergoing LSS and 523 patients undergoing PCNL. Although LSS led to longer operative time (p = 0.01) and higher open conversion rate (p = 0.02), patients might benefit from significantly fewer overall complications (p = 0.03), especially lower bleeding rate (p = 0.02), smaller drop in hemoglobin level (p rate was also higher for LSS compared with PCNL (p rate. Because of the inherent limitations of the included studies, further large sample prospective, multi-centric studies and randomized control trials should be undertaken to confirm our findings.

  17. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  18. An epidemiological study on the composition of urinary stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Bouatia

    Asia,5–9%inEurope,13%inNorthAmericaand20%inSaudiAra- bia [1–3]. In addition, the ... stone removal, accounting for 43.7%. Conventional surgery was .... one hand and the high cost of extracorporeal lithotripsy accessible mainly in private ...

  19. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  20. Treatment of upper urinary tract stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) Sonolith vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kogenta; Tobiume, Motoi; Narushima, Masahiro; Yoshizawa, Takahiko; Nishikawa, Genya; Kato, Yoshiharu; Katsuda, Remi; Zennami, Kenji; Aoki, Shigeyuki; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Honda, Nobuaki; Sumitomo, Makoto

    2011-12-12

    The aim was to retrospectively assess the results of treatment of upper urinary tract stones with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP, and purchased in 2004. The subjects were 226 Japanese patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) alone as an initial treatment and could be followed up for at least 3 months, selected from 277 candidate patients who underwent this therapy between 2004 and 2006. Treatment effect was evaluated by kidney, ureter, and bladder X-ray or renal ultrasonography at 1 and 3 months after treatment. A stone-free status or status of stone fragmentation to 4 mm or smaller was considered to indicate effective treatment. At 3 months after treatment, the stone-free rate was 69.4% and the efficacy rate was 77.4% for renal stones, while these rates were 91.5 and 93.3%, respectively for ureteral stones. Assessment of treatment effect classified by the location of stones revealed a stone-free rate of 94.6% and an efficacy rate of 94.6% for lower ureteral stones (4.0 mm or smaller, 1 subject; 4.1-10.0 mm, 31 subjects; 10.1-20.0 mm, 5 subjects: number of treatment sessions, 1 or 2 sessions [mean: 1.03 sessions]). Complications of this therapy included renal subcapsular hematoma and pyelonephritis in 1 case each. ESWL with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP produced a treatment effect equivalent to those achieved with other models of ESWL equipment. ESWL seems to be an effective first-line treatment also in patients who have lower ureteral stones 10 mm or larger but do not wish to undergo TUL, if measures such as suitable positioning of the patient during treatment are taken.

  1. Treatment of upper urinary tract stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL Sonolith vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Kogenta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to retrospectively assess the results of treatment of upper urinary tract stones with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP, and purchased in 2004. Methods The subjects were 226 Japanese patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL alone as an initial treatment and could be followed up for at least 3 months, selected from 277 candidate patients who underwent this therapy between 2004 and 2006. Treatment effect was evaluated by kidney, ureter, and bladder X-ray or renal ultrasonography at 1 and 3 months after treatment. A stone-free status or status of stone fragmentation to 4 mm or smaller was considered to indicate effective treatment. Results At 3 months after treatment, the stone-free rate was 69.4% and the efficacy rate was 77.4% for renal stones, while these rates were 91.5 and 93.3%, respectively for ureteral stones. Assessment of treatment effect classified by the location of stones revealed a stone-free rate of 94.6% and an efficacy rate of 94.6% for lower ureteral stones (4.0 mm or smaller, 1 subject; 4.1-10.0 mm, 31 subjects; 10.1-20.0 mm, 5 subjects: number of treatment sessions, 1 or 2 sessions [mean: 1.03 sessions]. Complications of this therapy included renal subcapsular hematoma and pyelonephritis in 1 case each. Conclusions ESWL with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP produced a treatment effect equivalent to those achieved with other models of ESWL equipment. ESWL seems to be an effective first-line treatment also in patients who have lower ureteral stones 10 mm or larger but do not wish to undergo TUL, if measures such as suitable positioning of the patient during treatment are taken.

  2. Evaluation of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): Efficacy in Treatment of Urinary System Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junuzovic, Dzelaludin; Prstojevic, Jelena Kovacevic; Hasanbegovic, Munira; Lepara, Zahid

    2014-10-01

    Elimination of stone is determined by size and its localization. Stone from the ureter in 80% of cases can be eliminated spontaneously. If the stone by its characteristics is not spontaneously eliminated, taken are further steps and therapeutic protocols to solve this problem. The study was prospective, open and comparative. It was conducted at the Urology Clinic Clinical Center of Sarajevo University in the period from 2007 to 2013. The study included 404 patients with urinary tract lithiasis treated by ESWL. ESWL treatment is performed on the machine Siemens Model Lithostar Multiline, which has a combined ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic display, large energy density in order to obtain optimum focus (without damaging surrounding tissue) and minimal pain that on rare occasions requires for mild sedation-sedation. From a total of 404 patients included in the study there were 234 (57.92%) male and 170 (42.08%) female patients. The most common type of stone both in female and male patients was calcium type. From a total of 262 calcium stones, 105 of them (40.07%) was present in female patients and 157 (59.92%) in male. Share of infectious type of stone in female patients was 63 (49.60%) and 64 among males (50.39%). Other stones were less abundant in both the gender groups and their total number was only 17. In women their frequency was 2 (13.33%) and 13 among males (86.67%). There was a significant difference in the frequency of different types of stones by gender (x2 = 11.47, p = 0.009). There was no statistically significant correlation between the number of treatments and localization of stones in the ureter, as well as a statistically significant correlation between the size of the stone and the localization of calculus in the ureter.

  3. Determination of urinary stone composition using dual-energy spectral CT: Initial in vitro analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.-H.; Zhao, R.; Liu, B.; Yu, Y.-Q.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of determining the chemical composition of urinary stones using computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging (SI) Materials and methods: Two hundred and ten urinary stones were scanned in vitro using the SI mode and conventional polychromatic imaging (CPI; 120 kVp) mode. The radiodensity at 50 keV and 120 kVp, the mean calcium density (CD), and the water density (WD) were measured using the 50 keV images, 120 kVp images, calcium-based images, and water-based images, respectively. These parameters and the calcium–water ratio (CWR) were compared between different types of stones. CWR was defined as: CWR = ‌calcium density/water density‌. Results: According to the results determined by infrared spectroscopy, 116 pure urinary stones were divided into five groups: uric acid (UA, n = 16), struvite (STR, n = 23), cystine (CYS, n = 10), calcium phosphate (CaP, n = 29), and calcium oxalate (COX, n = 38). CD, CWR, and the radiodensity of stones at 50 keV CT imaging of each group were as follows: UA (−3.55 ± 10.85 mg/ml, 0.03 ± 0.05, 510.08 ± 157.29 HU); STR (224.99 ± 64.28 mg/ml, 0.19 ± 0.07, 1058.58 ± 260.13 HU); CYS (139.67 ± 34.66 mg/ml, 0.13 ± 0.03, 725.75 ± 142.35 HU); CaP (619.39 ± 26.13 mg/ml, 0.69 ± 0.11, 2617.46 ± 186.22 HU); COX (518.61 ± 95.5 mg/ml, 0.58 ± 0.1, 2247.47 ± 379.51 HU). The differences in the CD, CRW, and radiodensity of stones at 50 keV CT imaging among the groups were statistically significant by binary comparison (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the radiodensity of stones at 120 keV CT imaging between UA and CYS (p = 0.267), CaP and COX (p = 0.065), and in the WD between STR and CYS (p = 0.108). Conclusion: SI provides a novel method to better characterize pure urinary stones using the mean CD, CWR, and the radiodensity of stones at 50 keV CT imaging

  4. Rat Strains Differ in Susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-Induced Urinary Tract Infection and Struvite Stone Formation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'Donell, L. J.; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), and IL-1β. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:16982825

  5. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  6. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Relational database for urinary stone ambulatory consultation. Assessment of initial outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz Medina, J; Páez Borda, A; Crespo Martinez, L; Gómez Dos Santos, V; Barrado, C; Durán Poveda, M

    2010-05-01

    To create a relational database for monitoring lithiasic patients. We describe the architectural details and the initial results of the statistical analysis. Microsoft Access 2002 was used as template. Four different tables were constructed to gather demographic data (table 1), clinical and laboratory findings (table 2), stone features (table 3) and therapeutic approach (table 4). For a reliability analysis of the database the number of correctly stored data was gathered. To evaluate the performance of the database, a prospective analysis was conducted, from May 2004 to August 2009, on 171 stone free patients after treatment (EWSL, surgery or medical) from a total of 511 patients stored in the database. Lithiasic status (stone free or stone relapse) was used as primary end point, while demographic factors (age, gender), lithiasic history, upper urinary tract alterations and characteristics of the stone (side, location, composition and size) were considered as predictive factors. An univariate analysis was conducted initially by chi square test and supplemented by Kaplan Meier estimates for time to stone recurrence. A multiple Cox proportional hazards regression model was generated to jointly assess the prognostic value of the demographic factors and the predictive value of stones characteristics. For the reliability analysis 22,084 data were available corresponding to 702 consultations on 511 patients. Analysis of data showed a recurrence rate of 85.4% (146/171, median time to recurrence 608 days, range 70-1758). In the univariate and multivariate analysis, none of the factors under consideration had a significant effect on recurrence rate (p=ns). The relational database is useful for monitoring patients with urolithiasis. It allows easy control and update, as well as data storage for later use. The analysis conducted for its evaluation showed no influence of demographic factors and stone features on stone recurrence.

  8. Vitamin D receptor gene Alw I, Fok I, Apa I, and Taq I polymorphisms in patients with urinary stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ill Young; Kang, In-Hong; Chae, Soo-Cheon; Park, Seung Chol; Lee, Young-Jin; Yang, Yun Sik; Ryu, Soo Bang; Rim, Joung Sik

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms in Korean patients so as to identify the candidate genes associated with urinary stones. Urinary stones are a multifactorial disease that includes various genetic factors. A normal control group of 535 healthy subjects and 278 patients with urinary stones was evaluated. Of 125 patients who presented stone samples, 102 had calcium stones on chemical analysis. The VDR gene Alw I, Fok I, Apa I, and Taq I polymorphisms were evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were calculated to identify associations in both groups. The haplotype frequencies of the VDR gene polymorphisms for multiple loci were also determined. For the VDR gene Alw I, Fok I, Apa I, and Taq I polymorphisms, there was no statistically significant difference between the patients with urinary stones and the healthy controls. There was also no statistically significant difference between the patients with calcium stones and the healthy controls. A novel haplotype (Ht 4; CTTT) was identified in 13.5% of the patients with urinary stones and in 8.3% of the controls (P = .001). The haplotype frequencies were significantly different between the patients with calcium stones and the controls (P = .004). The VDR gene Alw I, Fok I, Apa I, and Taq I polymorphisms does not seem to be candidate genetic markers for urinary stones in Korean patients. However, 1 novel haplotype of the VDR gene polymorphisms for multiple loci might be a candidate genetic marker. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soft drink consumption and urinary stone recurrence: a randomized prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Jenkins, A; Logan, C; Barnett, T; Riehle, R; Zackson, D; Wolfe, H; Dale, R; Daley, M; Malik, I

    1992-08-01

    The object of this study was to determine if a strong association between soft drink (soda) consumption and recurrence of urinary stone disease, found in an earlier case-control study of adult males, had a causal component. The study sample consisted of 1009 male subjects, who completed an episode of urinary stone disease, who were aged 18-75 at that time, and who reported consuming at least 160 ml per day of soft drinks. Half of the subjects were randomized to refrain from consuming soft drinks, while the remaining subjects served as controls. The intervention group had an observed 6.4% advantage in actuarial 3 yr freedom from recurrence (p = 0.023 one-sided) over the control group. One important secondary finding was that for those who reported at the time of the index stone that their most consumed drink was acidified by phosphoric acid but not citric acid, the experimental group had a 15% higher 3 yr recurrence-free rate than the controls, p = 0.002, while for those who reported at the time of the index stone that their most consumed drink was acidified by citric acid with or without phosphoric acid, the experimental group had a similar 3 yr recurrence-free rate to the controls, p = 0.55. This interaction was significant, p = 0.019.

  10. The association of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract stones in adult men: A retrospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hung; Park, Jinsung; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Hong Wook; Kim, Hyung Joon; Hong, Sungwoo; Yang, Hee Jo; Chung, Hong

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the presence of lower urinary tract stones. We retrospectively reviewed the records of men with lower urinary tract stones who presented to three clinical centers in Korea over a 4-year period. We divided the patients into two groups based on the location of urinary stones: Group 1 (bladder calculi) and Group 2 (urethral calculi). We compared the characteristics of both groups and performed univariate and multivariate analyses with a logistic regression model to investigate the relationship between BPH and lower urinary tract stones. Of 221 patients, 194 (87.8%) had bladder calculi and 27 (12.2%) had urethral calculi. The mean age of Group 1 was higher than that of Group 2 (68.96 ± 12.11 years vs. 55.74 ± 14.20 years, p  urinary tract stones and/or hydronephrosis conferred a 3-fold risk for urethral calculi (OR = 3.468, 95%CI: 1.093-10.999). Age and prostate volume are independent risk factors for bladder calculi. In addition, men with upper urinary tract disease are at greater risk for urethral calculi, which may migrate from the upper urinary tract rather than from the bladder.

  11. Stone Formation and Fragmentation in Forgotten Ureteral Double J Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Bas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays, ureteral stents play an essential role in various endourological and open surgical procedures and common procedures performed in daily urological practice. However, stents can cause significant complications such as migration, infection, fragmentation, stone formation and encrustation, especially when forgotten for a long period. Objectives: We present our experience in endoscopic management of forgotten ureteral stents with a brief review of current literature. Case presentation: A total of 2 patients with forgotten ureteral stents were treated with endourological approaches in our department. Indwelling durations were 18 months and 36 months. After treatment both patients were stone and stent free. Conclusion: An endourological approach is effective for stent and stone removal after a single anesthesia session with minimal morbidity and short hospital stay. However, therapeutic strategy is also determined by the technology available. The best treatment would be the prevention of this complication by providing detailed patient education.

  12. Estimation of urinary stone composition by automated processing of CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreau, Grégoire; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Conort, Pierre; Renard-Penna, Raphaëlle; Mallet, Alain; Daudon, Michel; Mozer, Pierre

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this article was developing an automated tool for routine clinical practice to estimate urinary stone composition from CT images based on the density of all constituent voxels. A total of 118 stones for which the composition had been determined by infrared spectroscopy were placed in a helical CT scanner. A standard acquisition, low-dose and high-dose acquisitions were performed. All voxels constituting each stone were automatically selected. A dissimilarity index evaluating variations of density around each voxel was created in order to minimize partial volume effects: stone composition was established on the basis of voxel density of homogeneous zones. Stone composition was determined in 52% of cases. Sensitivities for each compound were: uric acid: 65%, struvite: 19%, cystine: 78%, carbapatite: 33.5%, calcium oxalate dihydrate: 57%, calcium oxalate monohydrate: 66.5%, brushite: 75%. Low-dose acquisition did not lower the performances (P < 0.05). This entirely automated approach eliminates manual intervention on the images by the radiologist while providing identical performances including for low-dose protocols.

  13. Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of Cynodon dactylon decoction in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Alireza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Al-Reza; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Zarei, Batool; Aghaee, Azita

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. Cynodon dactylon ( C. dactylon ) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of Cynodon dactylon aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg C. dactylon , lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to C. dactylon 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05). A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg C. dactylon reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water.

  14. The potential role of salt abuse on the risk for kidney stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Harvey, J. A.; Padalino, P. K.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The kidney stone-forming risk of a high sodium diet was evaluated by assessing the effect of such a diet on the crystallization of stone-forming salts in urine. Fourteen normal subjects participated in 2 phases of study of 10 days duration each, comprising a low sodium phase (basal metabolic diet containing 50 mmol. sodium per day) and a high sodium phase (basal diet plus 250 mmol. sodium chloride per day). The high sodium intake significantly increased urinary sodium (34 +/- 12 to 267 +/- 56 mmol. per day), calcium (2.73 +/- 1.03 to 3.93 +/- 1.51 mmol. per day) and pH (5.79 +/- 0.44 to 6.15 +/- 0.25), and significantly decreased urinary citrate (3.14 +/- 1.19 to 2.52 +/- 0.83 mmol. per day). Arterialized venous blood bicarbonate and total serum carbon dioxide concentrations decreased significantly during the high sodium diet, whereas serum chloride concentration increased. However, no change in arterialized venous pH was detected. Thus, a high sodium intake not only increased calcium excretion, but also increased urinary pH and decreased citrate excretion. The latter effects are probably due to sodium-induced bicarbonaturia and a significant decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration, respectively. Commensurate with these changes, the urinary saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and monosodium urate increased, and the inhibitor activity against calcium oxalate crystallization (formation product) decreased. The net effect of a high sodium diet was an increased propensity for the crystallization of calcium salts in urine.

  15. Probabilistic Modeling of the Renal Stone Formation Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Goodenow, Debra A.; McRae, Michael P.; Jackson, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic tool, used in mission planning decision making and medical systems risk assessments. The IMM project maintains a database of over 80 medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight, documenting an incidence rate and end case scenarios for each. In some cases, where observational data are insufficient to adequately define the inflight medical risk, the IMM utilizes external probabilistic modules to model and estimate the event likelihoods. One such medical event of interest is an unpassed renal stone. Due to a high salt diet and high concentrations of calcium in the blood (due to bone depletion caused by unloading in the microgravity environment) astronauts are at a considerable elevated risk for developing renal calculi (nephrolithiasis) while in space. Lack of observed incidences of nephrolithiasis has led HRP to initiate the development of the Renal Stone Formation Module (RSFM) to create a probabilistic simulator capable of estimating the likelihood of symptomatic renal stone presentation in astronauts on exploration missions. The model consists of two major parts. The first is the probabilistic component, which utilizes probability distributions to assess the range of urine electrolyte parameters and a multivariate regression to transform estimated crystal density and size distributions to the likelihood of the presentation of nephrolithiasis symptoms. The second is a deterministic physical and chemical model of renal stone growth in the kidney developed by Kassemi et al. The probabilistic component of the renal stone model couples the input probability distributions describing the urine chemistry, astronaut physiology, and system parameters with the physical and chemical outputs and inputs to the deterministic stone growth model. These two parts of the model are necessary to capture the uncertainty in the likelihood estimate. The model will be driven by Monte Carlo simulations, continuously

  16. Frequency of Metabolic Risk Factors in Children with Urinary Tract Stones Referred to Hamadan Pediatric Nephrology Clinic

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    H.E. Momtaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary stones are among the most common complaints referred to nephrologist and urologists. Although incidence of urolithiasis is low in children compared to adults and only 7% of all urinary stones are diagnosed before the age of 16 but stones are detected more frequently in pediatric age group in recent years. Metabolic derangements, infection, neurogenic bladder and urinary obstruction are major risk factors of urolithiasis. Common metabolic risk factors of urolithiasis in children are hypercalciuria, uricosuria, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, metabolic acidosis and cystinuria. There are many clinical studies about the frequency of these metabolic risk factors with different results reflecting difference in diet, geographic area and genetics in study populations. In this study we tried to evaluate the frequency of metabolic causes of urinary stones in children referred to Hamadan pediatric nephrology clinic.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study 156 patients referred due to urinary stones to pediatric nephrology clinic underwent thorough metabolic evaluations including: serum calcium,phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and non fasting random urine sample for calcium, creatinine , uric acid , oxalate, citrate and cystine . urine solute: creatinine ratios were calculated and compared with normative data.Results: Of 156 patients 136(87.2% had metabolic derangements including: hyperuricosuria in 71 (45.5%, hypercalciuria in 41(26.3%, hypocitraturia in 26 (16.7%, hyperoxaluria in 16(10.3%,cystinuria in 1(0.6% and metabolic acidosis in 39 (25%.Conclusion: High rate of metabolic derangement in pediatric urinary stone patients mandates proper metabolic evaluation in all of them. hyperuricosuria was the most common metbolic finding instead of hypercalciuria in this study. This could be due to differences in diet, geographic area and genetic background in various populations.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci

  17. COMPARISON BETWEEN EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AT 120 AND 60 SHOCKWAVES PER MINUTE FOR TREATMENT OF URINARY STONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Soki; Horikawa, Yohei; Obara, Takashi; Muto, Yumina; Koizumi, Atsushi; Honma, Naoko; Akihama, Susumu; Shimoda, Naotake

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) It has recently been suggested that a slow delivery rate of shockwaves by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) improved treatment outcomes for urinary stones. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcomes of different shockwave delivery rates at 120 and 60 shockwaves per minute. (Patients and method) A total of 88 patients were treated at a fast delivery rate of 120 shockwaves per minute between July 2010 and April 2012, and 139 patients were treated at a slow delivery rate of 60 shockwaves per minute between May 2012 and May 2014 (n=227) using a Sonolith ® Praktis lithotripter. The treatment outcome of stone-free rate (SFR) after one SWL session was assessed at four weeks. (Result) SWL at 60 shockwaves per minute resulted in a significantly higher SFR compared with SWL at 120 shockwaves per minute (39.8% and 59.0%, respectively, p=0.0047), particularly for upper ureter (U1) stones (53.1% and 72.0%, respectively, p=0.028). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age, stone sizes of 10 mm or less, U1 stones, and slow delivery rate were significant predictors of a stone-free outcome. There were fewer adverse events after the delivery rate of 60 shockwaves per minute (p=0.058). (Conclusion) Our study suggests that SWL at 60 shockwaves per minute should be recommended to successfully treat urinary stones using the Sonolith ® Praktis lithotripter.

  18. The effect of climate variability on urinary stone attacks: increased incidence associated with temperature over 18 °C: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung Keun; Bae, Sang Rak; Kim, Satbyul E; Choi, Woo Suk; Paick, Sung Hyun; Ho, Kim; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Lho, Yong Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal variation and climate parameters on urinary tract stone attack and investigate whether stone attack is increased sharply at a specific point. Nationwide data of total urinary tract stone attack numbers per month between January 2006 and December 2010 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The effects of climatic factors on monthly urinary stone attack were assessed using auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression method. A total of 1,702,913 stone attack cases were identified. Mean monthly and monthly average daily urinary stone attack cases were 28,382 ± 2,760 and 933 ± 85, respectively. The stone attack showed seasonal trends of sharp incline in June, a peak plateau from July to September, and a sharp decline after September. The correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature (r = 0.557, p r = 0.513, p stone attack cases. However, after adjustment for trends and seasonality, ambient temperature was the only climate factor associated with the stone attack cases in ARIMA regression test (p = 0.04). Threshold temperature was estimated as 18.4 °C. Risk of urinary stone attack significantly increases 1.71% (1.02-2.41 %, 95% confidence intervals) with a 1 °C increase of ambient temperature above the threshold point. In conclusion, monthly urinary stone attack cases were changed according to seasonal variation. Among the climates variables, only temperature had consistent association with stone attack and when the temperature is over 18.4 °C, urinary stone attack would be increased sharply.

  19. The association of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract stones in adult men: A retrospective multicenter study

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    Jae Hung Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and the presence of lower urinary tract stones. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of men with lower urinary tract stones who presented to three clinical centers in Korea over a 4-year period. We divided the patients into two groups based on the location of urinary stones: Group 1 (bladder calculi and Group 2 (urethral calculi. We compared the characteristics of both groups and performed univariate and multivariate analyses with a logistic regression model to investigate the relationship between BPH and lower urinary tract stones. Results: Of 221 patients, 194 (87.8% had bladder calculi and 27 (12.2% had urethral calculi. The mean age of Group 1 was higher than that of Group 2 (68.96 ± 12.11 years vs. 55.74 ± 14.20 years, p < 0.001. The mean prostate volume of Group 1 was higher than that of Group 2 (44.47 ± 27.14 mL vs. 24.70 ± 6.41 mL, respectively, p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (OR = 1.075, 95%CI: 1.023–1.129 and prostate volume (OR = 1.069, 95%CI: 1.017–1.123 were independently associated with increased risk for bladder calculi. Upper urinary tract stones and/or hydronephrosis conferred a 3-fold risk for urethral calculi (OR = 3.468, 95%CI: 1.093–10.999. Conclusion: Age and prostate volume are independent risk factors for bladder calculi. In addition, men with upper urinary tract disease are at greater risk for urethral calculi, which may migrate from the upper urinary tract rather than from the bladder. Keywords: Prostatic hyperplasia, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Urolithiasis, Lower urinary tract stones

  20. Risk factors for pancreatic stone formation in autoimmune pancreatitis over a long-term course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Arakura, Norikazu; Ozaki, Yayoi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ito, Tetsuya; Yoneda, Suguru; Maruyama, Masafumi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2012-05-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has the potential to progress to a chronic state that forms pancreatic stones. The aim of this study was to clarify the risk factors underlying pancreatic stone formation in AIP. Sixty-nine patients with AIP who had been followed for at least 3 years were enrolled for evaluation of clinical and laboratory factors as well as computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography findings. During the course of this study, increased or de novo stone formation was seen in 28 patients, who were defined as the stone-forming group. No stones were observed in 32 patients, who were defined as the non-stone-forming group. Nine patients who had stones at diagnosis but showed no change during the course of this study were excluded from our cohort. Univariate analysis revealed no significant differences in clinical or laboratory factors associated with AIP-specific inflammation between the two groups. However, pancreatic head swelling (P = 0.006) and narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts in the pancreatic head region (P = 0.010) were significantly more frequent in the stone-forming group. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified Wirsung and Santorini duct narrowing at diagnosis as a significant independent risk factor for pancreatic stone formation (OR 4.4, P = 0.019). A primary risk factor for pancreatic stone formation in AIP was narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts, which most presumably led to pancreatic juice stasis and stone development.

  1. [Inpatient therapy of urinary stones in Germany: development of the G-DRG system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J; Kahlmeyer, A; Stredele, R; Volkmer, B G

    2014-12-01

    The therapy of urinary stones in Germany is mostly a domain of hospitals even now. With the introduction of the German diagnosis-related groups (G-DRG) system in the years 2003/2004 an attempt was made to realize an ever-increasing fair representation and remuneration of treatment costs. Simultaneously, a declared target was to transfer all forms of treatment which did not necessitate hospital admission to the outpatient department. Analysis of the D-DRG data on running invoicing from all German hospitals from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013 showed an increase in case numbers of around 12% with a parallel increase in the volume of revenues of around 37%. A special feature was a reduction in the proportion of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWL) as inpatient treatment with a parallel increase in the proportion of ureteroscopic and percutaneous interventions.

  2. Influence of nutritional status, laboratory parameters and dietary patterns upon urinary acid excretion in calcium stone formers.

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    Carolini Zanette Warmling Tessaro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MS are associated with low urinary pH and represent risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially composed by uric acid. Acidogenic diets may also contribute to a reduction of urinary pH. Propensity for calcium oxalate precipitation has been shown to be higher with increasing features of the MS. Objective: A retrospective evaluation of anthropometric and body composition parameters, MS criteria and the dietary patterns of overweight and obese calcium stone formers and their impact upon urinary pH and other lithogenic parameters was performed. Methods: Data regarding anthropometry, body composition, serum and urinary parameters and 3-days dietary records were obtained from medical records of 102(34M/68F calcium stone formers. Results: A negative correlation was found between urinary pH, waist circumference and serum uric acid levels (males. The endogenous production of organic acids (OA was positively correlated with triglycerides levels and number of features of MS (males, and with glucose, uric acid and triglycerides serum levels, and number of features of MS (females. No significant correlations were detected between Net Acid Excretion (NAE or Potential Renal Acid Load of the diet with any of the assessed parameters. A multivariate analysis showed a negative association between OA and urinary pH. Conclusion: The endogenous production of OA and not an acidogenic diet were found to be independently predictive factors for lower urinary pH levels in calcium stone formers. Hypercalciuric and/or hyperuricosuric patients presented higher OA levels and lower levels of urinary pH.

  3. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... the presence of dental pulp stone, gender, age, tooth type and arches. Results: Dental pulp ... primary and permanent dentition.[1] Dental pulp stones .... interpretation provided training to familiarize the other observer with the ...

  4. Contemporary trends in urinary tract stone surgery, a regional perspective: Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, George; Zargar-Shoshtari, Kamran; Rice, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the contemporary patterns of utilization of various therapeutic options for the management of nephrolithiasis in our tertiary referral institution in Auckland, New Zealand. A retrospective audit was conducted for all urinary stone procedures between January 2007 and December 2013. Procedure-related information was collected for each year. All elective and emergency procedures were included. Data were collected on the elective waiting lists for each procedure. A total of 5512 stone-related cases were performed during the study period. Six hundred and fifty-three cases were performed in 2007 compared with 945 in 2013. Total number of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNLs) performed, as well as the proportion of PCNL cases, demonstrated a significant decline from 84 (12.9%) in 2007 to 67 (7.1%) in 2013. While the annual numbers of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWLs) have increased, the percentage of ESWLs performed relative to total stone procedures has declined from 33% to 23% over the last 4 years of this audit. There has been a significant rise in the numbers of rigid and flexible ureteroscopies, with these now being the most utilized procedure. The number of patients awaiting elective procedures declined over the duration of this audit, with an associated improvement in meeting annual demand for treatment of nephrolithiasis from 78% in 2007 to 91% in 2013. A proportional decline in PCNL and ESWL utilization with a significant increase in flexible and rigid ureteroscopic procedures has been observed over this time and this pattern has been associated with improved adherence to surgical targets despite an increasing number of cases. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Pitfalls in urinary stone identification using CT attenuation values: Are we getting the same information on different scanner models?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, Romain, E-mail: r.grosjean@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Daudon, Michel, E-mail: michel.daudon@tnn.aphp.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Chammas, Mario F., E-mail: mariochammas@usp.br [University of Sao Paulo – Division of Urology, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 7" o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil); Claudon, Michel, E-mail: m.claudon@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Eschwege, Pascal, E-mail: peschwege@yahoo.com [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Allée du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Felblinger, Jacques, E-mail: j.felblinger@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hubert, Jacques, E-mail: j.hubert@chu-nancy.fr [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Allée du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-08-15

    Introduction: Evaluate the capability of different Computed Tomography scanners to determine urinary stone compositions based on CT attenuation values and to evaluate potential differences between each model. Methods: 241 human urinary stones were obtained and their biochemical composition determined. Four different CT scanners (Siemens, Philips, GEMS and Toshiba) were evaluated. Mean CT-attenuation values and the standard deviation were recorded separately and compared with a t-paired test. Results: For all tested CT scanners, when the classification of the various types of stones was arranged according to the mean CT-attenuation values and to the confidence interval, large overlappings between stone types were highlighted. The t-paired test showed that most stone types could not be identified. Some types of stones presented mean CT attenuation values significantly different from one CT scanner to another. At 80 kV, the mean CT attenuation values obtained with the Toshiba Aquilion were significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens Sensation. On the other hand, mean values obtained with the Philips Brilliance were all significantly equal to those obtained with the Siemens Sensation and with the Toshiba Aquilion. At 120 kV mean CT attenuation values of uric acid, cystine and struvite stones obtained with the Philips model are significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens and the Toshiba but equal to those obtained with the GE 64. Conclusions: According to our study, there is a great variability when different brands and models of scanners are compared directly. Furthermore, the CT scan analysis and HU evaluation appears to gather insufficient information in order to characterize and identify the composition of renal stones.

  6. Pitfalls in urinary stone identification using CT attenuation values: Are we getting the same information on different scanner models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, Romain; Daudon, Michel; o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (University of Sao Paulo – Division of Urology, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 7o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil))" >Chammas, Mario F.; Claudon, Michel; Eschwege, Pascal; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluate the capability of different Computed Tomography scanners to determine urinary stone compositions based on CT attenuation values and to evaluate potential differences between each model. Methods: 241 human urinary stones were obtained and their biochemical composition determined. Four different CT scanners (Siemens, Philips, GEMS and Toshiba) were evaluated. Mean CT-attenuation values and the standard deviation were recorded separately and compared with a t-paired test. Results: For all tested CT scanners, when the classification of the various types of stones was arranged according to the mean CT-attenuation values and to the confidence interval, large overlappings between stone types were highlighted. The t-paired test showed that most stone types could not be identified. Some types of stones presented mean CT attenuation values significantly different from one CT scanner to another. At 80 kV, the mean CT attenuation values obtained with the Toshiba Aquilion were significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens Sensation. On the other hand, mean values obtained with the Philips Brilliance were all significantly equal to those obtained with the Siemens Sensation and with the Toshiba Aquilion. At 120 kV mean CT attenuation values of uric acid, cystine and struvite stones obtained with the Philips model are significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens and the Toshiba but equal to those obtained with the GE 64. Conclusions: According to our study, there is a great variability when different brands and models of scanners are compared directly. Furthermore, the CT scan analysis and HU evaluation appears to gather insufficient information in order to characterize and identify the composition of renal stones

  7. How to accelerate the upper urinary stone discharge after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for < 15 mm upper urinary stones: a prospective multi-center randomized controlled trial about external physical vibration lithecbole (EPVL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Zhou; Tang, Fengling; Xu, Changbao; Wang, Youzhi; Gu, Xiaojian; Chen, Xuehua; Wang, Rongjiang; Yan, Jiaka; Wang, Xiang; Gao, Wenxi; Hou, Chunhua; Guo, Jianming; Zhang, Jian; Gurioli, Alberto; Ye, Zhangqun; Zeng, Guohua

    2018-02-01

    To asset the efficacy and safety of EPVL plus ESWL compared with ESWL alone for the treatment of simple upper urinary stones (ESWL, while in control group, ESWL alone was offered. All patients were reexamined at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after ESWL. Stone size, stone location, stone-free rate (SFR), and complication rate were compared. 56 males and 20 females in treatment group were compared to 52 male and 25 females in control group (p = 0.404). Median ages were 42.9 ± 1.5 years in treatment group and 42.7 ± 1.3 years in control group (p = 0.943). Median stone size was 10.0 ± 0.4 mm (3-15 mm) in treatment group and 10.4 ± 0.4 mm (4-15 mm) in control group (p = 0.622). The stone clearance rate in treatment and control group at 1 week after ESWL was 51.3% (39/76) and 45.4% (35/77) (p > 0.05), at 2 weeks was 81.6% (62/76) and 64.9% (50/77) (p ESWL treatment.

  8. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

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    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  9. THE CORE OF THE PSEUDOSTEM OF MUSA IN THE TREATMENT OF URINARY STONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, R. Gopakumara

    1995-01-01

    Ayurveda recommends many simple herbs in the treatment of urological afflictions like urolithiasis. Seventyone patients diagnosed to be suffering from urolithiasis were treated with juice of the core of the pseudostem of Musa Paradisiaca and Musa sapientum. A significant segment of them passed out calculi of varying size after consuming the drug for two weeks. Recurrence of stone formation was also prevented by the treatment, The author concludes that the plant material is quite effective in curing urolithiasis, especially of the calcium oxalate variety. PMID:22556713

  10. Factors Influencing Formation of the Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Northern Taiga

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    V. N. Sedykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of seed productive Siberian stone pine stands near settlements, due to the total destruction of the living ground cover and forest litter, providing heat influx in the root-inhabited zone of the Siberian stone pine trees is discussed in the paper.

  11. Factors Affecting the Outcome of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Unilateral Urinary Stones in Children: A 17-Year Single-Institute Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, U-Seok; Lee, Sinwoo; Kang, Junghun; Han, Deok Hyun; Park, Kwan Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a first-line treatment for pediatric urinary stone disease. We aimed to determine the factors affecting the outcome of ESWL for unilateral urinary stones in children. Materials and Methods A total of 81 pediatric patients aged 0 to 16 years with urinary stones treated by ESWL from January 1995 through May 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were required to have unilateral urinary stone disease. Children who underwent other surgical procedures before ESWL were excluded. Outcomes evaluated after ESWL were the stone-free rate at 3 months after ESWL, success within a single session, and success within three sessions. Factors affecting the success within three sessions were also analyzed. Results The final analysis was for 42 boys and 22 girls (mean age, 9.2±5.2 years). Of these 64 patients, 58 (90.6%) were treated by ESWL without other surgical procedures and 54 (84.4%) were successfully treated within three ESWL sessions. In the multivariate analysis, multiplicity (odds ratio [OR], 0.080; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.012 to 0.534; p=0.009) and large stone size (>10 mm; OR, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.018 to 0.707; p=0.020) were significant factors that decreased the success rate within three ESWL sessions. Conclusions Most of the pediatric urinary stone patients in our study (90.6%) were successfully treated by ESWL alone without additional procedures. If a child has a large urinary stone (>10 mm) or multiplicity, clinicians should consider that several ESWL sessions might be needed for successful stone fragmentation. PMID:23878689

  12. Regularities of dust formation during stone cutting for construction works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Lebedev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When cutting stone, a large amount of dust release, which is a mixture of small, mostly sharp, mineral particles. Shallow dry dust with inhalation causes the pathological changes in organs that are a consequence of infiltration of acute and solids particles. Despite the importance of this problem, the questions of dust generation during the various working processes and its fractions distribution are practically not considered. This determines the time of dust standing in the air and its negative impact on a person. Aim: The aim of this research is to study the process of dusting during stones cutting and dust distribution on fractions regularities and quantification of dust formation process in order to improve the production equipment, staff individual and collective safety equipment. Materials and Methods: Many types of cutting can be divided into two types - a “dry” cutting and cutting with fluid. During “dry” cutting a dust represents a set of micro-chips which are cut off by the abrasive grains. The size of such chips very small: from a micrometer to a few micrometers fraction. Thus, the size of chips causes the possibility of creating dust slurry with low fall velocity, and which is located in the working space in large concentrations. Results: The following characteristic dependences were obtained as a result of research: dependence of the dust fall from the size of the dust particles, size of dust particles from minute feeding and grain range wheel, the specific amount of dust from the number of grit abrasive wheel and the temperature of the dust particles from the feeding at wheel turnover. It was shown that the distribution of chips (dust by size will request of a normal distribution low. Dimensions of chips during cut are in the range of 0.4...6 μm. Thus, dust slurry is formed with time of particles fall of several hours. This creates considerable minute dust concentration - within 0.28∙10^8...1.68∙10^8 units/m3.

