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Sample records for urinary calculi

  1. [Complications of urinary calculi].

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    Joual, A; Fekak, H; Rabii, R; el Moussasoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    Urinary stones is a frequent disease whose renal complications can engage both functional and vital prognosis. We report 769 complicated cases observed 10 years. The diagnosis was made by intravenous urography and ultrasonography. 607 cases were mechanical complications, 582 hydronephrosis, 25 anuria, 262 were infectious complications, 82 chronic pyelonephritis, 60 pyonephrosis, 10 perinephric abscess. Treatment included adapted antibiotic therapy, ureteral catheter in case of anuria ; surgical extraction of the stone nephrectomy was performed in 100 patients. Results were generally good. 9 patients had endstage chronic renal failure. The high frequency of urinary stone complications is due to the fact that most patients consult late. The diagnosis must obviously be made.

  2. [Urinary calculi and infection].

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    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  3. Inhibition of urinary calculi -- a spectroscopic study

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    Manciu, Felicia; Govani, Jayesh; Durrer, William; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

    2008-10-01

    Although a considerable number of investigations have already been undertaken and many causes such as life habits, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors have been noted as sources that accelerate calculi depositions and aggregations, there are still plenty of unanswered questions regarding efficient inhibition and treatment mechanisms. Thus, in an attempt to acquire more insights, we propose here a detailed scientific study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. A simplified single diffusion gel growth technique was used for synthesizing the samples for the present study. The unexpected Zn presence in the sample with RAL inhibitor, as revealed by XPS measurements, explains the inhibition process and the dramatic reflectance of the incident light observed in the infrared transmission studies. Raman data demonstrate potential binding of the inhibitor with the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence results corroborate to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

  4. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

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    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility

  5. Results of urinary dissolution therapy for radiolucent calculi

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    Sinha Maneesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose In this paper we present our experience with dissolution therapy of radiolucent calculi. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of patients who were offered urinary dissolution therapy between January 2010 and June 2011. Patients were treated with tablets containing potassium citrate and magnesium oxide. Partial dissolution was defined as at least a 50% reduction in stone size. Patients with complete or partial dissolution were classified in the successful dissolution group. Patients with no change, inadequate reduction, increase in stone size and those unable to tolerate alkali therapy were classified as failures. Patient sex, stenting before alkalinization, stone size, urine pH at presentation and serum uric acid levels were analyzed using Fisher t-test for an association with successful dissolution. Results Out of 67, 48 patients reported for follow up. 10 (15% had complete dissolution and 13 (19% had partial dissolution. Alkalinization was unsuccessful in achieving dissolution in 25 (37%. Stenting before alkalinization, patient weight ( 75kg and serum uric acid levels (≤ 6 vs. > 6 were the only factors to significantly affected dissolution rates (p = 0.039, p 0.035, p 0.01 respectively. CONCLUSIONS A policy of offering dissolution therapy to patients with radiolucent calculi had a successful outcome in 34% of patients.

  6. Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children

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    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bates, Gregory D. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Goodsitt, Mitchell M. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

  7. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  8. Acute urinary retention in women due to urethral calculi: A rare case

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with acute urinary retention caused by a urethral calculus. Urethral calculi in women are extremely rare and are usually formed in association with underlying genitourinary pathology. In this case, however, no pathology was detected via thorough urological evaluation. We discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of urethral calculi. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of a primary urethral calculus in a female with an...

  9. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

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    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  10. "THE ROLE OF HARDNESS OF POTABLE WATER IN THE FORMATION OF URINARY CALCULI IN UROMIEH, Iran"

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    K.Imandel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of renal and urinary calculi is not due to a single cause but occurs as a multifactor entity, by which some of them still are unknown. Three theories of Stones formation including nucleation, stone matrix and inhibition of crystallization do not accuse water hardness as a main cause of the formation of urinary calculi 120 patients suffering from renal and urinary calculi and the same number of control persons were studied in the city of Uromieh. The analysis of uroliths and water samples fulfilled the laboratory Standard methods Chi-square test was done on the results obtained The results of water analyses showed that the total hardness of Calcium and Magnesium were 300, 69, 32 mg/I as CaCo3 , TDS , 410 mg/I, electrical conductivity 600 us/cm and water classified as very hard. The abundance of uroliths were, oxalate, cystjne, uric acid infectious respectively, There was no statistical significant association between water hardness and urinary calculi of patients under study with respect to age and sex. The abundance blood groups in patients were A , 0 , AB and B respectively and the occurrence of 3 renal calculi mentioned above were more in men than Women The formation of renal stones were most occurred in summer season. The most abundant was calcium oxalate, the incidence was between the ages 30 to 50 years old and calcium stones were 2.7 times more in men than woman.

  11. Therapeutic effects of potassium sodium hydrogen citrate on melamine-induced urinary calculi in China

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    GAO Jie; SHEN Ying; SUN Ning; JIA Li-qun; PAN Yue-song; SUN Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2008, a sharp increase of the number of children diagnosed with urinary calculi was observed in China, 9433 children were diagnosed as having melamine-induced urinary calculi at outpatient clinic in Beijing Children's Hospital. This study examined the therapeutic efficacy of potassium sodium hydrogen citrate (PSHC) used to treat melamine-induced urinary stones in Chinese children who consumed melamine-containing infant formula. Methods Seventy-two infants and children (average age (18.2±7.7) months) who were diagnosed with urinary calculi were icuidomly divided into three treatment groups using the SAS Plan program. Group 1 was given a low dose (1 g/d) of PSHC, group 2 was given high dose of PSHC (2 g/d) and group 3 was given no PSHC (control group). The dose of drug was adjusted according to the baseline urinary pH. This study analyzed the influence of the dose of PSHC, the age of patients, stone size and position, and urinary pH on the level of efficacy of PSHC (cured, effectively treated or not cured).Results After 1-6 months of therapy, 19 patients from group 1, five patients from group 2 and six patients from group 3 were cured. Five patients from group 1, five patients from group 2 and four patients from group 3 were effectively treated. There were significant differences in therapeutic efficacy between the two treatment doses after 3 and 6 months as measured by the increase in the successful expulsion rate and time of melamine-induced urinary calculi. After 6 months the mean time of expulsion of urinary calculi in groups 1 and 2 was significantly shorter than in the control group. Conclusions PSHC can significantly increase the successful expulsion rate and time of melamine-induced urinary calculi. The therapeutic efficacy is affected by PSHC dose, treatment duration, calculi position, and urinary pH. There is no relationship between the therapeutic efficacy and the stone size or patient age.

  12. Common site of urinary calculi in kidney, ureter and bladder region.

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    Chand, R B; Shah, A K; Pant, D K; Paudel, S

    2013-03-01

    Urolithiasis is an ancient disease with global distribution. It refers to stones originating anywhere in the urinary system. Urinary calculi or stones are the most common cause of acute urinary system obstruction. The study was aimed with finding out the common site of urinary calculus in kidney ureter bladder (KUB) region. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from June 2012 to September 2012 at Tribhuvan University, Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj. A total 240 urolitiasis patients were enrolled for plain KUB examination. Site of urinary calculus was identified by observing KUB film of the subjects under the supervision of radiologist. The data were analyzed prospectively with outcome measures of gender & stone location. Out of 240 patients, 138 were male and 102 were female with male to female ratio of 1.35:1. The age ranged from 9 to 83 years. Out of total 240 patients, 71.9% (187) patients belonged to productive age group (20-60 years). Total number of urinary calculi was 345 in which 208 were found in male patients and 137 were found in female patients. Of total 345 calculi, 237 were renal stones, 47 were ureteric stones, 22 of the stones were found in pelviureteric junction (PUJ), 33 of stones were found in vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), and 6 were in bladder. In conclusion, urinary stone disease is a major public health problem in a developing country like Nepal with male and productive age group predominance. Kidney stones are most common. Distal ureter is the most common site of ureteric stone.

  13. [Microscopic investigation of the partial stages of dissolution processes in urinary calculi (author's transl)].

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    Seyfarth, H H; Hahne, B; Rostek, F P; Sluka, G; Eismann, D

    1975-11-14

    The formation of urinary calculi cannot yet be prevented with certainty. Consequently the dissolution of stones remains a focus of medical interest. The speed of solution of a calculus is not a quantity typical of the substance, but depends largely on the structural formation of the urinary calculi. With very different types of structure (e.g. Whewellite and Weddellite stones) the rate of dissolution can therefore fluctuate between wide limits in spite of similar phase composition. Consequently, type of structure, course of solution and rate of solution can be clearly correlated. Stones with relatively uniform structure formation (e.g. Struvite stones) on the other hand show largely similar solution rates. Medically, it is of interest that in certain structural types, solution may lead to disintegration of the stone into isolated solution residues.

  14. Medullary Sponge Kidney and Urinary Calculi Aeromedical Concerns

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    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Cherian, Sebastian F.; Barr, Yael R.; Stocco, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Medullary Sponge Kidney (MSK) is a benign disorder associated with renal stones in 60% of patients. Patients frequently have episodic painless hematuria but are otherwise asymptomatic unless renal calculi or infections complicate the disease. Nephrolithiasis is a relative, but frequently enforced, contraindication to space or other high performance flight. Two case reports of asymptomatic NASA flight crew with MSK and three cases of military aviators diagnosed with MSK are reviewed, all cases resulted in waiver and return to flight status after treatment and a vigorous follow up and prophylaxis protocol. MSK in aviation and space flight necessitates a highly case-by-case dependent evaluation and treatment process to rule out other potential confounding factors that might also contribute to stone formation and in order to re-qualify the aviator for flight duties.

  15. Spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi and inhibition of their growth

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    Manciu, Felicia; Durrer, William; Govani, Jayesh; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

    2009-10-01

    We present here a study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. Kidney stone material systems were synthesized in vitro using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. With the objective of revealing the mechanism of inhibition of calculi formation by RAL extracts, samples prepared without the presence of extract, and with the presence of extract, were analyzed using Raman, photoluminescence, and XPS. The unexpected presence of Zn revealed by XPS in a sample prepared with RAL provides an explanation for the inhibition process, and also explains the dramatic reflectance of incident light observed in attempts to obtain infrared transmission data. Raman data are consistent with the binding of the inhibitor to the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence data corroborate with the other results to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

  16. Pathophysiological aspects of ureterorenoscopic management of upper urinary tract calculi

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    Osther, Palle J S; Pedersen, Katja V; Lildal, Søren K;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Indications for ureterorenoscopy are expanding without hard scientific evidence to support its efficacy. Therefore, it is extremely important to focus on potential harmful effects of the procedure itself. This review explores how physiology of the upper urinary tract reacts...... of the β-receptor agonist isoproterenol in the irrigation fluid has shown a potential for reducing both intrarenal pressure and ureteral tone during ureterorenoscopy. SUMMARY: Upper urinary tract physiology has unique features that may be pushed into pathophysiological processes by the unique elements...

  17. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

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    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34% patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL occurred in 14 (32% patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41% patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%. In 29 (66% patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007, but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09. Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  18. Case series demonstrating the clinical utility of dual energy computed tomography in patients requiring stents for urinary calculi.

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    Jepperson, Maria A; Thiel, David D; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Broderick, Gregory A; Haley, William E

    2014-02-01

    Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) utilizes the material change in attenuation when imaged at two different energies to determine the composition of urinary calculi as uric acid or non-uric acid. We discuss a series of case reports illustrating DECT's ability to provide immediate determination of uric acid versus non-uric acid calculi and facilitate more informed clinical decision-making. Further, these cases demonstrate a unique population of patients with ureteral stents and percutaneous nephrostomy tubes that benefit from DECT's ability to create a virtual color contrast between an indwelling device and the stone material and thereby significantly impacting patient morbidity.

  19. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

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    L. Gandolpho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  20. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

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    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  1. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

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    Bellin, Marie-France; Meric, Jean-Baptiste [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Paul-Brousse, Villejuif Cedex (France); Renard-Penna, Raphaelle; Grenier, Philippe [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Conort, Pierre; Richard, Francois [AP-HP, Department of Urology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bissery, Anne; Mallet, Alain [AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Daudon, Michel [AP-HP, Department of Biochemistry, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  2. Combined oral and local therapy for the dissolution of urinary calculi.

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    Götz, F; Frang, D; Hübler, J; Nagy, Z

    1982-01-01

    The factors underlying the formation of Ca-phosphate and struvite calculi, as well as the present possibilities for oral and local therapy, their advantages and drawbacks are discussed in the light of published evidence. In this context a clinical case of multiple injuries is reported in which practically complete chemolitholysis has been achieved by combined oral and local therapy. The rapid growth of the calculi and their alarming tendency to recurrence in case of inadequate treatment is emphasized. The therapeutic method used in this case is regarded as suitable for practical purposes.

  3. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by ultrasonography to treat upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity

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    He, Zhaohui; Zhang, Caixia; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL) in managing upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity. Materials and Methods: Between August 2001 to December 2012, 16 upper urinary calculi in 13 patients with severe spinal deformity were treated by MPCNL. Preoperative investigation of the respiratory function, evaluation of anatomy by intravenous urography (IVU) and CT scan, and preoperative kidney ultrasonagraphy with simulation of the percutaneous puncture were performed in all patients. The percutaneous puncture was guided by ultrasonography. Results: A total of 19 MPCNL procedures were performed in 16 kidneys, with an average 1.2 procedures in each kidney. Three kidneys needed two sessions of MPCNL, and 2 kidneys needed combined treatment with retrograde flexible ureterscopic lithotripsy. All procedures were successfully completed with no major complications during or after surgery. The mean (range) operative duration was 67 (20-150) min and the mean postoperative haemoglobin drop was 1.0 (0.2-3.1) g/dL. Complete stone-free status was achieved in 14 kidneys. At a mean follow-up of 48(3-86) months, recurrence of small lower calyx stone was detected in one patient. Recurrent UTI was documented by urine culture in two patients and managed with sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: PCNL for patients with severe spinal deformities is challenging. Ultrasonography-assisted puncture can allow safe and successfully establishment of PCN tract through a narrow safety margin of puncture and avoid the injury to the adjacent organs. However, the operation should be performed in tertiary centers with significant expertise in managing complex urolithiasis. PMID:27509373

  4. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by ultrasonography to treat upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui He

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL in managing upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity. Materials and Methods: Between August 2001 to December 2012, 16 upper urinary calculi in 13 patients with severe spinal deformity were treated by MPCNL. Preoperative investigation of the respiratory function, evaluation of anatomy by intravenous urography (IVU and CT scan, and preoperative kidney ultrasonagraphy with simulation of the percutaneous puncture were performed in all patients. The percutaneous puncture was guided by ultrasonography. Results: A total of 19 MPCNL procedures were performed in 16 kidneys, with an average 1.2 procedures in each kidney. Three kidneys needed two sessions of MPCNL, and 2 kidneys needed combined treatment with retrograde flexible ureterscopic lithotripsy. All procedures were successfully completed with no major complications during or after surgery. The mean (range operative duration was 67 (20-150 min and the mean postoperative haemoglobin drop was 1.0 (0.2-3.1 g/dL. Complete stone-free status was achieved in 14 kidneys. At a mean follow-up of 48(3-86 months, recurrence of small lower calyx stone was detected in one patient. Recurrent UTI was documented by urine culture in two patients and managed with sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: PCNL for patients with severe spinal deformities is challenging. Ultrasonography-assisted puncture can allow safe and successfully establishment of PCN tract through a narrow safety margin of puncture and avoid the injury to the adjacent organs. However, the operation should be performed in tertiary centers with significant expertise in managing complex urolithiasis.