  13. Value of non-contrast CT examination of the urinary tract (stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Samir Shaaban

    2015-09-04

    Sep 4, 2015 ... detection of abdominal pathologies other than stones, whether or not simulating the clinical picture of urolithiasis, and .... detector CT Siemens Somatom Sensation, with no oral or intravenous ..... of kidney stones in children.

  14. A case of urethral duplication arising from the posterior urethra to the scrotum with urinary stone in a 6-year-old male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kenichi; Shin, Toshitaka; Tobu, Shohei; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminoi; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a 6-year-old male with type IIA2 (Y-type) using Effmann's classification. The accessory urethra, in which a urinary stone existed, arose from the posterior urethra to the scrotum. Because of recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary discharge from the accessory urethra, surgical removal of the accessory urethra through a scrotal incision was performed. At 7-month postoperative follow-up the patient was completely free from urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection.

  15. A Case of Urethral Duplication Arising from the Posterior Urethra to the Scrotum with Urinary Stone in a 6-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Mori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a 6-year-old male with type IIA2 (Y-type using Effmann’s classification. The accessory urethra, in which a urinary stone existed, arose from the posterior urethra to the scrotum. Because of recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary discharge from the accessory urethra, surgical removal of the accessory urethra through a scrotal incision was performed. At 7-month postoperative follow-up the patient was completely free from urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection.

  16. A Case of Urethral Duplication Arising from the Posterior Urethra to the Scrotum with Urinary Stone in a 6-Year-Old Male

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Kenichi; Shin, Toshitaka; Tobu, Shohei; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminoi; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a 6-year-old male with type IIA2 (Y-type) using Effmann’s classification. The accessory urethra, in which a urinary stone existed, arose from the posterior urethra to the scrotum. Because of recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary discharge from the accessory urethra, surgical removal of the accessory urethra through a scrotal incision was performed. At 7-month postoperative follow-up the patient was completely free from urina...

  17. Two-pass dual-energy CT imaging for simultaneous detection, characterization, and volume measurement of urinary stones with excretory-phase CT urography alone. A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Niikawa, Hidekazu; Shikata, Atsushi; Murakami, Emi; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Itoh, Toshihide; Tsujihata, Masao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if two-pass dual-energy CT imaging - id est (i.e.), simultaneous three-material and two-material decomposition analysis - can depict and characterize urinary stones in various concentrations of iodine solution in vitro. Twelve urinary stones were scanned with a dual-source CT scanner. First, each stone (in a saline-filled tube) underwent single- and dual-energy mode CT scans in order to measure the volume of the stone. Each stone was then placed in various concentrations of contrast medium and scanned in dual-energy mode to calculate its volume via three-material decomposition analysis. Two-pass dual-energy CT imaging analysis software for the Matlab environment, which was developed specifically to process simultaneous three-material and two-material decomposition, was applied to characterize and calculate the volume of each stone. Although the virtual non-contrast images from three-material decomposition analysis clearly visualized all of the stones in contrast medium with up to 80 mgI/mL, the volumes of the uric acid stones were overestimated. Two-pass dual-energy CT imaging was able to depict and characterize non-uric-acid stones in diluted contrast medium with up to 80 mgI/mL, whereas uric acid stones were correctly evaluated in diluted contrast medium with 40 mgI/mL or less. Two-pass dual-energy CT imaging is able to depict and characterize urinary stones in contrast medium. (author)

  18. A Boy with a Large Bladder Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shen Chow

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5 cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence.

  19. Recurrence rates of urinary calculi according to stone composition and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    stone event, with these being more frequent in men (44.4%) than in women (38.9%, p acid (62.5 ± 14.9 years), with the average age of first stones of calcium oxalate falling...... in the middle (40.7 ± 14.6 years for calcium oxalate dihydrate, and 48.4 ± 15.1 years for calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM). By composition alone, COM was among the least recurrent of stones, with only 38.0% of COM stones coming from patients who had had a previous episode; however, when the different...

  20. A Bile Duct Stone Formation around a Fish Bone as a Nidus after Pancreatoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Sakakida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of bile duct stone formation around an ingested fish bone as a nidus after pancreatoduodenectomy. A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our department for fever and epigastric pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an elongated bile duct stone containing a linearly shaped foreign body of bone density. Enteroscopic lithotomy was performed using single balloon enteroscopy to safely remove the stone and foreign body from the bile duct. The foreign body was determined to be a fish bone by pathological examination and component analysis.

  1. [A new approach to urinary stone analysis according to the combination of the components: experience with 7949 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, F; Gracia, S; Sánchez-Martín, F M; Angerri, O; Rousaud, F; Villavicencio, H

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate a new approach to urinary stone analysis according to the combination of the components. A total of 7949 stones were analysed and their main components and combinations of components were classified according to gender and age. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) was the most frequent component in both males (39%) and females (37.4%), followed by calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) (28%) and uric acid (URI) (14.6%) in males and by phosphate (PHO) (22.2%) and COD (19.6%) in females (p=0.0001). In young people, COD and PHO were the most frequent components in males and females respectively (p=0.0001). In older patients, COM and URI (in that order) were the most frequent components in both genders (p=0.0001). COM is oxalate dependent and is related to diets with a high oxalate content and low water intake. The progressive increase in URI with age is related mainly to overweight and metabolic syndrome. Regarding the combinations of components, the most frequent were COM (26.3%), COD+Apatite (APA) (15.5%), URI (10%) and COM+COD (7.5%) (p=0.0001). This study reports not only the composition of stones but also the main combinations of components according to age and gender. The results prove that stone composition is related to the changes in dietary habits and life-style that occur over a lifetime, and the morphological structure of stones is indicative of the aetiopathogenic mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Combining Mean and Standard Deviation of Hounsfield Unit Measurements from Preoperative CT Allows More Accurate Prediction of Urinary Stone Composition Than Mean Hounsfield Units Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailly, Thomas; Larish, Yaniv; Nadeau, Brandon; Violette, Philippe; Glickman, Leonard; Olvera-Posada, Daniel; Alenezi, Husain; Amann, Justin; Denstedt, John; Razvi, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    The mineral composition of a urinary stone may influence its surgical and medical treatment. Previous attempts at identifying stone composition based on mean Hounsfield Units (HUm) have had varied success. We aimed to evaluate the additional use of standard deviation of HU (HUsd) to more accurately predict stone composition. We identified patients from two centers who had undergone urinary stone treatment between 2006 and 2013 and had mineral stone analysis and a computed tomography (CT) available. HUm and HUsd of the stones were compared with ANOVA. Receiver operative characteristic analysis with area under the curve (AUC), Youden index, and likelihood ratio calculations were performed. Data were available for 466 patients. The major components were calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), uric acid, hydroxyapatite, struvite, brushite, cystine, and CO dihydrate (COD) in 41.4%, 19.3%, 12.4%, 7.5%, 5.8%, 5.4%, and 4.7% of patients, respectively. The HUm of UA and Br was significantly lower and higher than the HUm of any other stone type, respectively. HUm and HUsd were most accurate in predicting uric acid with an AUC of 0.969 and 0.851, respectively. The combined use of HUm and HUsd resulted in increased positive predictive value and higher likelihood ratios for identifying a stone's mineral composition for all stone types but COM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CT data aiding in the prediction of brushite stone composition. Both HUm and HUsd can help predict stone composition and their combined use results in higher likelihood ratios influencing probability.

  3. A giant urinary bladder stone in the mummy of Lebanese Maronite Patriarch Joseph Tyan (1760–1820) and its environmental and nutritional implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, L.; Licata, M.; Pinto, A.; Fernianos, F.; Azizi, T.; Manzoli, L.; Centrella, D.; D'anastasio, R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Historical sources and anthropological investigations, with the indispensable support of radiology, bring to light pathological evidence of the past. Case presentation: The purpose of this article is to present the radiological investigation conducted on the mummy of the Maronite Joseph Tyan (1760–1820), a famous patriarch who guided the Lebanese Maronite community during a critical period of its history. The natural mummy of the Patriarch was temporarily removed from its burial site to certify the degree of preservation. Conventional radiography was necessary to determine the state of the internal organs and any physical abnormalities, and to clarify the degree of conservation of the mummy. Discussion: Radiological analysis uncovered an exceptional case of a large urinary bladder stone. This pathological evidence confirms historical documentary sources that in the last years of his life the Patriarch suffered from abdominal pain and urinary problems. We can suppose that the environment and diet of the Maronite community, limited by restricted agricultural resources, was the possible cause of the urinary bladder stone, as today the epidemiology of these diseases demonstrates links with mainly cereal diets in rural areas. - Highlights: • Paleoradiological analysis: a radiological approach to study mummies. • The anthropological and radiological analysis of the Mummy of Patriarch Joseph Tyan • Urinary bladder stone: radiological investigations. • Paleopathological literature of urinary bladder stone.

  4. Rapid formation of cholesterol crystals in gallbladder bile is associated with stone recurrence after laparoscopic cholecystotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüngst, D; del Pozo, R; Dolu, M H; Schneeweiss, S G; Frimberger, E

    1997-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystotomy (LCT) with subsequent extraction of gallstones and primary closure of the gallbladder has been introduced as an alternative therapy for patients with cholecystolithiasis and preserved gallbladder function. However, stone recurrence has to be considered as a major drawback that might be related to lithogenic factors of gallbladder bile or the composition of gallbladder stones. Therefore, these were studied in relation to stone recurrence within an observation period of 1 to 5 years (median, 3.6 years) in 50 patients after LCT. The concentrations of total and individual bile acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, total lipids, mucin, protein, and the cholesterol saturation indices in gallbladder bile were not significantly different between 10 patients with and 40 patients without stone recurrence. However, the crystal observation time was significantly (P < .02) shorter (range, 1-2 days; median, 1.5) in the bile of patients with stone recurrence compared to those without (range, 1-21 days, median 3.5). Moreover, all 10 stone recurrences were observed in the 28 patients with a crystal observation time in the bile of less than or equal to 2 days (approximate annual risk: 12%-15%), and no recurrences were observed in the 22 patients with a crystal observation time greater than 2 days (P < .0001) or in patients with pigment stones. The rapid formation of cholesterol monohydrate crystals in bile seems to be the major risk factor for recurrent stones after LCT. These are most likely cholesterol stones and, therefore, are amenable to oral bile-acid prevention or treatment.

  5. The role of chemical admixtures in the formation of the structure of cement stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopov Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sulfates and carbonates of potassium and sodium on the character of the formation of the microstructure of cement stone was studied. The role of cations in the structure formation of cement stone is shown. The efficiency of chemical additives, hardening accelerators, was estimated from the ratio of the volumes of gel and capillary micropores. The ratio of gel and capillary pores allows to determine the efficiency coefficient of the action of chemical additives. It is shown that the potassium carbonate for Portland cement is the most effective additive for hardening in terms of microstructure modification, and potassium sulfate for slag Portland cement.

  6. Magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water, and its relationship to geological features and the incidence of calcium-containing urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, K; Kodama, M; Ishikawa, Y; Katayama, Y; Takada, M; Katoh, Y; Kataoka, K; Iguchi, M; Kurita, T

    1989-11-01

    We examined the relationship among magnesium and calcium content in tap water, the geological features and urinary stone incidence in Japan. The magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water correlated negatively with the incidence of urolithiasis. There was no correlation between calcium and magnesium concentration in tap water and urinary stone incidence. Geological features in Japan were classified into 5 groups. The magnesium-to-calcium ratio in the basalt areas was higher than in the other areas, while ratio in the granite areas was low. In the sedimentary rock areas calcium and magnesium concentrations were high; the magnesium-to-calcium ratio in these areas was between those of the basalt and granite areas. The limestone areas had a much higher calcium concentration. The incidence of urinary stones in the sedimentary rock and basalt areas was lower than that of the granite areas, while that in the limestone areas was the highest. Thus, the incidence of urinary stone is related to the magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water and the geological area.

  7. A Drosophila genetic model of nephrolithiasis: transcriptional changes in response to diet induced stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Vera Y; Turney, Benjamin W

    2017-11-28

    Urolithiasis is a significant healthcare issue but the pathophysiology of stone disease remains poorly understood. Drosophila Malpighian tubules were known to share similar physiological function to human renal tubules. We have used Drosophila as a genetic model to study the transcriptional response to stone formation secondary to dietary manipulation. Wild-type male flies were raised on standard medium supplemented with lithogenic agents: control, sodium oxalate (NaOx) and ethylene glycol (EG). At 2 weeks, Malpighian tubules were dissected under polarized microscope to visualize crystals. The parallel group was dissected for RNA extraction and subsequent next-generation RNA sequencing. Crystal formation was visualized in 20%(±2.2) of flies on control diet, 73%(±3.6) on NaOx diet and 84%(±2.2) on EG diet. Differentially expressed genes were identified in flies fed with NaOx and EG diet comparing with the control group. Fifty-eight genes were differentially expressed (FDR <0.05, p < 0.05) in NaOx diet and 20 genes in EG diet. The molecular function of differentially expressed genes were assessed. Among these, Nervana 3, Eaat1 (Excitatory amino acid transporter 1), CG7912, CG5404, CG3036 worked as ion transmembrane transporters, which were possibly involved in stone pathogenesis. We have shown that by dietary modification, stone formation can be manipulated and visualized in Drosophila Malpighian tubules. This genetic model could be potentially used to identify the candidate genes that influence stone risk hence providing more insight to the pathogenesis of human stone disease.

  8. Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy versus Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Upper Urinary Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS are both alternatives for PCNL to treat renal calculi. This study is aimed at comparing the stone-free rate (SFR and other surgery parameters of two approaches for treating upper urinary calculi. We performed this meta-analysis in September 2016 by searching studies about mini-PCNL and RIRS for treating upper urinary calculi in various databases, and RevMan v.5.3 was applied. Three randomized controlled trials and ten nonrandomized trials were included, involving a total of 1317 patients. Meta-analysis showed that mini-PCNL group led to a higher SFR [odds ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.46–2.64; P<0.00001] but brought a larger postoperative decrease in hemoglobin levels compared with RIRS. RIRS provided a shorter hospital time. There was no significant difference in operation time. Higher postoperative complications were detected in the mini-PCNL, but the difference was not significant. Grade I and III complications did not vary between two procedures, but grade II complications were of lower incidence in RIRS group. In the light of these results, compared with RIRS, mini-PCNL provided significantly higher SFR and efficiency quotient for managing calculi; however, it resulted in higher incidence of postoperative complications, larger hemoglobin drops, and longer hospital stay.

  9. Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woottisin, Surachet; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Yachantha, Chatchai; Sriboonlue, Pote; Ogawa, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the antilithic effect of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on known risk factors for calcium oxalate stones in rats. We divided 30 male Wistar rats into 5 equal groups. Controls were fed a standard diet and the remaining groups received a 3% glycolate diet for 4 weeks to induce hyperoxaluria. One glycolate fed group served as the untreated group and the others were given oral extracts of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa or Phyllanthus amarus at a dose of 3.5 mg daily. We collected 24-hour urine and blood samples. Kidneys were harvested for histological examination. We measured the renal tissue content of calcium and oxalate. The Hibiscus sabdariffa group showed significantly decreased serum oxalate and glycolate, and higher oxalate urinary excretion. The Phyllanthus amarus group showed significantly increased urinary citrate vs the untreated group. Histological examination revealed less CaOx crystal deposition in the kidneys of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus treated rats than in untreated rats. Those rats also had significantly lower renal tissue calcium content than untreated rats. All parameters in the Orthosiphon grandiflorus treated group were comparable to those in the untreated group. Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus decreased calcium crystal deposition in the kidneys. The antilithic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be related to decreased oxalate retention in the kidney and more excretion into urine while that of Phyllanthus amarus may depend on increased urinary citrate. In contrast, administering Orthosiphon grandiflorus had no antilithic effect. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of renal uric acid stones in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted. Out of them, 79 papers were selected after the reading of the titles and of the abstracts. For ten countries, papers relating to both the renal stone prevalence in the general population and the frequency of uric stones were available. Additional search produced 13 papers that completed information on 11 more countries in 5 continents. Estimated prevalence rate of uric acid stones was >0.75% in Thailand, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, South Africa (white population), United States and Australia; ranged 0.50-0.75% in Turkey, Israel, Italy, India (Southern), Spain, Taiwan, Germany, Brazil; and uric acid stone formation. A hot and dry climate increases fluid losses reducing urinary volume and urinary pH. A diet rich in meat protein causes low urinary pH and increased uric acid excretion. On the other hand, uric acid stone formation is frequently associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2 that are linked to dietary energy excess mainly from carbohydrate and saturated fat and also present with low urine pH values. An epidemic of uric acid stone formation could be if current nutritional trends will be maintained both in developed countries and in developing countries and the areas of greater climatic risk for the formation of uric acid stones will enlarge as result of the "global warming".

  11. Analgesia for patients undergoing shockwave lithotripsy for urinary stones – a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Aboumarzouk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL is the first line treatment modality for a significant proportion of patients with upper urinary tracts stones. Simple analgesics, opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are all suitable agents but the relative efficacy and tolerability of these agents is uncertain. Objectives To determine the efficacy of the different types of analgesics used for the control of pain during SWL for urinary stones. Materials and Methods We searched the Cochrane Renal Group’s Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and also hand-searched reference lists of relevant articles (Figure-1. Randomised controlled trials (RCT’s comparing the use of any opioid, simple analgesic or NSAID during SWL were included. These were compared with themselves, each-other or placebo. We included any route or form of administration (bolus, PCA. We excluded agents that were used for their sedative qualities. Data were extracted and assessed for quality independently by three reviewers. Meta-analyses have been performed where possible. When not possible, descriptive analyses of variables were performed. Dichotomous outcomes are reported as relative risk (RR and measurements on continuous scales are reported as weighted mean differences (WMD with 95% confidence intervals. Results Overall, we included 9 RCTs (539 participants from 6 countries. Trial agents included 7 types of NSAIDs, 1 simple analgesic and 4 types of opioids. There were no significant differences in clinical efficacy or tolerability between a simple analgesic (paracetamol and an NSAID (lornoxicam. When comparing the same simple analgesic with an opioid (tramadol, both agents provided safe and effective analgesia for the purpose of SWL with no significant differences. There were no significant differences in pain scores between NSAIDs or opioids in three studies. Adequate analgesia could be achieved more often for opioids than for NSAIDs (RR 0.358; 95% CI

  12. Association of minor and trace elements with mineralogical constituents of urinary stones: A hard nut to crack in existing studies of urolithiasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuta, J.; Machát, J.; Benová, D.; Červenka, R.; Zeman, J.; Martinec, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2013), s. 511-522 ISSN 0269-4042 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1394 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : urinary stones * trace elements * biomonitoring * urolithiasis * mineral constituents Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.573, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10653-013-9511-5

  13. Effect of hydrogen adsorption on the formation and annealing of Stone-Wales defects in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlivaev, A. I.; Openov, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The heights of energy barriers preventing the formation and annealing of Stone-Wales defects in graphene with a hydrogen atom adsorbed on the defect or in its immediate vicinity have been calculated using the atomistic computer simulation. It has been shown that, in the presence of hydrogen, both barriers are significantly lower than those in the absence of hydrogen. Based on the analysis of the potential energy surface, the frequency factors have been calculated for two different paths of the Stone-Wales transformation, and the temperature dependences of the corresponding annealing times of the defects have been found. The results obtained have been compared with the first-principles calculations and molecular dynamics data.

  14. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  15. Tephrostratigraphy and the Acheulian to middle stone age transition in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Christian A; McBrearty, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Sites containing Acheulian, Sangoan, Fauresmith, and Middle Stone Age artefacts occur within and below the Bedded Tuff, a widespread volcaniclastic member of the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The Bedded Tuff eruptive complex consists of up to twelve tephra beds, intercalated sediments, and paleosols. Two pumiceous units, high in the Bedded Tuff sequence, have been dated by(40)Ar/(39)Ar, one to 235+/-2 ka (Deino & McBrearty, 2002, Journal of Human Evolution, 42, 185-210, cf. Tallon, 1978, Geological Background to Fossil Man, pp. 361-373, Scottish Academic Press), the other to 284+/-12 ka (Deino & McBrearty, 2001), the latter now providing a minimum age estimate for all underlying archaeological sites. Bedded Tuff outcrops are correlated through field stratigraphic and electron microprobe geochemical analyses of individual beds. Bedded Tuff units show increasingly evolved composition through the stratigraphic succession, indicating that the beds are the product of intermittent eruption of a single differentiating magma system, and the chemical signatures of these beds permit the chronological ordering of archaeological sites. Our results indicate that the transition to Middle Stone Age technology occurred prior to 285 ka in this region of East Africa. The interstratification of sites containing Acheulian, Sangoan, Fauresmith, and Middle Stone Age artefacts suggests that these technologies were contemporary in a single depositional basin over the duration of the transition. Copyright 2002 Academic Press.

  16. Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodgers

    Full Text Available Urinary sulfate (SO4(2- and thiosulfate (S2O3(2- can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa and on supersaturation (SS of calcium oxalate (CaOx and calcium phosphate (CaP, and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM of these salts.Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1. A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS (Model 2. The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations.Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect.Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease.

  17. Assessment of ureterovesical jet dynamics in obstructed ureter by urinary stone with color Doppler and duplex Doppler examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandaghi, Ali Babaei; Falahatkar, Siavash; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Kanafi, Alireza Rajabzadeh; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak; Zirak, Amin Keshavarz; Esmaeili, Samaneh

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate ureterovesical jet dynamics in obstructed ureter and to compare it with those of contralateral unobstructed side. Forty-six patients with diagnosis of ureteral stone, based on imaging findings in computed tomography were enrolled in this study. The gray-scale ultrasound exam from both kidneys and urinary bladder was performed. Then, ureterovesical jet characteristics including ureteral jet frequency, duration and peak velocity were assessed by color Doppler and duplex Doppler studies in both obstructed and unobstructed ureters by a radiologist, 15-30 min after oral hydration with 750-1,000 mL of water. When compared with contralateral normal side, the ureterovesical jet in obstructed ureter showed less frequency (0.59 vs. 3.04 jets/min; P < 0.05), shorter duration (1.24 vs. 5.26 s; P < 0.05) and lower peak velocity (5.41 vs. 32.09 cm/s; P < 0.05). The cut-off points of 1.5 jets/min, 2.5 s and 19.5 cm/s for difference of ureteral jet frequency, duration and peak velocity between obstructed and contralateral normal ureters yielded sensitivities of 97.8, 95.6 and 100 % and specificities of 87, 87.9 and 97.8 %, respectively for diagnosis of ureteral obstruction. Given the safety of Doppler study and significant differences in flow dynamics of obstructed versus unobstructed ureters, our findings demonstrated the utility of Doppler ultrasound examination as a useful adjunct to gray-scale ultrasound by improving the accuracy of ultrasound exam in diagnosis of ureteral obstruction.

  18. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Seo Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephropathy is not always acquired; rather, it reflects refluxassociated congenital dysplastic kidneys. The viewpoint that chronic kidney disease results from renal maldevelopment-associated VUR has led to questioning the utility of any regimen directed at identifying or treating VUR. Despite the recognition that underlying renal anomalies may be the cause of renal scarring that was previously attributed to infection, the prevention of renal scarring remains the goal of all therapies for childhood UTI. Therefore, children at high risk of renal scar formation after UTI should be treated and investigated until a large clinical study and basic research give us more information.

  19. Infection (urease) stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Osborne, C A

    1987-01-01

    Infection-induced stones in man probably form solely as a consequence of urealysis which is catalyzed by the bacterial protein urease. Urease stones composed of struvite and carbonate-apatite may form primarily, or as secondary stones or pre-existent metabolic stones. Struvite stones form and grow rapidly owing to (a) supersaturation of urine with stone forming salts, (b) 'salting out' of poorly soluble organic substances normally dissolved in urine and (c) ammonia-induced destruction of the normally protective urothelial glycosaminoglycan layer. Immature (predominantly organic) matrix stones mature into densely mineralized stones. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone and by eradicating all urinary and parenchymal infection. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches are available. Patient treatment must be individualized inasmuch as some patients are better candidates for one type of treatment than another.

  20. Effect of size and site on the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of proximal urinary stones in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Enmar I; Morsi, Hany A; Elsheemy, Mohammed S; Aboulela, Waseem; Eissa, Mohamed A

    2013-06-01

    To determine the effect of location and size of stones on the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in children. In 2008-2010, 150 children (median age 6.6 years) with radio-opaque ureteric and renal stones measuring ≤4 cm were treated. Exclusion criteria were coagulation disorders, pyelonephritis, distal obstruction, non-functioning kidney and hypertension. ESWL was performed under general anesthesia. Follow up period was 5-22 months. 186 stones were treated: 76 calyceal, 92 pelvic and 18 proximal ureteral. Mean stone size was 1.3 cm. A total of 312 sessions were performed (mean per stone = 1.67 sessions). The mean number of shock waves per session was 2423.68. Overall stone-free rate was 89.24%. Having a calyceal location did not significantly affect the stone-free rate (p = 0.133). The failure rate was significantly higher (66.7%) in stones >3 cm in size (p auxillary ureteroscopy and 4 uretrolithotomy for treatment of steinstrasse. ESWL is a safe and effective method for treatment of stones up to 2 cm in children. Rate of auxillary procedures increases in stones >2 cm in size. About 80% of failures were associated with stone size >1.35 cm while 52.3% of completely cleared stones were associated with size <1.35 cm. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pattern of family history in stone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003-2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were classified as group 1--first order single (one person in the immediate family-father, mother, siblings, or children), group 2--first order multiple (more than one member in the above group), group 3--second order single (one person in the blood relatives in family--grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc.) and group 4--second order multiple (more than one member in the above group). Of the 2,157 patients studied, 349 patients gave positive history of stone disease constituting 16.18%. Of these, 321 were males and 28 were females. Subdivision of the family members showed that 282 patients (80.80%) had single family member with stones and the rest 67 (19.20%) had multiple family members with history of stone disease. Group 1 which constituted one family member in the immediate family had 255 involvements (father: 88, mother: 16, brother: 135, sister: 2, son: 10, and daughter: 4); Group 2 with multiple members in the immediate family constituted 51 relatives; of these, father and brother combination was the most common with 35 occurrences. Group 3 with one person in the distant relatives in family namely grandparents, grand children, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. constituted 27 occurrences and Group 4 with more than one member in the distant family constituted 16 occurrences. It is concluded that single family member involvement was more than multiple involvements. Males predominated. Stone occurrence was more in the immediate family members than distant relatives. Brothers formed the most common group to be involved with stone disease. Study of stone risk in the family members should

  2. Characterisation of urinary stones in the presence of iodinated contrast medium using dual-energy CT: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Takahashi, Naoki; Kawashima, Akira; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-12-15

    To develop a dual-energy CT (DECT) method for differentiating uric acid (UA) from non-UA stones in the presence of iodinated contrast medium. Thirty UA and 45 non-UA stones were selected after infra-red spectroscopic analysis and independently placed in a 1.5-ml vial, which was filled first with saline and then with increasing concentrations of iodine. For each condition, tubes were put in a 35-cm water phantom and examined using a dual-source CT system at 100 and 140 kV. Virtual unenhanced images created from CT data sets of the stones in iodine-containing solutions provided position and volume information. This map was used to calculate a CT number ratio to differentiate stone type. A region-growing method was developed to improve the ability to differentiate between UA and non-UA stones with iodinated contrast medium. The sensitivity for detecting UA stones was 100 % for unenhanced images but fell to 18 % with 20 mgI/ml iodine solution and 0 % for higher concentrations. With region growing, the sensitivity for detecting UA stones was increased to 100 %, 82 %, 57 %, 50 % and 21 % for iodine solutions of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mgI/ml. The region-growing method improves differentiation of UA from non-UA stones on contrast-enhanced DECT urograms. (orig.)

  3. Clinical implications of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiergeist, Andreas; Gessner, André

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases. High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation. Furthermore, treatment of urinary tract infections by antibiotics globally impacts community profiles of the intestinal microbiota and might indirectly influence human health. Alternative treatment options like application of probiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infections are currently under investigation. The urinary microbiome and its relationship to urinary tract diseases is currently under comprehensive investigation. Further studies are needed to shed light on the role of commensal microbiota for urinary tract infections.

  4. Formation of Stone-Wales edge: Multistep reconstruction and growth mechanisms of zigzag nanographene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jing-Shuang; Wang, Wei-Wei; Zheng, Jia-Jia; Nagase, Shigeru; Zhao, Xiang

    2017-10-05

    Although the existence of Stone-Wales (5-7) defect at graphene edge has been clarified experimentally, theoretical study on the formation mechanism is still imperfect. In particular, the regioselectivity of multistep reactions at edge (self-reconstruction and growth with foreign carbon feedstock) is essential to understand the kinetic behavior of reactive boundaries but investigations are still lacking. Herein, by using finite-sized models, multistep reconstructions and carbon dimer additions of a bared zigzag edge are introduced using density functional theory calculations. The zigzag to 5-7 transformation is proved as a site-selective process to generate alternating 5-7 pairs sequentially and the first step with largest barrier is suggested as the rate-determining step. Conversely, successive C 2 insertions on the active edge are calculated to elucidate the formation of 5-7 edge during graphene growth. A metastable intermediate with a triple sequentially fused pentagon fragment is proved as the key structure for 5-7 edge formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  6. Efficacy of extra corporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in upper and lower urinary tract calculi with reference to stone site, size shape and radio density according to age rule (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Akhlaq, M.; Ahmed, N.

    1998-01-01

    50 patients having renal ureteral and vesical stones 5-20 mm and having age range 1 years with mean of 30.5 were studied. 70% (35/50) were male and 30% (15/50) female with 2.33:1 ratio 1,1,2,32,10,4 patients were of 0-2, 2-12, 12-18, 18-40, 40-55 and above 55 years age group respectively. Stone site, size, shape and radio density were seen by X-ray plain abdomen, IVU and ultrasound. At 4 months ESWL treatment was considered successful if the patients were stone free or had residual fragments 4 mm or less. Over all success rate was 64% in renal stones it was 62.7% (25/40), in ureteral 62.5% (5/8) and in vesical stone 100% (2/2). 5-10 mm, 11-15 mm and 16-20 mm stones had success rate of 76% (19/25), 61.1% (11/18) and 28.8% (2/7) respectively. Equi bone density, low density, high density and radiolucent stones had success rate of 57.1% (16/28), 92.85% (13/14). 16.6% (1/6) and 100% (2/2). Shape of stones is mere reflection of stone size. In conclusion, the liberal use of ESWL for every type of stone in terms of radio density equal to or less than bone and size up to 20 mm were amenable to ESWL monotherapy. Upper urinary tract stone 96% (48/50) and 18-40 years age group is the commonest. (author)

  7. Dose and image quality in low-dose CT for urinary stone disease: added value of automatic tube current modulation and iterative reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenen, Olivier; Balliauw, Christophe; Oyen, Raymond; Zanca, Federica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare dose and image quality (IQ) of a baseline low-dose computed tomography (CT) (fix mAs) vs. an ultra-low-dose CT (automatic tube current modulation, ATCM) in patients with suspected urinary stone disease and to assess the added value of iterative reconstruction. CT examination was performed on 193 patients (103 baseline low-dose, 90 ultra-low-dose). Filtered back projection (FBP) was used for both protocols, and Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) was used for the ultra-low-dose protocol only. Dose and ureter stones information were collected for both protocols. Subjective IQ was assessed by two radiologists scoring noise, visibility of the ureter and overall IQ. Objective IQ (contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR) was assessed for the ultra-low-dose protocol only (FBP and SAFIRE). The ultra-low-dose protocol (ATCM) showed a 22% decrease in mean effective dose ( p < 0.001) and improved visibility of the pelvic ureter (p = 0.02). CNR was higher for SAFIRE (p < 0.0001). SAFIRE improves the objective IQ, but not the subjective IQ for the chosen clinical task. (authors)

  8. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  9. Biofilm formation by asymptomatic and virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrieres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of groups of ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine. We found that there is a strong bias; ABU strains were significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains. Our data suggest that biofilm formation in urinary tract infectious...

  10. Extensive characterizations of bacteria isolated from catheterized urine and stone matrices in patients with nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Prasongwattana, Vitoon; Sungkeeree, Seksit; Saisud, Phitsamai; Sribenjalux, Pipat; Pimratana, Chaowat; Bovornpadungkitti, Sombat; Sriboonlue, Pote; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2012-11-01

    Urinary tract infections are generally known to be associated with nephrolithiasis, particularly struvite stone, in which the most common microbe found is urea-splitting bacterium, i.e. Proteus mirabilis. However, our observation indicated that it might not be the case of stone formers in Thailand. We therefore extensively characterized microorganisms associated with all types of kidney stones. A total of 100 kidney stone formers (59 males and 41 females) admitted for elective percutaneous nephrolithotomy were recruited and microorganisms isolated from catheterized urine and cortex and nidus of their stones were analyzed. From 100 stone formers recruited, 36 cases had a total of 45 bacterial isolates cultivated from their catheterized urine and/or stone matrices. Among these 36 cases, chemical analysis by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that 8 had the previously classified 'infection-induced stones', whereas the other 28 cases had the previously classified 'metabolic stones'. Calcium oxalate (in either pure or mixed form) was the most common and found in 64 and 75% of the stone formers with and without bacterial isolates, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium (approximately one-third of all bacterial isolates) found in urine and stone matrices (both nidus and periphery). Linear regression analysis showed significant correlation (r = 0.860, P stone matrices. Multidrug resistance was frequently found in these isolated bacteria. Moreover, urea test revealed that only 31% were urea-splitting bacteria, whereas the majority (69%) had negative urea test. Our data indicate that microorganisms are associated with almost all chemical types of kidney stones and urea-splitting bacteria are not the major causative microorganisms found in urine and stone matrices of the stone formers in Thailand. These data may lead to rethinking and a new roadmap for future research regarding the role of microorganisms in kidney stone formation.

  11. Formation of a nanocrystalline layer on the surface of stone wool fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Korsgaard, Martin; Kirkegaard, Lise Frank

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we report a simple approach for creating a nanocrystalline layer on the surface of stone wool fibers (SWFs) with a basalt-like composition. The approach is based on a preoxidation process of the SWFs in atmospheric air at a temperature around the glass transition temperature...

  12. Investigation Patients with Urinary Stones from the Aspect of Epidemiologic Parameters Admitted at Urology Department of Imam Reza Hospital During Years 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis is one of the most frequent diseases of urinary system which forms high percentage of patients who come to Urology wards. Therefore, study of epidemiological characteristics of patients of each ward can be helpful for making the best general decision. Methods: First, we devided 5133 cases who had come to Urology department of imam Reza hospital of mashhad during 2005-2008, in 2 groups and then in 6 groups. We investigated and compared 2 groups of lithotripsy and surgery from the aspect of epidemiological characteristics. So, we did for 6 groups: pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, ureteroscopy and TUL, PNL, ESWL, cystolitholapaxy. Results: From 5133 cases, mean age of 43.41, men to female ratio 2.1, 90.1% had done lithotripsy and 9.2% surgery. Percentage of patients of pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy was 3.5% ureterolithotomy 0.8%, ureteroscopy and TUL39.5%, PNL 4.9%, ESWL 49.5%, cystolitholapaxy 1.9%. Mean stay in hospital for 1.31±0.19 and for surgery 4.84±0.16, in ESWL 0.81±0.25 and in pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy 5.09±0.17 days. During years 2005-2008 percentage of ESWL was : 59.9, 51.4 & 38.4% of all admissions in these years. PNLs percentage was: 3.8, 5.51, 5.53%. Choosing of PNL in urban people was highest (84.5% and for rural people pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy is the most technique in use. Conclusion: Despite of other advanced countries high percentage of our patients undergo open surgery especially in rural people, yet. So, we should provide facilities of education and financials for modern and lower costs of urinary tract stone treatments.