  5. [Infection-induced urinary calculi in children; current therapeutic schedule and prevention of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, D; Brühl, P; Hesse, A

    1988-01-01

    Infection stones have an outstanding position in childhood urolithiasis. In non-infection stones one can mostly find a certain--for example metabolic--causes of stone formation. In infection stones, the urease-producing and thus urea-cleaving properties of some gram-negative bacteria are responsible for alkalization of the urine and lead especially in combination with disturbances of urine transport to the staghorn calculi. Therefore in such children early diagnosis, adequate therapy and consequent maintenance is the crucial point for good life quality in future. Preliminary condition for therapeutic success is a close coworking between pediatric nephrologist, pediatric urologist, family doctor and parents.

  6. Melamine-induced infant urinary calculi: a report on 24 cases and a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangbo; Bai, Jinliang; Ma, Pengcheng; Ma, Jianhua; Wan, Jianghou; Jiang, Bin

    2010-10-01

    Melamine has been the main factor leading to infant urinary calculi occurring on a rather wide scale in China in 2008, which were the results of a rapid aggradation of metabolites such as cyanuric acid diamide, cyanuric acid, etc., causing uric acid stone to accumulate. Here, we present a report on 24 infants who were admitted to our department, their ages ranging from 3 to 10 months. All of these infants had a confirmed history of having been fed with the "Sanlu" brand milk powder, which contained excessive levels of melamine, with the highest being 2,563 mg/kg. The diagnosis, medical treatment and follow-up by ultrasonography at 1, 3, 6, 12 months were reported. 22 cases of these infants were rehabilitated after medical treatment and 1 infant underwent pyelolithotomy for relieving an obvious ureter obstruction. No recurrence was found in these babies thereafter. Another infant died from rapidly worsening renal failure. Therefore, this series of cases have demonstrated that melamine contained in the "Sanlu" milk powder was the main cause of these urinary stones. Urine alkalinization and stone liberalization were the most effective treatments. Fast diagnosis and treatment of acute obstructive urolithiasis may prevent the development of acute renal failure, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

  7. Infrared analysis of urinary calculi by a single reflection accessory and a neural network interpretation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volmer, M; de Vries, JCM; Goldschmidt, HMJ

    2001-01-01

    Background: Preparation of KBr tablets, used for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of urinary calculus composition, is time-consuming and often hampered by pellet breakage. We developed a new F:T-IR method for urinary calculus analysis. This method makes use of a Golden Gate Single Refecti

  8. Photothermal ablation is the primary mechanism in holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy of urinary calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Corbin, Nicole S.; Vassar, George J.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Chan, Kin Foong; Welch, Ashley J.

    1999-09-01

    Because of the >= 250 microsecond(s) pulsewidth emitted by the Ho:YAG laser used in clinical lithotripsy, it is unlikely that stress confinement occurs within the irradiated stones. Experimental data supports a thermal mechanism for Ho:YAG laser stone ablation. Previous work has shown that stone fragmentation occurs soon after the onset of the laser pulse, is uncorrelated to cavitation bubble formation or collapse, and is associated with low pressures. Moreover, lithotripsy proceeds fastest with desiccated stones in air (data based on laser ablation of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones), indicating that direct absorption of the laser radiation by the stone material is required for the most efficient ablation. Lowering the initial temperature of calculi reduces the stone mass-loss following 20 J of delivered laser energy: 2.2 +/- 1.1 mg vs 5.2 +/- 1.6 mg for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones (-80 vs 23 degree(s)C), and 0.8 +/- 0.4 mg vs 2.2 +/- 1.1 mg for cystine stones (-80 vs 23 degree(s)C), p cystine; Ca2O7P2 from calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and cyanide and alloxan from uric acid. All of these observations are most consistent with a photothermal breakdown process induced by Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy.

  9. Dissolution of struvite calculi by hemiacidrin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, F J; Weiner, B; Sant, G R; Meares, E M

    1983-01-01

    Struvite calculi result from urinary tract infections secondary to urease-producing bacteria. To prevent recurrent infection and stone formation complete removal of struvite calculi is recommended. Two illustrative reports of patients with renal struvite calculi are presented in which 10% hemiacidrin (Renacidin) irrigation was instituted for stone dissolution. After surgical removal of the calculi a nephrostomy tube was placed in the renal pelvis. With confirmation of residual struvite calculi, 10% hemiacidrin irrigation was initiated. Urine cultures, electrolytes and nephrotomograms were performed and adverse effects monitored. Using strict aseptic technique and appropriate precautions, hemiacidrin irrigation safely dissolves struvite calculi.

  10. Significance of acoustic shadowing and comet tail artifacts in diagnosis of urinary calculi%超声伪像声影彗尾征在尿结石诊断中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光勇; 林雨冬; 黄维; 范武林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of acoustic shadowing and comet tail artifacts in detection of urinary calculi. Methods 238 cases of urinary calculi were researched,including the mineral composition and the size( height and width) of calculi,the occurrence of acoustic shadowing and comet tail artifacts,then analyzed those relevant relationships by Statistical Analysis System. Results (1) There was no statistical relationship between the acoustic shadowing artifacts and urinary calculi mineral composition}P0. 05); (3(There was no statistical relationship between the occurrence of comet tail artifacts and urinary calculi width or height(P>0. 05). Conclusion (l)The occurrence of acoustic shadowing and comet tail artifacts is no relationship with urinary calculi mineral composition,and can not be used to predict urinary calculi mineral composition; (2)There is a directly relationship between the occurrence of acoustic shadowing artifacts and urinary calculi height, but there is no relationship between the occurrence of comet tail artifacts and urinary calculi width or height.%目的 研究超声伪像中的声影、彗尾征在尿结石超声影像检查中的意义.方法 对238例尿石症患者的尿结石成分、大小及超声检查时声影、彗尾征出现情况进行统计学评估,分析其相关性.结果 (1)声影的出现与尿结石成分无关(P>0.05);(2)声影与结石最大厚度有关(P<0.05),而声影与结石最大宽度无关(P>0.05);(3)彗尾征与结石的最大宽度及最大厚度均无关(P>0.05).结论 (1)声影的出现与尿结石的成分无关,不能用于判定结石成分;(2)声影的出现与尿结石的厚度有直接的关系,但彗尾征的出现与尿结石的厚度和宽度无关.

  11. In vitro studies of epithelium-associated crystallization caused by uropathogens during urinary calculi development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Białczak-Kokot, Magdalena; Różalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urinary stones account for about 10% of all urinary stones. In 50% of cases urolithiasis is a recurrent illness, which can lead to the loss of a kidney if not properly treated. One of the reasons for recurrence of the disease may be the ability of bacteria to invade urothelial cells, persist in the host cells and serve as potential reservoirs for infection. Various uropathogens are associated with the formation of bacteria-induced urinary stones but Proteus mirabilis is the most commonly isolated (70%). An in vitro model was used in this study to analyze intracellular growth and crystallization in the presence of P. mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Human ureter (Hu 609) and bladder (HCV 29) epithelial cell lines were infected with bacteria and incubated (3-72 h) in the presence of synthetic urine and amikacin to prevent extracellular bacterial growth. During the incubation the number of bacteria (CFU/ml) inside epithelial cells and the intensity of crystallization were established. Crystallization was determined as an amount of a calcium radioisotope. The chosen strains of uropathogens were able to invade both types of epithelial cells but the Hu 609 cells were invaded to a higher extent. However, crystallization occurred only in the presence of P. mirabilis strains which were invasive and urease-positive. The highest intensity of cell-associated crystallization was observed when the number of bacteria within the urothelium remained stable during the time of incubation. These results show that P. mirabilis has an ability to form crystals inside the host cells. Under these conditions bacteria are protected from antibiotic killing, which leads to persistent and recurrent infections. We also suspect that this phenomenon may be an important stage of kidney stones formation.

  12. Qinghai urinary calculi in composition analysis and prevention%青海地区泌尿系结石成分分析及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣雨; 蔡辉霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究青海地区581例泌尿系结石化学构成,为临床预防、治疗提供依据.方法:化学反应测定581例泌尿系结石标本,研究其成分,并结合临床资料进行比较.结果:在581例尿石中混合结石占70.56%(410/581),其中草酸盐结石59.89%,磷酸盐结石34.59%,碳酸盐结石24.61%,尿酸结石26.33%;单纯结石17.42%.上尿路结石473例,下尿路结石108例,上、下尿路结石之比为4.36:1,肾、输尿管结石主要以草酸钙和磷酸钙混合结石及单纯草酸钙结石为主,膀胱结石主要以尿酸结石为主,尿路结石部位和化学成份构成密切相关,肾、膀胱结石与其化学成份构成经统计学检验差异有显著性(P<0.05),提示上、下尿路结石的发病机理不同.结论:结石成分分析对于了解结石成因、预防结石形成和复发具有重要的意义.%Objective To study the 581 cases of qinghai region urinary calculi chemical composition, for clinical prevention, treatment, provides the basis. Methods 581 cases of chemical reaction determination of urinary calculi specimens, and study the composition, and combined with clinical data are compared. Results Among 581 cases in urine mixed stones accounted for 70.56%(410/581), of which 59.89% salt oxalate stone, phosphate stone 34.59%, 24.61% carbonate stone, stone uric acid 26.33%; Simple stone 17.42%. Urinary calculi in 473 cases, urinary calculi under 108 cases, on under the ratio of urinary calculus 4.36:1, kidney, ureter stone mainly calcium oxalate stone and calcium phosphate and mixed pure calcium oxalate stone is given priority to, bladder calculi mainly uric acid as stone, urinary calculus parts and chemical composition constitute a closely related, the kidney, bladder calculus and its chemical composition form after statistics inspection (P<0.05), hintunder the pathogenesis of urinary calculus is different. Conclusion stone composition analysis to understand the stone cause, prevention

  13. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated.

  14. Analysis of chemical composition of urinary calculi%南疆地区197例患者泌尿系结石成份分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄睿; 孟晓辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the composition of urinary stone and investigate its prevention method. Methods 197 cases with urinary stones related to melamine milk were collected. The qualitative determination was performed by infrared spectroscopy automatic analyzer. Results 8 components in urinary stone were detected. 98 cases (51. 8%) were pure type, while 91 cases (48. 1%) were the mixed type. 38% of the calculi were calcium-containing stones. 34. 8% of the stones were non-calcium- containing. The rest were mixed. The percentage of various stone compositions were as follows: urinary ammonium calculi was 44. 9% (48 cases) , calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) + urinary ammonium calculi was 28. 5% (28 cases), calcium lactate was 26. 8% (24cases). The clinical features of three kinds of urinary stones were Uygur nationality cases accounted for 67% , 71% male and 52. 8% was infants under 3 years old. The proportion of patients with kidney stones was 61. 4%. The urinary stones ammonium was the main ingredient, while a certain percentage of patients with calcium oxalate stones. Conclusion Combination of case history, inferred that incidence of kidney stones in Uighur nationality is higher than that of Han nationality significantly. It is inferred that urinary ammonium stones could be easily induced by melamine milk powder.%目的 探讨南疆地区泌尿系结石患者的结石成份及防治方法.方法 搜集新疆南部地区与三聚氰胺奶粉相关尿路结石病例197例.手术取石,采用红外光谱自动分析仪定性检测.结果 除外8例资料不全,纳入统计189例,共检测出8种成份,其中单纯成份结石51.85%(98例),混合成份结石48.15%(91例).按结石主要成份分为含钙结石72例(38%),非钙结石66例(34.8%),混合型结石51例(28%).各种成份的结石病例的构成比从高到低依次为尿酸铵结石44例(44.9%),一水草酸钙和尿酸铵28例(28.5%),一水草酸钙24例(26.3%).三种结石的临床特点是67

  15. 双源 CT 双能量技术在泌尿系结石诊断中的应用价值%Application value of dual energy technique of dual source CT in the diagnosis of urinary calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高江晖; 马洪宇; 郭文伟; 于庆康

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨双源 CT 双能量技术在尿路结石组成分析中的预测价值。方法对30例泌尿系统结石患者行双源 CT 双能量扫描,对结石组成成份进行分析,将结果与红外光谱法分析的结石组成相比,计算双源 CT 分析尿酸盐结石、非尿酸盐结石的特异度与灵敏度,判断预测结石的准确性。结果30例泌尿系结石中尿酸盐类结石10例,非尿酸盐类结石20例,尿酸盐结石、非尿酸盐结石在140 kV 能量下 CT 值分别为(312.5±55.5)HU、(650.6±255.5)HU,在100 kV 能量下 CT 值分别为(328.5±50.5)HU、(960.8±180.5)HU,尿酸盐结石、非尿酸盐结石在两种能量下的差值分别为(16.5±5.1)HU、(310.2±26.7)HU,比值分别为(1.05±0.01)HU、(1.47±0.02) HU,尿酸盐结石差值、比值明显低于非尿酸盐结石(P <0.05),双源 CT 可切确辨别尿酸盐类结石与非尿酸盐类结石,其灵敏度、特异度分别为90%、95%。结论双源 CT 双能量成像技术能在尿路结石治疗前对其组成进行分析,对认识结石的成因及预防结石形成有很大帮助。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of dual source dual energy CT( DS-DECT)in predict chemical component of urinary calculi. Methods Selected 30 cases with urinary cal-culi underwent dual source Flash CT,analysed the component of the calculi,compared the results and in-frared spectroscopy analysis of calculi composition,calculated the specificity and sensitivity of urate cal-culi,non urate calculus by dual source CT analysis,and judged the forecasting accuracy of the calculi. Results Among the 30 urinary calculi patients,10 cases had uric acid calculi and 20 cases had non-u-ric acid calculi. Uric acid calculi and non-uric acid calculi under 140 kV energy:CT values were (312. 5 ± 55. 5)HU,(650. 6 ± 255. 5)HU;under 100 kV energy:CT values were(328. 5 ± 50. 5) HU,(960. 8 ± 180. 5)HU;the difference of acid

  16. Percutaneous dissolution of renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretler, S P; Pfister, R C

    1983-01-01

    The use of percutaneous nephrostomy catheters has allowed access to intrarenal urinary calculi for dissolution. Renacidin is the successful agent for dissolving struvite stones. THAM-E is the most effective agent for the intrarenal dissolution of cystine stone. Calcium oxalate stones are still resistant to dissolution techniques.

  17. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Biering-Sorensen, F;

    1998-01-01

    annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure...

  18. National Practice Pattern and Time Trends in Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi in Korea: a Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinsung; Suh, Beomseok; Lee, Myung Shin; Woo, Seung Hyo; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-12-01

    Despite high prevalence of upper urinary tract calculi (UUTC), there are few studies regarding patterns of care in Asian populations. We investigated treatment patterns and time trends in patients with newly diagnosed UUTC in Korea using the National Health Insurance database that includes de-identified claims from a random 2% sample of the entire population (> 1 million people). A total of 14,282 patients who received active treatments, including shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), ureteroscopic surgery (URS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), and uretero/pyelolithotomy (UPL), for newly diagnosed UUTC between 2003 and 2013 were included. The number of primary and all treated cases of UUTC significantly (43% and 103.3%, respectively) increased over the 10-year period. While patients undergoing SWL, URS, PNL, and UPL as primary treatment increased by 43.7%, 31.9%, 87.5%, and 0%, respectively, the relative proportion undergoing each treatment remained constant over the 10 years (SWL > 90%, URS 4.5% to 7.8%, PNL 0.4% to 1.0%, and UPL 40 years (compared to age PNL, and UPL, rather than SWL, while patients living in urban or suburban/rural areas (compared to metropolitan) were significantly less likely to undergo URS and PNL. In summary, the majority of Korean patients underwent SWL as primary treatment for UUTC, and the predominant use of SWL remained steady over a 10-year period in Korea. Our results will be valuable in examining treatment patterns and time trends in Korean UUTC patients.

  19. Unenhanced low-dose versus standard-dose CT localization in patients with upper urinary calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Licheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With the ethical concern about the dose of CT scan and wide use of CT in protocol of suspected renal colic, more attention has been paid to low dose CT. The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of unenhanced low-dose spiral CT localization with unenhanced standard-dose spiral CT in patients with upper urinary tract calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL treatment. Methods: Twenty eight patients with ureter and renal calculus, preparing to take MPCNL, underwent both abdominal low-dose CT (25 mAs and standard-dose CT (100 mAs. Low-dose CT and standard-dose CT were independently evaluated for the characterization of renal/ureteral calculi, perirenal adjacent organs, blood vessels, indirect signs of renal or ureteral calculus (renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, and the indices of localization (percutaneous puncture angulation and depth used in the MPCNL procedure. Results: In all 28 patients, low-dose CT was 100 per cent coincidence 100 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific for depicting the location of the renal and ureteral calculus, renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, adjacent organs, and the presumptive puncture point and a 96.3 per cent coincidence 96 per cent sensitivity and 93 per cent specificity for blood vessel signs within the renal sinus, and with an obvious lower radiation exposure for patients when compared to standard-dose CT (P<0.05. The indices of puncture depth, puncture angulation, and maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface showed no significant difference between the two doses of CT scans, with a significant variation in calculus visualization slice numbers (P<0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that unenhanced low-dose CT achieves a sensitivity and accuracy similar to that of standard-dose CT in assessing the localization of renal ureteral calculus and adjacent organs conditions and identifying the

  20. 上尿路结石患者血清、尿液、结石中纳米细菌的检测%Detection of nanobacteria in serum,urine and calculus of patients with upper urinary calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟宏伟; 朱永生; 邓清富; 陈同良

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infection status of nanobacteria on patients with upper urinary calculi and healthy sub-jects ,and analyze the role of nanobacteria in the formation of upper urinary calculi .Methods The serum ,urine and calculus of 42 patients with upper urinary calculi were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by bacteria cultivation with 10% γ-FBS and PMBI 1640 .The resulting PCR products were sequenced for further comparison with the reported sequence in gene bank . The serum and urine from 30 healthy adults were used as controls .Results After 4 to 6 weeks′culture ,the white or yellow precipi-tate was visible at the bottom of the tube .The positive rate of PCR was 90 .4% in calculous patients urine and 6 .7% in healthy a-dults urine ,as the positive was 92 .8% and 6 .7% in serum .which there is significant difference (P<0 .01) .The positive rate of the nanabactria in urinary calculi was 95 .2% .The coincidence rate was 98 .72% between the PCR products and the reported sequence in gene bank .Conclusion Nanobacteria are widely existed in the serum ,urine and calculus of the patients with upper urinary calcu-li ,this indicate that the nanobacteria might be have the most important influence on the formation process of urinary calculi .%目的:检测上尿路结石患者与健康者的血清、尿液里纳米细菌和尿路结石标本里的纳米细菌感染情况,分析纳米细菌在尿路结石形成中的作用。方法对30例健康者和42例上尿路结石患者的血清、尿液标本以及后者的结石标本处理后用含10%热灭活γ-胎牛血清(γ-FBS)的 PMBI 1640培养基行纳米细菌培养,观察其生长情况,并对培养后的标本行聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测,PCR产物通过测序与原序列比对进一步分析。结果培养4~6周后,部分培养管底出现肉眼可见的白色(或黄色)絮状物或沉淀物。PCR检测结石患者与健康者的血清纳

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments...... were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/- 1262 shocks. The first months stone clearance rate was 45%; 26% had fragments less than 6 mm; 29...

  2. Primary dissolution therapy of struvite calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretler, S P; Pfister, R C

    1984-05-01

    Percutaneous nephrostomy and hemiacidrin were used as primary treatment of magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi in 32 surgical candidates. Of 28 patients who actually received hemiacidrin 24 (85 per cent) had successful treatment (no surgery necessary), including 19 (68 per cent) who had total stone dissolution. There were no significant complications. Patients have been followed for 3 months to 7 years. Percutaneous nephrostomy with hemiacidrin infusion is another possible treatment in the growing alternatives available for patients with urinary struvite calculi.

  3. 问题奶粉事件中婴幼儿泌尿系统结石成分鉴定%Chemical analysis of urinary calculi in pediatric patients exposed to infant formula milk powder contaminated with melamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莉; 孙宇; 肖宏展; 孙宁; 张潍平; 李明磊; 沈颖; 李旭冉; 李喜来; 阳伦娟; 陈致; 殷俊; 唐丽君; 林晓艳; 王丽娟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the main compositions of urinary calculi found in pediatric patients who had the history of exposing to infant formula milk powder contaminated with melamine and try to find out the urinary calculus formation mechanism in these patients.Methods Sixteen patients were studied.These infant patients with urinary calculi due to consumption of melamine tainted milk powder had been admitted to hospital from June,2008 to August,2008.The components of the urinary calculi were separated by liquid chromatograph,and identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,electron bombard ionization mass spectrometry,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,and quantitatively determined by liquid chromatograph.Results The main chemical components of the urinary ealculi were melamine and uric acid.The molar ratio of uric acid tO melamine was 2:1.Conclusion The main urinary calculus formation mechanism in infant patients who exposed to the inrant formula milk powder contaminated with melamine is melamine and uric acid formed indissoluble complex.%目的 通过对婴幼儿泌尿系统结石的成分分析,探讨结石成因,以利于预防和治疗.方法 收集婴幼儿泌尿系统结石标本16例,均有同一品牌问题奶粉喂养史.结石组分用高效液相色谱分离制备,电喷雾质谱、电子轰击质谱和傅里叶变换红外光谱进行结构鉴定,并用高效液相色谱对结石中的主要组分进行定量测定.结果 通过分离和组分结构鉴定及定量测定.结石中的主要组分为三聚氰胺和尿酸,尿酸和三聚氰胺的比例约为2:1(摩尔比).结石中尿酸平均含量为(53.9±11.7)%,三聚氰胺为(23.2±5.7)%.结论 因食用问题奶粉而导致婴幼儿泌尿系统结石的主要原因是三聚氰胺与尿酸形成了不溶性盐而导致结石形成.

  4. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  5. Extensive prostatic calculi in alkaptonuria: An unusual manifestation of rare disease

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    Gaurav Sali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive prostatic calculi in a young man should always elicit the suspicion of alkaptonuria. Although prostatic calculi are seen in chronic prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostate hyperplasia, none of these have prostatic calculi or calcification as extensive as in alkaptonuria. A 36 years young man who had severed obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms with extensive prostatic calculi was found to be alkaptonuric on further evaluation.

  6. Extensive prostatic calculi in alkaptonuria: An unusual manifestation of rare disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Sali; Appu Thomas; Ginil Kumar; Balagopalan Nair; Kalvampara Sanjeevan; Georgie Mathew; Kannan Nair

    2015-01-01

    Extensive prostatic calculi in a young man should always elicit the suspicion of alkaptonuria. Although prostatic calculi are seen in chronic prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostate hyperplasia, none of these have prostatic calculi or calcification as extensive as in alkaptonuria. A 36 years young man who had severed obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms with extensive prostatic calculi was found to be alkaptonuric on further evaluation.

  7. 微创治疗上尿路结石所致急性肾功能衰竭%Minimally Invasive Management of Acute Obstructive Renal Failure Caused by Upper Urinary Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建奇; 林灼怡; 黄蔚山; 卓梅; 何仍富

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨微创治疗上尿路结石所致急性肾功能衰竭的临床效果。方法2012年12月~2013年8月,对30例上尿路结石致急性梗阻性肾功能衰竭先行输尿管置管或经皮肾穿刺造瘘,根据病情行输尿管镜取石术或微通道经皮肾镜取石术。结果均成功解除尿路梗阻,输尿管镜气压弹道取石术18例,结石取净率94.4%(17/18);微通道经皮肾镜气压弹道取石术12例,结石取净率91.7%(11/12),无严重并发症发生。术后3~14 d血Cr由285~1162μmol/L 降至58~343μmol/L。术后随访1~6个月,平均3个月,肾功能恢复正常25例,5例仍有氮质血症,但肾功能明显改善。结论输尿管镜取石术或微通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗上尿路结石所致急性肾功能衰竭具有微创、安全、效果好等优点。%Objective-To-investigate-the-feasibility-and-clinical-effect-of-minimally-invasive-management-acute-obstructive-renal-failure-caused-by-upper-urinary-calculi-.-Methods-From-December-2012-to-August-2013,-data-of-30-patients-with-acute-obstructive-renal-failure-caused-by-upper-urinary-calculi-who-underwent-minimally-invasive-management-were-reviewed-retrospectively-.-All-the-patients-were-given-dwelling-ureteral-stent-or-percutaneous-nephrostomy-(-PCNL)-in-the-first-period,-and-then,-according-to-specific-conditions,-received-either-ureteroscopic-holmium-laser-lithotripsy-(URL)-or-mini-percutaneous-nephrostomy-(mini-PCNL).-Results-All-the-patients-were-treated-successfully-.The-stone-free-rate-of-URL-was-94.4%(17/18)-in-18-patients-with-middle-and-lower-ureteral-calculi,-and-the-stone-free-rate-of-mini-PCNL-was-91.7%-(11/12)-in-12-patients.No-ureteral-perforation-and-other-complications-were-recorded-.In-the-30-cases,-the-serum-Cr-level-decreased-from-285--1162-μmol/L-preoperatively-to-58--343μmol/L-at-3--14-days-postoperatively-.Renal-functions-recovered-to-normal-within-1-month-after-operation-in-25-cases

  8. Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of symptomatic renal calculi in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Pfister, R.C.; Yoder, I.C.; Young, H.H. II; Herrin, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract lithiasis is a well-established procedure in adults. We successfully applied this technique to completely remove symptomatic renal calculi in two children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Both patients were discharged within 4 days of the lithotripsy. This method is an alternative to surgery for the removal of large or impacted calculi from the upper urinary tracts of pediatric patients. (orig.).

  9. Treatment of upper urinary tract calculi with flexible cystoscope conducted holmium laser lithotripsy via percutaneous nephrostomy%经皮肾造瘘软膀胱镜下钬激光碎石术治疗上尿路结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢剑; 肖春雷; 马潞林; 庄申榕; 刘余庆; 田晓军; 张荣新

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of flexible cystoscope conducted holmium laser lithotripsy via percutaneous nephrostomy in the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi.Methods The flexible cystoscope conducted holmium laser lithotripsy via percutaneous nephrostomy was performed on 26 patients from Jul 2005 to Jan 2007. Among these patients, 8 had bilateral renal calculi and ureteral calculi, 5 had multiple renal calculi, 4 had renal calyx calculi and 9 had ureteral calculi. The average diameter of the calculus was 2.2 cm (range from 1.0-3.2 cm). Four patients had mild hydronephrosis, others had moderate or severe hydronephrosis. Insufficient renal function was noted in 13 cases. The procedure was performed via a single tract through the middle calyx under the ultrasonic guidance in all cases.Results Twenty-two cases achieved stone free at primary procedure, secondary procedure was needed in 4 cases. A 18 F tract was used in 18 cases and 24 F tract was used in the left 8 cases. The average operation time was 72 min, stone-free rate was 96.2%(25/26),and there was no blood transfusion. One patient had fever after the procedure and recovered 2 days after the administration of antibiotics. No other complication was recorded. In an average 11 month follow-up in 22 patients, hydronephrosis reduction was significant observed by ultrasound scan. No calculus relapse was found.Conclusions Flexible cystoscope conducted holmium laser lithotripsy via percutaneous nephrostomy is an effective and minimally invasive technique for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculus. It has the advantages in dealing with the calyx and ureteral calculus located in the proximal or middle segment as well.%目的 探讨经皮肾造瘘软膀胱镜下应用钬激光治疗上尿路结石的有效性与安全性.方法经皮肾造瘘软膀胱镜下应用钬激光治疗肾和输尿管中上段结石26例.其中肾结石合并输尿管结石8例、肾多发结石5例、

  10. 双源双能CT在尿路结石成分分析中的应用%Dual source dual energy CT in the analysis of urinary calculi composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范璐; 郭君武; 张慧

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨双源CT双能量技术应用于尿路结石成分分析中的临床价值.方法:226例尿路结石患者行双源CT双能量扫描,对其结石成分进行分析,将结果与用红外光谱法分析结石成分的结果作对比,计算双源CT在体分析草酸钙结石、磷酸盐结石、胱氨酸结石及尿酸结石的灵敏度与特异度.结果:双源CT能够准确的区分尿酸结石和非尿酸结石(灵敏度和特异度均为100%),较准确的区分草酸钙结石(灵敏度为89.03%、特异度为85.62%),磷酸盐结石(灵敏度为67.28%、特异度为90.71%)及胱氨酸结石(灵敏度为73.56%、特异度为93.43%).结论:双源CT双能量技术能在治疗前对尿路结石的成分进行初步分析,对了解结石成因,预防结石形成及指导治疗具有重要的意义.%Objective: To assess the clinical value of dual source dual energy CT in the analysis of urinary calculi composition. Methods:Dual-source CT with dual-energy scanning technique was performed in 226 patients with urinary calculi. The composition of urinary stones was compared with the results of the urinary stones composition analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sensitivity and specificity of dual energy CT in evaluating the composition of calcium oxalate stone, phosphate stone, cystine stone and uric acid stone in vivo were calculated. Results:Dual-source CT could accurately distinguish uric acid stones and non-uric acid stones with the sensitivity and specificity as 100% respectively. The sensitivity of differentiating calcium oxalate stone, cystine stone and phosphate stone was 89. 3%, 67. 28% and 73. 56% respectively,and the specificity of the above mentioned calculi was 85. 62%,90. 71% and 93. 43% respectively. Conclusion: Analysis of urinary calculi composition before treatment could be obtained by dual-source CT with dual-energy technique, which had significant importance to understand the causes of stone,to prevent