  13. Effect of Ramadan fasting on urinary risk factors for calculus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladipour, Amir Hossein; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Parvin, Mahmoud; Azadvari, Mohaddeseh

    2012-01-01

    Even though dehydration could aggravate formation of urinary calculi, the effects of fluid and food restriction on calculus formation is not thoroughly defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fluid and food restriction in Ramadan fasting on urinary factors in kidney and urinary calculus formation. Fifty-seven men aged 30 to 55 years old, including 37 recurrent calcium calculus formers and 20 with no history of kidney calculi were evaluated for blood tests, ultrasonography investigations, urinalysis, urine culture, and also 24-hour urine collection test. Metabolites including calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, and creatinine were measured before and during Ramadan fasting. The values of calculus-precipitating solutes as well as inhibitory factors were documented thoroughly. Total excretion of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium in 24-hour urine and also urine volume during fasting were significantly lower than those in the nonfasting period. Urine concentration of calcium during fasting was significantly lower than nonfasting (P calculus formation. We did not find enough evidence in favor of increased risks of calculus formation during Ramadan fasting.

  14. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  15. Applications of Micro-CT scanning in medicine and dentistry: Microstructural analyses of a Wistar Rat mandible and a urinary tract stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, F. D. E.; Sari, D. S.; Fitri, L. A.

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution tomographic imaging by means of x-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) has been widely utilized for morphological evaluations in dentistry and medicine. The use of μCT follows a standard procedure: image acquisition, reconstruction, processing, evaluation using image analysis, and reporting of results. This paper discusses methods of μCT using a specific scanning device, the Bruker SkyScan 1173 High Energy Micro-CT. We present a description of the general workflow, information on terminology for the measured parameters and corresponding units, and further analyses that can potentially be conducted with this technology. Brief qualitative and quantitative analyses, including basic image processing (VOI selection and thresholding) and measurement of several morphometrical variables (total VOI volume, object volume, percentage of total volume, total VOI surface, object surface, object surface/volume ratio, object surface density, structure thickness, structure separation, total porosity) were conducted on two samples, the mandible of a wistar rat and a urinary tract stone, to illustrate the abilities of this device and its accompanying software package. The results of these analyses for both samples are reported, along with a discussion of the types of analyses that are possible using digital images obtained with a μCT scanning device, paying particular attention to non-diagnostic ex vivo research applications.

  16. Open stone surgery: a still-in-use approach for complex stone burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özer Ural; Ener, Kemal; Keske, Murat; Altinova, Serkan; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Aldemir, Mustafa; Ardicoglu, Arslan

    2017-06-30

    Urinary stone disease is a major urological condition. Endourologic techniques have influenced the clinical approach and outcomes. Open surgery holds a historic importance in the management of most conditions. However, complex kidney stone burden may be amenable to successful results with open stone surgery. In this article, we report our eighteen cases of complex urinary stone disease who underwent open stone removal. A total of 1701 patients have undergone surgical treatment for urinary stone disease in our clinic between July 2012 and July 2016, comprising eighteen patients who underwent open stone surgery. Patients' demographic data, stone analysis results, postoperative clinical data, and stone status were evaluated retrospectively. The choice of surgical approach is mostly dependent on the surgeon's preference. In two patients, open surgery was undertaken because of perioperative complications. We did not observe any Clavien-Dindo grade 4 or 5 complications. Three patients were managed with a course of antibiotics due to postoperative fever. One patient had postoperative pleurisy, one patient had urinoma, and two patients had postoperative ileus. Mean operation time was 84 (57-124) minutes and mean hospitalization time was 5.5 (3-8) days. Stone-free status was achieved in 15 patients (83.3%). Endourologic approaches are the first options for treatment of urinary stone disease. However, open stone surgery holds its indispensable position in complicated cases and in complex stone burden. Open stone surgery is also a valid alternative to endourologic techniques in all situations.

  17. Lessons from a Stone Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, John P.; Rao, P. Nagaraj

    2007-04-01

    The stone farm is a system for measuring macroscopic stone growth of 12 calcium stones simultaneously. It is based on mixed suspension, mixed product removal continuous crystallization principles and the stones are grown continuously for about 500 hours or more. The growth of the stones follows a surface area dependent pattern and the growth rate constants are very similar irrespective of whether the stating materials are fragments of human stone or pieces of marble chip. Increasing citrate from 2mM to 6mM caused a significant growth inhibition which persisted in the presence of urinary macromolecules. Phytate was a very effective inhibitor (about 50% at sub-μM concentrations) but the effective concentration was increased by an order of magnitude in the presence of urinary macromolecules. The effective concentration for inhibition in a crystallization assay was a further two orders of magnitude higher. Urinary macromolecules or almost whole urine were also strongly inhibitory although neither human serum albumin nor bovine mucin had any great effect. The relationship between the size distribution of crystals in suspension and the stone enlargement rate suggests that the primary enlargement mechanism for these in vitro stones is through aggregation. The stone farm is a powerful tool with which to study crystallization inhibitors in a new light. Some differences between inhibition of crystallization and inhibition of stone growth have emerged and we have obtained quantitative evidence on the mechanism of stone enlargement in vitro. Our findings suggest that the interface between crystals in suspension and the stone surface is the key to controlling stone enlargement.

  18. Specific selection for virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains during catheter-associated biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrieres, Lionel; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    microorganisms can attach. Urinary tract infectious (UTI) Escherichia coli range in pathogenicity and the damage they cause - from benign asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strains, which inflict no or few problems to the host, to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, which are virulent and often cause severe...... for and promote biofilm formation of the most virulent group of UTI E. coli strains, hardly a desirable situation for the catheterized patient....

  19. Comparison of High, Intermediate, and Low Frequency Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Tract Stone Disease: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong Hyuk; Cho, Kang Su; Ham, Won Sik; Lee, Hyungmin; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Choi, Young Deuk; Lee, Joo Yong

    2016-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the optimal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) frequency range for treating urinary stones, i.e., high-frequency (100-120 waves/minute), intermediate-frequency (80-90 waves/minute), and low-frequency (60-70 waves/minute) lithotripsy. Relevant RCTs were identified from electronic databases for meta-analysis of SWL success and complication rates. Using pairwise and network meta-analyses, comparisons were made by qualitative and quantitative syntheses. Outcome variables are provided as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis using pairwise and network meta-analyses. On pairwise meta-analyses, comparable inter-study heterogeneity was observed for the success rate. On network meta-analyses, the success rates of low- (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-2.6) and intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.6) were higher than high-frequency SWL. Forest plots from the network meta-analysis showed no significant differences in the success rate between low-frequency SWL versus intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.51-1.7). There were no differences in complication rate across different SWL frequency ranges. By rank-probability testing, intermediate-frequency SWL was ranked highest for success rate, followed by low-frequency and high-frequency SWL. Low-frequency SWL was also ranked highest for low complication rate, with high- and intermediate-frequency SWL ranked lower. Intermediate- and low-frequency SWL have better treatment outcomes than high-frequency SWL when considering both efficacy and complication.

  20. The Suitability of Limestone from Pilaspi Formation (Middle-Late Eocene for Building Stone in Koya Area, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemn M. Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of limestone rocks has a crucial importance when stones are used for constructing modern structure. The purpose of this study is to clarify the links between physical, mechanical properties of limestone rocks, also their quality to use as building materials. A total of six limestone rock samples were collected from three different outcrops locations within Pilaspi Formation in Koya area. Engineering geological and geotechnical properties of the limestone rocks in the study area were determined based on the field studies and laboratory tests. The field studies included observations/ measurements of rock mass characteristics such as color, grain size, orientation, bedding thickness and weathering state of the rock materials also spacing, persistence, roughness and infilling material of the discontinuities. Laboratory tests were carried out for determining water content, water absorption, density, uniaxial compressive strength, slake durability and porosity of the rock materials. The study results go well with the national and international standards (Iraqi Standards, 1989; American Society for Testing and Materials, 2004; International Society for Rock Mechanics, 1981 and have shown that the limestone rocks are acceptable for building stone.

  1. The formation of separation cracks in the extraction of block stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Stovpnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the undisputed leader of the destruction of strong rocks by mining as open-pit and underground mining is drilling and blasting method. The main disadvantage of this method is the seismic effect of the explosion to rock, the violation of their integrity, the development of cracks and weakening of the array. The most acute effect is visible while production of block materials, delineation of mine workings. The use of low-blasting explosives, cartridges and charges for special constructions allow us to reduce dynamic impact on blasthole area, however, their use leads to higher costs and in some cases does not provide the necessary end results. For example, in the extraction of block stone losses reach more than thirty percent. One of the possible ways of solving this problem is the use of static methods of destruction of rocks. Currently, a variety of ways of non-explosive destruction, in particular, mechanical methods are developed. Most of these methods are under research and design development. Their industrial use is hampered by lack of equipment, low reliability, high energy consumption, hazardous impact on human, high cost. All these drawbacks force to look for ways to create a cheap and promising way of cutting hard rocks. One of the perspective directions of the static fracture of rocks is the use of non-explosive destructive compositions of LDCs. The features of the management of cracking in holes in the separation of the stone blocks with the use of non-explosive destructive compositions (LDCs with industrial unit that contains control panels are analyzed. The conditions of crack growth of the split relative to the axes of anisotropy with the maximum or minimum strength are defined. The features of the control the direction of fracturing in boreholes in the separation of the stone blocks using a non-explosive mixtures destructive (LDCs with industrial units, which include the control panels are analyzed. The conditions of crack

  2. Stone composition and metabolic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibilash, B S; Vijay, Adarsh; Fazil Marickar, Y M

    2010-06-01

    This paper aims to study the correlation between biochemical risk factors of the stone former and the type of oxalate stone formed, namely calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD). A retrospective study of 487 patients who had been attending the urinary stone clinic, Trivandrum during 1998-2007 was conducted. The stones retrieved from them were subjected to chemical analysis and FTIR spectrographic analysis. They were categorized into COM, COD, mixed COM+COD and others. Of 142 pure calcium oxalate stone patients, 87 were predominantly COM stone formers and 55 COD stone formers. Their metabolic status of 24 h urine and serum was assessed. The values of urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, magnesium, creatinine, oxalate, citric acid, sodium and potassium, serum values of calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, magnesium and creatinine and calculated values of creatinine clearance, tubular reabsorption of phosphate, calcium magnesium ratio and calcium oxalate ratio were recorded. Comparison was made between the COM stone group and the COD stone group. Patients forming COM stones had significantly higher mean values for urine calcium (P stone forming patients. All other values failed to show significant difference. Patients, with higher urine oxalate, formed COM stones. Those with low magnesium (which is an inhibitor) formed more of COD stones. Urine calcium was high in both groups without showing significant variation from the mean. In patients with high calcium-oxalate and calcium-magnesium ratios, there is higher chance of forming a COD stone than COM. Identification of the crystallization pattern of the calcium stone will help in selecting treatment modalities.

  3. Effect of urinary tract infection on the urinary metabolic characteristic as a risk factor in producing urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eskandarifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary metabolic disorders are one of the most common causes of stone formation in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of urinary tract infections in the urinary metabolic characteristics as a risk factor in the incidence of urolithiasis. This case-control study was conducted in 222 children with urolithiasis in the range of 6 months to 16 years old in Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran during 2012-14. Patients were divided into two groups based on those with urinary tract infection and without urinary tract infection. Then, urine samples were collected from both groups, and levels of calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, creatinine, and cysteine were measured. The collected information was analyzed using software SPSS (version 16. The ratio Average levels of calcium, magnesium, oxalate, cysteine, uric acid to creatinine in urine showed no significant difference between two groups based on statistical analysis. However, the amount of citrate to creatinine in children with urinary tract infection and urolithiasis was clearly less P=0.01. The results of this study show that the urinary tract infection cannot change the urinary metabolic characteristics, but it can be considered as a risk factor in kidney stone formation due to the reduced amount of citrate in the urine.

  4. Timelines of the “free-particle” and “fixed-particle” models of stone-formation: theoretical and experimental investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.J.; W.P.A. Boellaard (Willem); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); Levchenko, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTwo major theories on renal stone formation will be reviewed, the “free-particle” and “fixed-particle” mechanisms. These theories combine data on intrinsic factors (inborn metabolic errors), extrinsic factors (diet), renal cell responses and the physico-chemistry and biochemistry of

  5. Natural isotope tracing of hydric transfers in a very low porosity clay stone formation: the argilites of Tournemire (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau-Le Golvan, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1988, the experimental site of the French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety Safety (IPSN) situated in a tunnel near Tournemire (Aveyron, France), is studied in order to develop techniques and methods for the characterization of water behaviour in a clay-stone formation with very low water content and very low permeability. Isotope geochemistry was used to define the fluid transfer modalities. After the development development of the improvement of sampling techniques, the measurement of the stable isotope contents (oxygen - 18, deuterium, carbon-13) and radioactive isotope contents (tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36) of fluids (pore water, fracture water) and solids (calcite fracture fillings) allowed to distinguish several origins and behaviours of water in the massif. The stable isotope distribution of pore water could be due to a diffusion driven mixing between argillite formation water and water from karsts, over and underlying the argillite formation. In this hypothesis, the time needed to establish the distribution profile should be longer than 5 million years. The role of the fractures seems complex, with indications of local paleo-transfers from the matrix to the fracture, and indications of transfers from the karstic aquifer. (author)

  6. Natural isotope tracing of hydric transfers in a very low porosity clay-stone formation: the argilites of Tournemire (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau-Le Golvan, Yann

    1997-01-01

    Since 1988, the experimental site of the French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) situated in a tunnel near Toumemire (Aveyron, France), is studied in order to develop techniques and methods for the characterization of water behaviour in a clay-stone formation with very low water content and very low permeability. Isotope geochemistry was used to define the fluid transfer modalities. After the development or the improvement of sampling techniques, the measurement of the stable isotope contents (oxygen-18, deuterium, carbon-13) and radioactive isotope contents (tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36) of fluids (pore water, fracture water) and solids (calcite fracture fillings) allowed to distinguish several origins and behaviours of water in the massif. The stable isotope distribution of pore water could be due to a diffusion driven mixing between argilite formation water and water from karsts, over and underlying the argilite formation. In this hypothesis, the time needed to establish the distribution profile should be longer than 5 million years. The role of the fractures seems complex, with indications of local paleo-transfers from the matrix to the fracture, and indications of transfers from the karstic aquifer. (author) [fr

  7. Imaging of urinary tract lithiasis: who, when and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Although infection remains a major aetiological factor in stone formation, especially in boys, there is increasing recognition of the numbers of children affected by a metabolic predisposition to stone formation and this proportion appears to be increasing, and hence every child who presents with urolithiasis should undergo a metabolic work-up. In a study performed in the UK, 44% of children had a metabolic abnormality, 30% were classified as infective, and 26% idiopathic. A study from Texas found a similar pattern. Coexisting urinary tract infection can of course mask underlying metabolic causes. The rate of stone recurrence is lower in children compared to adults and the majority of stone disease is now managed, as in adults, by lithotripsy or endourological techniques; open surgery has decreased dramatically. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of urinary tract lithiasis: who, when and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiorns, Melanie P.

    Although infection remains a major aetiological factor in stone formation, especially in boys, there is increasing recognition of the numbers of children affected by a metabolic predisposition to stone formation and this proportion appears to be increasing, and hence every child who presents with urolithiasis should undergo a metabolic work-up. In a study performed in the UK, 44% of children had a metabolic abnormality, 30% were classified as infective, and 26% idiopathic. A study from Texas found a similar pattern. Coexisting urinary tract infection can of course mask underlying metabolic causes. The rate of stone recurrence is lower in children compared to adults and the majority of stone disease is now managed, as in adults, by lithotripsy or endourological techniques; open surgery has decreased dramatically. (orig.)

  9. Diagnostics and correction of metabolic disorders in patients with recurrent urolithiasis after endoscopic removal of stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kh. Nazarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of kidney stones. The authors provide the results of a study of 107 men aged 48 to 76 years, were divided into three groups – primary and two control groups. The main and the first control group consisted of 40 patients with recurrent urolithiasis without urinary tract obstruction after endoscopic stone removal and partial androgen deficiency. The second control group consisted of 27 healthy men aged 48 to 70 years. Patients for one year he was promoted endoscopic removal of urinary stones: transurethral nephrolithotripsy – 55 patients, and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy – 25. After discharge from hospital all patients had a diagnosis and correction of metabolic disorders using physical-chemical and biochemical indicators of urine and blood. To study the mineral composition and structural-textural features of urinary stones and their fragments after surgical interventions were performed: x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, polarization and electron microscopy. Was carried out following the relapse of urolithiasis: patients of the main group received pathogenetic androgen therapy as monotherapy, and patients in the control group conventional treatment (antibiotics, spasmolytic, herbal remedies. The results of therapy and follow-up care for 6 years showed a low recurrence of stone formation in patients of the main group and highest in the control. Age-related decline in androgen levels in men may be an additional factor in stone formation. Pathogenic androgen replacement therapy leads to normalization of the content of lithogenic substances in the blood and urine, as well as physico-chemical properties of urine, thereby reducing the process of stone formation.

  10. Urinary retention in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary retention in women. Urinary retention in women is often transient and of no known cause. ... stones, constipation, urethral cancer, uterine fibroids ... present with abnormal bladder function secondary to ... (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography ... full blood count, urea, electrolytes and creatinine can ...

  11. Metabolic Characteristics and Risks Associated with Stone Recurrence in Korean Young Adult Stone Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Sang-Cheol

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence in young adult stone patients in Korea. The medical records of 1532 patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones at our stone clinic between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to age (young adult, 18-29 years; intermediate onset, 30-59 years; old age, ≥60 years) at first presentation, and measurements of clinicometabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence were compared. Overall, excretion of urinary stone-forming substances was highest in the intermediate onset group, followed by the young adult and old age groups. Importantly, excretion of urinary citrate was lowest in the young adult group. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified a significant difference between the three age groups in terms of stone recurrence (log rank test, p adult stone patients. Younger age (18-29 years) at first stone presentation was a significant risk factor for stone recurrence, and urinary citrate excretion was an independent risk factor affecting recurrence in this group. Metabolic evaluation and potassium citrate therapy should be considered for young adult stone patients to prevent recurrence.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms in calcitonin receptor gene and risk for recurrent kidney calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhssalim, Nasser; Basiri, Abbas; Houshmand, Massoud; Pakmanesh, Hamid; Golestan, Banafsheh; Azadvari, Mohaddeseh; Aryan, Hajar; Kashi, Amir H

    2014-01-01

    In this study the full sequence of the calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR) in a group of Iranian males suffering from recurrent calcium urinary stones was compared with that of a control group. Serum and urinary biochemistry related to urolithiasis were evaluated in 105 males diagnosed with recurrent kidney calcium stones and 101 age-matched healthy control males. The polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism method was used to detect new polymorphisms in the CALCR. Nine polymorphisms were detected; seven were in the non-coding and two in the coding region. The T allele associated with the 3'UTR+18C>T polymorphism was observed exclusively in the stone formers. The exact odds ratio for the T allele in this locus for those at risk of stone formation was 36.72 (95% CI 4.95-272.0) (p C and IVS1insA polymorphisms in intron 1 were associated with kidney stone disease (p T and intron 1 polymorphisms in the CALCR and the risk of kidney stone disease. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of blind treatment on stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2010-06-01

    Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also

  14. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    % had residual stones. Corresponding rates after 3 and 6 months were 58%, 24% and 18% and 70%, 21% and 9% respectively. Septicemia occurred in 4 patients and cardial arrhythmia in 34 patients (11%). No serious intra- or perirenal hematomas were registered. In 9% additional procedures were required...

  15. A paracrine mechanism involving renal tubular cells, adipocytes and macrophages promotes kidney stone formation in a simulated metabolic syndrome environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Tozawa, Keiichi; Okada, Atsushi; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Hirose, Yasuhiko; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Ando, Ryosuke; Itoh, Yasunori; Zou, Jiangang; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-06-01

    We developed an in vitro system composed of renal tubular cells, adipocytes and macrophages to simulate metabolic syndrome conditions. We investigated the molecular communication mechanism of these cells and their involvement in kidney stone formation. Mouse renal tubular cells (M-1) were cocultured with adipocytes (3T3-L1) and/or macrophages (RAW264.7). Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals were exposed to M-1 cells after 48-hour coculture and the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals adherent to the cells was quantified. The expression of cocultured medium and M-1 cell inflammatory factors was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The inflammatory markers MCP-1, OPN and TNF-α were markedly up-regulated in cocultured M-1 cells. OPN expression increased in M-1 cells cocultured with RAW264.7 cells while MCP-1 and TNF-α were over expressed in M-1 cells cocultured with 3T3-L1 cells. Coculturing M-1 cells simultaneously with 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells resulted in a significant increase in calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal adherence to M-1 cells. Inflammatory cytokine changes were induced by coculturing renal tubular cells with adipocytes and/or macrophages without direct contact, indicating that crosstalk between adipocytes/macrophages and renal tubular cells was mediated by soluble factors. The susceptibility to urolithiasis of patients with metabolic syndrome might be due to aggravated inflammation of renal tubular cells triggered by a paracrine mechanism involving these 3 cell types. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in urological stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Reynard, John M; Noble, Jeremy G; Keoghane, Stephen R

    2012-04-01

    To summarize the changes in prevalence and treatment of upper urinary tract stone disease in the UK over the last 10 years. Data from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) website (http://www.hesonline.nhs.uk) were extracted, summarized and presented. The number of upper urinary tract stone hospital episodes increased by 63% to 83,050 in the 10-year period. The use of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for treating all upper tract stones increased from 14,491 cases in 2000-2001 to 22,402 cases in 2010 (a 55% increase) with a 69% increase in lithotripsy for renal stones. There was a 127% increase in the number of ureteroscopic stone treatments from 6,283 to 14,242 cases over the 10-year period with a 49% increase from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010. There was a decline in open surgery for upper tract stones from 278 cases in 2000/2001 to 47 cases in 2009/2010 (an 83% reduction). Treatment for stone disease has increased substantially in comparison with other urological activity. In 2009/2010, SWL was performed almost as frequently as transurethral resection of the prostate or transurethral resection of bladder tumour, ureteroscopy for stones was performed more frequently than nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy and cystectomy combined, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed more frequently than cystectomy. The present study highlights the increase in prevalence and treatment of stone disease in the UK over the last 10 years. If this trend continues it has important implications for workforce planning, training, service delivery and research in the field of urolithiasis. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  17. Abolition of Biofilm Formation in Urinary Tract Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Isolates by Metal Interference through Competition for Fur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Dahl, Malin; Klemm, Per

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of persistent and chronic infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics and immune defenses, which makes it hard if not impossible to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. In the urinary tract, free iron...... is strictly limited but is critical for bacterial growth. Biofilm-associated Escherichia coli cells are particularly desperate for iron. An attractive way of inhibiting biofilm formation is to fool the bacterial regulatory system for iron uptake. Here, we demonstrate that biofilm formation can be impaired...... by the addition of divalent metal ions, such as Zn(II) and Co(II), which inhibit iron uptake by virtue of their higher-than-iron affinity for the master controller protein of iron uptake, Fur. Reduced biofilm formation of urinary tract-infectious E. coli strains in the presence of Zn(II) was observed...

  18. Successful Management of Repetitive Urinary Obstruction and Anuria Caused by Double J Stent Calculi Formation after Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyao Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifestations improvements. Through detailed exploration of medical history, we conclude that the abnormal calculi formation is due to the calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration, a drug which can increase renal tubular reabsorption of calcium for treating posttransplant HPT bone disease. After discontinuing calcitriol, the patient was stone-free and had a good recovery without severe complications during the 9-month follow-up. Our novel findings may provide an important clue and approach to managing formidable repetitive double J stent calculi formation in the clinical trial.

  19. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of omeprazole on urinary pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Rasmussen, L; Pedersen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary pH is related to urinary calculus formation as well as urinary infection. Omeprazole is an effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion through inhibition of the parietal cell H+K+ATPase. In this study we have evaluated a possible effect of omeprazole on urine acidification. Ten healthy...... male subjects took placebo and omeprazole, 40 mg o.m., for 10 days in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Morning fasting urinary pH was measured on day 10 of each treatment course using a pH meter. No effect of omeprazole on urinary pH could be demonstrated. It is thus unlikely...... that it is necessary to take omeprazole treatment into consideration in stone screening. As omeprazole did not affect urinary pH, no urological side effects related to changes in urinary pH can be expected....

  20. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA, but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all P<0.001 serum concentrations of EPA (173%, DHA (61%, and AA (35%; decreased urine specific gravity (P = 0.02; decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06; decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03; and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06 compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; P<0.01. These data show benefits for reducing urine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  1. Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...

  2. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

    2013-03-01

    We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effects of Sex on Intra-Individual Variance in Urinary Solutes in Stone-Formers Collected from a Single Clinical Laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M L Perry

    Full Text Available Our work in a rodent model of urinary calcium suggests genetic and gender effects on increased residual variability in urine chemistries. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that sex would similarly be associated with residual variation in human urine solutes. Sex-related effects on residuals might affect the establishment of physiological baselines and error in medical assays.We tested the effects of sex on residual variation in urine chemistry by estimating coefficients of variation (CV for urinary solutes in paired sequential 24-h urines (≤72 hour interval in 6,758 females and 9,024 males aged 16-80 submitted to a clinical laboratory.Females had higher CVs than males for urinary phosphorus overall at the False Discovery Rate (P0.3. Males had higher CVs for citrate (P<0.01 from ages 16-45 and females higher CVs for citrate (P<0.01 from ages 56-80, suggesting effects of an extant oestral cycle on residual variance.Our findings indicate the effects of sex on residual variance of the excretion of urinary solutes including phosphorus and citrate; differences in CV by sex might reflect dietary lability, differences in the fidelity of reporting or genetic differentiation in renal solute consistency. Such an effect could complicate medical analysis by the addition of random error to phenotypic assays. Renal analysis might require explicit incorporation of heterogeneity among factorial effects, and for sex in particular.

  4. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  5. Management of ureteric stone in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Minevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of ureteral stones in children is becoming more similar to that in adults. A number of factors must be taken into account when selecting one′s choice of therapy for ureteral stone in children such as the size of the stone, its location, its composition, and urinary tract anatomy. Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. The safety and efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy make it the intracorporeal lithotriptor of choice. Given its minimally invasive features, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL has become a primary mode of treatment for the pediatric patients with reno-ureteral stones. Stone-free rates have been reported from 59% to 91% although some patients will require more than one treatment session for stone clearance. It appears that the first-line of therapy in the child with distal and mid-ureteral stones should be ureteroscopic lithotripsy. While ESWL is still widely considered the first-line therapy for proximal ureteral calculi, there is an increasing body of evidence that shows that endoscopic or ESWL are equally safe and efficacious in those clinical scenarios. Familiarity with the full spectrum of endourological techniques facilitates a minimally invasive approach to pediatric ureteral stones.

  6. Features and Formation Causes of Granitic Stone Forest in Bayan Nur, Inner Mongolia%内蒙古巴彦淖尔花岗岩石林的特征及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐琳; 武法东

    2014-01-01

    通过对内蒙古巴彦淖尔花岗岩石林的调查和研究,对其形态类型和成因作了详尽的阐述.研究区的花岗岩石林从形态上可分为石柱、石锥、石蛋、蘑菇石、石排5种类型.根据形态特征的分析,该石林是由晚古生代花岗闪长岩—黑云二长花岗岩经重力崩塌、风化、流水侵蚀等外力作用而形成的一种特殊地貌,其形成发育受岩性、地质构造、气候条件等因素的控制.%Based on the field investigation on the granitic stone forest in Bayan Nur,Inner Mongolia,in this paper the features and formation causes of the granitic stone forest were discussed in detail.The granitic stone forest was divided into five types,i.e.the stalagnate,talus cone,stone egg,mushroom stone and stone row.According to the morphologic features of the granitic stone forest,it was considered that the stone forest is a kind of special landform and formed from the Late Paleozoic granodiorite-biotite monzonitic granite under the effect of external forces,such as gravitational collapse,weathering,water erosion and wind erosion.The formation and development of the stone forest are affected by lithology,geological structure,climate conditions,etc.

  7. Hemagglutination and biofilm formation as virulence markers of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in acute urinary tract infections and urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma B Maheswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI are a major public health concern in developing countries. Most UTIs are caused by E. coli, accounting for up to 90% of community-acquired UTIs (CAUTI. Recurrent UTI is considered as a major risk factor for urolithiasis. Virulence factors like adhesins and biofilm have been extensively studied by authors on UPEC isolated from recurrent UTI.The studies on isolates from infection stones in kidney are scanty . In a prospective study, we aimed to determine the expression of Haemagglutinins, (Type 1 and P fimbriae , Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics of Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC isolates from Community acquired Acute Urinary Tract Infection(CAUTI and Urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 UPEC isolates , 23 mid-stream urine (MSU samples from patients with CAUTI attending Out Patient Departments and 20 from renal calculi of urolithiasis patients at the time of Percutaneous nephrolithostomy (PCNL were included in the study and the expression of Haemagglutinins,(Type 1 and P fimbriae , Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics was assessed. Results: A total of 43 UPEC isolates 23 from CAUTI and 20 from renal calculi were tested for production of biofilm and hemagglutinins. In CAUTI, biofilm producers were 56.52% and hemagglutinins were detected in all isolates 100%. In urolithiasis, biofilm producers were 100% but hemagglutinins were detected only in 70% of isolates. All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics used. CAUTI isolates were susceptible to 3 rd generation cephalosporins, whereas urolithiasis isolates were resistant to 3 rd generation cephalosporins and 25% were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases ESBL producers. Conclusions: HA mediated by type 1 fimbriae plays an important role in CAUTI (P < 0.001 highly significant, whereas, in chronic conditions like urolithiasis, biofilm plays an important role in persistence of infection and

  8. Approach to Residual Kidney Stone Fragments After Shock Wave Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumay Ižpekci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For kidney stones up to 2 cm in diameter shock wave therapy (SDT is safely applied and kidney stones smaller than 5mm remaining in the kidney after treatment are regarded as clinically insignificant. Management of this condition is still controversial among clinicians. These stones in the kidney may continue to persist without any clinical symptoms or begin to cause clinical signs. In the event that the clinical symptoms are present, it requires detailed urological examination and treatment. The aim in the surgical treatment of urinary tract stones is completely stone clearance but in stones that are not infected, not causing urinary tract obstruction and without clinical symptoms medical treatment is also beneficial fort he prevention of growth and recurrence. In addition, surgical intervention is also possible for the residual stone fragments which become symptomatic during follow-up.

  9. From Catheter to Kidney Stone: The Uropathogenic Lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Allison N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2017-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a model organism for urease-producing uropathogens. These diverse bacteria cause infection stones in the urinary tract and form crystalline biofilms on indwelling urinary catheters, frequently leading to polymicrobial infection. Recent work has elucidated how P. mirabilis causes all of these disease states. Particularly exciting is the discovery that this bacterium forms large clusters in the bladder lumen that are sites for stone formation. These clusters, and other steps of infection, require two virulence factors in particular: urease and MR/P fimbriae. Highlighting the importance of MR/P fimbriae is the cotranscribed regulator, MrpJ, which globally controls virulence. Overall, P. mirabilis exhibits an extraordinary lifestyle, and further probing will answer exciting basic microbiological and clinically relevant questions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  11. Evolution of stone management in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Chak; Bariol, Simon Virgil

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? There is very little contemporary data regarding stone management in Australia. This study assesses the impact of technological advances on stone management practises, and raises questions as to why there is an increasing rate of intervention for stone disease in Australia. Knowledge of management trends as demonstrated in this paper give individual surgeons a guideline for contemporary practise in this country. • To examine trends in the operative management of upper urinary tract stone disease in Australia over the past 15 years. • The Medicare Australia and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare databases were used to determine the annual number of renal colic presentations and procedural interventions undertaken for stone disease. • In Australia over the past 15 years, the annual number of procedural interventions for upper urinary tract stones has increased, primarily due to the rising number of endoscopic procedures performed. • During this period, shock wave lithotripsy numbers have remained steady whilst open and percutaneous procedures have been in decline. • The introduction of and subsequent preference for less invasive techniques has changed the management pathway of patients presenting with stone disease in Australia. • Further studies are necessary to determine whether this escalation in endoscopic procedures is due to an increase in the incidence of stone disease, earlier detection, a lower intervention threshold or a higher retreatment rate. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  12. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul [School of Medicine, Jeongbug National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation.

  13. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul

    1980-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation

  14. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun [AMC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Kwang-Ju Health College, Kwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously.

  15. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun; Kim, Seung Kook

    2001-01-01

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously

  16. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  17. Low-dose abdominal computed tomography for detection of urinary stone disease - Impact of additional spectral shaping of the X-ray beam on image quality and dose parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewes, Patricia; Frellesen, Claudia; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Fischer, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J; Bauer, Ralf W; Schulz, Boris

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate a novel tin filter-based abdominal CT protocol for urolithiasis in terms of image quality and CT dose parameters. 130 consecutive patients with suspected urolithiasis underwent non-enhanced CT with three different protocols: 48 patients (group 1) were examined at tin-filtered 150kV (150kV Sn) on a third-generation dual-source-CT, 33 patients were examined with automated kV-selection (110-140kV) based on the scout view on the same CT-device (group 2), and 49 patients were examined on a second-generation dual-source-CT (group 3) with automated kV-selection (100-140kV). Automated exposure control was active in all groups. Image quality was subjectively evaluated on a 5-point-likert-scale by two radiologists and interobserver agreement as well as signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) was calculated. Dose-length-product (DLP) and volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) were compared. Image quality was rated in favour for the tin filter protocol with excellent interobserver agreement (ICC=0.86-0.91) and the difference reached statistical significance (pcomputed tomography for urinary stone disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  19. Percutaneous suprapubic stone extraction for posterior urethral stones in children: efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Ahmed S; Hameed, Diaa A; Elgammal, Mohamed A; Abdelsalam, Yasser M; Abolyosr, Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous suprapubic stone extraction (PSPSE) for pediatric posterior urethral stones. Between July 2007 and June 2010, 54 boys presenting with acute urinary retention due to posterior urethral stones underwent PSPSE. Patients were a mean age of 66.4 months (range, 8-180 months). The stone size was 0.7-1.9 cm. Patients were placed under general anesthesia, and a 7F urethroscope was used to pushback the stone to the bladder. A 3-mm suprapubic puncture with a scalpel was performed, followed by insertion of a straight narrow hemostat through the puncture aided with cystoscopic guidance. The stone was grasped with the hemostat in its narrowest diameter and was extracted percutaneously or crushed if friable. The suprapubic puncture was closed with a single 4-0 Vicryl (Ethicon) suture. Intact stone retrieval was achieved in 45 patients, and the stone was crushed into minute fragments in 9 patients. Intraperitoneal extravasation developed in 1 patient that required open surgical intervention. Mean operative time was 22 minutes. Patients were monitored for up to 17 months, with complete resolution of symptoms and stone clearance. PSPSE provides a minimally invasive approach for the extraction of urethral and bladder stones in the pediatric population. The use of a straight hemostat for suprapubic stone extraction or crushing is a good alternative to suprapubic tract dilation, with minimal morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B

    1993-01-01

    Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had...

  1. Stone formation in peach fruit exhibits spatial coordination of the lignin and flavonoid pathways and similarity to Arabidopsis dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piagnani M Claudia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignification of the fruit endocarp layer occurs in many angiosperms and plays a critical role in seed protection and dispersal. This process has been extensively studied with relationship to pod shatter or dehiscence in Arabidopsis. Dehiscence is controlled by a set of transcription factors that define the fruit tissue layers and whether or not they lignify. In contrast, relatively little is known about similar processes in other plants such as stone fruits which contain an extremely hard lignified endocarp or stone surrounding a single seed. Results Here we show that lignin deposition in peach initiates near the blossom end within the endocarp layer and proceeds in a distinct spatial-temporal pattern. Microarray studies using a developmental series from young fruits identified a sharp and transient induction of phenylpropanoid, lignin and flavonoid pathway genes concurrent with lignification and subsequent stone hardening. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that specific phenylpropanoid (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and lignin (caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, peroxidase and laccase pathway genes were induced in the endocarp layer over a 10 day time period, while two lignin genes (p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase and cinnamoyl CoA reductase were co-regulated with flavonoid pathway genes (chalcone synthase, dihydroflavanol 4-reductase, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygen-ase and flavanone-3-hydrosylase which were mesocarp and exocarp specific. Analysis of other fruit development expression studies revealed that flavonoid pathway induction is conserved in the related Rosaceae species apple while lignin pathway induction is not. The transcription factor expression of peach genes homologous to known endocarp determinant genes in Arabidopsis including SHATTERPROOF, SEEDSTCK and NAC SECONDARY WALL THICENING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 were found to be specifically expressed in the endocarp while the

  2. Stone coalgebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Kupke (Clemens); A. Kurz (Alexander); Y. Venema

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we argue that the category of Stone spaces forms an interesting base category for coalgebras, in particular, if one considers the Vietoris functor as an analogue to the power set functor on the category of sets. We prove that the so-called descriptive general frames, which

  3. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The newer flexible ureteroscopes, 150-200-microm holmium YAG laser fibres and superflexible Dormia baskets have made it possible to reach and treat stones in all parts of the kidney. The object of this evaluation was to study the outcome of retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS......) for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-resistant kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive patients (18 males, 20 females) participated in the study. All patients had undergone ESWL prior to RIRS without success. In all cases the stones could be reached with the endoscope. Calculi...... ranged in size from 3 to 20 mm (mean 9 mm). In 32 cases the stones were fragmented using a holmium YAG laser and in six the stones could be extracted using zero-tip Dormia baskets without fragmentation. Sixteen patients had lower calyceal calculi and eight had an abnormal anatomy of the upper urinary...

  4. Update on probiotics for the treatment of calcium oxalate stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is one of the common diseases in urinary system, among which calcium oxalate stone is the most common one with a high recurrence rate. An important pathological factor for the formation of calcium oxalate stone is the increased absorption of oxalate from intestine, which leads to a high urine oxalate concentration. Intestinal bacteria known to be able to degrade oxalate includes Oxalobacter formigenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Eubacterium lentum, Providencia rettgeri, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, etc. Among those, Oxalobacter formigenes is the first oxalate-degrading obligate anaerobe found in human, while the rest are just conditioned bacteria with the function to degrade intestinal oxalate. There are three kinds of enzymes in Oxalobacter formigenes involved in the metabolism of oxalate, namely oxalate-formate antiporter (OxlT, formyl-CoA transferase (Frc and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (Oxc. Animal experiments have verified that Oxalobacter formigenes could reduce intestinal oxalate absorption by promoting the secretion of oxalate and degradation as well, thus decrease the excretion of urine oxalate. The present review will focus on the research progress of probiotics treatment for the calcium oxalate stones so as to provide reference for further research and development. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.16

  5. Kidney stone matrix proteins ameliorate calcium oxalate monohydrate induced apoptotic injury to renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Shifa; Tandon, Simran; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2016-11-01

    Kidney stone formation is a highly prevalent disease, affecting 8-10% of the human population worldwide. Proteins are the major constituents of human kidney stone's organic matrix and considered to play critical role in the pathogenesis of disease but their mechanism of modulation still needs to be explicated. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effect of human kidney stone matrix proteins on the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) mediated cellular injury. The renal epithelial cells (MDCK) were exposed to 200μg/ml COM crystals to induce injury. The effect of proteins isolated from human kidney stone was studied on COM injured cells. The alterations in cell-crystal interactions were examined by phase contrast, polarizing, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, its effect on the extent of COM induced cell injury, was quantified by flow cytometric analysis. Our study indicated the antilithiatic potential of human kidney stone proteins on COM injured MDCK cells. Flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence imaging ascertained that matrix proteins decreased the extent of apoptotic injury caused by COM crystals on MDCK cells. Moreover, the electron microscopic studies of MDCK cells revealed that matrix proteins caused significant dissolution of COM crystals, indicating cytoprotection against the impact of calcium oxalate injury. The present study gives insights into the mechanism implied by urinary proteins to restrain the pathogenesis of kidney stone disease. This will provide a better understanding of the formation of kidney stones which can be useful for the proper management of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The ferric yersiniabactin uptake receptor FyuA is required for efficient biofilm formation by urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrieres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in patients with indwelling urinary catheters, and bacterial biofilm formation is a major problem in this type of infection. Escherichia coli is responsible for the large majority of UTIs. Free iron is strictly limited in the human urinary...... of the most upregulated genes in biofilm; it was upregulated 63-fold in the E coli UTI strain VR50. FyuA was found to be highly important for biofilm formation in iron-poor environments such as human urine. Mutants in fyuA show aberrant biofilm formation and the cells become filamentous; a VR50fyuA mutant...... of iron greatly influences UTI strains' ability to form biofilm....

  7. Who “apparently” more spends, “in reality” spends less. Spending “a little” more for the rental of the extracorporeal lithotripter can save “a lot” about the days of hospitalization for urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Albino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The right to health (according to the Article 32 of the Italian Republic Constitution is financially conditioned; for this reason the National Health System (NHS has the objective of rationalize health expenditure according to the criteria of efficiency, effectiveness and economy. This paper is an example of rationalization concerning the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Materials and methods: Hospital admissions for urinary stones were taken into account. "Edotto", the database of the Puglia region has identified 23 inpatient admissions during which was performed ESWL. A single operator performed ESWLs with a Storz lithotripter, Modulith SLK. Results: The average hospital stay is conditioned by days "to wait" lithotripsy. In 2014 the hospitalization days "waiting for" lithotripsy were 100. The results were subjected to SWOT analysis and discussed with the Boston Consulting Group Matrix. Discussion: Constant availability of the lithotripter would spare 100 days of hospitalization, amounting to € 88,200.00. This waste of resources corresponds to an additional cost equal to 98.3% on the cost for the rental of the lithotripter. Instead, reducing "unnecessary" hospitalization days would get a saving of 79.3% on the rental cost. It is as if for 46 days of the lithotripter rent were paid 46 days, while for 365 days of the lithotripter rent were paid only 11.8 sessions per year. Conclusions: Rationalization of resources is not necessarily a synonym of "reduction" of resources, but of reduction of waste in the NHS. A good plan is the most important rational basis to get more resources. About the process taken into account it is seen as an investment of € 21,450.00 would keep unchanged the effectiveness of lithotripsy service but would add efficiency and economy (increase of sessions/year, increase in the active mobility, increase in orthopedic treatments and would drastically reduce the number hospital days (a waste.

  8. Bladder stones in catheterized spinal cord-injured patients in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the incidence of bladder stones in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess if catheter encrustation or positive urinary culture of Proteus mirabilis is predictive of bladder stones. Background: Bladder stones are common urological complication in those with SCI managed ...

  9. Can a dual-energy computed tomography predict unsuitable stone components for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Oh, Tae Hoon; Seo, Ill Young

    2015-09-01

    To assess the potential of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to identify urinary stone components, particularly uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate, which are unsuitable for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). This clinical study included 246 patients who underwent removal of urinary stones and an analysis of stone components between November 2009 and August 2013. All patients received preoperative DECT using two energy values (80 kVp and 140 kVp). Hounsfield units (HU) were measured and matched to the stone component. Significant differences in HU values were observed between uric acid and nonuric acid stones at the 80 and 140 kVp energy values (penergy values (p<0.001). DECT improved the characterization of urinary stone components and was a useful method for identifying uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, which are unsuitable for ESWL.

  10. Retroperitoneoscopy for treatment of renal and ureteral stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Soares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopy for treating stones in the renal pelvis and proximal ureter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from August 2003 to August 2004, 35 retroperitoneoscopies for treatment of urinary stones were performed on 34 patients. Fifteen patients (42% had stones in the renal pelvis, and in 2 cases, there were associated stones in the upper caliceal group. Twenty patients (58% had ureteral stones, all of them located above the iliac vessel. Twenty-five patients (71% had previously undergone at least one session of extracorporeal lithotripsy and 8 patients (26% also underwent ureteroscopy to attempt to remove the stone. Eight patients underwent retroperitoneoscopy as a primary procedure. Stone size ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm with a mean of 2.1 cm. RESULTS: Retroperitoneoscopy was performed by lumbar approach with initial access conducted by open technique and creation of space by digital dissection. We used a 10-mm Hasson trocar for the optics, and 2 or 3 additional working ports placed under visualization. Following identification, the urinary tract was opened with a laparoscopic scalpel and the stone was removed intact. The urinary tract was closed with absorbable 4-0 suture and a Penrose drain was left in the retroperitoneum. In 17 patients (49%, a double-J stent was maintained postoperatively. Surgical time ranged from 60 to 260 minutes with a mean of 140 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 3 days (1-10 days. The mean length of retroperitoneal urinary drainage was 3 days (1-10 days. There were minor complications in 6 (17.6% patients and 1 case of conversion due to technical difficulty. Thirty-three patients (94% became stone free. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneoscopy is an effective, low-morbidity alternative for treatment of urinary stones.

  11. Retroperitoneoscopy for treatment of renal and ureteral stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rodrigo S; Romanelli, Pedro; Sandoval, Marcos A; Salim, Marcelo M; Tavora, Jose E; Abelha, David L

    2005-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopy for treating stones in the renal pelvis and proximal ureter. In the period from August 2003 to August 2004, 35 retroperitoneoscopies for treatment of urinary stones were performed on 34 patients. Fifteen patients (42%) had stones in the renal pelvis, and in 2 cases, there were associated stones in the upper caliceal group. Twenty patients (58%) had ureteral stones, all of them located above the iliac vessel. Twenty-five patients (71%) had previously undergone at least one session of extracorporeal lithotripsy and 8 patients (26%) also underwent ureteroscopy to attempt to remove the stone. Eight patients underwent retroperitoneoscopy as a primary procedure. Stone size ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm with a mean of 2.1 cm. Retroperitoneoscopy was performed by lumbar approach with initial access conducted by open technique and creation of space by digital dissection. We used a 10-mm Hasson trocar for the optics, and 2 or 3 additional working ports placed under visualization. Following identification, the urinary tract was opened with a laparoscopic scalpel and the stone was removed intact. The urinary tract was closed with absorbable 4-0 suture and a Penrose drain was left in the retroperitoneum. In 17 patients (49%), a double-J stent was maintained postoperatively. Surgical time ranged from 60 to 260 minutes with a mean of 140 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 3 days (1-10 days). The mean length of retroperitoneal urinary drainage was 3 days (1-10 days). There were minor complications in 6 (17.6%) patients and 1 case of conversion due to technical difficulty. Thirty-three patients (94%) became stone free. Retroperitoneoscopy is an effective, low-morbidity alternative for treatment of urinary stones.

  12. Kidney Stones and Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dursun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic causes such as hypercalciuria, urinary tract infection, and obstruction are the most common aetiologies of urolithiasis, and drugs, although important in this regard, are rarely the cause of urolithiasis. Administration of one of these drugs, ceftriaxone (CTX, has been associated with biliary pseudolithiasis in adult and paediatric patients, and rarely may cause urolithiasis. Several factors, including drug concentration and incubation time, are very important for determining the degree of CTX/calcium (Ca crystallisation in the urine. According to this data, CTX crystallisation was a dose and time-dependent reaction. It is particularly important to monitor patients on high-dose long-term CTX treatment with the urinary Ca to creatinine ratios, ultrasound sonography, and renal function testing, as these individuals may be at greater risk of large stones and renal damage. This type of screening may help prevent permanent complications in the future. This underlying review will help to educate readers on the pathophysiology and interaction between CTX and urolithiasis.

  13. Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv); D.J. Kok (Dirk); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.J.M. Nijman (Rien)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal

  14. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone

    OpenAIRE

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. Case Presentation: A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 y...

  15. Can sonography define the chemical composition of gall stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B.; Faehndrich, R.; Arnan-Thiele, B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight sonographic patterns caused by gall stones are described. In an attempt to explain these different appearances, 62 stones were analysed chemically and physically. The chemical composition of the stones did not correlate with their sonographic pattern. Cholesterol stones cannot be recognised as such by sonography. The formation of an acoustic shadow depends largely on the position of the stone within the acoustic beam. It therefore follows that the examination must be done by keeping the focal plane of the transducer in proper relationship to the stone. (orig.) [de

  16. Dietary Plants for the Prevention and Management of Kidney Stones: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirumand, Mina Cheraghi; Hajialyani, Marziyeh; Rahimi, Roja; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus (horse gram), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence. Beside these dietary plants, phytochemicals—such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, diosmin, rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and curcumin—as antioxidant dietary phyto-phenols were found to be effective for the prevention of urolithiasis (the process of stone formation in the urinary tract). The main underlying mechanisms of these dietary plants and their isolated phytonutrients in the management of urolithiasis include diuretic, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activity, as well as an inhibitory effect on crystallization, nucleation, and aggregation of crystals. The results as presented in this review demonstrate the promising role of dietary plants and phytophenols in the prevention and management of kidney stones. Further investigations are required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these compounds. PMID:29518971

  17. Dietary Plants for the Prevention and Management of Kidney Stones: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirumand, Mina Cheraghi; Hajialyani, Marziyeh; Rahimi, Roja; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Zingue, Stéphane; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Bishayee, Anupam

    2018-03-07

    Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus ( horse gram ), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence. Beside these dietary plants, phytochemicals-such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, diosmin, rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and curcumin-as antioxidant dietary phyto-phenols were found to be effective for the prevention of urolithiasis (the process of stone formation in the urinary tract). The main underlying mechanisms of these dietary plants and their isolated phytonutrients in the management of urolithiasis include diuretic, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activity, as well as an inhibitory effect on crystallization, nucleation, and aggregation of crystals. The results as presented in this review demonstrate the promising role of dietary plants and phytophenols in the prevention and management of kidney stones. Further investigations are required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these compounds.

  18. Dietary Plants for the Prevention and Management of Kidney Stones: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Cheraghi Nirumand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea, Rubus idaeus (raspberry, Rubia cordifolia (common madder, Petroselinum crispum (parsley, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Pistacia lentiscus (mastic, Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle, Dolichos biflorus (horse gram, Ammi visnaga (khella, Nigella sativa (black-cumin, Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle, and Origanum vulgare (oregano have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence. Beside these dietary plants, phytochemicals—such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, diosmin, rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and curcumin—as antioxidant dietary phyto-phenols were found to be effective for the prevention of urolithiasis (the process of stone formation in the urinary tract. The main underlying mechanisms of these dietary plants and their isolated phytonutrients in the management of urolithiasis include diuretic, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activity, as well as an inhibitory effect on crystallization, nucleation, and aggregation of crystals. The results as presented in this review demonstrate the promising role of dietary plants and phytophenols in the prevention and management of kidney stones. Further investigations are required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these compounds.

  19. Sludge and stone formation in the gallbladder in bedridden elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease: influence of feeding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onizuka, Y; Mizuta, Y; Isomoto, H; Takeshima, F; Murase, K; Miyazaki, M; Ogata, H; Otsuka, K; Murata, I; Kohno, S

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of gallbladder sludge or gallstone formation in bedridden patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains obscure. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, relationship to feeding method, and mechanisms of gallbladder sludge and gallstone formation in elderly patients with CVD. Using ultrasonography, we determined the development of gallbladder sludge and gallstone over a 12-month period, the area of the gallbladder, the gallbladder contractile response to cerulein, and fasting levels of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) in 40 bedridden elderly patients with CVD. The patients were divided into three groups based on the feeding method: oral ingestion (OI), nasogastric feeding (NF), and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Gallbladder sludge and gallstone were not observed in any of the 14 OI patients, but occurred in 6 and 1 of the 11 NF patients, and in 14 and 3 of the 15 TPN patients, respectively. Fasting gallbladder areas were significantly larger in the TPN group than in the other two groups. The TPN group showed a marked decrease in cerulein-induced gallbladder contractility. Fasting plasma CCK levels were lower in the TPN group than in the OI group. Our results indicate that elderly patients with CVD confined to bed over long periods are not necessarily at risk of gallbladder sludge or gallstone formation, and the development of these features may be associated with the feeding method. The predisposition of CVD patients on TPN to gallbladder disease is probably caused by failure of gallbladder contraction, resulting from insufficient secretion of CCK and impaired sensitivity of the gallbladder to CCK.

  20. Measuring stone surface area from a radiographic image is accurate and reproducible with the help of an imaging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Abraham; Ganpule, Arvind; Muthu, V; Sabnis, R B; Desai, Mahesh

    2009-01-01

    The surface area of the stone from a radiographic image is one of the more suitable parameters defining stone bulk. The widely accepted method of measuring stone surface area is to count the number of square millimeters enclosed within a tracing of the stone outline on graph paper. This method is time consuming and cumbersome with potential for human error, especially when multiple measurements are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and reproducibility of a commercially available imaging program, Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for the measurement of stone surface area. The instructions to calculate area using the software are simple and easy in a Windows-based format. The accuracy of the imaging software was estimated by measuring surface areas of shapes of known mathematical areas. The efficiency and reproducibility were then evaluated from radiographs of 20 persons with radiopaque upper-tract urinary stones. The surface areas of stone images were measured using both graph paper and imaging software. Measurements were repeated after 10 days to assess the reproducibility of the techniques. The time taken to measure the area by the two methods was also assessed separately. The accuracy of the imaging software was estimated to be 98.7%. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was R(2) = 0.97. The mean percentage variation using the imaging software was 0.68%, while it was 6.36% with the graph paper. The mean time taken to measure using the image analyzer and graph paper was 1.9 +/- 0.8 minutes and 4.5 +/- 1.08 minutes, respectively (P stone surface area from radiographs compared with manual measurements using graph paper.

  1. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  2. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis.

  3. A new tephrochronology for early diverse stone tool technologies and long-distance raw material transport in the Middle to Late Pleistocene Kapthurin Formation, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nick; Jicha, Brian R; McBrearty, Sally

    2018-05-09

    The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records evidence of significant behavioral change, early fossils of Homo sapiens, and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in this time period thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating behavioral evidence from archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments from fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes. The tephrochronology of the Kapthurin Formation presented here, based on tephra correlations and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates, provides new ages between 395.6 ± 3.5 ka and 465.3 ± 1.0 ka for nine sites showing diverse blade and Levallois methods of core reduction. These are >110 kyr older than previously known in East Africa. New 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates provide a refined age of 222.5 ± 0.6 ka for early evidence of long-distance (166 km) obsidian transport at the Sibilo School Road Site. A tephra correlation between the Baringo and Victoria basins also provides a new date of ∼100 ka for the Middle Stone Age site of Keraswanin. By providing new and older dates for 11 sites containing several important aspects of hominin behavior and extending the chronology of the Kapthurin Formation forward by ∼130,000 years, the tephrochronology presented here contributes one of the longest and most refined chronostratigraphic frameworks of Middle through Late Pleistocene East Africa. This tephrochronology thus provides the foundation to understand the process of modern human behavioral evolution as it relates to biological and paleoenvironmental circumstances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing site formation and assemblage integrity through stone tool refitting at Gruta da Oliveira (Almonda karst system, Torres Novas, Portugal: A Middle Paleolithic case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Deschamps

    Full Text Available We use stone tool refitting to assess palimpsest formation and stratigraphic integrity in the basal units of the Gruta da Oliveira archeo-stratigraphic sequence, layers 15-27, which TL and U-series dating places in late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5 or early MIS 4. As in most karst contexts, the formation of this succession involved multiple and complex phenomena, including subsidence, bioturbation, carnivore activity and runoff as agents of potential post-depositional disturbance. During phases of stabilization, such as represented by layers 15, 21 and 22, the excavated area was inhabited and refits corroborate that post-depositional displacement is negligible. Layers 23-25 and 16-19 correspond to subdivisions that slice thick geological units primarily formed of material derived from the cave's entrance via slope dynamics. Refit links are consistent with rapid fill-up of the interstitial spaces found in the Karren-like bedrock (for layers 23-25, or left between large boulders after major roof-collapse events (for layers 16-19. Layers 26 (the "Mousterian Cone" and 27 are a "bottom-of-hourglass" deposit underlying the main sedimentary body; the refits show that this deposit consists of material derived from layers 15-25 that gravitated through fissures open in the sedimentary column above. Layer 20, at the interface between two major stratigraphic ensembles, requires additional analysis. Throughout, we found significant vertical dispersion along the contact between sedimentary fill and cave wall. Given these findings, a preliminary analysis of technological change across the studied sequence organized the lithic assemblages into five ensembles: layer 15; layers 16-19; layer 20; layers 21-22; layers 23-25. The lower ensembles show higher percentages of flint and of the Levallois method. Uniquely at the site, the two upper ensembles feature bifaces and cleavers.

  5. A New Tephrochronology for Early Diverse Stone Tool Technologies and Long-Distance Raw Material Transport in the Middle-Late Pleistocene Kapthurin Formation, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, N.; Jicha, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records significant behavioral change, the earliest fossils of Homo sapiens and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in the Middle to Late Pleistocene thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating the appearances of various behaviors preserved in archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments preserved in the fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes. The tephrochronology of the Kapthurin Formation presented here, based on tephra correlations and 40Ar/ 39Ar dates, provides new ages between 396.3 ± 3.4 ka and 465.3 ± 1.0 ka for nine sites showing some of the earliest evidence of diverse blade and Levallois methods of core reduction. These are >110 kyr older than previously known in East Africa. New 40Ar/ 39Ar dates provide a refined age of 222.5 ± 0.6 ka for early evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the Sibilo School Road Site. Long-distance tephra correlation between the Baringo and Lake Victoria basins also provides a new date of 100 ka for the Middle Stone Age site of Keraswanin. By providing new or older dates for 11 sites containing several important aspects of hominin behavior and extending the chronology of the Kapthurin Formation forward by 130,000 years, the tephrochronology presented here contributes one of the longest and most refined chronostratigraphic frameworks relevant to modern human evolution. In conjunction with recent archaeological and paleoenvironmental data, this tephrochronology provides the foundation to understand the process of modern human behavioral evolution through the East African Middle and Late Pleistocene as it relates to biological and paleoenvironmental circumstances.

  6. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: I...... with careful consideration of stone size and location, symptoms, patient comorbidity and radiation dose. CONCLUSION: In case of infective hydronephrosis, compromised renal function or persistent pain despite adequate analgesic treatment acute intervention is indicated....

  7. Laparoscopic surgery for renal stones: is it indicated in the modern endourology era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Nadu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery combined with endourological assistance for the treatment of renal stones in patients with associated anomalies of the urinary tract. To discuss the role of laparoscopy in kidney stone disease. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with renal stones and concomitant urinary anomalies underwent laparoscopic stone surgery combined with ancillary endourological assistance as needed. Their data were analyzed retrospectively including stone burden, associated malformations, perioperative complications and outcomes. Results: Encountered anomalies included ureteropelvic junction obstruction, horseshoe kidney, ectopic pelvic kidney, fussed-crossed ectopic kidney, and double collecting system. Treatment included laparoscopic pyeloplasty, pyelolithotomy, and nephrolithotomy combined with flexible nephroscopy and stone retrieval. Intraoperative complications were lost stones in the abdomen diagnosed in two patients during follow up. Mean number of stones removed was 12 (range 3 to 214. Stone free status was 77% (10/13 and 100% after one ancillary treatment in the remaining patients. One patient had a postoperative urinary leak managed conservatively. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty was successful in all patients according to clinical and dynamic renal scan parameters. Conclusions: In carefully selected patients, laparoscopic and endourological techniques can be successfully combined in a one procedure solution that deals with complex stone disease and repairs underlying urinary anomalies.

  8. [Usefullness of the StoneBreaker lithotripter for percutaneous nephrolithotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Peso, Almudena Coloma; González, Inmaculada Fernández; Gálvez, Milagros Jiménez; Abad, Pablo Garrido; Fajardo, Gloria Bocardo; Fernández, Luis Miguel Herranz; Arjona, Manuel Fernández; Torres, Lorenzo Herrero; Sanz, Ignacio Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the history, many devices have been used for breaking urinary tract stones. StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) is a second generation of intracorporeal lithotripter, pneumatic and portable, which adds several new advantages, like effectiveness in stone fragmentation and easy handling, very useful during percutaneous lithotripsy. We report the case of a 40 year-old male patient, with a left kidney pyelic lithiasis, who was treated by percutaneous lithotripsy, under general anaesthesia, with StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) as lithotripter. StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) is a lithotripter usable with rigid and semirigid ureteroscopes, much more powerful than its predecessors. It is able to decrease the number of shocks necessary for stone fragmentation, without bigger tissue reaction. It also has a more comfortable design due to the absence of connections, and its power by replaceable carbon dioxide cartridges.

  9. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK PREDICTIONS OF URINARY CALCULUS COMPOSITIONS ANALYZED WITH INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOLMER, M; WOLTHERS, BG; METTING, HJ; DEHAAN, THY; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to analyze urinary calculus (renal stone) constituents. However, interpretation of IR spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. In our laboratory IR spectra of unknown calculi

  10. Renal geology (quantitative renal stone analysis) by 'Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    To prospectively determine the precise stone composition (quantitative analysis) by using infrared spectroscopy in patients with urinary stone disease presenting to our clinic. To determine an ideal method for stone analysis suitable for use in a clinical setting. After routine and a detailed metabolic workup of all patients of urolithiasis, stone samples of 50 patients of urolithiasis satisfying the entry criteria were subjected to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis after adequate sample homogenization at a single testing center. Calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate stone mixture was most commonly encountered in 35 (71%) followed by calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite, magnesium ammonium hexahydrate and xanthine stones. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allows an accurate, reliable quantitative method of stone analysis. It also helps in maintaining a computerized large reference library. Knowledge of precise stone composition may allow the institution of appropriate prophylactic therapy despite the absence of any detectable metabolic abnormalities. This may prevent and or delay stone recurrence.

  11. Association of calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR) polymorphism with kidney stone disease in the population of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Pubali; Guha, Manalee; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Mukherjee, Sourav; Bankura, Biswabandhu; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Maity, Biswanath; Das, Madhusudan

    2017-07-30

    Kidney Stone Disease (KSD) is a complex urologic disorder with strong genetic constituent. Earlier association studies have indicated that the genetic polymorphisms are the potential cause of stone materialization; however unfortunately, the actual genetic signature is still unknown. Therefore, present study was aimed to investigate the potential contribution of two important polymorphisms of calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR): (i) rs1801197 (Leu447Pro) and (ii) rs1042138 (3'UTR+18C>T) in renal stone formation. Accordingly, we enrolled 152 patients registered with calcium-rich stone in kidney (case) and 144 corresponding age, sex and ethnicity matched healthy individuals (controls). Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded as well as peripheral blood sample was collected from each individual. Serum creatinine and urinary calcium level was found high in patients, compared to controls. Out of two studied polymorphisms, we have not found any significant association against the rs1042138 with KSD, nonetheless, significant high frequency (p=0.001; Odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI: 1.28-2.55) of risk allele T against the rs1801197 (T>C) in patient was noted. Moreover, significant association with KSD was noted by genotypic analysis of rs1801197 (Leu447Pro) in our population. Interestingly, male patients carrying TT genotype was found to be at high risk of stone formation, while no such association was observed in female patients. Altogether, present study indicated that the rs1042138 might not be used as a useful marker for susceptibility of kidney stone formation, whereas, the rs1801197 could definitely be considered as one of the risk factors for KSD in Indian population at least in West Bengal in particular. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Female stone disease: the changing trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This might be due to changes in living standards and dietary habits.

  13. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  14. Effects of single- and multi-strain probiotics on biofilm formation and in vitro adhesion to bladder cells by urinary tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C M C; Gibson, G R; Rowland, I

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that probiotic bacteria can inhibit and/or prevent urinary tract infections. Possible mechanisms include prevention of adhesion of pathogens to the bladder epithelium and inhibition of biofilm formation. Currently there is interest in the comparative efficacy of single probiotics vs. strain mixtures. We have therefore tested the inhibitory activity of four single probiotics and four probiotic mixtures towards the urinary tract pathogens Escherichia coli NCTC 9001 and Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 00775. Inhibition of biofilm formation by cell-free supernatants was tested using the Crystal Violet assay, while prevention of pathogen adhesion to host cells was tested by using bladder cancer cells as a model for the human urinary tract. Under pH-controlled conditions, there was no significant inhibition of biofilm formation by any treatment. Without pH control, 5/8 treatments significantly inhibited biofilm production by E. coli, while 5/8 treatments inhibited production by E. faecalis. Using data from all Crystal Violet assays, there was no significant difference in the ability of single- and multi-strain probiotics to inhibit biofilm formation. In the cell culture assays, all treatments were able to significantly reduce numbers of pathogenic cells adhering to host cells by 2.5-3.5 logs. No significant difference was observed between the displacement caused by single strains and mixtures for either pathogen. Inhibition of biofilm seems to be a major mechanism of urinary tract pathogen exclusion, related to, and possibly dependent upon, the probiotic ability to reduce environmental pH. Exclusion via competition of binding sites is a possible in vivo mechanism for these probiotics. If an additive or synergistic effect exists between strains within a mixture, it does not manifest itself in a greater effect through these two inhibitory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Kuan, L.L.; Bakar, M.A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Kidney stone samples of the types calcium oxalate, uric acid, and xanthine were analyzed for their elemental contents by neutron activation analysis to study both the elemental correlation and influence of element on stone precipitation processes. Elements, such as Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe,H, I, K, Mg, Na, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were determined quantitatively. Calcium oxalate stones contained higher concentration of all the elements analyzed compared to uric acid or xanthine stones. The concentrations of Cl, Fe, K, Na, Sr, and Zn were relatively higher than Au, Co, Cr, and Sb. A positive correlation exists between Ca and Zn, whereas a negative correlation exists between Sr and Ca. Zinc may play an important role in the formation of calcium oxalate stone

  16. Efficacy of silver/hydrophilic poly(p-xylylene) on preventing bacterial growth and biofilm formation in urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Zare, Hamideh; Juhart, Viktorija; Vass, Attila; Franz, Gerhard; Jocham, Dieter

    2017-01-18

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), caused by several strains of bacteria, are a common complication for catheterized patients. This may eventually lead to a blockage of the catheter due to the formation of a crystalline or amorphous biofilm. Inhibiting bacteria should result in a longer application time free of complaints. This issue has been investigated using an innovative type of silver-coated catheter with a semipermeable cap layer to prevent CAUTI. In this work, two different types of silver catheters were investigated, both of which were capped with poly(p-xylylene) (PPX-N) and exhibited different surface properties that completely changed their wetting conduct with water. The contact angle of conventionally deposited PPX-N is approximately 80°. After O 2 plasma treatment, the contact angle drops to approximately 30°. These two systems, Ag/PPX-N and Ag/PPX-N-O 2 , were tested in synthetic urine at a body temperature of 37 °C. First, the optical density and the inhibition zones of both bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cohnii) were examined to confirm the antibacterial effect of these silver-coated catheters. Afterward, the efficacy of silver catheters with different treatments of biofilm formed by E. coli and S. cohnii were tested with crystal violet staining assays. To estimate the life cycles of silver/PPX-catheters, the eluted amount of silver was assessed at several time intervals by anodic stripping voltammetry. The silver catheter with hydrophilic PPX-N coating limited bacterial growth in synthetic urine and prevented biofilm formation. The authors attribute the enhanced bacteriostatic effect to increased silver ion release detected under these conditions. With this extensive preparatory analytic work, the authors studied the ability of the two different cap layers (without silver), PPX-N and oxygen plasma treated PPX-N, to control the growth of a crystalline biofilm by measuring the concentrations of the Ca 2

  17. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  18. Quantificação do stone clinic effect em pacientes com nefrolitíase Quantification of the stone clinic effect in patients with nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    assessed. Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation (SS was calculated by Tiselius index. RESULTS: Eleven (44% patients had hypocitraturia, 9 (36% hypercalciuria and 5 (20% hyperuricosuria. Urinary volume increased (1903±811 vs. 2381±919 ml/day, p<0.05 and SS decreased significantly (1.13±0.8 vs. 0.6±0.2, p<0.01. During follow-up, the number of stones decreased when compared to baseline (S1=2.04±1.51 vs. S2= 0.72±0.23 stones, p<0.001. There was no evidence of new stone formation or growth in 20 of 25 patients (80%. CONCLUSIONS: The ''stone clinic effect'' significantly decreased urinary SS for calcium oxalate and the formation of new kidney stones in 80% of patients during first year of follow-up.

  19. Nephrolithiasis as a common urinary system manifestation of inflammatory bowel diseases; a clinical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji-Arjenaki, Mahboube; Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    The extra-intestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are common and involve other organs or systems for example; urinary system. For this review, we used a variety of sources by searching through Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and directory of open access journals (DOAJ). Urinary complications may occur in up to 22% of patients and nephrolithiasis or renal/kidney stones have been suggested to be a common manifestation of disease in forms of uric acid, calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate. We performed a meta-analysis on five clinical trials and reported that correlation between IBD and formation of stone in renal system is positive and significant (Fix-effect model; CI: 95%, P <0.001, and randomeffect model; CI: 95%, P = 0.03). Based on the reports of the clinical trials, calcium oxalate is more prevalent in Crohn's disease (CD) than in ulcerative colitis (UC).

  20. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  1. The challenge of cystine and struvite stone formers: clinical, metabolic and surgical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaçake, Kleiton G. R.; Marchini, Giovanni S.; Reis, Sabrina; Danilovic, Alexandre; Vicentini, Fábio C.; Torricelli, Fábio C. M.; Srougi, Miguel; Mazzucchi, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the clinical, metabolic, and calculi characteristics of cystine and struvite stone patients after percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Material and Methods: Between January/2006-July/2013, 11 cystine stone patients were treated in our clinic. Of those, 3 were excluded due to incomplete follow-up. Eight cystine stone patients (2 with bilateral disease; 10 renal units-RU) were considered for further analysis. A cohort of 8 struvite stone formers (10RU) was matched having the same age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and Guys stone score. Analyzed parameters comprised demographic data, serum/urinary metabolic evaluation and surgical outcomes. Results: Both groups had 6 female patients. Groups were similar in regards to age, gender, BMI, stone burden, and serum creatinine (p=NS). All patients had PCNL as the first surgical treatment modality. Stone free rate (SFR) after the first PCNL tended to be lower (0%) in the cystine compared to the struvite group (40%)(p=0.08). Final SFR after secondary procedures increased to 70% in cystine and 80% in struvite patients (p=1.0); mean number of procedures to achieve stone free status was higher in the first group (3.57 vs. 2.0;p=0.028). Hypocitraturia was found in all patients, but struvite cases presented with lower mean urinary citrate levels (p=0.016). Other common abnormalities were elevated urinary pH (cystine 75% and struvite 62.5%;p=1.0) and low urinary volume (62.5%,37.5%;p=0.63). Conclusion: Multiple interventions and suboptimal stone free rates are trait of the significant stone burden of struvite and cystine patients. Underlying metabolic abnormalities characterized by increased urinary pH, hypocitraturia and low urinary volume are often encountered in both populations. PMID:27622279

  2. Utility of Flexible Ureterorenoscopy and Laser Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Multiple Intrarenal Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yılmaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of flexible ureterorenoscopy and Holmium laser lithotripsy in treating multiple intrarenal stones. Materials and Methods: We identified 32 consecutive patients with multiple intrarenal stones who underwent flexible ureterorenoscopy and/or laser lithotripsy performed by a single surgeon. Informed consent was obtained from all participants before treatment. Each patient was evaluated in terms of stone location, stone number, stone size, stone burden (cumulative stone length, body mass index, operative time, stone-free rate, and perioperative complications. Results: The median age of the patients was 38 years [interquartile range (IQR, 34.25-52.00]. The patients had a total of 75 intrarenal calculi. The average number of stones per patient was 2.50 (IQR, 2.0-3.0. The median total stone burden per patient was 23.0 mm (IQR, 19.0-28.0 mm. Twenty-one patients (65.5% had stone burdens >20 mm, and 11 (34.5% had burdens ≤20 mm. The overall final stone-free rate was 78.1%. The stone-free rates for patients with stone burdens ≤20 mm and >20 mm were 81.8% (9/11 and 76.2% (16/21, respectively (p=0.544. A perioperative complication (urinary leakage occurred in one patient. Postoperative complications were recorded in four (12.5% patients; a urinary tract infection in one, pain requiring parenteral medication in two, and hematuria in one. Conclusion: Flexible ureterorenoscopy combined with laser lithotripsy may be an effective treatment option for patients with multiple intrarenal stones; we noted only a few minor complications. The success rate was higher in patients with stone burdens ≤20 mm.