  11. Combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy in percutaneous nephrolithomy for upper urinary tract calculi%经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石治疗上尿路结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁可权; 许承斌; 曹希亮; 于文朝; 巩家存; 于明乐

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨超声定位引导下经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石术治疗上尿路结石的安全性及其疗效.方法 回顾分析经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石取石术治疗上尿路结石385例(401侧)的临床资料.结果 经皮肾镜碎石Ⅰ期手术364侧,平均手术时间51 min,平均出血110 ml,结合体外冲击波碎石,Ⅰ期单侧结石清除率84.8%(340/401),行Ⅱ期手术37侧.结肠损伤1例,术后大出血需肾动脉栓塞止血3例,严重感染3例.无肾切除、中转开放及肾功能不全.术后肾造瘘管平均留置5d,术后平均住院7d.结论 超声定位经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石术治疗上尿路结石,具有损伤小,康复快,住院时间短,结石清除率高等优点,是治疗上尿路结石较好的选择.%Objective To investigate (he safety and efficacy of combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy for upper urinary tract calculi by B-type ultrasound guidance in percutaneous nephrolithomy. Methods Three hundred and eighty-five cases(401 sides) ,who were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy of u-sing pneumatic and ultrasonic system (EMS Ⅳ) were reviewed retrospectively. Results Three hundred and sixty-four sides were performed on stage I . The mean time of the operation was 51 minutes. The average blood loss was 110 ml. With the treatment of ESWL,the first calculi clearance leaded 84. 8%. 37 sides were performed on stage Ⅱ - One cases with colon injure was performed colostomy. 3 cases with delayed hemorrhage were cured by selectivity thrombosis of renal artery ,3 cases with severe sepsis. No nephrectomy, transferring to open operation and renal dysfunction were found. The mean time of indwelling pelvis fistula was 3 days, and the average lengths of stay after operation were 7 days. Conclusion The combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy in percutaneous nephrolithomy by B-type ultrasound guidance for upper urinary tract calculi have the advantage of small wound

  12. 妊娠期输尿管结石合并感染的微创处理%Minimally Invasive Management of Ureteric Calculi Complicated with Urinary Tract Infection During Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥军; 米其武; 叶照华; 罗道升; 莫俊华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effect of minimally invasive management of ureteric calculi complicated with urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Methods:From May 2006 to April 2010 ,the data of 21 pregnant women (gestational 6-36 weeks;mean, 24weeks ) with ureteric calculi complicated with infection were analyzed retrospectively. Theureteric calculi were 5-15 mm in greatest dimension. Five cases had calculi in upper ureter;10,in middle ureter and 6,in lower ureter. Routine urinary anlysis:WBC + + - + + + +. Eight cases received intra-ureteral double-J cannula alone; 12 cases received ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy, 1 case received percutaneous nephrostomy. Results: Symptoms and signs of renal colic and fever were disappeared completely in all cases after operation. The stones were removed completely one time in 12 cases. Double J tube and nephrostomy tube were placed until post partum. No threaten edabortion or premature labor was happened. All cases were labor smoothly and infants were healthy, All procedures were successful, no ureteral perforation and other complications were found. Conclusions: Minimally invasive technique is a safe and effective method for the treatment of ureteric calculi complicated with urinary tract infection during pregnancy.%目的:探讨利用微创技术治疗妊娠期输尿管结石合并感染的可行性及临床效果.方法:2006年5月~2010年4月对21例妊娠期输尿管结石合并泌尿系感染患者行微创技术治疗.21例患者孕6~36周,平均24周.结石最大径5~15 mm.左侧输尿管结石9例,右侧12例.输尿管结石上段5例,中段10例,下段6例.尿常规:白细胞++~++++,伴不同程度发热.单纯留置双J管8例,12例采用输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术,1例行经皮肾穿刺造痿术.结果:所有患者肾绞痛、发热等急症症状经治疗后消失.结石一次性取净12例,留置双J管及肾造痿管者至分娩后再行微创手术取石.无一例

  13. Analysis on curative effect of slow and fast ESWL in treatment of urinary calculi%慢速与快速ESWL治疗尿路结石的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天

    2014-01-01

    目的:对慢速与快速ESWL治疗尿路结石的疗效进行分析。方法:选取2012年11月~2013年5月间上尿路结石患者78例,随机分为慢速组和快速组,分别给予不同ESWL速率治疗。对2组患者临床疗效进行分析比较。结果:结石直径小于15 mm的尿路结石患者采取慢速ESWL治疗总有效率94.12%,高于快速ESWL治疗总有效率84.21%;结石直径大于等于15 mm的患者采取快速ESWL治疗,总有效率90.00%,高于慢速ESWL治疗总有效率72.73%,p<0.05。结论:根据尿路结石患者结石大小情况选择合适震波采取ESWL治疗,能有效提高患者临床治疗总有效率。%To discuss the curative effect of slow and fast ESWL in treatment of urinary calculi .Methods:From November 2012 to May 2013, patients with urinary calculi in 78 cases, were randomly divided into the slow and fast group , were treated with differ-ent ESWL rate treatment .Analysis and comparison of two groups of patients with clinical curative effect .Results:The stone diameter less than urinary 15mm take slow ESWL and effective rate of treatment was 94.12%higher than ESWL treatment the total effective rate was 84.21%;stone diameter greater than or equal to 15mm with fast ESWL and effective rate of treatment was 90%higher than the slow ES-WL treatment the total effective rate was 72.73%, P <0.05.Conclusion:According to the urinary stone size appropriate shock adopted the ESWL treatment could effectively improve the clinical treatment of patients and the total efficiency .

  14. 尿路结石微创手术的护理危险因素与预防措施%Nursing Risk Factors of Urinary Calculi Treated by Minimally Invasive Surgery and the Corresponding Preventive Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段光兰; 刘金芳

    2015-01-01

    尿路结石是临床上常见的疾病,这种疾病机制复杂,诱因也比较多,患者发病后临床上主要表现为:排尿困难、尿流变细、中断等,对于感染患者甚至出现尿频、尿急等,影响患者生活质量。目前,医学界对于这种疾病缺乏理想的治疗方法,常规方法主要微创手术治疗为主,但是患者在患者在手术治疗过程中风险因素较大,部分患者手术后容易产生不良反应或并发症等,影响患者治疗预后。该文将以尿路结石为起点,分析尿路结石微创手术的护理危险因素,并根据其危险因素提出针对性的解决措施,提高患者手术成功率及患者生活质量。%Urinary calculi is a clinical common disease with complex mechanisms and many incentives. The main clinical manifestations of the disease are as follows: dysuria, thinning or intermittency of urinary stream and so on; those with infection even have urinary frequency, urgency and so forth, which affect the quality of life. At present, there is no ideal treatment method for the disease. And the conventional treatment method is mainly minimally invasive surgical treatment, however, the patient has many risk factors during the surgery, and some patients are prone to adverse reactions or complications, which in turn affect the treatment and prognosis. This paper analyzes the nursing risk factors of minimally invasive surgery for urinary calculi, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures so as to improve the success rate of surgery and the quality of life of the patients.

  15. Curative effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of urinary calculi%体外冲击波碎石术治疗泌尿系结石的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of urinary calculi. Methods The clinical data of 98 cases with urinary calculi admitted to People's Hospital of Yunyang County in Chongqing City from January 2012 to January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were taken the therapy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and the curative effect and conditions of complications were observed. Results Among patients of this study, 44 cases of patients egested calculi completely for once, accounting for 44.90%, 30 cases of patients egested calculi completely for twice, accounting for 30.61%, 21 cases of patients egested calculi completely for three times, accounting for 22.45%, 3 cases of patients were failed after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and then took open surgery. The clinical curative effect showed that, there were 54 cases of cured, 41 cases of improved, 3 cases of failed, the total effective rate was 96.94%. Complications after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, all pa-tients showed more or less gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria, 1-2 days later, they were disappeared;the skin of 5 cases of patients showed petechiae or ecchymosis, the symptoms were disappeared without any treatment; 4 cases of patients showed more or less ureteral colic, the symptoms were improved through symptomatic treatment;2 cases of pa-tients were formed ureteral “stone street”, the symptom was disappeared after another extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; 1 case was combined with slight ureteral stricture; 2 cases had fever, the symptom was improved through antifebrile precessing; there were no other serious complications. Conclusion Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of urinary calculi has advantages of simple handling, safe and fast, exact curative effect, less side effects, and so on, which is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察体外冲击波碎石

  16. Staghorn calculi and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Tseng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Untreated staghorn calculi can cause xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP, diminished renal function, and renal malignancy. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the upper urinary tract is associated with kidney stones and chronic infection, but their association with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC has not been proven and has rarely been reported in literature. We present a rare case of staghorn calculi and XGP associated with TCC.

  17. One-stage Percutaneous Nephroscopy for Secondary Upper Urinary Stricture Combined with Renal Calculi%经皮肾镜一期治疗继发性上尿路狭窄合并肾结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范先明; 郭昭建; 林剑锋; 王世先; 涂建平; 叶振扬; 郑健忠; 梁福律

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨经皮肾镜一期治疗继发性上尿路狭窄合并肾结石的可行性与临床疗效。方法回顾分析我院2006年7月~2013年7月97例继发性上尿路狭窄合并肾结石的临床资料。建立F24标准经皮肾镜操作通道,超声联合气压弹道将结石击碎并吸出体外,应用自制电钩或钬激光直视下将狭窄段切开。放置F5双J管2枚内引流。结果93例一期手术成功,手术时间30~180 min,平均75 min。1例因输尿管管腔完全闭塞,改开放手术;2例穿刺出脓性尿液,肾镜下碎石取石后,放置肾造瘘,二期内切开术;1例碎石时间较长,改二期内切开术。93例一期手术成功者术后随访3个月~3年,平均12个月。治愈84例,有效6例,无效3例。结论经皮肾镜一期治疗继发性上尿路狭窄合并肾结石,临床效果较好,手术创伤较小,术后恢复好、快,安全,具有可重复性的优点。%Objective To investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of one-stage percutaneous nephroscopy in the treatment of secondary upper urinary stricture combined with renal calculi. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on clinical data of 97 patients with secondary upper urinary stricture complicated with renal calculi from July 2006 to July 2013. Percutaneous nephroscopy was performed through the F24 standard approach.The renal stones were broken and sucked out by the combination of pneumatic and ultrasonic measures.The ureterostenosis segment was opened by using endoscopic incision with monopolar or holmium laser.Two F5 D-J stent were placed after the operation. Results The operation was successfully accomplished in one session in 93 patients.The operation time ranged from 30 to 180 min, with a mean of 75 min.Conversion to open surgery was required in 1 patient because of complete ureteral occlusion.Two patients with renal stones were accompanied with pyonephrosis, and after a renal cannula was

  18. 上尿路结石患者腔内术后并发尿脓毒血症的护理%Nursing care for urosepsis after endoscopic surgery for patients with upper urinary tract calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽欢

    2016-01-01

    目的 尿脓毒血症是上尿路结石术后众多严重并发症中的一个,严重威胁患者的生命安全,通过分析此类病人的护理及结果,探讨上尿路结石患者腔内术后并发尿脓毒血症的护理经验.方法 回顾性分析2011年4月至2015年11月于本科室行经皮肾镜取石术术后并发尿脓毒血症而转入ICU的患者的临床资料,分析患者手术前后病情变化和采取的治疗护理措施,总结早期识别上尿路结石腔内术后并发尿脓毒血症患者的护理经验.结果 72例患者经及时、有序、规范及有效的对症治疗和积极护理均痊愈出院,平均住院时间为(14.79±16.20)d,体温恢复正常的时间为(24.54±24.23)h.结论 上尿路结石腔内术后应密切观察患者病情,及早发现和及时处理尿脓毒血症,同时做好心理康复护理,才能最大化尿脓毒血症患者治疗效果,改善其预后和提高其生存率.%Objective Urosepsis is a severe complication after surgery for upper urinary tract calculi and is a great threat on the patients's life safety.This study aimed to explore the nursing care for postoperative urosepsis after endoscopic surgery for patients with upper urinary tract calculi analyzing the nursing experience and results.Methods The clinical data of 72 patients complicated with urosepsis after taking percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) at our department from April,2011 to November,2015 and transferred to ICU were retrospectively analyzed.The patients' disease conditions and the nursing measures were analyzed.The nursing experience of early observation of urosepsis patients after PCNL was summarized.Results All the 72 patients recovered and discharged from hospital after timely and efficient symptomatic tr.eatment and active nursing care.The hospital stay was (14.79±16.20) d.The time for body temperature recovering to normal was (24.54±24.23) h.Conclusions Patients with upper urinary calculi should be closely observed after surgery

  19. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast computed tomography images in patients with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasar, Mehmet; Poyraz, Necdet; Göğer, Yunus Emre; Unal, Yunus; Pişkin, Mehmet Mesut

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCACT) images of patients with and without renal stones were investigated. Between 2006 and 2013, NCACT images were taken of 133 patients treated for renal stones (Group I) and of 100 age-matched control patients with putative urinary stone disease (Group II) in our clinic. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on these images were determined. The location of prostatic calculus was classified as type A if they were located in the main prostatic ducts, and type B if they were located outside the ducts. Prostatic calculi were present in 44.4% of patients in Group I and 21.0% of patients in Group II. The incidence of prostatic calculi was significantly higher in patients with urinary stones compared with those without (Pincidence of prostatic calculi is more prevalent in patients with renal stones. On NCACT images, prostatic calculi were mostly detected in the main prostatic ducts, which were defined as type A.