  3. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  4. A comparative study of mud-like and coralliform calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Qiao, Tie; Huang, Hai-Yi; Zhong, Hai-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    To gain insight to underlying mechanism of the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) gallbladder stones, we did comparative study of stones with mud appearance and those with coralliform appearance. A total of 93 gallbladder stones with mud appearance and 50 stones with coralliform appearance were analyzed. The appearance, color, texture, and the detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs by microscopic examination were compared between the two groups. Then, the material compositions of stones were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the spectrogram characteristics were compared. Moreover, microstructure characteristics of the two kinds of stones were observed and compared with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mud-like gallbladder stones were mainly earthy yellow or brown with brittle or soft texture, while coralliform stones were mainly black with extremely hard texture, the differences between the two groups was significant (p mud-like gallbladder stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly aragonite; while all of the coralliform stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly calcite (p mud-like CaCO 3 stones was lower than that in coralliform CaCO 3 stones (p Mud-like CaCO 3 stones mainly happened to patients with cystic duct obstruction. Clonorchis sinensis infection was mainly associated with coralliform (calcite) CaCO 3 stones. Cystic duct obstruction was mainly associated with mud-like (aragonite) CaCO 3 stones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bacterial sepsis after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of calyceal diverticular stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Mi; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Jong Wook; Chae, Ji Yun; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Park, Hong Seok; Park, Min Gu; Moon, Du Geon

    2013-02-01

    Most calyceal diverticula are asymptomatic but symptoms occur when there is urinary stasis leading to infection and calculi. Septic shock after ESWL of calyceal stone occurs rarely. A 24-year-old woman had septic shock due to after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of asymptomatic calyceal diverticular stone.

  6. Anatomy of the collecting system of lower pole of the kidney in patients with a single renal stone: a comparative study with individuals with normal kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorrodi, Afshar; Buhluli, Abulfazel; Fathi, Samad

    2010-07-01

    At least 5% of women and 12% of men during their lives will experience renal colic, at least once. Many theories have been suggested for the etiology of renal stones and variations in the anatomy of the collecting system have been suggested to have a role in stone formation. This study was conducted to examine the role of variation of lower pole collecting system in patients with lower pole kidney stone and compared the same in normal persons (kidney donors). Investigation for the anatomy of the lower pole of the kidney (angle between lower infundibulum and pelvis, length and diameter of the infundibulum and number and pattern distribution of calyces) was carried out using intravenous pyelogram (IVP) in 100 cases with urinary stone (study cases) and 400 persons with normal kidneys (control subjects). The study was a retrospective cross-sectional case control study. Results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and independent sample chi square tests. The mean infundibulum-pelvic angle (IPA) in control subjects and in patients was 112.5 +/- 10.7 and 96.6 +/- 28.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between reduced angle and stone formation (P= kidney (IPIL) in controls and study patients was 22.5 +/- 4.1 and 27.5 +/- 7.7, respectively, which was statistically significant (Pkidney (LPCN) in controls and study patients was 2.6 +/- 0.6 and 3 +/- 0.9, respectively, which was statistically significant (P = or anatomy was more common in patients with lower pole kidney stone and should be considered a risk factor for forming lower pole kidney stone.

  7. Production and characterization of composite stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leirose, G.D.; Lameiras, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    Composite stone is a product similar to natural granite or marble, produced with particles of these materials. This material is used like natural stone as lining. The fabrication of artificial stones using residues of banded iron formations is a promising alternative to its actual destination (storage in dam). This research aims the characterization of composite stone to prove the efficacy of this kind of processing. It was used first, natural quartz as a raw material. The patterns of the samples were confirmed by IR spectra and XRD patterns, ensuring the reproducibility of processing applied. Moreover, this material is homogeneous, with low porosity and high flexural strength, confirmed by its structural characterization. Thus, it can be affirmed that the process chosen is suitable, enabling the application of this methodology to the use of waste. (author)

  8. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkofai, M.M.; Hallak, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He ++ beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkofai, M M [Physics Dept., Yarmouk University, Irbid, (Jordan); Hallak, A B [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-10-01

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He{sup ++} beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 years, recurrence staghorn stone in her left kidney was diagnosed and patient underwent another surgery. The patient had several attacks of cystitis during these 7 years. The results of stone and urine cultures revealed staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum. This case report emphasizes a possible association between staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection and recurrence renal staghhorn stone.

  11. Membranous nephropathy (bubbling appearance and spike formation) without immunoglobulin deposition in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoto; Mori, Yuki; Yoshino, Masabumi; Suga, Norihiro; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamada, Harutaka; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Imai, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    A 53-year-old Japanese man with systemic lupus erythematosus developed proteinuria and hematuria after a urinary stone episode. A light microscopic study of a kidney biopsy specimen demonstrated a bubbling appearance and spike formation of the basement membrane. Immunofluorescent studies revealed that there were no significant depositions of immunoglobulins, such as IgG (-), IgA (-), IgM (+/-), kappa light chain (+/-), lambda light chain (+/-), or C3 (-) in the glomerular capillary wall, though C1q was present as one-plus positive staining in mesangial areas. Electron microscopic studies showed that the thickness of the basement membrane varied from thin to thick without electron dense deposits, and that the cellular components of the podocyte were irregularly present in the basement membrane. Urinary protein decreased after the usage of prednisolone and mizoribine; however, proteinuria aggravated after an episode of urinary stone during the same treatment.

  12. [Factors affecting residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with renal calculus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingzhou; Zhang, Haifang; Zhou, Chenlong

    2015-11-24

    To explore the factors affecting the residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with renal calculus. A retrospective analysis was performed for 1 200 patients who were affected by renal calculus and treated with PCNL between Jan 2008 and May 2014 in People's Hospital of Anyang City. Among those patients, 16 were diagnosed as bilateral renal stone and had two successive operations. The size, location and number of stones, previous history of surgery, the degree of hydronephrosis, urinary infection were included in the univariate analysis. Significant factors in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis to determine factors affecting stone residual. A total of 385 cases developed stone residual after surgery. The overall residual rate was 31.7%. In univariate analysis, renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus (P=0.006), stone size larger than 4 cm (P=0.005), stone number more than 4 (P=0.002), the amount of bleeding more than 200 ml (P=0.025), operation time longer than 120 minutes (P=0.028) were associated with an increased rate of stone residual. When subjected to the Cox multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for residual stones were renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus (P=0.049), stone size larger than 4 cm (P=0.038) and stone number more than 4 (P=0.018). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PCNL are the size, location and number of stones. Larger size stone and the presence of renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus are significantly associated with residual stones. Nevertheless, stone number less than 4 indicates an increased stone clearance rate.

  13. The effect of inclined position on stone free rates in patients with lower caliceal stones during SWL session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the outcomes of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL combined with inclined position and SWL alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones. Methods: Seven hundred forty patients who underwent SWL treatment for lower pole renal stones with a total diameter of 2 cm or less were prospectively randomized into two groups. They were comparable in terms of age, sex, and stone diameters. Patients with lower calyceal stones (4-20 mm were randomized to SWL (368 patients or SWL with simultaneous inclination (372 patients with 30o head down Trendelenburg position. Shock wave and session numbers were standardized according to stone size. Additional standardized shock waves were given to patients with stone fragments determined by kidney urinary bladder film and ultrasound at weeks 1, 4, 10. Results: The overall stone free rate (SFR was 73% (268/368 in patients with SWL alone and 81% (300/372 in SWL with inclination at the end of 12th week (p = 0.015. No significant adverse events were noted in both treatment groups. Conclusion: Simultaneous inclination of patients during SWL session increase SFR in lower caliceal stones significantly compared to SWL treatment alone.

  14. Urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder Diverticulum stones: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke Linus I

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary urethral stone although rare, commonly arises from the kidneys, bladder or are seen in patients with urethral stricture. These stones are either found in the posterior or anterior urethra and do result in acute urinary retention. We report urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder diverticulum stones. This to our knowledge is the first report from Nigeria and in English literature. Case presentation A 69 year old, male, Nigerian with clinical and radiological features of acute urinary retention, benign prostate enlargement and bladder diverticulum. He had a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP and was lost to follow up. He re-presented with retained urethral catheter of 4months duration. The catheter was removed but attempt at re-passing the catheter failed and a suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Clinical examination and plain radiograph of the penis confirmed anterior and posterior urethral stones. He had meatotomy and antegrade manual stone extraction with no urethra injury. Conclusions Urethral obstruction can result from inadequate treatment of patient with benign prostate enlargement and bladder diverticulum stones. Surgeons in resource limited environment should be conversant with transurethral resection of the prostate and cystolithotripsy or open prostatectomy and diverticulectomy.

  15. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  16. Urinary catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheter - urine; Foley catheter; Indwelling catheter; Suprapubic catheters ... stones Blood infections ( septicemia ) Blood in the urine (hematuria) Kidney damage (usually only with long-term, indwelling ...

  17. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  18. Everybody Must Get Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Darvill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognised that monument building in the fourth and third millennia cal BC often involved transporting selected blocks of preferred stone many kilometres over difficult terrain. Some structures incorporated blocks from several different sources, brought together as an ensemble in much the same way perhaps that assemblages of flint and stone axes reflect both local and distant sources. This article explores alternative models accounting for the selection of stones, contrasting those that foreground symbolic attachments and imposed meanings with those that focus on the intrinsic qualities of particular types of stone and their source. The assemblage of different stone types that accumulated at Stonehenge, Wiltshire, over a period of more than a thousand years is used as a case study.

  19. A biological stone from a medieval cemetery in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus.

  20. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with nerve signals involved in bladder control, causing urinary incontinence. Risk factors Factors that increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have ...

  1. Urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of bladder control; Uncontrollable urination; Urination - uncontrollable; Incontinence - urinary ... and take out yourself. Bladder nerve stimulation. Urge incontinence and urinary frequency can sometimes be treated by electrical nerve ...

  2. Formation of the pathology of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with asymptomatic infection of the lower urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaptilnyy V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available in this study we carried out screening of pregnant women to detect urinary tract infections. We analysed the period of pregnancy and its termination in the presence of asymptomatic bacteria, made morphological analysis of placenta and fetal membranes. It was found out that when pregnant women have untreated and recurrent bacteriuria, the number of complications during pregnancy and its termination increases, and the state of fetoplacental complex deteriorates. Focal leukocyte horionamnionitis develops, it couples with preterm rupture of membranes, morphological and functional immaturity, vesiculesis and hypotrophy of fetus.

  3. Treatment of pouch stones after augmentation ileocystoplasty in children: is it always bothersome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Tamer E; Elawdy, Mohammed M; AbdelHalim, Ahmed; Orban, Hesham; Nabeeh, Hossam; Dawaba, Mohammed; Hafez, Ashraf T

    2015-01-01

    To report our experience with different approaches for management of pouch stones in children with ileal-based urinary reservoir. Charts of children who underwent ileal-based urinary reservoirs between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who were diagnosed with reservoir calculi were identified; medical records were reviewed for patients' demographics, diversion details, stone criteria, mode of treatment, perioperative complications, and recurrence rate. We identified 26 children with pouch stones after urinary diversion. There were 11 boys (42%) and 15 girls (58%). Mean age was 11 years (range, 4-16 years). Mean time for diagnosis was 42 months (24-120 months). Pouch stones were asymptomatic in 10 patients (38%). Fifteen cases were postbladder augmentation and 11 cases postcontinent cutaneous diversion. The mean stone size was 4 cm (range, 1-10 cm), and mean Hounsfield Unit was 585 (205-1090). Seventeen children (65%) had positive urine culture result, whereas 9 children were sterile. Seven children (27%) required open poucholithotomy, whereas 19 patients (73%) were managed endoscopically. Percutaneous approach was done in 5 children, whereas urethral access was used in 7 children. Mechanical extraction was performed in 12 cases, and stone disintegration was required in 7 cases. Eight children developed stone recurrence. Mean time for recurrence was 11 months (range, 3-19 months). Six children were after endoscopic disintegration, and all required redo endoscopic extraction. Stone analysis was available in 15 patients (struvite stones in 10 cases and calcium phosphate in 5 cases). Pouch stones are established long-term complication of urinary diversion. Open and endoscopic approaches are valid treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical experience for radiolucent stones; A report of 27 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jee; Lee, Gil Ho [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    The cause of radiolucent filling defects in the upper urinary tract are malignant tumor, radiolucent stones, blood clots, air bubbles, congenital deformities of renal parenchyme, and various specific and non-specific infection and their sequence. So the differential diagnosis between malignancy and radiolucent stones is very important, and the exact and fast diagnosis of radiolucent stones is useful in excluding the possibility of malignancy. 27 cases with radiolucent stones were evaluated retrospectively for exact diagnosis and appropriate treatment method. Intravenous urography was done in all cases, and retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and/or ureterorenoscopy were performed for diagnosis, if needed. Size of stones were measured below 10mm by transverse length in 19 cases (70.4%) with a range of 3 to 30mm. The locations of stones were pelvicalyceal system in 8 cases (29.6%) and ureter in 19 cases (70.4%). Among the diagnostic methods, computed tomography was used most frequency. ESWL with retrograde pyelography was most frequent used method of treatment, also simple hydration to small stone was effective. (author).

  5. Clinical experience for radiolucent stones; A report of 27 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jee; Lee, Gil Ho

    1997-01-01

    The cause of radiolucent filling defects in the upper urinary tract are malignant tumor, radiolucent stones, blood clots, air bubbles, congenital deformities of renal parenchyme, and various specific and non-specific infection and their sequence. So the differential diagnosis between malignancy and radiolucent stones is very important, and the exact and fast diagnosis of radiolucent stones is useful in excluding the possibility of malignancy. 27 cases with radiolucent stones were evaluated retrospectively for exact diagnosis and appropriate treatment method. Intravenous urography was done in all cases, and retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and/or ureterorenoscopy were performed for diagnosis, if needed. Size of stones were measured below 10mm by transverse length in 19 cases (70.4%) with a range of 3 to 30mm. The locations of stones were pelvicalyceal system in 8 cases (29.6%) and ureter in 19 cases (70.4%). Among the diagnostic methods, computed tomography was used most frequency. ESWL with retrograde pyelography was most frequent used method of treatment, also simple hydration to small stone was effective. (author)

  6. Thermoluminescence of pyramid stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Eid, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of the present study to investigate some thermoluminescence properties of pyramid stones. Using a few grammes of pyramid stones from Pyramids I and II, the TL glow peaks were observed at 250 and 310 0 C, respectively. The TL glow peaks of samples annealed at 600 0 C, then exposed to 60 Co γ-rays were observed at 120, 190 and 310 0 C, respectively. The accumulated dose of natural samples is estimated to be around 310 Gray (31 krad). By assuming an annual dose is 1 mGy, the estimated age of pyramid stones is 0.31 M year. (author)

  7. Thermoluminescence of pyramid stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, M A; Eid, A M [Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt)

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of the present study to investigate some thermoluminescence properties of pyramid stones. Using a few grammes of pyramid stones from Pyramids I and II, the TL glow peaks were observed at 250 and 310/sup 0/C, respectively. The TL glow peaks of samples annealed at 600/sup 0/C, then exposed to /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays were observed at 120, 190 and 310/sup 0/C, respectively. The accumulated dose of natural samples is estimated to be around 310 Gray (31 krad). By assuming an annual dose is 1 mGy, the estimated age of pyramid stones is 0.31 M year.

  8. In vitro differentiation of renal stone composition using dual-source, dual-energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changsheng; Zhang Longjiang; Xu Feng; Qi Li; Zhao Yan'e; Zheng Ling; Huang Wei; Liu Youhuang; Lu Guangming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of dual-source. dual-energy CT in differentiating uric acid stones from non-uric acid stones with infrared spectroscopy as reference standard. Materials and Methods: Urinary calculus from 308 patients were scanned in first generation dual-source CT with dual-energy mode between July 2011 and June 2012. Renal Stone application was used to analyze their composition. The uric acid stones color were coded red and non-uric acid stones were blue. CT values were measured in 60 selective urinary calculus including 30 uric acid stones and 30 non-uric acid stones. The accuracy of dual energy CT to differentiate uric acid and no-uric acid stones was calculated. Results: Of 308 patients, 60 patients had uric acid stones and 248 non-uric acid stones. No difference was found for uric acid stone at 80 kV and 140 kV (375.8±69.2 HU vs. 374.1±69.4 HU; t=-0.217, P=0.830), while CT values of non-uric acid stones were higher at 80 kV than those at 140 kV (1455.1±312.4 HU vs. 1039.6±194.4 HU; t=-12.16. P<0.001). CT values of non-uric acid stones at 80 kV, 140 kV, and average weighted images (1455.1±312.4 HU, 1 039.6±194.4 HU, and 882.0±176.4 HU, respectively) were higher than those of uric acid stones (375.8±69.2 HU, 374.1±69.4 HU, and 366.3±80.1 HU, respectively; P<0.001). With infrared spectrum findings as reference standard, the accuracy of dual energy CT in differentiating uric acid stones from non-uric acid stones was 100%. Conclusions: Dual-source, dual-energy CT can accurately differentiate uric acid stones from non-uric acid stones, and plays an important role in treatment planning of renal stones. (authors)

  9. Treatment of cystine stones: combined approach using open pyelolithotomy, percutaneous pyelolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and chemolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabech, J; Andersen, J T

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of cystine stones in the urinary tract can be difficult because of a high frequency of recurrence, resistance to Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL), difficulty in localization and access to peripheral stones during Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL), and the insufficient...... effect of oral chemolysis. We present two cases of urinary cystine calculi treated with a combination of pyelolithotomy, PCNL, ESWL and percutaneous irrigation chemolysis, using N-acetylcysteine and Tromethamine-E....

  10. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy vs. percutaneous nephrolithotomy vs. flexible ureterorenoscopy for lower-pole stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Buchholz, Noor; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review previous reports and discuss current trends in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureterorenoscopy (URS). ESWL was recommended as the first-line treatment for small and intermediate-sized stones in the lower pole, while it is the standard treatment for large stones. However, the stone clearance rate after ESWL seems to be lower than that of stones in other locations. This seems to result from a lower rate of fragment passage, due to anatomical factors. Methods Reports on urinary stone disease were reviewed, assessing only publications in peer-reviewed, Medline-listed journals in the English language (publication years 1990–2011). Results Recent experience with flexible URS (fURS) for intrarenal stones showed that excellent stone-free rates can be achieved. With increasing experience and technically improved equipment, fURS has become an alternative to ESWL for small and intermediate-sized renal stones. Furthermore, several authors reported successful retrograde treatment for large renal stones, proposing fURS as an alternative to PCNL. However, the major drawbacks are long operating times and commonly, staged procedures, which is why PCNL remains the method of choice for such stones. Conclusions Considering the currents trends and evidence, the 2012 update of the European Association of Urology Guidelines on Urolithiasis has upgraded the endourological treatment of kidney stones. Individual factors such as body habitus, renal anatomy, costs and patient preference must be considered. PMID:26558046

  11. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  12. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  13. Fire effects on flaked stone, ground stone, and other stone artifacts [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Deal

    2012-01-01

    Lithic artifacts can be divided into two broad classes, flaked stone and ground stone, that overlap depending on the defining criteria. For this discussion, flaked stone is used to describe objects that cut, scrape, pierce, saw, hack, etch, drill, or perforate, and the debris (debitage) created when these items are manufactured. Objects made of flaked stone include...

  14. Evaluating factors that dictate struvite stone composition: A multi-institutional clinical experience from the EDGE Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battison, Andrew; De, Shubha; Humphreys, Mitchell R.; Bader, Markus; Lellig, Ekaterina; Monga, Manoj; Chew, Ben H.; Lange, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Struvite stones account for 15% of urinary calculi and are typically associated with urease-producing urinary tract infections and carry significant morbidity. This study aims to characterize struvite stones based on purity of stone composition, bacterial speciation, risk factors, and clinical features. Methods Retrospective data was collected from patients diagnosed with infection stones between 2008 and 2012. Stone analysis, perioperative urine cultures, bacterial speciation, and clinical data were collected and analyzed. The purity of struvite stones was determined. Statistical comparisons were made among homogeneous and heterogeneous struvite stones. Results From the four participating centres, 121 struvite stones were identified. Only 13.2% (16/121) were homogenous struvite. Other components included calcium phosphate (42.1%), calcium oxalate (33.9%), calcium carbonate (27.3%), and uric acid (5.8%). Partial or full staghorn calculi occurred in 23.7% of cases. Urease-producing bacteria were only present in 30% of cases. Proteus, E. coli, and Enterococcus were the most common bacterial isolates from perioperative urine, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy was the most common modality of treatment. Only 40% of patients had a urinalysis that was nitrite-positive, indicating that urinalysis alone is not reliable for diagnosing infection stones. The study’s limitation is its retrospective nature; as such, the optimal timing of cultures with respect to stone analysis or treatment was not always possible, urine cultures were often not congruent with stone cultures in the same patient, and our findings of E. coli commonly cultured does not suggest causation. Conclusions Struvite stones are most often heterogeneous in composition. Proteus remains a common bacterial isolate; however, E. coli and Enterococcus were also frequently identified. This new data provides evidence that patients with struvite stones can have urinary tract pathogens other than urease

  15. Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openov, L. A.; Podlivaev, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene, which is a graphene allotrope, predicted recently are studied in terms of the nonorthogonal tight-binding model. The energies of the defect formation and the heights of energy barriers preventing the formation and annealing of the defects are found. Corresponding frequency factors in the Arrhenius formula are calculated. The evolution of the defect structure is studied in the real-time mode using the molecular dynamics method.

  16. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Hung Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD were analyzed. In all, 197 (60% were classified as stone-free and 132 (40% as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA, abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals: 9.49 (3.72–24.20, 2.25 (1.22–4.14, 2.20 (1.10–4.40, and 2.89 (1.35–6.21 respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these

  17. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jiun-Hung; Tu, Hung-Pin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jen; Li, Ching-Chia; Chou, Yii-Her; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed. In all, 197 (60%) were classified as stone-free and 132 (40%) as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA), abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals): 9.49 (3.72-24.20), 2.25 (1.22-4.14), 2.20 (1.10-4.40), and 2.89 (1.35-6.21) respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these predictors for selecting

  18. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Akira; Ito, Katsuhide; Ito, Shouko

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was employed in an effort to analyze the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Twenty-three surgically removed calculi were scanned in a water bath (in vitro study). Forteen of them in the body were scanned (in vivo study). The calculi consisted of four types: mixed calcium oxalate and phosphate, mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid. The in vitro study showed that the mean and maximum CT values of uric acid stones were significantly lower than those of the other three types of stones. This indicated that stones with less than 450 HU are composed of uric acid. In an in vivo study, CT did not help to differentiate the three types of urinary calculi, except for uric acid stones. Regarding the mean CT values, there was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies. An experiment with commercially available drugs showed that CT values of urinary calculi were not dependent upon the composition, but dependent upon the density of the calculi. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  20. Correlation between the development of calcium oxalate stones and polymorphisms in the fibronectin gene in the Uighur population of the Xinjiang region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, M; Aekeper, A; Yuan, L Y; Alim, T; Du, G J; Abdusamat, A; Wu, G W; Aniwer, Y

    2015-10-29

    Here, we have investigated the correlation between calcium oxalate stone formation and Fn gene polymorphisms in urinary calculi patients among the Uighur population (Xinjiang region). In this case control study, genomic DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of 129 patients with calcium oxalate stones (patient group) and 94 normal people (control group) was used to genotype polymorphisms in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, the association between different genotypes and susceptibility to calcium oxalate stone formation was compared among the patient and control groups. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene among the patient and control groups. The genotype distributions of the three loci complied with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results of allele frequencies of the patient/control group for polymorphisms in the rs6725958 site of the Fn gene were C = 179 (69.92%)/119 (63.30%) and A = 77 (30.08%)/69 (36.70%), in the rs10202709 site were C = 245 (95.70%)/176 (93.63%) and T = 11 (4.30%)/12 (6.38%), and in the rs35343655 site of the Fn gene were A = 139 (54.30%)/87 (46.28%) and G = 117 (45.70%)/101 (53.72%). We observed no significant differences between the three SNPs and development of calcium oxalate stones. Polymorphisms in rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 of the Fn gene had no obvious effect on the susceptibility to the development of calcium oxalate stones in the Uighur population, residing in the Xinjiang region of China.

  1. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual...... and physical techniques, where each step and mechanic imparts and inscribes knowledge beyond the 1:1. These constructs are visual keys, used to inspire and influence all decision-making processes in a design project. These architectural Rosetta Stones document and amplify quantitative information about a site...

  2. Acoustic sensing of renal stone fragmentation in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, Fiammetta

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the research carried out by the author on the exploitation of acoustic emissions detected during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (a non-invasive procedure for the treatment of urinary stones) to develop a new diagnostic system. The work formed part of a research project on lithotripsy undertaken by the University of Southampton in collaboration with Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (London) and a UK based company, Precision Acoustics Ltd (Dorche...

  3. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  4. Healing stone ... by infection

    OpenAIRE

    Micallef, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Roderick Micallef has a long family history within the construction industry. He coupled this passion with a fascination with science when reading for an undergraduate degree in Biology and Chemistry (University of Malta). http://www.um.edu.mt/think/healing-stone-by-infection/

  5. Modeling Stone Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge

    2017-07-11

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns.

  6. Childhood bladder stones-an endemic disease of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder calculi are one of the commonest health problems in young children especially in rural and underprivileged areas. Methods: All children of bladder stones operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi from July 2009 to June 2012 were included in this cross-sectional study. Data was collected regarding age, sex, address (rural or urban), body weight, duration of breast feeding, weaning, detailed dietary history regarding milk type, volume, amount of water intake, recurrent diarrhoea, urinary tract infection (UTI), family history, and socioeconomic history. Urine analysis, complete blood count (CBC), renal function, ultra sound abdomen, X-ray kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB) was done in all patients. All patients had cystolithotomy and were followed up till complete recovery. Results: A total of 113 children (97 males and 16 females) operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi Tharparker were included in study. All patients belonged to local desert areas of Tharparker. Age ranged from 18 months to 14 year (mean age 8.6 year). Most frequent symptom was difficulty in micturition in 76 (67.25%) patients, urinary retention in 18 (15.9%) and stone with pyuria and fever in 12 (10.6%) patients. Recurrent episodes of diarrhoea (more than 3 episodes per year) in 73(65%) patients, recurrent UTI in 51 (45.6%), family history of stone disease in 6 (5%) and associated rectal prolapse in 3(2.6%) patients. On x-ray KUB 111 (98%) patients had single stone in bladder, 2 (2%) had multiple stones and an associated renal and ureteric stone in 5 (4.5%). Mild anaemia (Hb 7-10 gm%) was seen in 35 (39.55%) patients, moderate anaemia (Hb 5-7 gm %) was seen in 21(24%) and severe anaemia (Hb less than 5 gm%) was seen in 14 (16%) patients. All patients had open cystolithotomy for removal of stones under general anaesthesia. Conclusion: Bladder stones are public health problem. Majority of affected patients were less than 5 years old. Low protein diet, dehydration, use of goat milk

  7. Flexible ureteroscopy versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy as primary treatment for renal stones 2 cm or greater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akar EC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erin Akar, Bodo E KnudsenDepartment of Urology, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: The purpose of this review, based on the current evidence in the literature, is whether ureteroscopy (URS is a comparable primary treatment option to the current gold standard of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL for the treatment of large kidney stones 2 cm or greater. The lack of prospective randomized trials directly comparing URS and PCNL makes comparison challenging. The numerous studies are not standardized in terms of their definition of stone-free or how stone size is reported. In order to standardize comparison of results, we used a stone-free definition of <4 mm after one procedure per imaging of the author’s choice, since how each patient was imaged postoperatively was not reported. The results from the literature show that moderately large stones from 2 to 3 cm treated ureteroscopically have similar outcomes to PCNL. Stone-free rates with URS decrease when stone size is above 3 cm. Our interpretation of the literature suggests that a current limitation of URS is that multiple procedures for URS would be required to achieve comparable stone-free rates to PCNL, particularly for stones greater than 4 cm.Keywords: ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, lithotripsy, urinary calculi

  8. Relationship Between Ureteral Jet Flow, Visual Analogue Scale, and Ureteral Stone Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongun, Sakir; Teken, Abdurrazak; Yılmaz, Orkun; Süleyman, Sakir

    2017-06-01

    To contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of ureteral stones by investigating the relationship between the ureteral jet flow measurements of patients with ureteral stones and the size of the stones and the patients' pain scores. The sample consisted of patients who presented acute renal colic between December 2014 and 2015 and from a noncontrast computed tomography were found to have a urinary stone. The ureteral jet flow velocities were determined using Doppler ultrasonography. The patients were all assessed in terms of stone size, localization and area, anteroposterior pelvis (AP) diameter, and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. A total of 102 patients were included in the study. As the VAS score decreased, the peak jet flow velocity on the stone side increased, whereas the flow velocity on the other side, AP diameter, and stone area were reduced (P flow velocity was reduced and the AP diameter increased significantly (P flow was not observed in 17 patients on the stone side. A statistically significant difference was found between these patients and the remaining patients in terms of all parameters (P flow velocity of ureteral jet is low and with a severe level of pain or the peak flow velocity of ureteral jet cannot be measured, there is a low possibility of spontaneous passage and a high possibility of a large stone, and therefore the treatment should be started immediately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experience of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for kidney and upper ureteric stones by electromagnetic lithotripter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazir, B.G.; Haq, M.I.H.; Faheem-ul-Haq; Nawaz, A.; Nawaz, A.; Ikramullah; Jamil, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is a non-invasive treatment of urinary stones which breaks them, by using externally applied, focused, high intensity acoustic pulse, into smaller pieces so that they can pass easily through ureter. Shock wave generation, focusing, coupling and stone localisation by fluoroscope or ultrasound are the basic components of ESWL. ESWL has some complications and is contraindicated in certain situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ESWL in kidney and upper ureteric stones by Electromagnetic Lithotriptor. Methods: All adult patients with renal and upper ureteric stones having a diameter of up to 1 Cm were included in the study. Basic evaluation such as history, examination, ultrasound and excretory urography were performed. Electromagnetic lithotripsy was done and data were collected on a printed proforma from January 1, 2008 to March 30, 2009 in Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar. Results: Out of a total of 625 patients 463 were male and 162 were female; 67.36% of patients were having renal stones, 23.84% upper ureteric and 8.8% both renal and ureteric stones. Complications noted were renal colic in 9.76%, haematuria in 3.2%, stein strasse in 2.72%, and fever in 1.12% of patients. The stone free rate was 89% and 7% of patients were having stone fragments <4 mm. ESWL failed in 4% of patients. Conclusion: ESWL is a safe and effective way of treating kidney and upper ureteric stones. (author)

  10. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Souka, S.; Sanad, W.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  11. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C. Jr.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny

  12. Computer aided detection of ureteral stones in thin slice computed tomography volumes using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längkvist, Martin; Jendeberg, Johan; Thunberg, Per; Loutfi, Amy; Lidén, Mats

    2018-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the method of choice for diagnosing ureteral stones - kidney stones that obstruct the ureter. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for identifying a ureteral stone in thin slice CT volumes. The challenge in CAD for urinary stones lies in the similarity in shape and intensity of stones with non-stone structures and how to efficiently deal with large high-resolution CT volumes. We address these challenges by using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that works directly on the high resolution CT volumes. The method is evaluated on a large data base of 465 clinically acquired high-resolution CT volumes of the urinary tract with labeling of ureteral stones performed by a radiologist. The best model using 2.5D input data and anatomical information achieved a sensitivity of 100% and an average of 2.68 false-positives per patient on a test set of 88 scans. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why does urinary incontinence affect more women than men? Women have unique health events, such as pregnancy, ... urge incontinence, urine leakage usually happens after a strong, sudden urge to urinate and before you can ...

  14. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  15. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  16. Stone heterogeneity index as the standard deviation of Hounsfield units: A novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy outcomes in ureter calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Jae Heon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Do Jung, Hae; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Cho, Kang Su

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether stone heterogeneity index (SHI), which a proxy of such variations, was defined as the standard deviation of a Hounsfield unit (HU) on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), can be a novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) outcomes in patients with ureteral stones. Medical records were obtained from the consecutive database of 1,519 patients who underwent the first session of SWL for urinary stones between 2005 and 2013. Ultimately, 604 patients with radiopaque ureteral stones were eligible for this study. Stone related variables including stone size, mean stone density (MSD), skin-to-stone distance, and SHI were obtained on NCCT. Patients were classified into the low and high SHI groups using mean SHI and compared. One-session success rate in the high SHI group was better than in the low SHI group (74.3% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smaller stone size (OR 0.889, 95% CI: 0.841-0.937, P < 0.001), lower MSD (OR 0.995, 95% CI: 0.994-0.996, P < 0.001), and higher SHI (OR 1.011, 95% CI: 1.008-1.014, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of one-session success. The radiologic heterogeneity of urinary stones or SHI was an independent predictor for SWL success in patients with ureteral calculi and a useful clinical parameter for stone fragility.

  17. The effectiveness of ESWL in the management of lower pole kidney stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Süelözgen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The developments in the endourological treatments of urinary system stone diseases led to the discussions about the first choice treatment methods. We have evaluated the results of extracorporeal shock wave treatments being applied in our clinics for the lower pole stones which has the most of the those discussions. Methods: The records of 271 stone patients who were applied ESWL according to CT results between January 2013 and July 2013 to our clinics were examined. In the controls after the procedure, who could not be evaluated with the non-contrast computerized tomography (CT and ESWL treatment not completed, were excluded from the study. 52 patients with lower pole stone in total were divided into two according to the success of the ESWL treatment. ESWL success or unsuccessful groups, the size of the stone, density of the stone and the distance between the stone and skin was recorded by examining the abdominal non-contrast computed tomography (CT of the patient. Results: Of all, 28 of the patients in the study (54% were male and 24 of them (46% were female. The average age was 46±12.3 (21-73 years. Among the 52 patients included in the study after ESWL treatment, the stones of the 24 patients (46.2% were successfully treated. ESWL treatment was unsuccessful in total 28 patients (53.8%. The average size of the stone was 9.8 mm (6-17 mm, the distance between the stone and the skin was 93 mm in average (50-140. The stone density was measured as 845 HU (353-1600. Conclusion: The ESWL treatment is still a noninvasive and successful method for the lower pole kidney stones. While the ESWL success is being determined, the imaging method chosen is important, the use of abdominal CT provides accurate evaluation. The higher success rates of minimal invasive surgery methods is promising and might change the treatment methods in the future.

  18. Effect of Stone Size and Composition on Ultrasonic Propulsion Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Karmon M; Brand, Timothy C; Bailey, Michael R; Cunitz, Bryan W; Harper, Jonathan D; Sorensen, Mathew D; Dunmire, Barbrina

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate in more detail the effectiveness of a new designed more efficient ultrasonic propulsion for large stones and specific stone compositions in a tissue phantom model. In the first clinical trial of noninvasive ultrasonic propulsion, urinary stones of unknown compositions and sizes up to 10 mm were successfully repositioned. The study included 8- to 12-mm stones of 4 different primary compositions (calcium oxalate monohydrate, ammonium acid urate, calcium phosphate, and struvite) and a renal calyx phantom consisting of a 12 mm × 30 mm well in a 10-cm block of tissue-mimicking material. Primary outcome was the number of times a stone was expelled over 10 attempts, with ultrasonic propulsion burst duration varying from 0.5 seconds to 5 seconds. Overall success rate at expelling stones was 95%. All calcium oxalate monohydrate and ammonium acid urate stones were expelled 100% of the time. The largest stone (12 mm) became lodged within the 12-mm phantom calyx 25% of the time regardless of the burst duration. With the 0.5-second burst, there was insufficient energy to expel the heaviest stone (0.88 g), but there was sufficient energy at the longer burst durations. With a single burst, ultrasonic propulsion successfully moved most stones at least 3 cm and, regardless of size or composition, expelled them from the calyx. Ultrasonic propulsion is limited to the stones smaller than the calyceal space, and for each burst duration, related to maximum stone mass. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Proanthocyanidins-Will they effectively restrain conspicuous bacterial strains devolving on urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Venkataseshan; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2018-05-18

    Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies. It predominantly contains proanthocyanidins that belong to the class of polyphenols with repeating catechin and epicatechin monomeric units. Numerous studies have correlated proanthocyanidin consumption and prevention of bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Quorum sensing (QS) is the prime mechanism that drives bacteria to coordinate biofilm development and virulence expression. Reports have shown that proanthocyanidins are effective in disrupting cell-cell communication by quenching signal molecules. Overall, this review assesses the merits of proanthocyanidins and its effective oppression on adherence, motility, QS, and biofilm formation of major UTI strains such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis by comparing and evaluating results from many significant findings. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility

  1. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  2. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  3. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual and ...... on Anholt Island through qualitative means. They are tools for uncovering realities previously unseen or unimagined through the manipulation of data via personal experience....