  20. 甲状旁腺增生致反复泌尿系结石1例报告并文献复习%Repeated urinary calculi caused from parathyroid hyperplasia:a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丰; 陈亮

    2013-01-01

    To Summary the experience on diagnosis and treatment of urinary calculi caused from parathyroid hyperplasia,and to improve awareness and therapeutic level of urological physicians.Methods:The clinical data of a patient with repeated urinary stones due to parathyroid hyperplasia was retrospectively analyzed as follow:urinary calculi occurred frequently with both upper limbs pain for more than ten years,repeated extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL),ureteroscopic lithotripsy(URSL) and related orthopedic treatment were used,and the symptom control was not ideal.This case was suggested to be hyperparathyroidism according to a detailed medical history obtained from the patient at this time by our urology department.The diagnosis was confirmed further by the laboratory examinations and the surgery was conducted by thyroid and breast department.Results:After parathyroidectomy,the patient symptom was relieved and pathological result was disclosed to be parathyroid hyperplasia.The patient went ahead to receive stones clearance in bilateral ureters in urology department.Followed up for two years,no recurrence was reported on stone and bone pain.Conclusions:The urologists should consider the possibility of hyperparathyroidism when encountered patients with repeated stones.The parathyroid hormone test can help diagnose.The pattern of multidisciplinary team may be in use of improving the patient's therapeutic effect.%目的:总结甲状旁腺增生导致的反复泌尿系结石的诊断和治疗经验,提高泌尿外科医师对此病的认识、分析和治疗水平.方法:回顾性分析1例由甲状旁腺增生导致的反复泌尿系结石患者的临床资料:因反复泌尿系结石伴双上肢骨痛十余年,反复行体外冲击波碎石、输尿管镜碎石及相关骨科治疗,症状控制不理想.本次就诊时在详细追问病史下经科室会诊考虑为甲状旁腺机能亢进导致的泌尿系结石,遂经实验室检查证实.联合甲状腺乳腺外

  1. New dual-source CT and dual-energy imaging in analysis of compositions of urinary calculi%新双源CT双能量成像对泌尿系结石成分定性诊断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林黛英; 吴先衡; 汪丹凤; 林少帆; 黄宝泉

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨新双源CT双能量成像分析泌尿系统结石成分的临床价值.方法 对45例尿路结石患者行双源CT双能量扫描,分析其结石成分,比较体外红外光谱法分析结石成分的结果,分析双源CT分析各种成分泌尿系结石的特异性与敏感性.结果 双源CT能准确区分尿酸结石和非尿酸结石,灵敏度和特异度均为100.00%;磷酸盐结石的诊断灵敏度为93.10%,特异度为92.00%;胱氨酸结石的诊断灵敏度为66.67%,特异度为97.90%;草酸钙结石灵敏度为85.71%,特异度为100.00%.结论 新双源CT双能量成像能在治疗前对泌尿系结石的成分进行分析,对结石的治疗及预防具有重要意义.%Objective To explore the clinical value of new dual-source CT and dual-energy imaging in the analysis of the compositions of urinary calculi.Methods The compositions of urinary calculi in 45 patients were analyzed being scanned with new dual-source CT and dual-energy imaging.The compositions of urinary calculi was compared with the results from infrared spectrometry in vitro.The sensitivity and specificity of the composition of urinary calculi were analyzed with new dual-source CT.Results Dual-source CT could accurately distinguish nonuric acid stones from uric acid calculi,and its sensitivity and specificity were both 100.00%; the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity to phosphate stones were 93.10% and 92.00%; the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity to cystine stones were 66.67% and 97.90%; and the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity to calcium oxalate stones were 85.71% and 100.00%.Conclusions Dual-source CT and dual-energy imaging can analyze the compositions of urinary calculi before treatment and has important significance in preventing and treating calculi.

  2. [Unusual elements in renal calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Salvador, E; Traba Villameytide, M L

    2006-01-01

    A group of 54 renal calculi were spontaneously passed renal stone after a nephritic colic. Two groups of calculi were found: papillary and non-papillary calculi. All calculi were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy scan (EMS) and EDAX. When the stones were analyzed with EDAX, elements such as C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn were detected. The possible origin of these elements is discussed in this work.

  3. Urinary pH and renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Costa-Bauzá, A; Gomila, I; Ramis, M; García-Raja, A; Prieto, R M

    2012-02-01

    Formation of calcium oxalate crystals, either as monohydrate or dihydrate, is apparently unrelated to urinary pH because the solubilities of these salts are practically unaltered at physiologic urinary pH values. However, a urinary pH 6.0 may induce uric acid or calcium phosphate crystals formation, respectively, which under appropriate conditions may induce the development of the calcium oxalate calculi. We assessed the relationship between the urinary pH and the formation of different types of calculi. A retrospective study in 1,478 patients was done. We determined the composition, macrostructure, and microstructure of the calculi and the urinary pH, 50.9% of calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached calculi were present in patients with urinary pH 6.0, respectively. Infectious calculi were found primarily in patients with urinary pH >6.0 (50.7%). Only calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi were associated with urinary pH between 5.5 and 6.0 (43.1%). Urine of pH 6.0 has an increased capacity to develop calcium phosphate crystals, which can act as a heterogeneous nuclei of calcium oxalate crystals. Oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi were associated to pH between 5.5 and 6.0 because the injured papilla acts as a heterogeneous nucleant. Consequently, measurement of urinary pH may be used to evaluate the lithogen risk of given urine.

  4. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  5. 女性患者上尿路结石腔内碎石并发尿脓毒血症的护理方案探讨%Nursing countermeasures of urinary sepsis of female patients with upper urinary tract calculi after endoscopic lithotripsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍慧; 钱卫红; 潘铁军

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨女性患者上尿路结石行腔内碎石术后发生尿脓毒症的护理方案.方法 总结2013年5月至2015年12月在本科室22例行上尿路结石腔内碎石术并发尿脓毒血症患者的临床数据,分析术前风险评估和原发症的控制、术后早期液体复苏及各种护理方案.结果 21例患者1周内体温、脉搏、血压和血常规恢复正常,平均住院12d康复出院.1例患者腔内碎石术后12h内出现弥漫性血管内凝血并多器官功能障碍,经积极抢救无效死亡.结论 早期发现及规范化的护理,可显著减少上尿路结石腔内碎石术后并发尿脓毒血症患者不良后果的发生,降低死亡率.%Objectives To investigate our experience in the early observation and nursing countermeasures of urinary sepsis after endoscopic lithotripsy for female patients with upper urinary tract calculi.Methods Tthe clinical date of 22 female patients with upper urinary tract stones who have urinary sepsis after endoscopic lithotripsy from May 2013 to December 2015 were collected.The preoperative condition,the change state of illness during and postoperation and the nursing countermeasure of patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results A total of 21 patients were discharged from hospital upon recovery after timely and efficiently symptomatic treatment and active nursing,and 1 patient died because of serious infections and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.Conclusions We should pay attention to susceptible factors of urosepsis,and early diagnosis and active treatment can improve the incidence of rescue rate of urinary sepsis.

  6. 伴脊柱畸形上尿路结石的经皮肾镜取石术%Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for upper urinary tract calculi in patients with deformity of spine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建兴; 胡卫国; 杨波; 于澄钒; 黄晓波; 王晓峰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard percutaneous nephrolithot-omy (PCNL) for patients with deformity of spine. Methods Between Aug 2003 and May 2009, 35 patients of upper urinary tract calculi with scoliosis and kyphosis had undergone PCNL accessed by two steps dilation to 24F tract with ultrasound guidance. Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results The pereutaneous renal access was successfully established in 35 patients under ultrasound guidance and immediate lithotripsy was performed. Prone position 9 units,lateral position 14 units,and other unconventional position 14 units. 34 (91.9 %) units were operated by single access and 3 (8.1%) by double in one session. The mean first accessing time was (8. 5±1.7)min, and stone management time was (39.3±14.6)min. The stone-free rate after the first operation was 86.5%, 2 kidneys ac-cepted another PCNL to remove the residual calculi, and the last stone-free rate was 91.9%. 2 cases needed transfusion. No injury of adjacent organs or urosepsis occurred. No severe complications oc-curred. Conclusions Standard PCNL for calculi in patients with deformity of spine accessed by two steps dilation to 24 F tract with ultrasound-guided puncture could be effective and safe. Special indi-vidual operative position and experienced clinical technique are needed.%目的 探讨应用超声定位经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)治疗伴脊柱畸形上尿路结石的可行性及安全性.方法 伴脊柱畸形的上尿路结石患者35例.男19例,女16例.平均年龄32(22~64)岁.患者均经B超、KUB、CT检查确诊.左侧21例、右侧12例、双侧2例,共37侧.鹿角状结石7侧,多发结石21侧,单发结石9侧.结石长径平均26(12~45)mm.伴发脊柱畸形单纯侧凸3例,侧凸合并前、后凸32例.凸向患肾20侧,凸向健肾17侧.脊柱弯曲角度Cobb角>45°16例,<45°19例.脊柱畸形引发患肾形态改变13侧(35.1%),位置明显移位26侧(70.3%).引发胸廓畸形31例(88.6%).

  7. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  8. 输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗上尿路结石——附126例报告%Treatment of Upper Urinary Calculi with Holmium Laser Lithotriptor under Flexible Ureteroscope (Appended with Report of 126 Cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振宇; 何朝晖; 杨江根; 曾国华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of holmium laser with flexible ureteroscope on upper urinary calculi.Methods All 126 patients of upper urinary calculi were treated with Holmium laser lithotriptor under flexible ureteroscope in our hospital.Of them,75 patients had calculi in the right side and 51 patients in the left side.The calculi were in the kidney for 64 patients,in the upper ureteral for 33 patients,and both in the upper ureteral and kidney for 29 patients.The diameter of the calculi ranged 0.6-2.0 cm,mean 1.33 cm.After ureter dilation and placement of ureteral access sheath,the stone were fragmented and removed with 200μm Ho ∶ YAG laser fiber,energy 0.8-1.0 J,frequency 5-10 Hz.Results The successful rate of stone fragmentation after single session was 92.86% (117/126).Mean operation time was 48 min(23-71 min).Six patients had low fever after the operation.Neither ureteral perforation nor pyonephrosis was observed.Conclusions The therapy of Holmium laser lithotriptor under flexible ureteroscope is safe and effective for upper urinary calculi,especially for upper ureteral,pelvis,middle calyx and upper calyx stones.%目的 探讨输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗上尿路结石的疗效.方法 上尿路结石患者126例,其中右侧结石75例,左侧结石51例.输尿管上段结石33例,输尿管上段合并肾结石29例,肾结石64例.结石大小0.6 ~2.0 cm,平均1.33 cm.经输尿管硬镜扩张后留置输尿管扩张鞘寻找结石,采用输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗,光纤直径200μm,能量0.8~1.0J,频率5~10Hz.结果 单次碎石成功117例(占92.86%),手术时间25~ 75 min,平均48 min.术后6例出现低热,无脓肾、输尿管穿孔等并发症.结论 输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗上尿路结石安全有效,尤其适用于输尿管上段、肾盂、肾中盏及肾上盏结石.

  9. Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

    Stochastic process calculi represent widely accepted formalisms within Computer Science for modelling nondeterministic stochastic systems in a compositional way. Similar to process calculi in general, they are suited for modelling systems in a hierarchical manner, by explicitly specifying...... subsystems as well as their interdependences and communication channels. Stochastic process calculi incorporate both the quantified uncertainty on probabilities or durations of events and nondeterministic choices between several possible continuations of the system behaviour. Modelling of a system is often...

  10. Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, He-Qing; Li, Jian-Ye; Zhou, Gao-Biao; Mu, Da-Wei; Jing-min YAN; Wang, Guang-Feng; Sun, Bin; Liu, Hong-Ming; Ji-zhang XING; Hong, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL) for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83) and U...

  11. Ureolytic Citrobacter freundii infection of the urine as a cause of dissolution of cystine renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Millet, V; Praga, M; Miranda, B; Bello, I; Ruilope, L; Diaz Gonzalez, R; Leyva, O; Alcazar, J M; Barrientos, A; Rodicio, J L

    1985-03-01

    We report a case of cystinuria with staghorn renal lithiasis in a solitary right kidney and chronic renal failure. Right nephropyelolithotomy was performed and although 29 renal calculi were extracted many stones remained in situ. A permanent nephrostomy was left in the kidney. Several months later the urine was infected chronically with a ureolytic Citrobacter freundii bacteria and urinary pH oscillated between 8.0 and 9.2. Spontaneous dissolution of the cystine calculi was observed and many tiny fragments of cystine were expulsed through the nephrostomy, following which renal function improved. Despite the conditions favoring struvite calculi, formation did not occur.

  12. Research of perioperative nursing for upper urinary tract calculi treated by C-arm X-ray guided ;percutaneous nephroscope and ureteroscope%C型臂X线定位经皮肾输尿管镜治疗上尿路结石的围手术期护理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘萍; 李燕玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究C型臂X线定位经皮肾输尿管镜治疗上尿路结石的围手术期护理。方法50例上尿路结石患者,采用随机数字表法分为护理组与对照组,各25例。两组患者均采取X线定位下经皮肾镜、输尿管镜治疗上尿路结石,对照组患者采取临床基础护理措施,护理组患者在对照组护理基础上进行综合护理干预,比较两组各项临床指标。结果护理组患者手术用时、住院时间、术后并发症发生率均低于对照组(P<0.05);一次性结石清除率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论对于C型臂X线定位经皮肾镜、输尿管镜治疗上尿路结石手术患者采取综合护理干预可显著提高患者一次性结石清除率,有助于降低术中、术后疼痛情况及手术并发症,具有临床应用及推广价值。%Objective To research perioperative nursing for upper urinary tract calculi treated by C-arm X-ray guided percutaneous renal ureteroscope. Methods A total of 50 upper urinary tract calculi patients were divided by random number table into nursing group and control group, with 25 cases in each group. Both groups received C-arm X-ray guided p percutaneous nephroscope and ureteroscope for treatment. The control group received basic clinical nursing measures, and the nursing group received additional comprehensive nursing intervention. Clinical indexes of the two groups were compared. Results The nursing group had all lower operation time, hospital stay, and incidence of postoperative complications than the control group (P<0.05), and it had higher one-time calculi clearance rate than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Implement of comprehensive intervention for upper urinary tract calculi treated by C-arm X-ray guided percutaneous renal ureteroscope can remarkably improve one-time calculi clearance rate, and it is helpful to reducing intraoperative and postoperative pain and postoperative complications. This method contains value of

  13. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of upper urinary calculi in children%经皮肾穿刺微造瘘碎石取石术治疗小儿上尿路结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文秀华; 张辉; 冯志刚; 刘太阳; 张永; 张雪培

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithot-omy(mPCNL)for the treatment of upper urinary calculi in children. Method: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 12 cases of children who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures from February 2008 to May 2011. All patients received retrogradeplacement of F3-F5 ureteral catheter under the ureteroscope, with the help of B type ultrasonography.a Fi6 percutaneous working channel for ureteroscope was established. Renal stones were tried to fragment and extract one stage under a F8.0,s.ureteroscope by using the fourth generation Swiss Litho Clast Master. Result: A F16 percutaneous renal access was successfully established in all patients. The stones were cleared out completely in 10 out of 12 cases, a 83. 3% slone-free rate was achieved using percutaneous nephrolithotomy monotherapy. Other 2 cases had a residual stones,they underwent extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrip-sy(ESWL)and lithagogue medicine. The operation duration was 30-116 minutes,averaged 53 minutes. No complications such as blood transfusion,pneumothorax or injury of intra-abdominal organs were recorded. All patients were followed up for at least 3-21 months. Renal function test got a better result. Uronephrosis relieved. No complications such as palindromia of lithiasis, ureterostenosis, hydronephrosis or renal inadequacy were recorded. Conclusion: Treatment of children's upper urinary tract stone by mPCNL has the advantages of high efficiency,reliability, safety,mini- invasion.less haemorrhage and rapid recovery. It should be the first choice for children's upper urinary tract stone at present.%目的:探讨微造瘘经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石取石术治疗小儿上尿路结石的安全性及有效性.方法:回顾性分析自2008年2月~2011年5月12例应用微造瘘经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石取石术治疗小儿上尿路结石的临床资料.12

  14. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  15. Outcomes of urethral calculi patients in an endemic region and an undiagnosed primary fossa navicularis calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Ayhan; Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Unal, Dogan; Yeni, Ercan; Kaya, Mete

    2006-02-01

    Urethral calculus is a rare form of urolithiasis with an incidence lower than 0.3%. We determined the outcomes of 15 patients with urethral stone, of which 8 were pediatric, including an undiagnosed primary fossa navicularis calculus. Fifteen consecutive male patients, of whom eight were children, with urethral calculi were assessed between 2000 and 2005 with a mean of 19 months' follow-up. All stones were fusiform in shape and solitary. Acute urinary retention, interrupted or weak stream, pain (penile, urethral, perineal) and gross hematuria were the main presenting symptoms in 7 (46.7%), 4 (26.7%), 3 (20%) and 1 (6.6%) patient, respectively. Six of them had accompanying urethral pathologies such as stenosis (primary or with hypospadias) and diverticulum. Two patients were associated with upper urinary tract calculi but none of them secondary to bladder calculi. A 50-year-old patient with a primary urethral stone disease had urethral meatal stenosis accompanied by lifelong lower urinary tract symptoms. Unlike the past reports, urethral stones secondary to bladder calculi were decreasing, especially in the pediatric population. However, the pediatric patients in their first decade are still under risk secondary to the upper urinary tract calculi or the primary ones.

  16. 经皮肾镜钬激光碎石治疗复杂性上尿路结石120例临床分析%Percutaneous Nephroscope Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Upper Urinary Calculi:Clinical Re-port of 120 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王县平; 严海员; 胡俊; 杨锋; 张端桥; 王炜

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨经皮肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗复杂性上尿路结石的临床效果.[方法]选择本科室收治的120例诊断为复杂性上尿路结石的患者,应用经皮肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗,记录患者的结石清除率、术后拔除肾造瘘管时间及相关的并发症情况.[结果]经皮钬激光碎石术治疗复杂性上尿路结石的一期碎石成功率达到80.0%,二期碎石成功率达到90.0%;一期手术的中位时间为85.0(30~240)min,二期手术时间为62.5(25~180)min.术后相关并发症有迟发性的出血病例2例,胸腔积液病例1例,无其他相关并发症发生.[结论]经皮肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗复杂性上尿路结石的临床效果显著,一次碎石率高,相关的并发症少,推荐在临床上广泛应用.%[Objective]To observe the clinical effect of percutaneous nephrolithotomy with holmium laser on the treatment of complex upper urinary tract calculi and understand its related complications.[Methods]The clinical diagnosis of 120 cases of complex upper urinary tract calculi were collected from the department at our hospital were treated using percutaneous nephrolithotomy holmium laser lithotripsy.The patient's stone clearance rate,average time of postoperative removal nephrostomy fistula,and related complications were re-corded.[Results]Collection of percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for the treatment of complex upper uri-nary tract calculi had a first success rate of 80.0%;second success rate reached 90.0%.The length of the one-stage operation was 85.0(30~240)minutes;the length of two-stage operation was 62.5(25~180)minutes.Re-lated postoperative complications were delayed hemorrhages in 2 cases;one case was pleural effusion.No other complications resulted.[Conclusion]The clinical effect of percutaneous nephrolithotomy with holmium laser for treatment of complex upper urinary tract calculi was significant.Other related complications were fewer.It is recommended widely in clinical

  17. Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy in the treatment of upper urinary tract obstruction by ureteral cal-culi during pregnancy%输管尿镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗妊娠期输尿管结石引起上尿路梗阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卓敏; 庄泽平; 连乐林; 黄芸珊; 陈燕东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotrips in the treatment of upper urinary tract obstruction by ureteral calculi in pregnant women.Methods Thirty six women diagnosed with upper urinary tract obstruction by ureteral calculi during pregnancy were char-acterized with persistent and recurrent severe renal colic.Ureteroscope-guided pneumatic lithotripsy was per-formed.Results The ureteral calculi were successfully treated in 32 patients by ureteroscopic pneumatic litho-trips.Double-J ureteral stents were retained in four patients complicated with pyonephrosis,who were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy after parturition.Renal colic and fever were absent after surgery.No abortion,prematurity,fetal death,ureter perforation or avulsion was noted.All pregnant women had full-term delivery and all newborns were healthy.Conclusion Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy could effectively and safely alleviate renal colic and treat obstruction in pregnant women with upper urinary tract obstruction by ure-teral calculi.%目的:探讨利用输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗妊娠期输尿管结石引起上尿路梗阻的可行性及临床效果。方法对36例持续性或反复发作剧烈肾绞痛的妊娠期输尿管结石引起上尿路梗阻患者,采用输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗,观察手术疗效及安全性。结果输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术一次性碎石成功32例,4例输尿管上段结石患者因合并脓肾予留置双 J 管,待患者妊娠结束后行体外冲击波碎石。术后所有患者的肾绞痛、发热等症状消失。36例均未出现流产、早产或死胎,无出现输尿管穿孔、撕脱等并发症,所有孕妇均足月分娩,新生儿发育均正常。结论输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗妊娠期输尿管结石引起上尿路梗阻能有效缓解患者疼痛,解除梗阻,且安全性高。

  18. Dissolution of Ureteral Uric Acid Calculi with Local Litholytic Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiqiang; YAO Linfang; YE Zhangqun; YANG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    Summary: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of local litholytic irrigation (LLI) in the treatment of ureteral uric acid calculi. Fourteen cases of ureteral uric acid calculi were diagnosed by abdominal plain radiography (KUB),retrograde urography,ultrasonography(B-mode ultrasound),spiral computerized tomography(CT) and blood biochemical examinations. A ureteral catheter was passed retrogradely across ureteral calculi by cystoscopy. LLI with tromethamine-E(THAM-E) was performed via the ureteral catheter after the improvement of renal function and general situation and the control of urinary tract infection under the condition of intravenous application of antibiotics. The irrigation rate varied from 1000 to 1500 ml per day. Retrograde pyelography demonstrated complete dissolution of all the stones,13 cases within 10 days and 1 within 12 days. Mild hematuria was observed in the majority of the cases and temporary aggravated lumbago in 1 case,with no other side effects. It is concluded that LLI is a practical and effective method in the treatment of ureteral uric acid calculi for its advantages of shorter duration,lower cost,less physical suffering and no severe complications.

  19. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetschi, Stefan, E-mail: goetschi@gmx.net [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Umbehr, Martin, E-mail: martin.umbehr@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ullrich@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Glenck, Michael, E-mail: michael.glenck@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.suter@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.weishaupt@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90-94% and 50-100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi {<=}4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  20. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK PREDICTIONS OF URINARY CALCULUS COMPOSITIONS ANALYZED WITH INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOLMER, M; WOLTHERS, BG; METTING, HJ; DEHAAN, THY; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    1994-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to analyze urinary calculus (renal stone) constituents. However, interpretation of IR spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. In our laboratory IR spectra of unknown calculi

  1. 微通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗上尿路结石的疗效及安全性评价(附4533例报告)%The Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety in Mini-PNL for Upper Urinary Tract Calculi(Report of 4 533 Cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炯明; 刘建和; 陈戬; 姜永明; 张劲松; 闫永吉; 王光; 张海燕; 郭海翔

    2011-01-01

    Objective..To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy(mPNL) for the treatment of upper urinary tract tcalculi.Methods:4 533 patients with upper urinary tract calculi underwent mPNL from September 1999 to December 2010,including 3 434 pelvic and calyx calculi,342 partial staghorn nephrolithiasis,38 staghorn nephrolithiasis,737 impacted upper ureterolithiasis, stone size 12-103 mm.All patients were treated by the supracostal access or subcostal access mPNL, the pucture via renal papillary to the posterior renal calyx.Results: 4 528 cases(99.8%)were successful of total 4 533 patients,the operation time 30-186 min.The stone clearance rate in upper ureterolithiasis was 99.2 %, nephrolithiasis was 96.5 % ,partial staghorn nephrolithiasis was 92.3% (combined the ESWL) and staghorn nephrolithiasis was 86.2% (combined the ESWL).The complication includced blood transfusion 1.39 % ,high selective renal artery angioembolization 0.13%%, pleural effusion0.13 %, colon injury 0.110%, liquid absorption syndrome 0.110%, septic shock 0.06 %, no death and renal failure cases.Conclusions:The treatment of mPNL for upper urinary tract calculi,including partial staghorn nephrolithiasis,can receive high rate of stone clearance,high safety,and lower surgical bleeding, blood transfusion and other complications.%目的:探讨微通道经皮肾镜取石术(mPNL)治疗上尿路结石的疗效和安全性.方法:1999年9月~2010年12月应用mPNL治疗上尿路结石患者4 533例,其中肾盂及肾盏结石患者3434例,部分鹿角形肾结石患者324例,完全鹿角形肾结石患者38例,嵌顿性输尿管上段结石患者737例,结石大小12~103 mm.采用肋上或肋下人路,经肾乳头穿刺后组肾盏建立手术通道.结果:4 528例(99.8%)获得成功,手术时间30~185 min,结石清除率分别为:输尿管上段结石99.2%,肾盏或肾盂结石96.5%,部分鹿角形肾结石92.3%(

  2. Calculi of meta-variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko SATO; Takafumi SAKURAI; Yukiyoshi KAMEYAMA; Atsushi IGARASH

    2008-01-01

    The notion of meta-variable plays a fun-damental role when we define formal systems such as logical and computational calculi. Yet it has been usually understood only informally as is seen in most textbooks of logic. Based on our observations of the usages of meta-variables in textbooks, we propose two formal systems that have the notion of meta-variable. In both calculi, each variable is given a level (non-negative integer), which classifies variables into object variables (level 0), meta-variables (level 1), metameta-variables (level 2) and so on. Then, simple arity systems are. used to exclude meaningless terms like a meta-level function operating on the metameta-level. A main difference of the two calculi lies in the definitions of substitution. The first calculus uses textual substitution, which can often be found in definitions of quantified formulae: when a term is substituted for a meta-variable, free object-level variables in the term may be captured. The second cal-culus is based on the observation that predicates can be regarded as meta-level functions on object-level terms, hence uses capture-avoiding substitution. We show that both calculi enjoy a number of properties including Church-Rosser and Strong Normalization, which are indispensable when we use them as frameworks to define logical systems.

  3. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TAMSULOSIN IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CALCULI IN LOWER THIRD OF URETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunabha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urinary calculus disease is one of the 3 most common urological diseases . It affects about 12 % of the world population and has become a worldwide health problem . Of all the urinary tract stones 20% are ureteral stones , of which 70% are found in the lower third of ureter . Patients with ureteric calculi have wide range of complications which includes acute pain necessitating hospitalization , urinary tract infection , anuria , acute renal failure , chronic renal failure , hydronephrosis , pyonephrosis , pyelonephritis . The objective of the study is , t o study the effect of Tamsulosin in the passage of calculi in the lower one third of the ureter compared to NSAIDs and oral and IV fluids . MATERI AL AND METHOD: This study included a total of 82 patients between the study period from Nov 20 10 to May 201 3 . 42 patients were chosen randomly and advised to take plenty of oral fluids and treated with NSAIDs ( Diclofenac sodium and the other 40 patients w ere treated with Tamsulosin ( alpha blocker 0 . 4mg HS for one month along with oral fluids and NSAIDs ( Diclofenac sodium . RESULTS: Majority of the patients were in the age group of 20 - 40 yrs . The mean size of the calculus was 6 . 62 cms on the right side and 6 . 07 cms on the left side . Out of the 40 patients who were on alpha 1 blocker ( Tamsulosin 31 patients had passed the calculi and 9 patients had no results with a success rate of 77 . 5% . In the 42 patients who were not on Tamsulosin , 8 patients passed the calculi and 34 patients did not pass the calculi . 9 patients among the 42 underwent ureterorenoscopy ( URS . CONCLUSION : Tamsulosin is an effective and safe drug in the management of calculi in the lower 1/3 rd of the ureter . Most patients with ureteric calc uli were rendered stone free with endourological procedures if conservative treatment failed .

  4. [Functional evaluation in patients with kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojimirović, B

    1998-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disorder and a significant problem because of incidence, recurrence and severe consequences. Stone disease is a surgical as well as a medical problem. Major progress has been made recently in understanding the pathophysiological disturbances responsible for stone formation as well as in the techniques of stone removal. The introduction of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has considerably reduced the need for surgery. Improvements in methods of kidney stone removal have not diminished the need for the application of an effective prophylactic program. The internist should take a complete history of stone events (number, composition, location and outcome of stone event), family history of stones, dietary habits (focusing on the consumption of animal protein, salt and dairy products), medications and physical examination. Radiopaque stones should be documented by plane X-ray films. Ultrasonography should be used to image calculi that are nonopaque, and to easily distinguish them from masses such as tumour or blood clot. Computed tomography is also an excellent method for imaging nonopaque renal calculi but higher cost and radiation exposure are disadvantages [2]. Crystallographic analysis is the essential diagnostic procedure. If available, previous stones should also be examined. "In stone disease, everything is measurement. What the laboratory cannot tell you, you will not know; what it tells you in error, you will not correct by using your instincts, your medical experience, or your art [3]". Reliable diagnostic protocols are available for the identification of different causes of stones. The complexity of protocols depend on the severity of nephrolithiasis. Patients with a single stone episode undergo simple protocol, and extensive detailed protocol is used for patients with recurrent stone disease, or patients at increased risk. Simple protocol, besides the already mentioned history of stone events, radiographic investigation and

  5. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

  6. Rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated urinary ammonium acid urate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Kato, Eiji; Ohta, Kazuhide; Ishikawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Masaki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although ammonium acid urate (AAU) calculi are extremely rare renal stone components, it was recently found that many urinary tract calculi that cause post-renal renal failure in rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis are AAU calculi. The mechanism of AAU calculi development in RV gastroenteritis has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed data from eight RV gastroenteritis patients who transiently had AAU crystals in their urinary sediment. In these patients, formation of AAU crystals occurred earlier than the formation of AAU calculi. No difference was observed in serum and urine uric acid levels between RV gastroenteritis patients with or without AAU crystals. Interestingly, fractional excretion of sodium was extremely low among patients with AAU crystals. These results suggest that the formation of AAU crystals might not be due to excretion of uric acid, but excretion of sodium.

  7. Differential calculi on noncommutative bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Pflaum, Markus J.; Schauenburg, Peter

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a category of noncommutative bundles. To establish geometry in this category we construct suitable noncommutative differential calculi on these bundles and study their basic properties. Furthermore we define the notion of a connection with respect to a differential calculus and consider questions of existence and uniqueness. At the end these constructions are applied to basic examples of noncommutative bundles over a coquasitriangular Hopf algebra.