  4. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Daw Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  5. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Daw Tsai; Chun-Chen Lin; Stephan S. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  6. Impact of dual energy characterization of urinary calculus on management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, David; Xia, Ryan; Ridley, William; Chan, Lewis; Ridley, Lloyd

    2016-10-01

    Dual energy CT (DECT) is a recent technique that is increasingly being used to differentiate between calcium and uric acid urinary tract calculi. The aim of this study is to determine if urinary calculi composition analysis determined by DECT scanning results in a change of patient management. All patients presenting with symptoms of renal colic, who had not previously undergone DECT scanning underwent DECT KUB. DECT data of all patients between September 2013 and July 2015 were reviewed. Urinary calculi composition based on dual energy characterization was cross-matched with patient management and outcome. A total of 585 DECT KUB were performed. 393/585 (67%) DECT scans revealed urinary tract calculi. After excluding those with isolated bladder or small asymptomatic renal stones, 303 patients were found to have symptomatic stone(s) as an explanation for their presentation. Of these 303 patients, there were 273 (90.1%) calcium calculi, 19 (6.3%) uric acid calculi and 11 (3.4%) mixed calculi. Of those with uric acid calculi, 15 were commenced on dissolution therapy. Twelve of those commenced on dissolution therapy had a successful outcome, avoiding need for surgical intervention (lithotripsy or stone retrieval). Three patients failed dissolution therapy and required operative intervention for definitive management of the stone. Predicting urinary tract calculi composition by DECT plays an important role in identifying patients who may be managed with dissolution therapy. Identification of uric acid stone composition altered management in 15 of 303 (5.0%) patients, and was successful in 12, thereby avoiding surgery and its attendant risks. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  7. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 ± 15.6 years and 51 ± 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%, uric acid in 12 patients (26.6% and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%. In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021 and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006. E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be

  8. Comparison of potential dietary and urinary risk factors for ammonium urate nephrolithiasis in two bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Bert, Carolina R; Smith, Cynthia R; Poindexter, John; Ardente, Amanda; Meegan, Jenny; Wells, Randall S; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Jensen, Eric D; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2018-04-04

    Dietary and urinary risk factors have been implicated in conditions favoring ammonium urate nephrolithiasis in managed dolphins compared to free-ranging dolphins. In this study, urine samples were collected from 16 dolphins (8 cases, 8 controls) from the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP) for the purposes of assessing changes in urinary biomarkers after a large meal. Urinary biomarkers and nephrolithiasis presence were assessed opportunistically in 15 long-term resident free-ranging dolphins living in Sarasota Bay, Florida (SB). Additionally, the total purine contents of fish commonly consumed by each dolphin population were measured to evaluate potential dietary risk factors. Populations were compared for total dietary purine composition, recently fed status, nephrolithiasis presence, and differences in urinary biochemical, acid-base, and physicochemical parameters via Wilcoxon rank sum analysis and least square means. Managed dolphins had higher urinary pH and ammonium (NH4+) in both pre- and postprandial conditions and higher urinary uric acid and saturation indices of NH4U in the postprandial condition compared to free-ranging dolphins (p dolphins (7 mmol/Mcal ME) than in the free-ranging dolphin diet (4 mmol/Mcal ME). Free-ranging dolphins did not show evidence of nephrolithiasis. Observed differences in urinary biomarkers and dietary purine content in these two dolphin populations suggest a pathophysiologic basis for the role of fish types on risk of NH4U stone formation. Future research should investigate fish type and feeding frequency, inhibitors and promoters, and alkalinizing therapy for reducing NH4U nephrolithiasis in dolphins.

  9. Cystourethrographic findings of the lower urinary tract injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, H. S.; Bae, W. K.; Cho, O. K.

    1981-01-01

    During the period of 4 years from July, 1976 to June 1980 the radiological and clinical evaluation had been made on 102 patients suffered from lower urinary tract injuries which were confirmed by the radiological examination and operation. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the total 102 patients (87 males and 15 females) was broad from 4 to 72 years. And most of the patient were in the age group of 20 to 49 years. 2. The most common cause of injury was traffic accident (67.6%), next blunt trauma, saddle injury, fall down respectively. 3. 46 patients of bladder injury were as follows: intraperitoneal rupture in 17, extraperitoneal rupture in 12, and contusion in 14. 4. 74 patients of urethral injury were as follows: membranous portion in 37, bulbous portion in 31, prostatic portion in 3, and penile portion in 2. Most of the cases showed extravasation of contrast media. 12 cases showed extravasation with venous intravasation. 5. Contusion or extraperitoneal rupture of the bladder, membranous urethral injury, and concommitent bladder and urethral ruptures were frequently associated with pelvic bone fracture. Intraperitoneal ruptures of the bladder and solitary ruptures of the bulbous urethra were infrequently associated with pelvic bone fracture. 6. Late sequelae of the lower urinary tract injury were stricture, fistula and stone formation

  10. Urinary Tract Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related to the urinary tract health of women: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Urinary Incontinence (UI). For information on a range of urinary tract health issues for women, men, and children, visit the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information ...

  11. Study of renal stones complications in 200 patients in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Noshad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary stones are the third most common disease of the urinary. Renal stones may lead to some preventable complications. This study was designed to investigation and prediction of these complications. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 patients with kidney stones were enrolled. Kidney stone was confirmed and proven in all patients referred to Sina and Shaikh Al-Rais clinics. Their demographic characteristics like gender, age, stone number, stone type, renal failure and bio-chemistry data were evaluated. Results: Of 200 patients, 130 cases (65.0% were male and 70 cases (35.0% were female. The mean age of patients was 41.30 ± 16.06 years. Type of stone was (when evaluation was possible was mixed (11.5%. However, the type of stone was not analyzed in 112 cases (56.0%. Among complications, recurrent infection was seen (16.0%, and staghorn stones were seen in 2.5% of patients. Dialysis was positive in 3 patients (1.5%. History of surgery was positive in 3 patients (1.5%. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL history was positive in 8%. In evaluated patients, the mean level of calcium was 8.83 ± 0.27, phosphorus was 4.60 ± 0.33, parathyroid hormone (PTH was 35.20 ± 14.22, uric acid was 4.98 ± 1.57, creatinine was 1.38 ± 1.02 and blood urea nitrogen level was 16.69 ± 11.54 mg/dl. Staghorn stones are significantly associated with progression to renal failure and subsequent complications such as hemodialysis (P = 0.001, surgery (P = 0.001. Recurrent infection was more frequent in calcium-containing stones (P = 0.001 and ESWL undergoing patients (P = 0.030. Stone numbers were more than 3 in hemodialyzed (HD patients (P = 0.001. Uric acid stones were more seen in HD patients (P = 0.170. Conclusion: According to results hemodialysis and recurrent infections are seen in patients with renal stones, and they may be detected in earlier with close periodic follow-up.

  12. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  13. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Christopher; Gupta, Nikhil; Leavitt, David; Hoenig, David; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, ...

  14. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Gupta, Nikhil; Leavitt, David; Hoenig, David; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  15. Coronal reconstruction of unenhanced abdominal CT for correct ureteral stone size classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovitz, Nadav; Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith [Hadassah Mount Scopus - Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Jerusalem (Israel); Katz, Ran [Hadassah Mount Scopus - Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Urology, Jerusalem (Israel); Salama, Shaden [Hadassah Mount Scopus - Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2010-05-15

    To determine whether size measurement of a urinary calculus in coronal reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) differs from stone size measured in the axial plane, and whether the difference alters clinical decision making. We retrospectively reviewed unenhanced CT examinations of 150 patients admitted to the emergency room (ER) with acute renal colic. Maximal ureteral calculus size was measured on axial slices and coronal reconstructions. Clinical significance was defined as an upgrading or downgrading of stone size according to accepted thresholds of treatment: {<=}5 mm, 6-9 mm and {>=}10 mm. There were 151 stones in 150 patients (male:female 115:34, mean age 41 years). Transverse stone diameters ranged from 1 to 11 mm (mean 4 mm). On coronal images, 56 (37%) stones were upgraded in severity; 46 (30%) from below 5 mm to 6 mm or more, and ten (7%) from 6-9 mm to 10 mm or more. Transverse measurement on the axial slices enabled correct categorization of 95 stones (63%). Transverse calculus measurement on axial slices often underestimates stone size and provides incorrect clinical classification of the true maximal stone diameter. Coronal reconstruction provides additional information in patients with renal colic that may alter treatment strategy. (orig.)

  16. Coronal reconstruction of unenhanced abdominal CT for correct ureteral stone size classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovitz, Nadav; Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith; Katz, Ran; Salama, Shaden

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether size measurement of a urinary calculus in coronal reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) differs from stone size measured in the axial plane, and whether the difference alters clinical decision making. We retrospectively reviewed unenhanced CT examinations of 150 patients admitted to the emergency room (ER) with acute renal colic. Maximal ureteral calculus size was measured on axial slices and coronal reconstructions. Clinical significance was defined as an upgrading or downgrading of stone size according to accepted thresholds of treatment: ≤5 mm, 6-9 mm and ≥10 mm. There were 151 stones in 150 patients (male:female 115:34, mean age 41 years). Transverse stone diameters ranged from 1 to 11 mm (mean 4 mm). On coronal images, 56 (37%) stones were upgraded in severity; 46 (30%) from below 5 mm to 6 mm or more, and ten (7%) from 6-9 mm to 10 mm or more. Transverse measurement on the axial slices enabled correct categorization of 95 stones (63%). Transverse calculus measurement on axial slices often underestimates stone size and provides incorrect clinical classification of the true maximal stone diameter. Coronal reconstruction provides additional information in patients with renal colic that may alter treatment strategy. (orig.)

  17. Application of spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of kidney stones: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K. M., Muhammed; Chawla, Arun; Bankapur, Aseefhali; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Santhosh, C.

    2016-03-01

    Identification and characterization of kidney stone remains one of the important analytical tasks in the medical field. Kidney stone is a common health complication throughout the world, which may cause severe pain, obstruction and infection of urinary tract, and can lead to complete renal damage. It commonly occurs in both sexes regardless of age. Kidney stones have different composition, although each stones have a major single characteristic component. A complete understanding of a sample properties and their function can only be feasible by utilizing elemental and molecular information simultaneously. Two laser based analytical techniques; Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study different types of kidney stones from different patients. LIBS and Raman spectroscopy are highly complementary spectroscopic techniques, which provide elemental and molecular information of a sample. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm laser having energy 17mJ per pulse at 10 Hz repetition rate was used for getting LIBS spectra. Raman measurements were carried out using a home assembled micro-Raman spectrometer. Using the recorded Raman spectra of kidney stones, we were able to differentiate different kinds of kidney stones. LIBS spectra of the same stones are showing the evidence of C, Ca, H, and O and also suggest the presence of certain pigments.

  18. The economics of stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canvasser, Noah E; Alken, Peter; Lipkin, Michael; Nakada, Stephen Y; Sodha, Hiren S; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Lotan, Yair

    2017-09-01

    The rising prevalence of kidney stone disease is associated with significant costs to healthcare systems worldwide. This is in part due to direct procedural and medical management costs, as well as indirect costs to health systems, patients, and families. A number of manuscripts evaulating the economics of stone disease have been published since the 2008s International Consultation on Stone Disease. These highlight costs associated with stone disease, including acute management, surgical management, and medical management. This work hopes to highlight optimization in care by reducing inefficient treatments and maximizing cost-efficient preventative strategies.

  19. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip C; Bailey, Michael R; Harper, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the ureteropelvic junction with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing ureteropelvic junction stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic.

  20. Effects of microgravity on renal stone risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y. C.; Cintron, N. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Physiologic changes induced during human exposure to the microgravity environment of space may contribute to an increased potential for renal stone formation. Renal stone risk factors obtained 10 days before flight and immediately after return to earth indicated that calcium oxalate and uric acid stone-forming potential was increased after space flights of 4-10 days. These data describe the need for examining renal stone risk during in-flight phases of space missions. Because of limited availability of space and refrigerated storage on spacecraft, effective methods must be developed for collecting urine samples in-flight and for preserving (or storing) them at temperatures and under conditions commensurate with mission constraints.

  1. Dissolution of infection-induced struvite bladder stones by using a noncalculolytic diet and antibiotic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract An 8-year-old, female spayed miniature schnauzer was presented for pollakiuria and gross hematuria. Infection-induced struvite urolithiasis with concurrent bacterial urinary tract infection was diagnosed. The treatment is described, followed by a brief discussion of struvite stones and their medical management. PMID:15532883

  2. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011. [4] Mevcha A, Drake MJ. Etiology and management of urinary retention in women. Indian Journal of Urology. 2010;26(2):230–235. August ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  3. A study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jeon Ki; Lee, Han Yeang [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and guide frames. Contaminations on the building stone surface of Sejong culture center can be found around floor stones, stair stones, parterre stones, pillar stones and other outdoor stone panels. The parterre stones are contaminated by white tarnishes and rust flows are occurred on the surface of pillar stones and outdoor stone panels around entrance. Black tarnishes are cumulated on the pillar stones and other outdoor decorated stone panels and change the original granite color. Causes of building stone contaminations from Sejong culture center are wet method to attach stone panels, rust from steel compounds structures and air pollutants. Cement and mortar used from wet method react with sulfur dioxides in polluted air and from fine calcite crystals (white tarnish). Rusts from steel compounds structures such as rainwater culvert and steel guide frames can move to the stone surface by rain and leave rust flows on it. Pollutants (tar compounds, carbons, dusts, etc.) in air are cumulated with humidity on the stone surface and change color from white granite color to dusty dark color. Historical stone sculptures such as man and animal shaped stone crafts, tombstones, square stone tables in front of a tomb and guide and circumference stones around tomb in Royal Tombs (Donggu rung, Yung rung, Seoou rung and Hunin rung) distributed in Kyunggi province are contaminated by various moss and air pollutants and its original colors are deeply changed. (author). 21 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs.

  4. Use of the Escape nitinol stone retrieval basket facilitates fragmentation and extraction of ureteral and renal calculi: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Stuart S; Pierre, Sean A; Brison, Daniel I; Preminger, Glenn M; Munver, Ravi

    2008-06-01

    Advances in ureteroscope and stone basket design have catapulted ureteroscopy to the forefront of surgical stone management; however, persistent problems such as stone migration continue to challenge urologists. The Escape nitinol stone retrieval basket (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) is a stone basket designed to capture calculi and facilitate simultaneous laser lithotripsy in situ. We report our initial experience with the Escape basket for the management of urinary calculi and compare the use of this device with other methods of optimizing ureteroscopic stone management. A prospective evaluation of 23 patients undergoing ureteroscopic holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lithotripsy of urinary calculi was performed at two institutions by two surgeons (R.M. and G.M.P). The Escape basket was used to prevent retrograde ureteral stone migration or to facilitate fragmentation and extraction of large renal calculi. Patient demographics and perioperative parameters were assessed. Twenty-three patients (16 men, 7 women), with a mean age of 55.5 years (range 33-74 yrs) were treated for renal (n = 9) or ureteral (n = 14) calculi. The mean stone diameter was 1.4 cm (range 0.4-2.5 cm), mean fragmentation time was 44.1 minutes (range 10-75 min), and mean energy used was 3.1 kJ (range 0.4-10.6 kJ). No complications were encountered. Eighty-seven percent (20/23) of patients were rendered completely stone free after ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy using the Escape basket. Of the three patients with residual calculi, one patient with a 2.5-cm renal calculus had residual fragments larger than 3 mm, and two patients with large renal calculi had residual fragments smaller than 3 mm. The Escape basket appears to be safe and effective in preventing stone migration and facilitating ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy and stone extraction.

  5. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  6. Recumbent Stone Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  7. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  8. Preferential localization of 3H-pentosanpolysulphate to the urinary tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, B.; Tengblad, A.; Dencker, L.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous glycosaminoglycans probably have a protective effect in the urinary tract, e.g. against stone formation. The synthetic sulphated polysaccharide pentosanpolysulphate (PPS) has been suggested to exert a similar protective effect e.g. by inhibition of crystallization and bacterial anti-adhesion. We have studied the distribution in rats of tritium-labelled PPS. Chromatography showed this material to contain two distinct peaks with approximate molecular weight around 2.700 (60-70%) and 1.000 (30-40%) daltons. PPS was administered orally and intravenously (5 mg/kg b.wt) to Sprague-Dawley rats, which were killed 1 and 4 hours later, respectively, and subjected to whole-body autoradiography. Autoradiograms of sections from intravenously injected rats showed an extensive distribution of radioactivity in the whole animal, with a notable labelling of connective tissues, while bone and cartilage had low activity. There was upper intestine activity, suggesting some hepatic excretion. The most conspicuous finding, however, was the high concentration in urine and a preferential localization of activity corresponding to the lining of the urinary tract (pelvis, ureter, and bladder). The distribution was similar, but the activity lower after oral administration. After vigorous rinsing, with saline, the radioactivity was still retained in the bladder wall. High amount of radioactivity could be rinsed off by 0.5 M saline. Chromatography of the rinsing solution showed presence of both fractions of PPS previously found in the injection solution. No other peak of activity was found. Since PPS of molecular weight 2.700 and 1.000 is preferentially located to the surface epithelium of the urinary tract in rats, the effects of PPS in urinary tract diseases could depend on surface coating of the epithelium and/or urinary concentrations of PPS. (EG)

  9. Endoscopic Stone Measurement During Ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Wesley W; Lim, Sunghwan; Stoianovici, Dan; Matlaga, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    Currently, stone size cannot be accurately measured while performing flexible ureteroscopy (URS). We developed novel software for ureteroscopic, stone size measurement, and then evaluated its performance. A novel application capable of measuring stone fragment size, based on the known distance of the basket tip in the ureteroscope's visual field, was designed and calibrated in a laboratory setting. Complete URS procedures were recorded and 30 stone fragments were extracted and measured using digital calipers. The novel software program was applied to the recorded URS footage to obtain ureteroscope-derived stone size measurements. These ureteroscope-derived measurements were then compared with the actual-measured fragment size. The median longitudinal and transversal errors were 0.14 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.18) and 0.09 mm (95% CI 0.02, 0.15), respectively. The overall software accuracy and precision were 0.17 and 0.15 mm, respectively. The longitudinal and transversal measurements obtained by the software and digital calipers were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.93). Neither stone size nor stone type was correlated with error measurements. This novel method and software reliably measured stone fragment size during URS. The software ultimately has the potential to make URS safer and more efficient.

  10. Grasping the Formless in Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    and the repertoire of used forms. The chapter demonstrates that neither anthropomorphic perceptions nor the agency of the stone material alone make up the ritual aesthetics in which the stones are involved. Rather, applying concepts from landscape phenomenology and cognitive theories including the role of material...

  11. Impact of Case Volume on Outcomes of Ureteroscopy for Ureteral Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandasami, Sangam V; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; El-Nahas, Ahmed R

    2014-01-01

    of case volume on the outcomes of URS for ureteral stones. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The URS Global Study collected prospective data on consecutive patients with urinary stones treated with URS at 114 centres worldwide for 1 yr. Centres were identified as low or high volume based on the median...... overall annual case volume. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Pre- and intraoperative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes in patients at low- and high-volume centres were compared. The relationships between case volume and stone-free rate (SFR), stone burden, complications...... SFR was 91.9% and 86.3% at high- and low-volume centres, respectively (pstone-free outcome increased with increasing case volume (p

  12. [Horseshoe kidney, stone disease and prostate cancer: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernández, A; Hernández Guerra, J S; Sobenes Gutierrez, R J

    2013-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomalies. It occurs in 0.25% of the population, or 1 in every 400 people. It is more frequent in males (ratio 2:1). The most observed complication of horseshoe kidney is stone disease, although there may be others such as, abdominal pain, urinary infections, haematuria, hydronephrosis, trauma and tumours (most commonly associated with hypernephroma and Wilms tumour). We describe a case of a male patient with horseshoe kidney, stone disease and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. One carrier of this condition who suffered a transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate was found in a review of the literature. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Validating automated kidney stone volumetry in computed tomography and mathematical correlation with estimated stone volume based on diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Konrad; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Hein, Simon; Schlager, Daniel; Adams, Fabian; Benndorf, Matthias; Fritz, Benjamin; Langer, Mathias; Hesse, Albrecht; Schoenthaler, Martin; Neubauer, Jakob

    2018-06-02

    To validate AutoMated UroLithiasis Evaluation Tool (AMULET) software for kidney stone volumetry and compare its performance to standard clinical practice. Maximum diameter and volume of 96 urinary stones were measured as reference standard by three independent urologists. The same stones were positioned in an anthropomorphic phantom and CT scans acquired in standard settings. Three independent radiologists blinded to the reference values took manual measurements of the maximum diameter and automatic measurements of maximum diameter and volume. An "expected volume" was calculated based on manual diameter measurements using the formula: V=4/3 πr³. 96 stones were analyzed in the study. We had initially aimed to assess 100. Nine were replaced during data acquisition due of crumbling and 4 had to be excluded because the automated measurement did not work. Mean reference maximum diameter was 13.3 mm (5.2-32.1 mm). Correlation coefficients among all measured outcomes were compared. The correlation between the manual and automatic diameter measurements to the reference was 0.98 and 0.91, respectively (pvolumetry is possible and significantly more accurate than diameter-based volumetric calculations. To avoid bias in clinical trials, size should be measured as volume. However, automated diameter measurements are not as accurate as manual measurements.

  14. Men and Women in Space: Bone Loss and Kidney Stone Risk after Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Hudson, Edgar, K.; Shackelford, Linda; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss on Earth is more prevalent in women than men, leading to the assumption that women may be at greater risk from bone loss during flight. Until recently, the number of women having flown long-duration missions was too small to allow any type of statistical analysis. We report here data from 42 astronauts on long-duration missions to the International Space Station, 33 men and 9 women. Bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), bone biochemistry (from blood and urine samples), and renal stone risk factors were evaluated before and after flight. Data were analyzed in two groups, based on available resistance exercise equipment. The response of bone mineral density to flight was the same for men and women, and the typical decrease in bone mineral density (whole body and/or regional) after flight was not observed for either sex for those using an Advanced Resistive Exercise Device. Bone biochemistry, specifically markers of formation and resorption, generally responded similarly in male and female astronauts. The response of urinary supersaturation risk to space flight was not significantly different between men and women, although risks were typically increased after flight in both groups and risks were generally greater in men than in women before and after flight. Overall, the bone and renal stone responses of men and women to space flight were not different.

  15. SELECTIVE EVALUATION OF TWO URINARY ENZYMES (NAG AND AAP BEFORE AND AFTER UNILATERAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Nikoobakht

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological effects extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is not precisely known. We have evaluated two urinary enzymes activity N-acetyl-B-D-glucosamine (NAG and alanine amino peptidase (AAP before and after unilateral ESWL as markers for renal parenchymal damage. Forty eight patients with kidney stones (mean age 39 who had presented for the first time or at least one year after their previous lithotripsy underwent ESWL. Urinary specimens were collected before and after first, third and seventh days of lithotripsy and NAG, AAP were evaluated. These enzymes displayed the greatest activity 24 hours after ESWL with significant difference compared to the control group, (P < 0.05 versus 0.02. Elevation of urinary enzymes activity correlated with stone size particularly stones larger than 2 cm. These data suggest that there is some tubular and parenchymal damage induced by ESWL that needs time to get improved. The higher urinary enzyme activity in patients with larger stones ( > 2 cm is probably related to injury resulting from passage of smaller stones, produced after lithotripsy of a large stone, and it is suggested that these patients are treated with a safer procedure.

  16. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  17. Programmatic Considerations to Reduce the Risk of Adverse Renal Stone Events in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity exposure may alter the likelihood that astronauts will experience renal stones. The potential risk includes both acute and chronic health issues, with the potential for significant impact on mission objectives. Methods: To understand the role of the NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) research agenda in both preventing and addressing renal stones in spaceflight, current astronaut epidemiologic data and a summary of programmatic considerations are reviewed. Results: Although there has never been a symptomatic renal stone event in a U.S. crewmember during spaceflight, urine chemistry has been altered - likely due to induced changes in renal physiology as a result of exposure to microgravity. This may predispose astronauts to stone formation, leading the HRP to conduct and sponsor research to: 1) understand the risk of stone formation in space; 2) prevent stones from forming; and 3) address stones that may form by providing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Discussion: The development of a renal stone during spaceflight is a significant medical concern that requires the HRP to minimize this risk by providing the ability to prevent, diagnose, monitor and treat the condition during spaceflight. A discussion of the risk as NASA understands it is followed by an overview of the multiple mitigations currently under study, including novel ultrasound techniques for stone detection and manipulation, and how they may function as part of a larger exploration medical system.

  18. Is pre-operative imaging essential prior to ureteric stone surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, F R; Wilkinson, B A; Hastie, K J; Hall, J

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify patients not requiring ureteric stone surgery based on pre-operative imaging (within 24 hours) prior to embarking on semirigid ureteroscopy (R-URS) for urolithiasis. The imaging of all consecutive patients on whom R-URS for urolithiasis was performed over a 12-month period was reviewed. All patients had undergone a plain x-ray of the kidney, ureters and bladder (KUB), abdominal non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT-KUB) or both on the day of surgery. A total of 96 patients were identified for the study. Stone sizes ranged from 3 mm to 20 mm. Thirteen patients (14%) were cancelled as no stone(s) were identified on pre-operative imaging. Of the patients cancelled, 8 (62%) required NCCT-KUB to confirm spontaneous stone passage. One in seven patients were stone free on the day of surgery. This negates the need for unnecessary anaesthetic and instrumentation of the urinary tract, with the associated morbidity. Up-to-date imaging prior to embarking on elective ureteric stone surgery is highly recommended.

  19. Stenting or not prior to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones? Results of a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Polimeros, Nikolaos; Kavouras, Adamantios; Perimenis, Petros

    2012-06-01

    To determine the need for pre-treatment stenting in patients undergoing extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones sized 4-10 mm. A prospective randomized study was conducted between September 2009 and March 2011. Included 156 patients randomized in stented and non-stented groups and underwent a maximum of 3 ESWL sessions. Radiographic follow-up was used to assess the stone fragmentation and clearance. Results were compared in terms of stone-free rates, post-treatment morbidity and complications. Overall efficacy was 76.9%. Stone-free rates were statistically significantly lower (P = 0.026) in the stented group (68.6%) compared to the non-stented ones (83.7%). Furthermore, stenting was significantly correlated with post-treatment lower urinary tract symptoms (P ≤ 0.001), need for more ESWL sessions (P = 0.019) and possibility for operation due to ESWL failure (P = 0.026). A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify the parameters which may predict complete stone removal after ESWL. Stone size (P = 0.026), stone location (P = 0.011) and stenting (P = 0.007) were the most significant factors. ESWL is an efficient and safe treatment for 4- to 10-mm ureteral stones. Pre-treatment stenting is limiting stone-free rates and is significantly influencing post-ESWL morbidity and quality of life in a negative manner, while it contributes minimally to the prophylaxis of complications.

  20. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  1. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER ORIG ORIG Percutaneous stone removal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an effective procedure to treat patients with complex renal stones,. e.g. staghorn calculi and stones greater than 20 mm in diameter. The treatment of choice for small, less com- plex renal stones is extracorporeal shock-wave litho- tripsy (ESWL).1 We have treated renal stones mainly.

  3. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  4. Uricosuric effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in normal and renal-stone former subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongwatana, Vitoon; Woottisin, Surachet; Sriboonlue, Pote; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2008-05-22

    The Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was investigated for its uricosuric effect. A human model with nine subjects with no history of renal stones (non-renal stone, NS) and nine with a history of renal stones (RS) was used in this study. A cup of tea made from 1.5 g of dry Roselle calyces was provided to subjects twice daily (morning and evening) for 15 days. A clotted blood and two consecutive 24-h urine samples were collected from each subject three times: (1) at baseline (control); (2) on days 14 and 15 during the tea drinking period; and (3) 15 days after the tea drinking was stopped (washout). Serum and 24-h urinary samples were analyzed for uric acid and other chemical compositions related to urinary stone risk factors. All analyzed serum parameters were within normal ranges and similar; between the two groups of subjects and among the three periods. Vis-à-vis the urinary parameters, most of the baseline values for both groups were similar. After taking the tea, the trend was an increase in oxalate and citrate in both groups and uric acid excretion and clearance in the NS group. In the RS group, both uric acid excretion and clearance were significantly increased (pRoselle calyces. Since the various chemical constituents in Roselle calyces have been identified, the one(s) exerting this uricosuric effect need to be identified.

  5. SYNTHESIS OF EXPANDER TO PREVENT CONTRACTION OF CEMENT STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenova Aurika Almazovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the results of studies of the use of additives containing crystallization components significantly affecting the curing of cement, improving the structure of cement stone and concrete. The crystalline component is obtained using the rotary-pulse unit, which provides not only the grinding of agents, but their interaction with each other as well in order to accelerate the hydration and structure formation in cement stone. The degree, and kinetics of hydration, the composition of hydrated phases, the structure of the additives and cement stone was studied using the following methods: x-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical properties of cement were determined by standard methods and techniques. The expander produced by means of hydrodynamic activation of the sulfoaluminate clinker (SAC consists of ettringite and hydrated calcium silicates, which are characterized by high dispersion rate (less than 10 µm and reactivity as the seed for the crystallization of hydrated compounds. The introduction of the ultrafine additives of the crystalline SAC (within 1-5% was discovered to cause expansion of the cement stone. Implementation of the additives increases cement hydration and contributes to the formation of active centers of crystallization that lead to the fast formation of ettringite, hydrated calcium aluminates and calcium silicates. The activated crystalline additive provides for significant reduction of porosity, initial curing, and high strength of cement stone. In addition, the additive is an expansive component, forming needle-like crystals of ettringite during hydration. These microcrystals grow in the capillaries of cement stone, filling them, and create conditions for improving the crack resistance of cement concrete.

  6. Shielding features of quarry stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez V, C.; Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    Quarry stone lineal attenuation coefficient for gamma-rays has been obtained. In Zacatecas, quarry stone is widely utilized as a decorative item in buildings, however its shielding features against gamma-rays unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the shielding properties of quarry stone against γ-rays using Monte Carlo calculations where a detailed model of a good geometry experimental setup was carried out. In the calculations 10 pieces 10 X 10 cm 2 of different thickness were utilized to evaluate the photons transmission as the quarry stone thickness is increased. It was noticed that transmitted photons decay away as the shield thickness is increased, these results were fitted to an exponential function were the linear attenuation coefficient was estimated. Also, using XCOM code the linear attenuation coefficient from several keV up to 100 MeV was estimated. From the comparison between Monte Carlo results and XCOM calculations a good agreement was found. For 0.662 MeV γ-rays the attenuation coefficient of quarry stone, whose density is 2.413 g-cm -3 , is 0.1798 cm -1 , this mean a X 1/2 = 3.9 cm, X 1/4 = 7.7 cm, X 1/10 = 12.8 cm, and X 1/100 = 25.6 cm. Having the information of quarry stone performance as shielding give the chance to use this material to shield X and γ-ray facilities. (Author)

  7. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2012-02-01

    AIM: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient\\'s quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. RESULTS: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  8. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, Aoife N. [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Wang, Tim T. [Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Surgical Epidemiology and Quality Unit, Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  9. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, Aoife N.; Wang, Tim T.; Lee, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  10. Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

  11. Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

    2012-04-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

  12. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  13. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  14. Treatment of Moderate Sized Renal Pelvis Calculi: Stone Clearance Time Comparison of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercil, Hakan; Alma, Ergun; Bas, Okan; Sener, Nevzat Can; Vuruskan, Ediz; Kuyucu, Faruk; Unal, Umut; Gören, Mehmet Resit; Evliyaoglu, Yalcin

    2016-03-05

    To compare the stone clearance times in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for single radiopaque renal pelvis stones 10-20 mm in size. The results of this study may guide urologists and patients and aid in selecting the optimal preoperative treatment. Between January 2013 and February 2015, we conducted a retrospective study and collected data from 333 patients treated with SWL (n = 172) or RIRS (n = 161). We included successfully treated patients with a single radiopaque renal pelvis stone 10-20 mm in size to calculate stone clearance times. The average stone size for the SWL group was 14.62 ± 2.58 mm and 14.91 ± 2.92 mm for the RIRS group. The mean Hounsfield unit (HU) of the patients was 585.40 ± 158.39 HU in the SWL group and 567.74 ± 186.85 HU in the RIRS group. Following full fragmentation, the mean stone clearance time was 26.55 ± 9.71 days in the SWL group and 11.59 ± 7.01 days in the RIRS group (P < .001). One of the most overlooked parameters in urinary stone treatments is stone clearance. We believe this study will shed light for those who aim to conduct larger randomized prospective studies. .

  15. Bone Genes in the Kidney of Stone Formers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.

    2008-09-01

    Intraoperative papillary biopsies from kidneys of idiopathic-calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) have revealed a distinct pattern of mineral deposition in the interstitium of the renal papilla. The earliest sites of these deposits, termed Randall's plaque, are found in the basement membrane of thin loops of Henle and appear to spread into the surrounding interstitium down to the papillary epithelium. Recent studies show kidney stones of ICSF patients grow attached to the renal papilla and at sites of Randall's plaque. Together these observations suggest that plaque formation may be the critical step in stone formation. In order to control plaque formation and thereby reduce future kidney stone development, the mechanism of plaque deposition must be understood. Because the renal papilla has unique anatomical features similar to bone and the fact that the interstitial deposits of ICSF patients are formed of biological apatite, this paper tests the hypothesis that sites of interstitial plaque form as a result of cell-mediated osteoblast-like activity.

  16. PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROSTOMY AND DOUBLE PIGTAIL (JJ URETERAL STENTS AS TEMPORARY METHODS IN SOLVING SUPRAVESICAL OBSTRUCTION CAUSED BY STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Dinić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteral stenting are temporary treatments for the upper urinary tract obstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of these two methods by comparing complications, placement success, urinary symptoms, urine culture analyses prior to derivation placement and derivation removal and success of stone elimination after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. This prospective study included 157 patients with supravesical obstruction caused by ureteral stones. Eighty-one patients underwent percutaneus nephrostomy, and JJ stent was inserted in seventy-six (76 patients. After resolving the obstruction, ESWL was performed in all patients. There were no statistically significant differences in success of the urinary derivation placement, the urine culture results before and after placement and success of ESWL treatment between the two studied groups (p>0.05. Urinary symptoms (dysuria, hematuria, urinary urgency, frequent urination during the day were significantly more present in patients with a JJ stent and this difference was statistically significant for each symptom (p<0.001. Major complications were verified in 2 (2.46% patients with PCN catheter, and in 7 (9.2% patients in the group with the JJ stent. Minor complications were significantly more frequent in the group with the JJ stent compared to the group with PCN catheter (28.39% vs 60.52%, p<0.001. Percutaneous nephrostomy and JJ stenting are optimal methods for temporary treatment of supravesical obstruction caused by ureteral stones, with similar incidence of the following complications, except for the pain, which dominates in patients with the JJ stent. Urinary symptoms and asymptomatic bacteriuria are more common in patients with the JJ stent. If the ESWL treatment of ureteral stone is performed after urinary derivation placement, we can expect greater success in patients with the JJ stent.

  17. [Two cases of giant female urethral stone in long-term bedridden elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Murase, T; Kuromatsu, I; Hasegawa, M; Kawamura, J

    2001-08-01

    A 78-year-old female suffering from a cerebral infarction and subdural hematoma was referred to us due to a hard mass in the anterior vaginal wall which was disclosed during gynecological examination. An abdominal X-ray, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that a large spindle-shaped stone, 60 x 42 mm in size, was impacting the urethra. It was impossible to catheterize the urethra. The stone gradually projected through the external urethral meatus and was removed by grasping and drawing with forceps. Another 83-year-old female with senile dementia was referred to us because of macrohematuria. An abdominal X-ray and CT showed the presence of two oval bladder stones, 32 x 24 mm and 30 x 21 mm in size. During a follow-up, one of the stones projected partially through the external urethral meatus and was removed by drawing with forceps. After a week, the other stone impacted the urethra and was removed in the same way. Both women were frail, bedridden institutionalized elderly with severe dementia, and their urination had been managed with diapers for years. As the proportion of elderly people in Japan rapidly increases, female urethral stones migrating from the urinary bladder, once very rare, may increase in number, to which we must pay attention.

  18. Relationship between the incidence infection stones and the magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, K; Ishikawa, Y; Iguchi, M; Kurita, T; Okada, Y; Yoshida, O

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that the magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water is negatively correlated with the incidence of calcium-containing urinary stones. In this study we examined the relationship between the incidence of struvite stones, water hardness and the regional geological features on the basis of our previous study and an epidemiological study of urolithiasis performed in Japan. The magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water was found to correlate positively with the incidence of struvite stones. The tap water magnesium-calcium ratio was high in regions of basalt and sedimentary rock and was low in granite and limestone areas. The incidence of struvite stones in the regions of basalt and sedimentary rock was higher than that in the granite and limestone areas. Thus, this study suggested that the incidence of struvite stones is related to the magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water and to the regional geology, as is the case for calcium-containing stones.

  19. Stone cladding engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camposinhos, Rui de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    .... Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM...

  20. Visceral pain originating from the upper urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Christian

    2010-01-01

    Pain originating from the upper urinary tract is a common problem and stone colic is one of the most intense pain conditions that can be experienced in the clinic. The pain is difficult to alleviate and often leads to medical attention. In humans, pain mechanisms of the upper urinary tract pain...... are still poorly understood, which often leads to a trial and error approach in clinical pain management. Pain from the upper urinary tract seems to have all the characteristics of pure visceral pain, including referred pain with or without hyperalgesia/trophic changes in somatic tissues and viscero......-visceral hyperalgesia. However, further studies are needed to better understand these visceral pain mechanisms with regard to optimising pain management. This review gives an introduction to visceral pain in general and upper urinary tract pain in particular, with special reference to pain pathways and pharmacological...