  8. Role of artificial neural network and logistic regression model in predicting effect of extracorporeal shock wave for upper urinary tract calculi%人工神经网络及Logistic回归模型对预测体外冲击波治疗上尿路结石的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋杰宏; 姚聪; 陈健芬; 徐乐

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨人工神经网络和Logistic回归模型对预测体外冲击波治疗上尿路结石的治疗效果预测.方法 从2010年1月至2015年1月,本院泌尿科共接受ESWL治疗的肾结石患者340例,将治疗前的病例资料10项(年龄大小、体重指数大小、病程时间长短、性别、尿路刺激症、血尿、肾绞痛、结石位置、患侧和大小)纳入预测参数,建立人工神经网络和Logistic回归模型,预测体外冲击波治疗上尿路结石的临床疗效.结果 人工神经网络得到预测参数重要性的前5位依次为结石大小、病程时间、血尿、结石位置、体重指数,进行显著性检验时,P< 0.05.Logistic回归模型中重要的参数分别为病程时间、血尿和结石位置,差异有统计学意义,P< 0.05.结论 人工神经网络和Logistic回归模型预测ESWL治疗上尿路结石成功率有较好的准确性,可以在临床上广泛推广.%Objective To explore the role of artificial neural network and logistic regression model in predicting the effect of extracorporeal shock wave for upper urinary tract calculi.Methods From January,2010 to January,2015,d 340 patients with renal calculus were treated by ESWL at our hospital.The predictive parameters were sex,symptoms induced by urethral irritation,blood urine,renal colic,stone position,stone of one side,age,BMI,disease course,and stone size.Artificial neural network and logistic regression model were built basing on these parameters to predict the clinical effect of ESWL for calculus of upper urinary tract.Results The most important five parameters in artificial neural network were stone size,disease course,blood urine,stone position,and BMI,with statistical differences (P<0.05).The most important parameters in logistic regression model were disease course,blood urine,and stone position,with statistical differences (P<0.05).Conclusions Artificial neural network and logistic regression model in predicting the effect of

  9. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Caijun; Nie, Liming; Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da

    2010-09-01

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  10. Factors affecting calcium oxalate dihydrate fragmented calculi regrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchis P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM, pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM, pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM. Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 μg/mg·h. Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 μg/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 μg/mg·h, respectively. Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 μg/mg·h. A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 μM at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 μM at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions, while 69.0 μM pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under

  11. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of urinary calculus caused by melamine in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-qun; SHEN Ying; WANG Xiao-man; HE Le-jian; XIN Yue; HU Yan-xiu

    2009-01-01

    Background Intake of melamine can cause renal and ureteral lithiasis in infants and children. The present study aimed to understand the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of renal and ureteral lithiasis in infants and young children caused by melamine, and the characteristics of ultrasonograms of melamine-associated calculi.Methods Ultrasonographic examination on the urinary system was performed for 28 332 children who ingested milk powder that was possibly tainted with melamine; 395 of the children were diagnosed by ultrasonography as having urinary calculus, and 231 cases had lump-like calculi and 164 cases had sand gravel-like calculi. The features of the calculi, the sites of obstruction and the status of hydronephrosis and hydroureterosis were analyzed. Ultrasonographic reexamination was performed for 116 patients and the findings were compared with those of the first ultrasonography, and the short-term expulsion of the calculi was evaluated.Results Most of the 395 patients with urinary lithiasis, except for those who developed renal failure, had no symptoms. The whole profile of the calculi could be seen in most of the cases, because the echogenicity of the calculi with no sharp or absent acoustical shadowing, was weaker as compared with those from calcium-containing calculi. Comet tail sign could be seen behind the echogenicity of single gravel calculus. The rate of diagnostic consistency of ureteral lithiasis between the ultrasound and the results of clinical observation (including stones expelled spontaneously or after cystoscopic intervention) in 51 cases for 76 ureters was 100%. Percutaneous renal biopsy was performed for one case, and histopathological examination showed flocculent, fine strip-like, ellipse and circular deeply stained sand gravel-like material in the renal tubules, and the circular calculi were found to be attached to the walls of the tubules. Chemical analysis of the calculi expelled from 12 cases showed that the main contents

  12. 微创经皮肾取石术处理移植肾上尿路结石八例报告%Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treating the upper urinary tract calculi in transplanted kidneys (report or 8 cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何朝辉; 李逊; 曾国华; 陈文忠; 何永忠; 雷鸣; 王露萍; 袁坚

    2008-01-01

    目的 报告8例微创经皮肾取石术处理移植肾上尿路结石的结果,并评估其安全性和有效性.方法 2002年8月至2006年10月,对8例肾移植术后发生移植肾上尿路结石的患者采用微创经皮.肾取石术.在B型超声波引导下穿刺移植肾前中盏成功后,将穿刺通道扩张到F14~F16,在输尿管镜或李逊肾镜直视下将结石击碎并取出.术后每3个月随诊1次,行B型超声波、尿培养和肾功能检查.结果 对所有患者进行的取石术均获成功,且1次性将结石取净,术中和术后无并发症发生.有2例患者因术中穿刺抽出液为脓性,而先置肾造瘘管引流,1周后行二期取石术.患者的手术时间平均为51 min,血红蛋白平均下降了5.6 g/L.术后随访时间为3~48个月,未见有结石复发;血肌酐稳定于76~131 μmol/L.结论 微创经皮肾取石术处理移植肾上尿路结石安全有效,可作为一线治疗方法.%Objective To report the outcome of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) in treating upper urinary tract calculi in transplanted kidney and to evaluate its safety and effectiveness. Methods Between August 2002 to October 2006, 8 patients (mean age 41 years) with upper urinary tract stones in transplanted kidneys were treated by mPCNL. Under the guidance of ultrasonography, an anterior middle calyx was performed. The percutaneous tract was dilated to F14-16 by fascial dilators and a F14-16 Peel-away sheath was placed as the percutaneous access port, a LIXUN nephroscope or a F8/9.8 ureteroscope was used for manipulation. During follow-up, serum urea, creatinine, uric acid determinations, urine culture and ultrasound examination were performed every 2~3 months. Results All patients were rendered stone-free at one rnPCNL procedure, with no complications during or after surgery. The mean (range) operative duration was 51 (20~100) min and the mean haemoglobin decrease was 5.6 g/L. At a mean (range) follow

  13. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction...... and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments...

  14. Renal pelvic calculi and neoplasm. New indication for treatment of asymptomatic renal pelvic calculi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibitis, H; Jørgensen, J B

    1990-01-01

    Metaplasia of the renal pelvis caused by chronic irritation, calculi, infection is a reversible pre-malignant condition. The application of ESWL on renal calculi as a safe treatment in relation to metaplasia is discussed and a case history is presented....

  15. Retroperitoneoscopic pyelolithotomy: a good alternative treatment for renal pelvic calculi in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Nicolino Cezarino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Nephrolitiasis, once considered an adult disease, has become increasingly prevalent in children, with an increase from 6% to 10 % annually in past 25 years. Kidney stones in pediatric population can result from metabolic diseases in up to 50% of children affected. Other factors associated with litiasis are infection, dietary factors, and anatomic malformations of urinary tract. Standard treatment procedures for pediatric population are similar to adult population. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL, ureterorenoscopy (URS, percutaneous nepfrolithotomy (PCNL, as well as laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches can be indicated in selected cases. The advantages of laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic approaches are shorter mean operation time, no trauma of renal parenchyma, lower bleeding risk, and higher stone-free rates, especially in pelvic calculi with extrarenal pelvis, where the stone is removed intact. Patient and Methods: A 10 year-old girl presented with right abdominal flank pain, macroscopic hematuria, with previous history of urinary infections‥ Further investigation showed an 1,5 centimeter calculi in right kidney pelvis. A previous ureterorenoscopy was tried with no success, and a double J catheter was placed. After discussing options, a retroperitoneoscopic pielolithotomy was performed. Results: The procedure occurred with no complications, and the calculi was completely removed. The foley catheter was removed in first postoperative day and she was discharged 2 days after surgery. Double J stent was removed after 2 weeks. Conclusions: Retroperitoneoscopic pielolithotomy is a feasible and safe procedure in children, with same outcomes of the procedure for adult population.

  16. Holmium laser lithotripsy of bladder calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.

    1998-07-01

    Although the overall incidence of bladder calculi has been decreasing, it is still a significant disease affecting adults and children. Prior treatment options have included open cystolitholapaxy, blind lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and visual lithotripsy with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes. The holmium laser has been found to be extremely effective in the treatment of upper tract calculi. This technology has also been applied to the treatment of bladder calculi. We report our experience with the holmium laser in the treatment of bladder calculi. Twenty- five patients over a year and a half had their bladder calculi treated with the Holmium laser. This study was retrospective in nature. Patient demographics, stone burden, and intraoperative and post-operative complications were noted. The mean stone burden was 31 mm with a range of 10 to 60 mm. Preoperative diagnosis was made with either an ultrasound, plain film of the abdomen or intravenous pyelogram. Cystoscopy was then performed to confirm the presence and determine the size of the stone. The patients were then taken to the operating room and given a regional or general anesthetic. A rigid cystoscope was placed into the bladder and the bladder stone was then vaporized using the holmium laser. Remaining fragments were washed out. Adjunctive procedures were performed on 10 patients. These included transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral incision of the prostate, optic internal urethrotomy, and incision of ureteroceles. No major complications occurred and all patients were rendered stone free. We conclude that the Holmium laser is an effective and safe modality for the treatment of bladder calculi. It was able to vaporize all bladder calculi and provides a single modality of treating other associated genitourinary pathology.

  17. Management of Pancreatic Calculi: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandan, Manu; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatolithiasis, or pancreatic calculi (PC), is a sequel of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and may occur in the main ducts, side branches or parenchyma. Calculi are the end result, irrespective of the etiology of CP. PC contains an inner nidus surrounded by successive layers of calcium carbonate. These calculi obstruct the pancreatic ducts and produce ductal hypertension, which leads to pain, the cardinal feature of CP. Both endoscopic therapy and surgery aim to clear these calculi and decrease ductal hypertension. In small PC, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by sphincterotomy and extraction is the treatment of choice. Large calculi require fragmentation by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) prior to their extraction or spontaneous expulsion. In properly selected cases, ESWL followed by ERCP is the standard of care for the management of large PC. Long-term outcomes following ESWL have demonstrated good pain relief in approximately 60% of patients. However, ESWL has limitations. Per oral pancreatoscopy and intraductal lithotripsy represent techniques in evolution, and in current practice their use is limited to centers with considerable expertise. Surgery should be offered to all patients with extensive PC, associated multiple ductal strictures or following failed endotherapy. PMID:27784844

  18. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Andrew; Paulevé, Loïc; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.1

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instant...

  19. A criterion for separating process calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

  20. Mobility in process calculi and natural computing

    CERN Document Server

    Aman, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    The design of formal calculi in which fundamental concepts underlying interactive systems can be described and studied has been a central theme of theoretical computer science in recent decades, while membrane computing, a rule-based formalism inspired by biological cells, is a more recent field that belongs to the general area of natural computing. This is the first book to establish a link between these two research directions while treating mobility as the central topic. In the first chapter the authors offer a formal description of mobility in process calculi, noting the entities that move

  1. Medical management of urinary calculi: up to date 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, Martino

    2016-09-26

    Nephrolithiasis (NL) is one of the most prevalent nontransmissible diseases in western countries. It is being associated with other frequent diseases, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, through a putative common link with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance or altered mineral metabolism. This review will focus on classification, physicochemical basis, risk factors, laboratory and imaging investigations, medical management.Classification as to stone composition includes calcium, uric acid (UA), cystine (Cys), infected, 2-8 dihydroxyadenine and rare NL. According to pathophysiology, NL is classified as primary, secondary to systemic diseases or drugs, caused by renal or metabolic hereditary disorders.A stone can only form in supersaturated environment, and this is sufficient in UA, Cys and infected NL, but not in Ca-NL, which results from the imbalance between supersaturation and inhibition. All types are characterized by derangements of peculiar risk factors. Laboratory investigations aim at identifying type of NL, underlying risk factors and state of saturation, and pathophysiology. This justifies a rationale therapy able to dissolve some types of stones and/or produce reduction in recurrence rate in others.Medical management includes alkali and allopurinol for UA nephrolithiasis (UA-NL), thiols and alkali in Cys-NL, dietary and pharmacological intervention for Ca-NL. Thiazides and alkaline citrate salts are the most widely used drugs in Ca-NL, where they proved efficient to prevent new stones. Other drugs have only been used in particular subsets.Proper medical management and modern urological approaches have already notably improved clinical outcomes. Future studies will further clarify mechanisms of NL with expected new and targeted therapeutic options.

  2. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Prezioso; Pasquale Strazzullo; Tullio Lotti; Giampaolo Bianchi; Loris Borghi; Paolo Caione; Marco Carini; Renata Caudarella; Giovanni Gambaro; Marco Gelosa; Andrea Guttilla; Ester Illiano; Marangella Martino; Tiziana Meschi; Piergiorgio Messa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A s...

  3. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  4. Hemiacidrin irrigation in the management of struvite calculi: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, G R; Blaivas, J G; Meares, E M

    1983-12-01

    Renacidin (10 per cent hemiacidrin) irrigation has been used in the management of renal struvite calculi in 25 patients. Of these patients 22 were free of stone after irrigation: 16 after dissolution of residual stone fragments postoperatively, 4 after prophylactic postoperative irrigation and 2 after primary, nonsurgical percutaneous dissolution. Recurrent urinary tract infections owing to the original urease-producing bacteria occurred in 14 per cent of these patients and recurrent nephrolithiasis occurred in 9 per cent during an average followup period of 66 months.

  5. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  6. Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinales, Luis Alonso

    The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal

  7. The Dual Action of Varunadi Kwath in Renal Calculi as well as Uterine Fibroid- A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padavi D. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutrashmari (Renal Calculi is very common disorder. This distressing urinary disorder affects around 5-7 million people in India [11]. The chances of recurrence are always high and the surgery having disadvantage of high cost. The available treatment in modern science is only conservative and surgical in this present study an effort was made to evaluate the role of Varunadi Kwath in Mutrashmari. The main aim of this particular study was inclined towards the disintegration, dissolution, dislodgement and expulsion of renal calculi. The contents of Varunadi Kwath are easily available, economical and are easy to administer, which are having Anti-inflammatory, Diuretic and Antilithic properties. A case of renal calculi with uterine fibroid was diagnosed and the treatment was given for a period of 9 months. The size of the calculus was studied by periodic ultrasonography; the symptoms Mutrakruchrata (Dysuria, Shula (Pain in abdomen, Sadaha Mutrata (Burning micturition are significantly reduced within less than 45 days and total expulsion of calculi in less than 180 days.

  8. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Voicu, Razvan

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive calculi.

  9. Bladder calculi complicating intermittent clean catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, M A; Sonda, L P; Diokno, A C; Vidyasagar, M

    1983-10-01

    Eight male patients on clean intermittent catheterization programs for neurogenic bladder dysfunction developed vesical calculi around pubic hairs inadvertently introduced into the bladder, acting as a nidus for incrustation. In three patients, the radiographic appearance of serpentine calcifications in the pelvis was highly consistent with calcareous deposits on strands of hair. Familiarity with this radiologic appearance should suggest the diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting and help avoid misinterpretation of these calcifications, atypical of usual bladder stones.