  1. Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis of Urinary Calculi and Metabolic Studies in a Group of Sicilian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Maria Michela; Gennaro, Giuseppe; Tralongo, Pietro; Maringhini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    Prevalence of urinary calculi in children has been increasing in the past years. We performed an analysis of the chemical composition of stones formers of the pediatric population in our geographical area over the years 2005 to 2013. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed for the determination of the calculus composition of a group of Sicilian children, and metabolic studies were performed to formulate the correct diagnosis and establish therapy. The prevalence of stone formation was much higher for boys than for girls, with a sex ratio of 1.9:1. The single most frequent component was found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate, and calcium oxalates (pure or mixed calculi) were the overall most frequent components. Calcium phosphates ranked 2nd for frequency, most often in mixed calculi, while urates ranked 3rd. The metabolic disorder most often associated with pure calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi was hypocitraturia, while hyperoxaluria was predominantly associated with calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi. Mixed calculi had the highest prevalence in our pediatric population. Our data showed that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was a useful tool for the determination of the calculi composition.

  2. A 970 Hounsfield units (HU) threshold of kidney stone density on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) improves patients' selection for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL): evidence from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzaid, Idir; Al-qahtani, Said; Dominique, Sébastien; Hupertan, Vincent; Fernandez, Pédro; Hermieu, Jean-François; Delmas, Vincent; Ravery, Vincent

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Stone density on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) is reported to be a prognosis factor for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). In this prospective study, we determined that a 970 HU threshold of stone density is a very specific and sensitive threshold beyond which the likelihood to be rendered stone free is poor. Thus, NCCT evaluation of stone density before ESWL may useful to identify which patients should be offered alternative treatment to optimise their outcome. • To evaluate the usefulness of measuring urinary calculi attenuation values by non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) for predicting the outcome of treatment by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). • We prospectively evaluated 50 patients with urinary calculi of 5-22 mm undergoing ESWL. • All patients had NCCT at 120 kV and 100 mA on a spiral CT scanner. Patient age, sex, body mass index, stone laterality, stone size, stone attenuation values (Hounsfield units [HU]), stone location, and presence of JJ stent were studied as potential predictors. • The outcome was evaluated 4 weeks after the ESWL session by NCCT. • ESWL success was defined as patients being stone-free (SF) or with remaining stone fragments of ESWL treatment. • Stones of patients who became SF or had CIRF had a lower density compared with stones in patients with residual fragments [mean (sd) 715 (260) vs 1196 (171) HU, P ESWL was identified. • The use of NCCT to determine the attenuation values of urinary calculi before ESWL helps to predict treatment outcome, and, consequently, could be helpful in planning alternative treatment for patients with a likelihood of a poor outcome from ESWL. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  3. A century of urinary tract radiology in Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, W.S.C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1900, the Australasian Medical Gazette included as a supplement, a hazy illustration provided by Dr. Herschel Harris of a bladder stone, and this was the first urinary radiograph illustrated in the local literature. One hundred years later, the uroradiologists have at their disposition a wide range of imaging modalities, which ensures a high level of diagnostic accuracy, and interventions techniques, which assist in treatment. This review illustrate how the Australasian radiology contributed to the spectacular evolution of technology and through its application, to a better understanding of urinary disease processes. 63 refs., 5 figs

  4. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sayyad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective approach for selected patients with large proximal ureteric stones with reduced postoperative pain and short hospital stay, and should be considered as a treatment option for such stones.

  5. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  6. Efficacy and safety of tamsulosin as a medical expulsive therapy for stones in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaqadossi, Hussein A; Shaker, Hossam; Saifelnasr, Mohammed; Gaber, Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin for promoting ureteric stone expulsion in children, based on the confirmed efficacy of tamsulosin as a medical expulsive therapy in adults. From February 2010 to July 2013, 67 children presenting with a distal ureteric stone of <1 cm as assessed on unenhanced computed tomography were included in the study. The patients were randomised into two groups, with group 1 (33 patients) receiving tamsulosin 0.4 mg and ibuprofen, and group 2 (34) receiving ibuprofen only. They were followed up for 4 weeks. Endoscopic intervention was indicated for patients with uncontrolled pain, recurrent urinary tract infection, hypersensitivity to tamsulosin and failure of stone passage after 4 weeks of conservative treatment. Sixty-three patients completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in patient age, body weight and stone size, the mean (SD) of which was 6.52 (1.8) mm in group 1 vs. 6.47 (1.79) mm in group 2 (P = 0.9). The mean (SD) time to stone expulsion in group 1 was 7.7 (1.9) days, vs. 18 (1.73) days in group 2 (P < 0.001). The analgesic requirement (mean number of ketorolac injections) in group 1 was significantly less than in group 2, at 0.55 (0.8) vs. 1.8 (1.6) (P < 0.001). The stone-free rate was 87% in group 1 and 63% in group 2 (P = 0.025). Tamsulosin used as a medical expulsive therapy for children with ureteric stones is safe and effective, as it facilitates spontaneous expulsion of the stone.

  7. Effects and outcome of Tamsulosin more than just stone clearance after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadri, S. S. U.; Khalid, S. E.; Mahmud, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Tamsulosin, as adjunctive medical therapy after Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for renal stones on rate of stone clearance, clearance time, pain intensity during stone clearance, steinstrasse formation and auxiliary surgical intervention required. Method: A prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in 120 patients who underwent ESWL for renal stones of 0.5-2.0 cm. They were randomized into study and control group in which Tamsulosin 0.4mg/day was given in former as an adjunctive medical therapy. All patients underwent ESWL every 2 weeks until complete stone clearance for 8 weeks. The parameters assessed were stone clearance, clearance time, pain intensity and effect on steinstrasse. Results: Of the 120 patients 60 were in each group. The stone clearance rate was greater in study than in control group, 58(96.7%) vs. 48(80%) respectively, (p<0.004). The mean stone clearance time was observed earlier in study group as compared to control group with significant statistical difference in stone size between 0.6-1.5 cm. The mean intensity of pain patients experienced according to Visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly less in study group (p<0.002). The rate of steinstrasse formation was observed to be higher in control than in study group 15(25%) vs 6(10%) respectively(p<0.003), while its spontaneous clearance was higher in study group than in control group 83.3% vs 33.3% (p<0.03). Conclusion: Tamsulosin significantly increases stone clearance after shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones. It also appeared to facilitate earlier stone clearance, reduces severity of pain, reduces the incidence of steinstrasse formation and tends to facilitate its spontaneous clearance. (author)

  8. A simple objective method to assess the radiopacity of urinary calculi and its use to predict extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gamal, Osama; el-Badry, Amr

    2009-07-01

    We describe an objective method to evaluate kidney stone radiopacity for use in selection of cases suitable for ESWL. We recruited 76 adult patients with a solitary 1 to 2 cm renal pelvic stone. All patients underwent routine plain x-ray of the urinary tract but an aluminum step wedge (Gammex) was adapted to the cassette before x-ray exposure. This x-ray was then digitized and analyzed by histogram to calculate the gray level of the stone and of each step of the aluminum step wedge. This allowed radiographic stone density to be expressed in mm aluminum equivalent. All patients also underwent abdominopelvic computerized tomography and then ESWL was started. Stone density on plain x-ray was 1.83 to 5.93 mm aluminum equivalent. There was a positive correlation between these values and stone attenuation values on computerized tomography (r(2) 0.83, p stones of significantly higher density than stones in patients with complete stone fragmentation (mean +/- SD 4.8 +/- 0.74 vs 3.35 +/- 0.88 mm aluminum equivalent, p stone radiopacity in mm aluminum equivalent and the total number of shock waves required to achieve complete fragmentation (r(2) 0.66, p <0.005). The aluminum step wedge with plain x-ray of the urinary tract provides a good reference for objectively assessing the radiopacity of renal calculi.

  9. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Diri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL.

  10. Stone stability under non-uniform flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that many studies on the stability of stones in bed protections under flowing water have been conducted, our knowledge is still far from advanced and reliable. Issues like how to quantify the hydraulic loads exerted on the stones on a bed and the associated stability of the stones

  11. Primarily Proximal Jejunal Stone Causing Enterolith Ileus in a Patient without Evidence of Cholecystoenteric Fistula or Jejunal Diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtar, Houssam Khodor; Mneimneh, Mostapha; Hammoud, Mazen M; Zaaroura, Ahmed; Papas, Yasmina S

    2016-01-01

    Stone formation within the intestinal lumen is called enterolith. This stone can encroach into the lumen causing obstruction and surgical emergency. Jejunal obstruction by an enterolith is a very rare entity and often missed preoperatively. To our knowledge, most cases of jejunal obstruction, secondary to stone, were associated with biliary disease (cholecystoenteric fistula), bezoar, jejunal diverticulosis, or foreign body. Hereby we present a rare case report of small bowel obstruction in an elderly man who was diagnosed lately to have primary proximal jejunal obstruction by an enterolith without evidence of a cholecystoenteric fistula or jejunal diverticulosis. This patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with stone extraction, and subsequent primary repair of the bowel.

  12. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  13. Treatment of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones in the laparoscopic era

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei-jie; Xu, Gui-fang; Huang, Qin; Luo, Kun-lun; Dong, Zhi-tao; Li, Jie-ming; Wu, Guo-zhong; Guan, Wen-xian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for stone can be carried out by either laparoscopic transcystic stone extraction (LTSE) or laparoscopic choledochotomy (LC). It remains unknown as to which approach is optimal for management of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones (CBDS) in Chinese patients. Methods: From May 2000 to February 2009, we prospective treated 346 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones and CBDS with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and LCBDE....

  14. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  15. Pancreatic Stones: Treat or Ignore?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Howell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Painful, chronic pancreatitis is of complex etiology, but increasing clinical experience suggests that removal of pancreatic duct stones in many cases significantly improves patients’ symptoms. The development and refinement of therapeutic endoscopic retrograde choledochopancreatography have permitted improved access to the pancreatic duct, which makes the development of new techniques of stone fragmentation and fragment removal a much more successful nonsurgical intervention. A major step forward has been the understanding of the safety and efficacy of pancreatic sphincterotomy, which is necessary for the removal of these difficult stones. The recognition that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be delivered safely with good efficacy has revolutionized the nonsurgical management of pancreatic duct stones. Nevertheless, advanced and sophisticated therapeutic endoscopy is necessary to achieve clearance of the duct, which can generally be accomplished in the majority of selected patients. State-of-the-art treatments are described, and some new approaches using pancreatoscopy and electrohydrolic lithotripsy are discussed. Newly recognized long term complications are reviewed. Finally, it must be recognized that chronic pancreatitis is an ongoing disease that does not have a simple treatment or cure, and frequently represents a process of remissions and relapses requiring interventions and problem solving.

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us ...

  18. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  19. Do stone size and impaction influence therapeutic approach to proximal ureteral stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Primary therapeutic approach to lumbar ureteral stones is still contraversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of stone impaction and size on the effectiveness of proximal ureteral stone lithotripsy. Methods. A total of 123 patients with proximal ureteral stones were investigated in this prospective study performed in a 10- month period. The patients were divided into the group I - 86 patients treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and the group II - 37 patients treated with 'Swiss' Lithoclast. In the group I, 49 stones (57% were classified as impacted, while 20 stones (23.3% were larger than 100 mm2. In the group II, 26 stones (70.3% were impacted, and 11 stones (29.7% were larger than 100 mm2. Stones were defined as impacted by the radiographic, echosonographic as well as endoscopic findings in the group II of patients. Stone size was presented in mm2. Chemical composition of stones were almost the same in both groups of the patients. Results. Generally, there was no statistically significant difference in the treatment success between the groups. However, stones larger than 100 mm2 were statistically more successfully treated endoscopically, while there was no statistical difference in the treatment success of impacted stones between these two groups. Conclusion. ESWL can by considered as primary first therapeutic approach in treatment of all proximal ureteral stones except for stones larger than 100 mm2 that should primarily be treated endoscopically.

  20. Stones used in Milan architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble from Lake Como; and conglomerate and sandstone from the Adda River basin. Traditionally, the chief uses have been dimension stone (all stones, column shafts (granite, slabs (marble, moulding (dolomite, limestone and ornamental (marble, dolomite, limestone.La ciudad de Milán se encuentra en una llanura de suelo arcilloso adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos pero en la cual no hay yacimientos de rocas. No obstante, en las colinas y montañas circundantes, que están comunicadas con la ciudad mediante vías navegables naturales y artificiales, sí existe una abundante cantidad de piedra. Entre los tipos de piedra utilizados desde la época de los romanos se encuentran granitos, mármoles y gneises del valle de Ossola, dolomías del lago Mayor, calizas detríticas del valle de Ceresio (Lugano, areniscas de las colinas de la Brianza, calizas negras y mármoles del lago Como y conglomerados y areniscas de la cuenca del río Adda. Tradicionalmente, los principales usos han sido la piedra de fábrica (todas ellas, fustes de columnas (granito, losas (mármol, molduras (dolomía, caliza y ornamental (mármol, dolomía, caliza.

  1. Do JJ Stents Increase the Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Pediatric Renal Stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Metin; Sekmenli, Tamer; Ciftci, İlhan; Elmacı, Ahmet Midhat

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of preoperative urinary catheterization in nephrolithiasis treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Patients admitted to the Department of Pediatric Surgery for renal stones between June 2012 and June 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on JJ stent placements. Group 1 did not receive JJ stents, while group 2 did. The recorded demographic data for each group included age, gender, stone size, location, sessions, and complications. The Elmed Complit ESWL system was used with 11-13 kV, and 1,000-1,200 shots in patients 2-4 years of age, and 11-14 kV, and 1,000-1,500 shots for patients over 4 years. In group 1, 18 sessions of SWL were performed on 8 female and 2 male children with a mean age of 4.5 (range 2-12) years and stone diameter of 9 (range 7-15) mm. The locations of the renal stones were in the upper pole in 1 patient, 7 in the lower pole, and 2 in the pelvis renalis. Postoperatively, 1 patient had hematuria, 2 had dysuria, and one had a stone in the external urethral meatus. Eighty percent of patients were stone free; there were no fragmentations in 2 patients, and 1 patient discontinued treatment. In group 2, 15 SWL sessions were performed on 5 female and 5 male children aged 4 (range 3-5) and the stone diameter was 9 (range 7-16) mm. The locations of the renal stones were in the upper pole in 6 patients, in the lower pole in 3 patients, and in the ureteropelvic junction in one patient. JJ stents were placed in all patients preoperatively. Postoperatively, 3 patients had hematuria and one had dysuria. At the end of the study, all of the patients were stone free. Statistically, there were no differences in age, gender, stone size, location, and the number of sessions. Our results indicate that SWL without preoperative ureteral stenting is an effective and safe procedure that can be carried out in the pediatric population. Preoperative JJ stenting is unnecessary in

  2. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  3. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003973.htm Urinary incontinence products To use the sharing features on this ... There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ...

  4. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...

  5. Preliminary Study of Compositional Analysis in Stone Sanctuaries by Nuclear Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungklin, Ratchai; Wonglee, Poonsuk; Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Pimjun, Surapong; Chongkum, Somporn

    2003-10-01

    Ten Sandstone and laterite samples were collected from stone sanctuaries at the northeast of Thailand. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) using Thai-Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) at Office of Atoms for Peace was employed to investigate the samples. The result shows that elemental composition in samples can be used to classify the type of sandstone and laterite from their different formations. Moreover the elemental composition in the older stone monastery has lower level than the younger one

  6. Diagnosis of obstruction and stone passage after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorwerk, D.; Auffermann, W.; Fischer, N.

    1987-09-01

    78 patients with ureteral formations of stone fragments after ESWL therapy have been controlled by both ultrasound and plain abdominal films. Detection of renal stone fragments was possible similarly by sonography or radiographs. The plain films demonstrated well location and length of the 'Steinstrasse', which did not necessarily cause obstruction. Combination of sonography and plain abdominal film allows an easy follow-up after ESWL therapy, so i.v. urogramm is not acquired routinely.

  7. The diagnosis of obstruction and stone passage after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorwerk, D.; Auffermann, W.; Fischer, N.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1987-01-01

    78 patients with ureteral formations of stone fragments after ESWL therapy have been controlled by both ultrasound and plain abdominal films. Detection of renal stone fragments was possible similarly by sonography or radiographs. The plain films demonstrated well location and length of the 'Steinstrasse', which did not necessarily cause obstruction. Combination of sonography and plain abdominal film allows an easy follow-up after ESWL therapy, so i.v. urogramm is not acquired routinely. (orig.) [de

  8. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in renal pelvic stone versus open surgery - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Rikki; Dhar, Siddharth

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of endourological procedures such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureterorenoscopy have led to a revolution in the the management of urinary stone disease. The indications for open stone surgery have been narrowed significantly, making it a second- or third-line treatment option. To study the safety and efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in retroperitoneal renal stone. We compared the results of laparoscopic and open surgery in terms of easy accessibility, operative period, renal injuries, and early recovery. This prospective study was conducted on renal pelvic stone cases from January 2009 to February 2016 in Suchkhand Hospital, Agra, India. The study included a total of 1700 cases with the diagnosis of solitary renal pelvic stones. In group A - 850 cases - retroperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy was performed, while group B - 850 cases - underwent open pyelolithotomy. The mean operative time was less in group B than group A (74.83 min vs. 94.43 min) which was significant (p<0.001). The blood loss was less in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (63 mL vs. 103mL). There were statistically significant differences in the post-operative pain scores, and postoperative complications compared to group B (p<0.001). The mean hospital stay was less in group A (p<0.03), which was significant. Laparoscopic surgery reduces analgesic requirements, hospital stay, and blood loss. The disadvantages include the reduced working space, the cost of equipment and the availability of a trained surgeon.

  9. Attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a quantitative approach for kidney stone analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather J; Haas, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Katherine A; Evan, Andrew P; Sommer, André J

    2009-07-01

    The impact of kidney stone disease is significant worldwide, yet methods for quantifying stone components remain limited. A new approach requiring minimal sample preparation for the quantitative analysis of kidney stone components has been investigated utilizing attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR). Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and hydroxylapatite (HAP), two of the most common constituents of urinary stones, were used for quantitative analysis. Calibration curves were constructed using integrated band intensities of four infrared absorptions versus concentration (weight %). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves range from 0.997 to 0.93. The limits of detection range from 0.07 +/- 0.02% COM/HAP where COM is the analyte and HAP is the matrix, to 0.26 +/- 0.07% HAP/COM where HAP is the analyte and COM is the matrix. This study shows that linear calibration curves can be generated for the quantitative analysis of stone mixtures provided the system is well understood especially with respect to particle size.

  10. Flow and edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor U.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bøgelund, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on edge scour adjacent to a stone cover laid on a sandy bed. The three-dimensional flow over the edge of the stone layer has been investigated by the use of particle image velocimetry. The flow measurements show a significant amount...... of turbulence in the primary flow near the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed and the formation of complex secondary-flow structures. The results show that the flow and the edge scour process in a steady current are governed by the size of the roughness elements and to some extent the side slope...... of the berm. The edge scour is caused by the combined action of the primary flow and the secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up the sediment and puts it into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming...

  11. Treatment of calculus of upper urinary tract with mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Ye Chunhua; Wang Kanger; Sun Yan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and availability of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) under ultrasound guidance for treatment of calculus of upper urinary tract. Methods: The clinical data of 48 cases with calculus of upper urinary tract undergoing MPCNL were reviewed. Results: In 48 cases, cutaneous-nephric passages were successfully constructed by ultrasound guidance, stone-free rate was 90%. The average operation time was 90 minutes, the average hospitalization was 8 days. No major complications were noted. Conclusion: Under ultrasound guidance, MPCNL with holmium laser is a simply, safe and effective method for treating calculus of upper urinary tract. (authors)

  12. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  13. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN NORMAL AND STONE FORMING RATS TREATED WITH THE RIPE KERNEL JUICE OF PLANTAIN (MUSA PARADISIACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Kalpana; Baskar, R.; Varalakshmi, P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats. PMID:22556626

  15. Anatomy and physiology of urinary elimination. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellatt, Glynis Collis

    Elimination of urine is an essential bodily function, but independence in this activity may be affected by physical and mental disability. Part 1 of this article discusses the anatomy and physiology of the renal and urinary tract and the production of urine. Urinalysis is a vital nursing assessment and the collection of specimens and the range of tests undertaken are outlined. Assisting patients to use the toilet, commode or bedpan is an essential nursing skill. The importance of sensitivity, empathy and moving and handling risk assessment is discussed, and the assessment and management of urinary tract infection and urinary tract stones are addressed. The importance of prevention of cross infection for nurses and patients is highlighted throughout the article.

  16. Frequency-doubled dual-pulse freddy lithrotripsy laser in the treatment of urinary tract calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuyuan; Bo, Juanjie; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yi-Xin

    2005-07-01

    Background and Purpose: The Frequency-Doubled Dual-Pulse Nd:YAG FREDDY laser is a short-pulsed, solid-state laser with wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm that was developed for intracorporeal lithothripsy. This clinical study is designed to test its fragmentation efficiency in the treatment of urinary tract calculi. Patients and Methods: 500 urinary tract calculi treated in 194 female and 306 male patients with a mean age of 46 years. All patients were assessed one week post-op with a plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Stone-free rate and final outcome have been evaluated. Final outcome is defined as stone-free or residual fragments. Analysis has been made according to stone size, location and number of stones. The analgesia requirements during each treatment and complications have also been analyzed. Results: The overall stone-free rate for patients was 92.4%. The success rate for upper ureteral was 85.1% (126/148), while the rate for mid/lower was 95.3% (307/322). Bladder stone success rate 96.6% (29/30). Of all 38 incomplete fragmentations, 20 cases (4%) were treated with ESWL and 18 cases (3.6%) had open surgery. Neither fever nor pyonephrosis was reported. The average laser treatment time was 3.3 minutes and the average post-op hospitalization was 2.5 days. Conclusions: The FREDDY laser is an extremely efficient and safe minimally invasive lithotripsy treatment for urinary stones. It should be considered as an alternative treatment for urolithiasis.

  17. Alkali replacement raises urinary citrate excretion in patients with topiramate-induced hypocitraturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhagroo, R Allan; Wertheim, Margaret L; Penniston, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess (1) the magnitude and temporality of decreased urinary citrate excretion in patients just starting topiramate and (2) the effect of alkali replacement on topiramate-induced hypocitraturia. Study 1 was a prospective, non-intervention study in which patients starting topiramate for headache remediation provided pre- and post-topiramate 24 h urine collections for measurement of urine citrate. Study 2 was a clinical comparative effectiveness study in which patients reporting to our stone clinic for kidney stones and who were treated with topiramate were prescribed alkali therapy. Pre- and post-alkali 24 h urinary citrate excretion was compared. Data for 12 and 22 patients (studies 1 and 2 respectively) were evaluated. After starting topiramate, urinary citrate excretion dropped significantly by 30 days (P = 0.016) and 62% of patients had hypocitraturia (citrate alkali, urine citrate increased in stone-forming patients on topiramate (198 ± 120 to 408 ± 274 mg day(-1) ; P = 0.042 for difference). 85% of patients were hypocitraturic on topiramate alone vs. 40% after adding alkali. The increase in urinary citrate was greater in patients provided ≥ 90 mEq potassium citrate. Our study is the first to provide clinical evidence that alkali therapy can raise urinary citrate excretion in patients who form kidney stones while being treated with topiramate. Clinicians should consider alkali therapy for reducing the kidney stone risk of patients benefitting from topiramate treatment for migraine headaches or other conditions. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Osorio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators′ experience, patients′ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  19. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-10-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators' experience, patients' preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  20. Papillary Ductal Plugging is a Mechanism for Early Stone Retention in Brushite Stone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, James C; Borofsky, Michael S; Bledsoe, Sharon B

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mechanisms of early stone retention in the kidney are under studied and poorly understood. To date attachment via Randall's plaque is the only widely accepted theory in this regard, which is best described in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Brushite stone formers are known...... to have distinct papillary morphology relative to calcium oxalate stone formers. As such we sought to determine whether stone attachment mechanisms in such patients may be similarly unique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing percutaneous and or ureteroscopic procedures for stone removal consented...... to endoscopic renal papillary examination and individual stone collection. Each removed stone was processed using micro computerized tomography to assess the 3-dimensional microstructure and the minerals contained, and search for common structural features indicative of novel mechanisms of early growth...

  1. Urinary schistosomiasis epidemiological survey of urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... knowledge about the infection and 12% of the children that reported having blood in their urine ... urinary schistosomiasis on economic condition and the ..... Medicine for the Tropics (3rd edition) Edward Arnold: Educational.

  2. [COMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN THE ELDERLY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, I; Ćosić, V

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections involving lower (cystitis, prostatitis) or upper (pyelonephritis, renal abscess, perinephric abscess) urinary tract. Differentiation of complicated and uncomplicated UTI is usually based on the presence of structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities, which can increase the risk of treatment failure and development of serious complications. Factors that increase the risk are foreign bodies, stones, obstruction, neurogenic bladder, kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Complicated UTI includes a spectrum of conditions that increase the risk of treatment failure, as well as of serious complications such as bacteremia and sepsis, perinephric abscess, renal impairment and emphysematous pyelonephritis. To avoid the potentially devastating outcomes, appropriate diagnostic procedures, antibiotic and surgical treatment, and appropriate follow-up are required. The incidence of complicated UTI will grow in the future due to general aging of the population, increasing incidence of diabetes, and ever growing number of immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. It is of key importance to recognize complicated UTI on time, and treat it wisely and aggressively to reduce duration of the disease and the risk of antibiotic resistance.

  3. COMORBIDITY OF KIDNEY STONES AND PYCHIATRIC DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić, Vedran; Marčinko, Darko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a patient who is suffering from PTSD with elements of hypochondria, panic attacks and episodes of 0depression in comorbidity with kidney stones. Kidney stones provoked egzacerbation of psychiatric symptoms. Kidney stones and frustration about them have taken part of provoking factor, the last drop, which led to regression of otherwise precarious, but compensated patient’s mental functioning which resulted in development of psychiatric symptoms.

  4. Diagnosis of acute flank pain caused by ureteral stones: value of combined direct and indirect signs on IVU and unenhanced helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Jen; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Ng, Chip-Jin; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of combined direct and indirect signs on intravenous urography (IVU) and unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT) for the diagnosis of ureteral stones in emergency patients with acute flank pain. During an 8-month period, 82 emergency patients with acute flank pain undergoing IVU and UHCT with sufficient clinical follow-up formed the study group. The presence or absence of direct sign (visualization of ureteral stones) and indirect signs on IVU and UHCT was recorded. The diagnostic accuracy of each direct/indirect sign and their combination for the diagnosis of ureteral stones on IVU and UHCT were analyzed and compared. Of the 82 patients, 66 had ureteral stones, four had passed urinary stones prior to imaging and 12 had other diseases. The diagnostic accuracies of direct signs on IVU and UHCT for the diagnosis of ureteral stones were 79.3 and 98.8%, respectively, which was more accurate than that of any single indirect sign on IVU and UHCT. However, the diagnostic accuracy of ureteral stones by IVU increased to 90.2% when using diagnostic criteria requiring the presence of a direct sign or at least three indirect signs, and by UHCT, it increased to 100% when using diagnostic criteria requiring the presence of a direct sign with at least one indirect sign. Therefore, for emergency patients with acute flank pain, the use of the above combinations of direct/indirect signs is useful as the diagnostic criterion for ureteral stones. (orig.)

  5. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  6. Production and characterization of composite stone; Processamento e caracterizacao de pedra composta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leirose, G.D. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Lameiras, F.S., E-mail: danileirose@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Composite stone is a product similar to natural granite or marble, produced with particles of these materials. This material is used like natural stone as lining. The fabrication of artificial stones using residues of banded iron formations is a promising alternative to its actual destination (storage in dam). This research aims the characterization of composite stone to prove the efficacy of this kind of processing. It was used first, natural quartz as a raw material. The patterns of the samples were confirmed by IR spectra and XRD patterns, ensuring the reproducibility of processing applied. Moreover, this material is homogeneous, with low porosity and high flexural strength, confirmed by its structural characterization. Thus, it can be affirmed that the process chosen is suitable, enabling the application of this methodology to the use of waste. (author)

  7. [Infection-induced urinary calculi in children; current therapeutic schedule and prevention of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, D; Brühl, P; Hesse, A

    1988-01-01

    Infection stones have an outstanding position in childhood urolithiasis. In non-infection stones one can mostly find a certain--for example metabolic--causes of stone formation. In infection stones, the urease-producing and thus urea-cleaving properties of some gram-negative bacteria are responsible for alkalization of the urine and lead especially in combination with disturbances of urine transport to the staghorn calculi. Therefore in such children early diagnosis, adequate therapy and consequent maintenance is the crucial point for good life quality in future. Preliminary condition for therapeutic success is a close coworking between pediatric nephrologist, pediatric urologist, family doctor and parents.

  8. Clinical experience with EDAP LT-01+ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for radiolucent stones; a report of 27 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Hee Kwan; Kim, Ho Sung; Rim, Joung Sik

    1994-01-01

    Between February 1990 and February 1993, Radiolucent stones of 27 renal units in 22 patients were treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the EDAP LT-01+. Intravenous urography was done in all patients for the diagnosis of radiolucent stones. Retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography and/or computed tomography was done, if needed. The locations of stones were kidney in 11(40.7 %), upper ureter in 8(29.6 %), lower ureter in 6(22.2 %), bladder in 1(3.7 %), ureteropelvic junction in 1(3.7 %). The average stone size was 10.9mm with a range of 5 to 32mm in maximum diameter. The average numbers of treatment were 2.7 sessions and average storage required was 34.8 in one session. The average treatment time was 40.4 minutes. All the patients showed complete removal of all calculous materials. Of 17 urinary stones analysed by chemical method, 8(47.1 %) were composed of uric acid, 5(29.4 %) of uric acid and calcium, 3 of phosphate and 1 of carbonate and phosphate. Therefore, we conclude that ESWL with EDAP LT-01+ lithotriptor is considered to be an effective noninvasive procedure for treatment of radiolucent stones. (Author)

  9. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-01-01

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  11. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  12. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  13. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  14. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N069; FXRS1265030000S3-123-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and... plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR) for...

  15. A Lion of a Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm. This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  16. Do You Have Symptoms of a Kidney Stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Or, the stone will be removed with treatment. Dogs, Cats, and Kidney Stones Humans aren't the only ones affected by kidney and bladder stones. Dogs, cats, and other animals can also have kidney ...

  17. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamalini Ketha

    Full Text Available Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined.In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25(OH2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls.Serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001. Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH2D/25(OHD ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008. Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82. In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OHD and 24,25(OH2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05.Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk.

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  1. Contribution of stone size to chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Etemadi, Samira Motedayen; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahbob; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Ayati, Mohsen; Mir, Alireza; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether stone burden correlates with the degree of chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers. A total of 97 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy candidates aged 18 years and older were included. Size, number and location of the kidney stones, along with cumulative stone size, defined as the sum of diameters of all stones) were determined. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration cystatin C/creatinine equation, and chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease. The relationship persisted even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, presence of microalbuminuria, history of renal calculi, history of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, number and location of the stones (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.52). The same was not observed for individuals with a cumulative stone size ≥ 20 mm. In kidney stone formers with a cumulative stone size up to 20 mm, estimated glomerular filtration rate linearly declines with increasing cumulative stone size. Additionally, cumulative stone size is an independent predictor of chronic kidney disease in this group of patients. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Sculpture: Stone Shapes, Art: 6683.08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    This elective course for grades 7-12 was created with a three fold purpose: 1) to create in the student an awareness of the effect of sculptural forms on his environment; 2) to introduce the student to an appreciation of stone sculpture; and 3) to further enhance the artistic abilities of the student through sculpting in stone. Course content…

  3. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent ESWL. The indications for ESWL were determined by the ...

  4. Effect of stone coverage on soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Heng, B. P.; Brovelli, A.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.

    2010-12-01

    Soil surface coverage has a significant impact on water infiltration, runoff and soil erosion yields. In particular, surface stones protect the soils from raindrop detachment, they retard the overland flow therefore decreasing its sediment transport capacity, and they prevent surface sealing. Several physical and environmental factors control to what extent stones on the soil surface modify the erosion rates and the related hydrological response. Among the most important factors are the moisture content of the topsoil, stone size, emplacement, coverage density and soil texture. Owing to the different inter-related processes, there is ambiguity concerning the quantitative effect of stones, and process-based understanding is limited. Experiments were performed (i) to quantify how stone features affect sediment yields, (ii) to understand the local effect of isolated surface stones, that is, the changes of the soil particle size distribution in the vicinity of a stone and (iii) to determine how stones attenuate the development of surface sealing and in turn how this affects the local infiltration rate. A series of experiments using the EPFL 6-m × 2-m erosion flume were conducted at different rainfall intensities (28 and 74 mm h-1) and stone coverage (20 and 40%). The total sediment concentration, the concentration of the individual size classes and the flow discharge were measured. In order to analyze the measurements, the Hairsine and Rose (HR) erosion model was adapted to account for the shielding effect of the stone cover. This was done by suitably adjusting the parameters based on the area not covered by stones. It was found that the modified HR model predictions agreed well with the measured sediment concentrations especially for the long time behavior. Changes in the bulk density of the topsoil due to raindrop-induced compaction with and without stone protection revealed that the stones protect the upper soil surface against the structural seals resulting in

  5. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy of Primary Intrahepatic Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hwan; Lee, Sung Koo; Min, Young Il; Lee, Mun Gyu; Sung, Kyu Bo; Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Sung Gyu; Min, Pyung Chul

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy (ESWL) was performed in intrahepatic stone patients (n = 18) by Dornier MPL 9,000 with ultrasound guidance. The patients had T-tube (n = 9) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainge tube (n = 9). Average treatment session was four and shock-wave numbers were in the range of 3,064 to 12,000 (average 6,288 shocks). Intrahepatic stones were removed completely in 16 patients over a 3 month period by ESWL and combined stone extraction maneuver such as cholangioscopic or interventional radiologic method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy was very helpful in facilitating extraction of stones in unfavorable locations or located above the severe stricture. In summary, extracorporeal Shockwave lithotripsy, followed by percutaneous stone extraction, will provide an improvement in the success rate and duration of treatment required for complete removal of primary hepatolithiasis. PMID:1477027

  6. Factors affecting stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nahas, Ahmed R; Eraky, Ibrahim; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shoma, Ahmed M; el-Assmy, Ahmed M; el-Tabey, Nasr A; Soliman, Shady; Elshal, Ahmed M; el-Kappany, Hamdy A; el-Kenawy, Mahmoud R

    2012-06-01

    To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  8. Urinary retention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Saad

    2014-07-01

    This review is a summary of the most pertinent published studies in the literature in the last 18 months that address cause, diagnosis, and management of urinary retention in women. Symptoms, uroflow, and pressure-flow studies have a low predictive value for and do not correlate with elevated postvoid residual urine (PVR). Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy do not cause de-novo bladder outlet obstruction in the majority of patients with elevated PVR, and the cause of elevated PVR may be other factors such as pain or anxiety causing abnormal relaxation of the pelvic floor and contributing to voiding difficulty. The risk of urinary retention in a future pregnancy after mid-urethral sling (MUS) is small. The risk of urinary tract infection and urinary retention after chemodenervation of the bladder with onabotulinumtoxin-A (100 IU) in patients with non-neurogenic urge incontinence is 33 and 5%, respectively. There is a lack of consensus among experts on the timing of sling takedown in the management of acute urinary retention following MUS procedures. There has been a significant progress in the understanding of the causation of urinary retention. Important areas that need further research (basic and clinical) are post-MUS and pelvic organ prolapse repair urinary retention and obstruction, and urinary retention owing to detrusor underactivity.

  9. Safety of ESWL in elderly: evaluation of independent predictors and comorbidity on stone-free rate and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Fazli; Yeşil, Süleyman; Ak, Esat; Farahvash, Amirali; Karaoğlan, Ustünol; Biri, Hasan; Bozkirli, Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Urinary stone disease affects people of all ages. With its satisfactory efficacy ranges in all age groups and lack of side-effects, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become the preferred treatment modality for uncomplicated renal and proximal calculi ≤ 20 mm. In the present study, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the ESWL treatment in elderly patients. A retrospective study was carried out on patients aged over 65 years who underwent shock wave lithotripsy at our Department from 2009 to 2011, with a Siemens Lithostar electromagnetic shockwave lithotripter. A total of 231 patients (157 males, 74 females) out of 1694 (13.6%) were studied. The patients were divided into two groups (group 1 = 65-70; group 2 >70). The effect of age and other possible predicting factors (sex, stone localization and stone size) were investigated. Concomitant diseases and related complications were also evaluated. An overall stone-free rate (SFR) of 82.2% was found. The influence of sex on SFR was non-significant. There was no significant difference when comparing SFR between the age groups. When patients were divided into those with renal and ureteral stones, the SFR were 94.4% and 67.6% (P 10 mm were 80% and 84.4%, respectively. Comorbidity was present in 148 patients. Complications were noted in 56 of 231 patients. Of 56 patients, 43 had minor complications and 13 major complications. ESWL seems to be an effective first-line treatment choice for urinary stones in elderly patients with careful patient selection and personalized preparation. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosseir, Sandy B; Lind, Lawrence R; Winkler, Harvey A

    2012-03-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections most often present with symptoms of irritative voiding. In most cases, they are caused by reinfection with a previously isolated organism. Patients with one or more symptoms of uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infection should undergo thorough examination and screening for underlying comorbidities that increase susceptibility. When frequent reinfections, empiric treatment relapse, persistent infections, or risk factors for complicated infections are encountered, patients may benefit from urodynamics, cystoscopy, renal ultrasound, intravenous urogram, or voiding cystourethrogram to evaluate for anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities affecting the urinary tract (e.g., stones, stricture, obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, lesions, detrusor underactivity). These patients may benefit from culture-guided empiric treatment and further evaluation by urology, nephrology, or infectious disease specialists. In patients with a history of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, empiric treatment guided by local antimicrobial resistance may efficiently treat a suspected recurrence. After successful treatment of the acute infection, postcoital prophylaxis, continuous prophylaxis, or self-start empiric treatment may be selected based on frequency of recurrent infections, temporal relation to intercourse, and patient characteristics. Ancillary measures such as probiotics, cranberry products, or local estrogen replacement may also be considered. This article will review the current definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, work-up, treatment, treatment side effects, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. A suggested algorithm for evaluation and treatment based on current literature is provided.

  11. The Initial Appearance of Ashlar Stone in Cyprus. éssues of Provenance and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philokyprou, M.

    In Cyprus stone was the primary building material, either as rubble or in a dressed form (called ashlar), since the Neolithic period. Initially stone was used only as rubble but later during the Late Brone Age ashlar stone appeared for the first time on the island. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the results of a systematic research regarding the different types and uses of ashlar stone and the techniques followed during the Late Bronze Age in Cyprus in comparison with other Mediterranean areas. The macroscopic and microscopic examination of selected samples showed that sedimentary rocks of various geological formations were used as ashlars. One, two or even three different types of stones were transported from the quarries nearest to the settlements. Some characteristic methods of stone dressing, such as finishing only the visible faces and creating drafted margins around the face of the ashlar blocks, are to be found not only in Late Bronze Age settlements but also in more recent examples from the last two centuries. The choice of ashlar and the methods of construction can be related to social, religious and political factors and were not only based on aesthetic criteria and practical issues. Thus, the most impressive structural solutions were followed in the construction of temples and public buildings, whereas more simple methods can be observed in residential complexes.

  12. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  13. Prolonged use of indwelling urinary catheter following acute urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.O. Bello

    prolonged use of urinary catheters following acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostate enlarge- ment (BPE) and urethral ... indwelling urinary catheter for >3 months following acute urinary retention due to BPE or USD. The study .... the major health-care financing strategy in Nigeria and accounts for more than ...

  14. Influence of Superplasticizer-Microsilica Complex on Cement Hydration, Structure and Properties of Cement Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I. M.; Kramar, L. Ya; Orlov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    According to the study results, the influence of complex additives based on microsilica and superplasticizers on the processes of the heat release, hydration, hardening, formation of the structure and properties of cement stone was determined. Calorimetry, derivatography, X-ray phase analysis, electronic microscopy and physical-mechanical methods for analyzing the properties of cement stone were used for the studies. It was established that plasticizing additives, in addition to the main water-reducing and rheological functions, regulate cement solidification and hardening while polycarboxylate superplasticizers even contribute to the formation of a special, amorphized microstructure of cement stone. In a complex containing microsilica and a polycarboxylate superplasticizer the strength increases sharply with a sharp drop in the capillary porosity responsible for the density, permeability, durability, and hence, the longevity of concrete. All this is a weighty argument in favor of the use of microsilica jointly with a polycarboxylate superplasticizer in road concretes operated under aggressive conditions.

  15. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yazici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones.Materials and Methods:Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI, and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048 and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001 were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012.Conclusions:Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones.

  16. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    We mourn our dead, publicly and privately, online and offline. Cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites make up parts of todays intricately weaved and interrelated network of death, grief and memorialization practices [1]–[5]. Whether cut in stone or made of bits, graves, cemeteries......, memorials, monuments, websites and social networking services (SNS) all are alterable, controllable and adaptive. They represent a certain rationale contrary to the emotive state of mourning (e.g. gravesites function as both spaces of internment and places of spiritual and emotional recollection). Following...... and memorialization by discussing the publicly and privately digital and social death from a spatial, temporal, physical and digital angle. Further the paper will reflect on how to encompass shifting trends and technologies in ‘traditional’ spaces of mourning and remembrance....

  17. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often...... the respondents and interviewees are engaged with a prototype design that encompasses digitally enhanced experiences and interactions regarding mourning, memory and remembrance. The design is situated in a traditional public place of death, the Almen Cemetery of Aalborg in Denmark....

  18. TISU: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, as first treatment option, compared with direct progression to ureteroscopic treatment, for ureteric stones: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinton, Samuel; Cameron, Sarah; Starr, Kathryn; Thomas, Ruth; MacLennan, Graeme; McDonald, Alison; Lam, Thomas; N'Dow, James; Kilonzo, Mary; Pickard, Robert; Anson, Ken; Keeley, Frank; Burgess, Neil; Clark, Charles Terry; MacLennan, Sara; Norrie, John

    2018-05-22

    Urinary stone disease is very common with an estimated prevalence among the general population of 2-3%. Ureteric stones are associated with severe pain as they pass through the urinary tract and have significant impact on patients' quality of life due to the detrimental effect on their ability to work and need for hospitalisation. Most ureteric stones can be expected to pass spontaneously with supportive care. However, between one-fifth and one-third of cases require an intervention. The two standard active intervention options are extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopic stone retrieval. ESWL and ureteroscopy are effective in terms of stone clearance; however, they differ in terms of invasiveness, anaesthetic requirement, treatment setting, complications, patient-reported outcomes (e.g. pain after intervention, time off work) and cost. There is uncertainty around which is the most clinically effective in terms of stone clearance and the true cost to the NHS and to society (in terms of impact on patient-reported health and economic burden). The aim of this trial is to determine whether, in adults with ureteric stones, judged to require active intervention, ESWL is not inferior and is more cost-effective compared to ureteroscopic treatment as the initial management option. The TISU study is a pragmatic multicentre non-inferiority randomised controlled trial of ESWL as the first treatment option compared with direct progression to ureteroscopic treatment for ureteric stones. Patients aged over 16 years with a ureteric stone confirmed by non-contrast computed tomography of the kidney, ureter and bladder (CTKUB) will be randomised to either ESWL or ureteroscopy. The primary clinical outcome is resolution of the stone episode (no further intervention required to facilitate stone clearance) up to six months from randomisation. The primary economic outcome is the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained at six months from

  19. Low Bone Density and Bisphosphonate Use and the Risk of Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Megan; Taylor, Eric; Vaidya, Anand; Curhan, Gary

    2017-08-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated lower bone density in patients with kidney stones, but no longitudinal studies have evaluated kidney stone risk in individuals with low bone density. Small studies with short follow-up reported reduced 24-hour urine calcium excretion with bisphosphonate use. We examined history of low bone density and bisphosphonate use and the risk of incident kidney stone as well as the association with 24-hour calcium excretion. We conducted a prospective analysis of 96,092 women in the Nurses' Health Study II. We used Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for age, body mass index, thiazide use, fluid intake, supplemental calcium use, and dietary factors. We also conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2294 participants using multivariable linear regression to compare 24-hour urinary calcium excretion between participants with and without a history of low bone density, and among 458 participants with low bone density, with and without bisphosphonate use. We identified 2564 incident stones during 1,179,860 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable adjusted relative risk for an incident kidney stone for participants with history of low bone density compared with participants without was 1.39 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20 to 1.62). Among participants with low bone density, the multivariable adjusted relative risk for an incident kidney stone for bisphosphonate users was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.98). In the cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour urine calcium excretion, the multivariable adjusted mean difference in 24-hour calcium was 10 mg/d (95% CI, 1 to 19) higher for participants with history of low bone density. However, among participants with history of low bone density, there was no association between bisphosphonate use and 24-hour calcium with multivariable adjusted mean difference in 24-hour calcium of -2 mg/d (95% CI, -25 to 20). Low bone density is an independent risk factor for incident kidney stone and is associated with

  20. [Urinary incontinence and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to systematically review the literature concerning urinary incontinence and pregnancy, in order to develop recommendations for clinical practice. The prevalence of urinary stress incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms increase with gestational age during pregnancy (from the first to the third trimester), and decrease during the third months following delivery. Obstetrics factors (position during delivery, length of the second part of the labour, forceps, episiotomy, epidural or pudendal anaesthesia) do not modify the risk of post-partum or long term urinary incontinence. At short term follow-up, caesarean delivery is associated with a lower rate of post-partum urinary incontinence. At long term follow-up, data are lacking. Non elective caesarean section is not associated with a decrease in the rate of post-partum or long-term urinary incontinence. Elective caesarean section and systematic episiotomy are not recommended methods for the prevention of post-partum urinary incontinence (grade B), even in "high risk" women. Pelvic floor muscle therapy is the first line treatment for prenatal or post-partum urinary incontinence (grade A). Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A fragment of Foley catheter balloon as a cause of Bladder stone in woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Amrani, Mouad; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder calculi are rarely seen in women and any history of previous pelvic surgery must, therefore, raise suspicion of an iatrogenic etiology. According to the literature, fewer than 2% of all bladder calculi occur in female subjects and, thus, their presence should provoke careful assessment of the etiology. We report one case of a fragment of Foley catheter balloon as a cause of Bladder stone in 28 years old woman. Weanalyzed the diagnosis, aspect and therapeutic management of this case which is the first described in literature to our knowledge. PMID:26587134

  2. Physical rehabilitation in complex therapy of the ureter stones patients in the Truskavets health resort area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shologon R.P.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of rehabilitation measures is considered in complex therapy with the use of differentiated methods of medical physical education for patients with stones of ureter. Under a supervision there was 143 patients. 93 patients were made basic group, 50 patients - control. From them 51 (56 % are men and 42 (54% are women. Age of patients made from 20 to 60 years. A sanatorium-resort rehabilitation is recommended with the use of the differentiated methods of medical gymnastics. Application of method improved the indexes of the functional state of buds and overhead urinary ways. Frequency of advancement and output of concrements is also megascopic.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more ... & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  7. Inhibition of urinary calculi -- a spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Govani, Jayesh; Durrer, William; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

    2008-10-01

    Although a considerable number of investigations have already been undertaken and many causes such as life habits, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors have been noted as sources that accelerate calculi depositions and aggregations, there are still plenty of unanswered questions regarding efficient inhibition and treatment mechanisms. Thus, in an attempt to acquire more insights, we propose here a detailed scientific study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. A simplified single diffusion gel growth technique was used for synthesizing the samples for the present study. The unexpected Zn presence in the sample with RAL inhibitor, as revealed by XPS measurements, explains the inhibition process and the dramatic reflectance of the incident light observed in the infrared transmission studies. Raman data demonstrate potential binding of the inhibitor with the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence results corroborate to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

  8. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  9. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    inherently cause some breakage and abrasion of the individual stones and thereby also reduced stability. In order to avoid excessive abrasion a high stone quality is demanded or larger stones must be applied when constructed. To allow the designer to account for abrasion and armour stone breakage due...

  10. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  11. Meta-analysis of Optimal Management of Lower Pole Stone of 10 - 20 mm: Flexible Ureteroscopy (FURS) versus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) versus Percutaneus Nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri, Prahara; Hariwibowo, Rinto; Soeroharjo, Indrawarman; Danarto, Raden; Hendri, Ahmad Z; Brodjonegoro, Sakti R; Rasyid, Nur; Birowo, Ponco; Widyahening, Indah S

    2018-01-01

    the optimal management of lower calyceal stones is still controversial, because no single method is suitable for the removal of all lower calyceal stones. Minimally invasive procedures such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) are the therapeutic methods for lower calyceal stones. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal management of 10-20 mm lower pole stones. a meta-analysis of cohort studies published before July 2016 was performed from Medline and Cochrane databases. Management of 10-20 mm lower pole stone treated by fURS, ESWL and PCNL with follow-up of residual stones in 1-3 months after procedure were include and urinary stone in other location and size were excluded. A fixed-effects model with Mantzel-Haenzel method was used to calculate the pooled Risk Ratio (RRs) and 95% Confidence Interval (CIs). We assessed the heterogeneity by calculating the I2 statistic. All analyses were performed with Review manager 5.3. we analized 8 cohort studies. The stone free rate from 958 patients (271 PCNL, 174 fURS and 513 ESWL), 3 months after operation, was 90.8% (246/271) after PCNL; 75.3% (131/174) after fURS; and 64.7% (332/513) after ESWL. Base on stone free rate in 10-20 mm lower pole stone following management, PCNL is better than fURS (overall RR was 1.32 (95% CI 1.13 - 1.55); pESWL (overall risk ratio 1.42 (95% CI 1.30 - 1.55); p=ESWL, fURS is better than ESWL base on stone free rate in 10-20 mm lower pole stone management with overall RR 1.16 (95% CI 1.04 - 1.30; p=0.01 and I2=40%). percutaneus nephrolithotomy provided a higher stone free rate than fURS and ESWL. This meta-analysis may help urologist in making decision of intervention in 10-20 mm lower pole stone management.

  12. Comparison of the transcriptomic analysis between two Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. genotypes of different stone cells contents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyun Zhang

    mainly distributed in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of stone cell formation.

  13. Doença de Crohn e cálculo renal: muito mais que coincidência? Crohn’s disease and kidney stones: much more than coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lenise Lopes Viana

    2007-09-01

    hipocitratúria e a hipomagnesiúria, que representam fatores de risco reconhecido para a formação de cálculos, devem ter participação ativa nestes resultados. O impacto dessas alterações, medido pela saturação urinária elevada de oxalato e fosfato de cálcio, representa uma das maneiras de se demonstrar como estes fatores predispõem à nucleação de cristais e, conseqüentemente, à formação de cálculos nas vias urinárias.BACKGROUND: Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease associated with a wide variety of complications and manifestations secondary to the effects of underlie inflammatory process. In about 30% of the patients with Crohn’s disease can be found extra-intestinals symptoms. Nephrolithiasis is one of them and the appearance of kidney stones, mainly of oxalate of calcium, is more common in these patients than in general population. AIM: To evaluate urinary metabolic factors potentially involved in renal stones formation on patients with Crohn’s disease. METHODS: We evaluated 29 patients with Crohn’s disease followed in the Outpatient Bowel Inflammatory Disease Clinics of State University Hospital, Londrina, PR, Brazil, from January to December of 2004. The metabolic evaluation included measured of blood and urine substances related to renal stones formation, kidneys, ureters and bladder ultrassonography and calculation of urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate, uric acid and calcium phosphate. RESULTS: Twenty-nine of the evaluated patients were female or 65.5% and 34.5% were males. Among the metabolic urinary studied, we identified the following potential disturbances associated with nephrolithiasis: hypocitraturia in 21 patients (72.4%, hypomagnesuria in 12 (41.4%, hyperoxaluria in 4 (13.6% and urinary volume low in 5 (17.2%. Renal stones were identified in 13 patients (44.8%. Oxalate urinary excretion was higher in patients submitted to bowel surgery and also in patients with ileum resection. The urinary supersaturation of

  14. Treatment of Kidney Stones Using Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and Double-J Stent in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi Rostami, Mehdi; Taghipour-Gorgikolai, Mehrdad; Sharifian, Rayka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has progressively acquired popularity as being the gold standard treatment for upper urinary tract lithiasis in infants since 1980. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of ESWL for kidney stones and the use of double-J stent in infants. Material and Methods. A prospective clinical trial study performed on 50 infants with renal calculi at pelvic admitted in the Urology ward of Shafa Hospital, Sari, Iran, between 2001 and 2010. Main outcome measure of our study was clearing stones after one or more consecutive sessions of ESWL. Results. The study included 50 patients with renal calculi at pelvic. Among them, there were 35 (70%) boys and 15 (30%) girls with the age ranging from 1 to 13 months (mean of 7 month ± 3 days). All of them were treated by standard ESWL using Simons Lithostor plus machine. The stone sizes ranged from 6 mm to 22 mm. Double-J stents were placed in 11 infants (22%) with stones larger than 13 mm. Most of the patients required only one ESWL session. Conclusion. Since there were no complications following ESWL treatment, we can conclude that, in short term, ESWL is an effective and safe treatment modality for renal lithiasis in infants. In addition, we recommend double-J stent in infants with stones larger than 13 mm.

  15. Introduction. Leave no stone unturned: Perspectives on ground stone artefact research

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Rosenberg; Yorke Rowan; Tatjana Gluhak

    2016-01-01

    Ground stone tools served in many physical and social contexts through millennia, reflecting a wide variety of functions. Although ground stone tool studies were neglected for much of early archaeology, the last few decades witnessed a notable international uptick in the way archaeologists confront this multifaceted topic. Today, with the advance of archaeology as a discipline, research into ground stone artefacts is moving into a new phase that integrates high resolution documentation with n...

  16. The outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for renal pelvic stone with and without JJ stent--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohayuddin, Nazim; Malik, Hamad Afzal; Hussain, Manzoor; Tipu, Salman Ahmed; Shehzad, Asad; Hashmi, Altaf; Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2009-03-01

    To compare the outcome of Extra corporeal shockwave lithotripsy for a renal pelvic stone with and without JJ stent. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation from January 2007 to January 2008. Eighty patients with renal pelvic stone measuring 2cm +/- 2mm were selected for treatment with Extra Corporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL). All of these patients were adults with normal renal function and had unilateral renal stones with negative urine cultures. Patients with renal failure and children were excluded. They were divided into two groups of 40 each. Group A patients underwent ESWL without a JJ stent and in Group B a JJ stent was placed before ESWL. SLX F2 electromagnetic ESWL machine was used to impart shock waves. 3000 shockwaves were given in a session. Both the groups were compared for renal colic, steinstrasse, fever, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) emergency room visits and hospital admissions, stone clearance, number of ESWL sessions, auxilliary procedures, (percutaneous nephrostomy or ureterorenoscopy) and cost. Ureteric colic occurred in 13 (32.5%) patients in group A and in 3 (7.5%) patient in group B. Steinstrasse developed in 4 (10%) patients with out JJ stent and in 3 (7.5%) patients with JJ stent. Fever was encountered in 1 (2.5%) patient in group A and in 3 (7.5%) patient in group B. Mean emergency room visits were 2.1 per patient in group A and 0.7 per patient in group B. Stone clearance occurred in 33 (82.5%) patients in group A and 31 (77.5%) in group B. In group B lower urinary tract symptoms were found in 50% versus 20% in group A. Auxillary procedure was performed in one (2.5%) patient each in both groups. Pre ESWL JJ stenting for a 2 cm +/- 2 mm renal stone was not beneficial in terms of steinstrasse, fever, stone clearance and number of ESWL sessions. However ureteric colic was significantly less in the stented group. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was also significantly

  17. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  18. Dual-layer spectral detector CT: non-inferiority assessment compared to dual-source dual-energy CT in discriminating uric acid from non-uric acid renal stones ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Lakshmi; Duan, Xinhui; Xi, Yin; Lewis, Matthew A; Pearle, Margaret S; Antonelli, Jodi A; Goerne, Harold; Kolitz, Elysha M; Abbara, Suhny; Lenkinski, Robert E; Fielding, Julia R; Leyendecker, John R

    2018-04-07

    To assess the non-inferiority of dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) compared to dual-source dual-energy CT (dsDECT) in discriminating uric acid (UA) from non-UA stones. Fifty-seven extracted urinary calculi were placed in a cylindrical phantom in a water bath and scanned on a SDCT scanner (IQon, Philips Healthcare) and second- and third-generation dsDECT scanners (Somatom Flash and Force, Siemens Healthcare) under matched scan parameters. For SDCT data, conventional images and virtual monoenergetic reconstructions were created. A customized 3D growing region segmentation tool was used to segment each stone on a pixel-by-pixel basis for statistical analysis. Median virtual monoenergetic ratios (VMRs) of 40/200, 62/92, and 62/100 for each stone were recorded. For dsDECT data, dual-energy ratio (DER) for each stone was recorded from vendor-specific postprocessing software (Syngo Via) using the Kidney Stones Application. The clinical reference standard of X-ray diffraction analysis was used to assess non-inferiority. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess diagnostic performance of detecting UA stones. Six pure UA, 47 pure calcium-based, 1 pure cystine, and 3 mixed struvite stones were scanned. All pure UA stones were correctly separated from non-UA stones using SDCT and dsDECT (AUC = 1). For UA stones, median VMR was 0.95-0.99 and DER 1.00-1.02. For non-UA stones, median VMR was 1.4-4.1 and DER 1.39-1.69. SDCT spectral reconstructions demonstrate similar performance to those of dsDECT in discriminating UA from non-UA stones in a phantom model.

  19. IGCP 637 Heritage Stone Designation: A UNESCO and IUGS project on natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Cooper, Barry; Schouenborg, Björn; Marker, Brian; Kramar, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    IGCP 637 was approved in 2015 to facilitate establishment of a new international geological standard for building and ornamental stones. Formal international recognition of those natural stone types that have achieved widespread utilization in human culture is now underway and the term "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) has been proposed for this designation. Stones that have been used in heritage construction, sculptural masterpieces, as well as in utilitarian (yet culturally important) applications are obvious GHSR candidates. In co-ordination with these aims the project has an associated role to promote the adoption and use of the GHSR designation. Consequently an interim list of potential GHSRs is maintained and a register of GHSR approved stones is being created. IGCP 637 also enhances the capacity of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) in the realm of dimension stone and geological standards as it is the first IUGS involvement in this subject. As a consequence, the largest known international grouping of dimension stone professionals has been established. Within IGCP 637 a web page has been created at www.globalheritagestone.com, including information on the Working Group and also specific information on the evolution of the project. Several researchers were funded to attend the Heritage Stone working group activities, including researchers from Algeria, Malawi, India, Italy and Russia. We also have produced many publications, both as individual papers and special issues in journals included in the Journal Citation Reports. Monographs are being prepared at present. Hopefully, IGCP 637 will help to widen the circle of researchers interested in natural stones as part of our geoheritage. Heritage Stone references: articles and special issues - Pereira, D. and Marker, B. (2016) The value of original natural stone in the context of architectural heritage. Geosciences, 6, 13. - Heritage Stone 1. Ed. Pereira and Pratt. (2016). Geoscience

  20. Effect of Tamsulosin on Stone Passage for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ralph C; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Whitaker, Evans; Neilson, Jersey; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Stoller, Marshall L; Fahimi, Jahan

    2017-03-01

    Tamsulosin is recommended for patients receiving a diagnosis of a ureteral stone less than 10 mm who do not require immediate urologic intervention. Because of conflicting results from recent meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of tamsulosin is unclear. We perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of tamsulosin on stone passage in patients receiving a diagnosis of ureteral stone. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched without language restriction through November 2015 for studies assessing the efficacy of tamsulosin and using a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial design. Meta-analysis was conducted with a random-effects model and subgroup analyses were conducted to determine sources of heterogeneity. Eight randomized controlled trials (N=1,384) contained sufficient information for inclusion. The pooled risk of stone passage in the tamsulosin arm was 85% versus 66% in the placebo arm, but substantial heterogeneity existed across trials (I 2 =80.2%; Ptamsulosin (risk difference=22%; 95% confidence interval 12% to 33%; number needed to treat=5). The meta-analysis of the small stone subgroup (Tamsulosin significantly improves stone passage in patients with larger stones, whereas the effect of tamsulosin is diminished in those with smaller stones, who are likely to pass their stone regardless of treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of three different alpha 1-adrenergic blockers and hyoscine N-butylbromide for distal ureteral stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cenk Gurbuz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB and three different alpha-1 blockers in the treatment of distal ureteral stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 140 patients with stones located in the distal tract of the ureter with stone diameters of 5 to 10mm were enrolled in the present study and were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group 1 received HBB, Group 2 received alfuzosin, Group 3 received doxazosin and Group 4 received terazosin. The subjects were prescribed diclofenac injection (75 mg intramuscularly on demand for pain relief and were followed-up after two weeks with x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urinary ultrasonography every week. The number of pain episodes, analgesic dosage and the number of days of spontaneous passage of the calculi through the ureter were also recorded. RESULTS: The average stone size for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was comparable (6.13, 5.83, 5.59 and 5.48 mm respectively. Stone expulsion was observed in 11%, 52.9%, 62%, and 46% in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The average time to expulsion was 10.55 ± 6.21 days in group 1, 7.38 ± 5.55 days in group 2, 7.85 ± 5.11 days in group 3 and 7.45 ± 5.32 days in group 4. Alpha blockers were found to be superior to HBB (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Medical treatment of distal ureteral calculi with alfuzosin, doxazosin and terazosin resulted in a signi?cantly increased stone-expulsion rate and decreased expulsion time when compared with HBB. HBB seems to have a negative effect on stone-expulsion rate.

  2. Impact of Pretreatment Hydronephrosis on the Success Rate of Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Patients with Ureteral Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ki Don; Lee, Joo Yong; Park, Sung Yoon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Hyung Ho; Cho, Kang Su

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate predictors of the success rate for one session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), focusing on the relationships between pretreatment hydronephrosis grade and one-session SWL success rates. The medical records of 1824 consecutive patients who underwent an initial session of SWL for treatment of urinary stones between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. After exclusion, 700 patients with a single, 4-20 mm diameter radiopaque calculus were included in the study. The mean maximal stone length (MSL) and skin-to-stone distance were 9.2±3.9 and 110.8±18.9 mm, respectively. The average values for mean stone density (MSD) and stone heterogeneity index (SHI) were 707.0±272.1 and 244.9±110.1, respectively. One-session success rates were 68.4, 75.0, 75.1, 54.0, and 10.5% in patients with hydronephrosis grade 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Patients were classified into success or failure groups based on SWL outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that MSL [odds ratio (OR) 0.888, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.841-0.934, phydronephrosis grade (OR 0.601, 95% CI: 0.368-0.988, p=0.043) were significantly associated with one-session success. Pretreatment grades 3 or 4 hydronephrosis were associated with failure of SWL in patients with a single ureteral stone. In the presence of severe hydronephrosis, especially hydronephrosis grade 4; physicians should proceed cautiously in choosing and offering SWL as the primary treatment for ureteral stone. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  3. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  4. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...

  5. What is Urinary Incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes of urinary incontinence For women, thinning and drying of the skin in the vagina or urethra, ... make some changes in your diet. Alcohol, caffeine, foods high in acid (such as tomato or grapefruit) ...

  6. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  7. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  8. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rørtveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskår, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy, and associated risk factors.Method: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence in addition to type, frequency and amount of incontinence. Po...

  9. Scientific aspects of urolithiasis: quantitative stone analysis and crystallization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandt, M.A.E.

    1986-03-01

    The theory, development and results of three quantitative analytical procedures are described and the crystallization experiments in a rotary evaporator are presented. Of the different methods of quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analyses, the 'internal standard method' and a microanalytical technique were identified as the two most useful procedures for the quantitative analysis of urinary calculi. 'Reference intensity ratios' for 6 major stone phases were determined and were used in the analysis of 20 calculi by the 'internal standard method'. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) methods were also investigated, developed and used in this study. Various procedures for the digestion of calculi were tested and a mixture of HNO 3 and HC1O 4 was eventually found to be the most successful. The major elements Ca, Mg, and P in 41 calculi were determined. For the determination of trace elements, a new microwave-assisted digestion procedure was developed and used for the digestion of 100 calculi. Fluoride concentrations in two stone collections were determined using a fluoride-ion sensitive electrode and the HNO 3 /HC1O 4 digestion prodecure used for the ICP study. A series of crystallization experiments involving a standard reference artificial urine was carried out in a rotary evaporator. The effect of pH and urine composition was studied by varying the former and by including uric acid, urea, creatinine, MgO, methylene blue, chondroitin sulphate A, and fluoride in the reference solution. Crystals formed in these experiments were subjected to qualitative and semi-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Scanning electron microscopy of several deposits was also carried out. Similar deposits to those observed in calculi were obtained with the fast evaporator. The results presented suggest that this system provides a simple, yet very useful means for studying the crystallization characteristics of urine solutions

  10. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  11. non absorbable sutures in the urinary bladder resulting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vesical calculus. Urol Clin North AM. 2000, 27:333-346. 3. Evans JW, Chapple CR, Ralph DJ, Millory EJ: Bladder calculus formation as a complication of the Stamey procedure. Br J Urol 1990,. 65:580-582. 4. Sheng-Tsun Su, He-Fu Haung, Shu-Fen. Chang. Encrusted Bladder stone on Non- absorbable sutures after a ...

  12. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  13. Value of Ultrasound in Detecting Urinary Tract Anomalies After First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, Emad E; Abdelaziz, Doaa M; Sheba, Maha F; Abdel-Azeem, Yasser S

    2016-05-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can demonstrate the size and shape of kidneys, presence of dilatation of the ureters, and the existence of anatomic abnormalities. The aim of the study is to estimate the value of ultrasound in detecting urinary tract anomalies after first attack of UTI. Methods This study was conducted at the Nephrology Clinic, New Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, from August 2012 to March 2013, and included 30 children who presented with first attack of acute febrile UTI. All patients were subjected to urine analysis, urine culture and sensitivity, serum creatinine, complete blood count, and imaging in the form of renal ultrasound, voiding cysto-urethrography, and renal scan. Results All the patients had fever with a mean of 38.96°C ± 0.44°C and the mean duration of illness was 6.23 ± 5.64 days. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had an ultrasound abnormality. The commonest abnormalities were kidney stones (15.8%). Only 2 patients who had abnormal ultrasound had also vesicoureteric reflux on cystourethrography. Sensitivity of ultrasound was 66.7%, specificity was 37.5%, positive predictive value was 21.1%, negative predictive value was 81.8%, and total accuracy was 43.33%. Conclusion We concluded that ultrasound alone was not of much value in diagnosing and putting a plan of first attack of febrile UTI. It is recommended that combined investigations are the best way to confirm diagnosis of urinary tract anomalies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Alfuzosin as Medical Expulsive Therapy for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenli Liu

    Full Text Available Alfuzosin has been widely used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis, and is claimed to be a selective agent for the lower urinary tract with low incidence of adverse side-effects and hypotensive changes. Recently, several randomized controlled trials have reported using Alfuzosin as an expulsive therapy of ureteral stones. Tamsulosin, another alpha blocker, has also been used as an agent for the expulsive therapy for ureteral stones. It is unclear whether alfuzosin has similar efficacy as Tamsulosin in the management of ureteral stones.To perform a systematic review and analysis of literatures comparing Alfuzosin with Tamsulosin or standard conservative therapy for the treatment of ureteral stones less than 10 mm in diameter.A systematic literature review was performed in December 2014 using Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases to identify relevant studies. All randomized and controlled trials were included. A subgroup analysis was performed comparing Alfuzosin with control therapy on the management of distal ureteral stones.Alfuzosin provided a significantly higher stone-free rate than the control treatments (RR: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.55; p<0.001, and a shorter stone expulsion time (Weighted mean difference [WMD]: -4.20 d, 95%CI, -6.19 to -2.21; p<0.001, but it has a higher complication rate (RR: 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.15; p<0.01. When Alfuzosin was compared to Tamsulosin, there was no significant difference in terms of stone-free rate (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79-1.02; p = 0.09 as well as the stone expulsion time (WMD: 0.52 d, 95%CI, -1.61 to 2.64; p = 0.63. The adverse effects of Alfuzosin were similar to those of Tamsulosin (RR: 0.88; 95% CI, 0.61-1.26; p = 0.47.Alfuzosin is a safe and effective agent for the expulsive therapy of ureteral stones smaller than 10 mm in size. It is more effective than therapeutic regiment without alpha blocker. It is equivalent to Tamsulosin in its effectiveness and

  15. Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (pESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

  16. Effect of Hydrogen Adsorption on the Stone-Wales Transformation in Small-Diameter Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openov, L. A.; Podlivaev, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of hydrogenation of (4, 0) and (3, 0) carbon nanotubes on the Stone-Wales transformation is studied in the framework of the nonorthogonal tight-binding model. It is shown that the atomic hydrogen adsorption can lead to both a decrease and an increase in the barriers for the direct and inverse transformations depending on the orientation of a rotating C-C bond with respect to the nanotube axis. The characteristic times of formation and annealing the Stone-Wales defects have been estimated. The Young's moduli have been calculated.

  17. Computerized tomography magnified bone windows are superior to standard soft tissue windows for accurate measurement of stone size: an in vitro and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Kambadakone, Avinash; Monga, Manoj; Anderson, James K; Thoreson, Andrew A; Lee, Hang; Dretler, Stephen P; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2009-04-01

    We determined the most accurate method of measuring urinary stones on computerized tomography. For the in vitro portion of the study 24 calculi, including 12 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 12 uric acid stones, that had been previously collected at our clinic were measured manually with hand calipers as the gold standard measurement. The calculi were then embedded into human kidney-sized potatoes and scanned using 64-slice multidetector computerized tomography. Computerized tomography measurements were performed at 4 window settings, including standard soft tissue windows (window width-320 and window length-50), standard bone windows (window width-1120 and window length-300), 5.13x magnified soft tissue windows and 5.13x magnified bone windows. Maximum stone dimensions were recorded. For the in vivo portion of the study 41 patients with distal ureteral stones who underwent noncontrast computerized tomography and subsequently spontaneously passed the stones were analyzed. All analyzed stones were 100% calcium oxalate monohydrate or mixed, calcium based stones. Stones were prospectively collected at the clinic and the largest diameter was measured with digital calipers as the gold standard. This was compared to computerized tomography measurements using 4.0x magnified soft tissue windows and 4.0x magnified bone windows. Statistical comparisons were performed using Pearson's correlation and paired t test. In the in vitro portion of the study the most accurate measurements were obtained using 5.13x magnified bone windows with a mean 0.13 mm difference from caliper measurement (p = 0.6). Measurements performed in the soft tissue window with and without magnification, and in the bone window without magnification were significantly different from hand caliper measurements (mean difference 1.2, 1.9 and 1.4 mm, p = 0.003, window settings with magnification. For uric acid calculi the measurement error was observed only in standard soft tissue window settings. In vivo 4.0x

  18. Setting and Stiffening of Cementitious Components in Cast Stone Waste Form for Disposal of Secondary Wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S. K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from Hanford vitrification plant. While the strength and radioactive technetium leaching of different waste form candidates have been reported, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior of Cast Stone, which is essential to ensure the proper workability, especially considering necessary safety as a nuclear waste form in a field scale application. The rheological and ultrasonic wave reflection (UWR) measurements were used to understand the setting and stiffening Cast Stone batches. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find the correlation between specific phase formation and the stiffening of the paste. Our results showed good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh Cast Stone mixture and phase formation during hydration of Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation originating from blast furnace slag was observed in Cast Stone made with low concentration simulants. The formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  19. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: • A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. • Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. • A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  20. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  1. Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Osman Yavuz; Şeşen, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Koşar, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 μm inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones.

  2. Treatment of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones in the laparoscopic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-jie; Xu, Gui-fang; Huang, Qin; Luo, Kun-lun; Dong, Zhi-tao; Li, Jie-ming; Wu, Guo-zhong; Guan, Wen-xian

    2015-01-26

    Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for stone can be carried out by either laparoscopic transcystic stone extraction (LTSE) or laparoscopic choledochotomy (LC). It remains unknown as to which approach is optimal for management of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones (CBDS) in Chinese patients. From May 2000 to February 2009, we prospective treated 346 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones and CBDS with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and LCBDE. Intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, postoperative hospital stay and costs were analyzed. Because of LCBDE failure,16 cases (4.6%) required open surgery. Of 330 successful LCBDE-treated patients, 237 underwent LTSE and 93 required LC. No mortality occurred in either group. The bile duct stone clearance rate was similar in both groups. Patients in the LTSE group were significantly younger and had fewer complications with smaller, fewer stones, shorter operative time and postoperative hospital stays, and lower costs, compared to those in the LC group. Compared with patients with T-tube insertion, patients in the LC group with primary closure had shorter operative time, shorter postoperative hospital stay, and lower costs. In cases requiring LCBDE, LTSE should be the first choice, whereas LC may be restricted to large, multiple stones. LC with primary closure without external drainage of the CBDS is as effective and safe as the T-tube insertion approach.