  10. Prostatic calculi influence the antimicrobial efficacy in men with chronic bacterial prostatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ping Zhao; Yong-Tao Li; Jun Chen; Zhi-Gen Zhang; Hai Jiang; Dan Xia; Shuo Wang; Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of culture-specific antibiotic therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) patients with or without prostatic calculi.This study included 101 patients (21-62 years old) who met the consensus criteria for CBP (National Institutes of Health category Ⅱ).According to the results of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS),all patients were divided into two groups:Group 1,CBP with prostatic calculi,n=39; Group 2,CBP without prostatic calculi,n=62.All patients received optimal antimicrobial therapy for 4 weeks and followed up for a minimum of 3 months (range:3-8 months).In addition to expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) and urine culture,all patients were asked to complete the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the subjective global assessment (SGA).The microbiological eradication rate at the end of treatment were 32/39 (82.1%) and 54/62 (87.1%),while the rates for continued eradication at the end of study were 17/39 (43.6%) and 45/62 (72.6%) in Group 1 and Group 2 (P<0.01 ),respectively.We observed a decrease in the total NIH-CPSI score median values from 24 to 1 9 in Group 1 and from 24 to 11 in Group 2.The pain subscore (P<0.01),urinary sunscore (P<0.05) and quality of life (QoL; P<0.05) as well as the total NIH-CPSI score (P<0.01) were significantly improved after antimicrobial treatment in Group 2 compared to Group 1.Response,defined as a decrease of the NIH-CPSI total score by at least 50%,was seen in Group 1 versus Group 2 in 38.5% and 58.1% (P<0.01 ),respectively.Our results showed that prostatic calculi influence the antimicrobial efficacy in men with CBP.There was a noticeable decrease in the cure rate of CBP patients with prostatic calculi due to relapse after antimicrobial therapy.

  11. Actor Network Procedures as Psi-calculi for Security Ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Prisacariu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The actor network procedures of Pavlovic and Meadows are a recent graphical formalism developed for describing security ceremonies and for reasoning about their security properties. The present work studies the relations of the actor network procedures (ANP to the recent psi-calculi framework. Psi-calculi is a parametric formalism where calculi like spi- or applied-pi are found as instances. Psi-calculi are operational and largely non-graphical, but have strong foundation based on the theory of nominal sets and process algebras. One purpose of the present work is to give a semantics to ANP through psi-calculi. Another aim was to give a graphical language for a psi-calculus instance for security ceremonies. At the same time, this work provides more insight into the details of the ANPs formalization and the graphical representation.

  12. A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Kesner, Delia; Ríos, Alejandro; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.5

    2011-01-01

    This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.

  13. 微通道和标准通道经皮肾镜碎石术对上尿路结石患者血流动力学和血气分析的影响%Effects of Microchannel and Standard Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy on Hemodynamics and Blood Gas Analysis in Patients with upper urinary Tract Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国忠; 李风; 夏宗禹; 余昆

    2015-01-01

    析的影响逐渐增加;对于心、肺、肾功能正常的患者,由于器官功能的代偿,微通道 PCNL 与标准通道 PCNL 引起的灌流液吸收量的差异不足以引起患者血流动力学和血气分析的不同。%Objective To explore the effects of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy(PCNL) and microchannel PCNL (mPCNL) on hemodynamics and blood gas analysis( BGA) in patients with upper urinary tract calculi. Methods From january 2012 to November 2013,200 kidney stone patients from Three Gorges Central Hospital were randomized into groups PCNL,mPCNL,100 in each. The mPCNL group were injected with F16 plastic sheath,PCNL group with F24 plastic sheath to establish percutaneous renal access. Patientsˊ mean arterial pressure( MAP),heart rate( HR),central venous pressure (CVP)before anesthesia,before perfusion,at minutes 10,30,60,90,120 of perfusion and after operations were recorded and blood routine examination, venous electrolyte, BGA including Na + , Cl - , K + , pH, base excess ( BE ) were determined. Results The surgical time of mPCNL group was(102. 3 ± 19. 1)min,higher than that of PCNL group〔(83. 8 ± 15. 2)min〕(t = 7. 58,P 0. 05),MAP,CVP lower before perfusion than before anesthesia in 2 groups (P 0. 05),but higher at minutes 30,60,90,120 than before perfusion(P 0. 05),K + ,pH,BE lower after operation than before anesthesia(P < 0. 01). No urosepsis or other severe complications were found in 2 groups after operation. Conclusion With the increase of operative time,the effects of the absorption of perfusate on hemodynamics and BGA increase. For the patients with normal functions of heart,lung and total kidney,the difference of absorption of perfusate caused by mPCNL and PCNL is insufficient to lead the difference of hemodynamics and BGA.

  14. Concurrency Models with Causality and Events as Psi-calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Normann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psi-calculi are a parametric framework for nominal calculi, where standard calculi are found as instances, like the pi-calculus, or the cryptographic spi-calculus and applied-pi. Psi-calculi have an interleaving operational semantics, with a strong foundation on the theory of nominal sets and process algebras. Much of the expressive power of psi-calculi comes from their logical part, i.e., assertions, conditions, and entailment, which are left quite open thus accommodating a wide range of logics. We are interested in how this expressiveness can deal with event-based models of concurrency. We thus take the popular prime event structures model and give an encoding into an instance of psi-calculi. We also take the recent and expressive model of Dynamic Condition Response Graphs (in which event structures are strictly included and give an encoding into another corresponding instance of psi-calculi. The encodings that we achieve look rather natural and intuitive. Additional results about these encodings give us more confidence in their correctness.

  15. Comparative efficacy of tamsulosin versus nifedipine for distal ureteral calculi: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hai Wang, Li Bo Man, Guang Lin Huang, Gui Zhong Li, Jian Wei WangDepartment of Urology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically compare the therapeutic effect and safety of tamsulosin with nifedipine in medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral calculi.Methods: Databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trial Register Centers, were comprehensively searched. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs were selected, and quality assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook. RevMan software was used to analyze the outcome measures, which consisted of expulsion rate, expulsion time, and complications.Results: Twelve RCTs consisting of 4,961 patients were included (tamsulosin group, 2,489 cases; nifedipine group, 2,472 cases. Compared with nifedipine, tamsulosin significantly increased the expulsion rate (risk ratio =1.29, 95% CI [1.25, 1.33], P<0.0001 and reduced the expulsion time (standard mean difference =-0.39, 95% CI [−0.72, −0.05], P=0.02. Regarding safety, tamsulosin was associated with fewer complications than nifedipine (risk ratio =0.45, 95% CI [0.28, 0.72], P=0.0008, and further subgroup analysis showed that tamsulosin was associated with a lower risk of both mild and moderate-to-severe complications.Conclusion: On the bias of current evidence, tamsulosin showed an overall superiority to nifedipine for distal ureteral calculi <10 mm in aspects of expulsion rate, expulsion time, and safety. Tamsulosin was supposed to be the first drug to be recommended to patients willing to receive medical expulsive therapy.Keywords: tamsulosin, nifedipine, medical expulsive therapy, MET, lower urinary calculi

  16. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

    1982-02-01

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

  17. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  18. Nonlocal Operational Calculi for Dunkl Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Dimovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dunkl operator $D_k$ with a non-negative parameter $k$, is considered under an arbitrary nonlocal boundary value condition. The right inverse operator of $D_k$, satisfying this condition is studied. An operational calculus of Mikusinski type is developed. In the frames of this operational calculi an extension of the Heaviside algorithm for solution of nonlocal Cauchy boundary value problems for Dunkl functional-differential equations $P(D_ku = f$ with a given polynomial $P$ is proposed. The solution of these equations in mean-periodic functions reduces to such problems. Necessary and sufficient condition for existence of unique solution in mean-periodic functions is found.

  19. Large bilateral star-shaped calculi in the seminal vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namjoshi S

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculi in the seminal vesicles (SV are extremely rare. A patient having large bilateral star-shaped calculi in the SV is reported. They were seen on plain x-ray and confirmed by computed tomography. On the reconstructed CT scans the large stone on the right side measured about 35 X 35 X 50 mm and the one on the left, 30 X 20 X 45 mm. They were not felt on rectal examination, as they were situated laterally.

  20. TREATMENT WITH TAMSULOSIN IN PATIENTS WITH DISTAL URETERAL CALCULI

    OpenAIRE

    Jagodic, K.; Bizjak, I.; Erklavec, M.; Poteko, S.; Korosec-Jagodic, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic ureteral calculi are one of the most important issues in urologist emergency clinical settings. Spontaneous passage of distal ureteral calculi is usually achieved with good hydration and spasmoanalgetic drugs. alpha-blocker therapy may facilitate and accelerate the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones.Patients and methodsIn retrospective study we analyzed patients with renal colic admitted to our department in 2006. All of them had clinical examination, urine and blo...

  1. Site of impaction of ureteric calculi requiring surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Barky, Ehab; Ali, Yusuf; Sahsah, Mohammed; Terra, Ali A; Kehinde, Elijah O

    2014-02-01

    Textbooks describe three narrowest anatomic sites in the ureter as the most likely places for ureteral calculi to lodge, these are: the pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ), the point where the ureters cross over the iliac vessels and the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). The purpose of this study is to determine whether calculi causing ureteric obstruction and requiring surgical treatment are found mostly at these three narrowest anatomic points of the ureter. Three hundred consecutive patients with impacted ureteric calculi who required surgical intervention were studied. The location of the impacted calculus on the day of surgical intervention was categorized according to nine predetermined levels outlined in a designed diagram based on findings on non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder. Two peaks in stone distribution in the ureters were encountered; the first was above the ischial spine in the proximal part of the lower third ureter (84 patients, 28%), while the second was at the level between L3 and L4 lumbar vertebrae (66 patients, 22%). Overall, the location of impacted calculi was as follows, 53, 34, 10 and 3% in the lower third ureter, upper third ureter, PUJ and mid ureter, respectively. This study demonstrates two peaks of calculi distribution in the ureter where ureteric calculi become impacted: the upper ureter below the PUJ and a second in the lower ureter, more proximal than the UVJ. There was an absence of the peak in stone location over the iliac vessels, that is, the mid ureter.

  2. Unenhanced helical CT in the evaluation of the urinary tract in children and young adults following urinary tract reconstruction: comparison with sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.T.; Elder, J.S.; Sivit, C.J.; Applegate, K.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Purpose. To compare the accuracy of unenhanced, helical CT with sonography for the detection of complications of urinary tract reconstruction. Materials and methods. Forty-six kidneys in 24 patients were examined with CT and sonography. All scans were assessed for ease of renal visualization, presence of renal, ureteral, and bladder calculi, renal scars, hydronephrosis, and abdominal wall hernia. The results of both imaging modalities were independently reported. Results. CT provided excellent visualization of all 46 kidneys, while sonography provided poor visualization of 8 kidneys (17 %) (P < 0.001). CT detected calculi in 10 kidneys, 1 ureter, and 7 bladders. Sonography detected calculi in only 2 kidneys, and 2 bladders. Overall, CT detected significantly more calculi than US (18 vs 4, P = 0.01). CT detected scarring in 15 kidneys, while sonography detected scarring in 10. Hydronephrosis was detected in 6 kidneys by CT and in 8 kidneys by sonography. Three abdominal wall hernias were seen at CT that were not seen at sonography. Conclusion. CT is superior to sonography for the detection of urinary tract calculi and renal scarring. CT will demonstrate abdominal wall hernias that are unsuspected. (orig.)

  3. [Symptomatic bladder calculi: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; Mezz Our, H; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2003-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 50 years old woman who consulted with bilateral lumbar pain and urinary infections. Intravenous Urography (IVU) showed bilateral renal and bladder stones. Treatment was by upper polary nephrectomy in the left kidney. Removing all urinary and bladder stone. We then the removed surgically renal stones in the right kidney. Using this case as an we discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic aspects of the hydrocalyx.

  4. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel;

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany......, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment...

  5. Leave no "stone" unturned: understanding the genetic bases of calcium-containing urinary stones in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S E; Stapleton, F B

    2000-01-01

    Urinary stones in children are being recognized with increasing frequency. Formerly thought to be the result of dehydration, urinary obstruction, or infection, most urinary calculi in children now are recognized to have an underlying metabolic abnormality. A number of challenges face pediatricians in evaluating and treating children with urinary stone disease. Often the clinical symptomatology is nonspecific and lacks the excruciating renal colic seen in adults. Furthermore, diagnostic clinical laboratory values vary with age and must be differentiated from normal values reported for adult patients. Both environmental and genetic factors are responsible for urinary stones. Many stones have a hereditary basis. Exciting new information is developing about the genetic propensity for urinary stones. Current medical therapies attempt either to reduce the production of a lithogenic solute or to increase urinary solubility. New therapies for prevention and treatment of urinary stone disease are likely to evolve as our understanding of the pathogenesis of these conditions grows.

  6. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  7. Aeromedical certification of aircrew and controllers with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drane, A Michael C; Navathe, Pooshan; Clem, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Acute renal colic is an incapacitating condition. Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of calculi and their detection and treatment require a new approach to aeromedical risk assessment. Can this new information support the stratification of aeromedical risk into "High" and "Low" categories, and fulfill the paramount responsibility of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Australia's aviation regulator, which isthe maintenance of aviation safety? This article reviews the epidemiology of calculi and finds 2-10% annual risk of a symptomatic event following incidental detection of a calculus. While calculi 4 mm or less in size may not require surgical intervention, this does not equate to a pain-free passage. Similarly, calculus recurrence rates may vary in different anatomical locations, but no location can be considered "safe." The recognition of parenchymal calcification and Randall's plaques as precursors to the development of calculi places such individuals at elevated risk of developing calculi. More recently evidence has supported a link between metabolic syndrome and calculus formation. In an occupational group where there is potential for elevated radiation exposure, appropriate imaging is of particular importance. CT, X-ray, and ultrasound modalities are reviewed with recommendations presented for aeromedical assessment and surveillance based on identification of those at high risk of colic and minimization of investigational radiation exposure.

  8. Study on the Relationship Between Urinary Stonesand Urinary Tract Infections%尿路结石和尿路感染关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉良

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨尿路感染与尿路结石的相关关系,为临床尿路结石的防治工作提供参考意见。方法回顾性研究2012年12月至2015年12月住院治疗的尿路结石病人,所有患者均实行腹腔镜或开腹手术取石。观察相关尿路感染指标与尿路结石的关系。结果感染性结石组患者尿常规异常、中段尿阳性患者数、消毒棉拭子阳性患者数和尿路感染患者数均高于对照组,经统计学分析,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);感染性结石组结石成分主要为六水磷酸铵镁,44例(61.1%);对照组结石成分主要为草酸钙和尿路结石,分别为62例(48.4%)和46例(35.9%)。经统计学分析,两组结石成分差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论尿路结石与尿路感染密切相关,尿路结石可导致尿路感染,尿路感染也可加重尿路结石。%Objective To investigate the correlation between urinary tract infection and urinary calculi, and provide reference for clinical prevention and treatment of urinary calculi.Methods A retrospective study in our hospital in December 2012 -2015 year in December the hospital treatment of urinary calculi patients, all patients were performed laparotomy or laparoscopic lithotomy. Observation of associated urinary tract infection index and urinary calculi.Results The infection of calculi in Urinary Routine abnormalities, urine positive patients number, sterilized cotton swab positive patients number and urinary tract infection patients were higher than those in the control group, the statistical analysis, and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05); infection stones group stone composition mainly for the hexahydrate magnesium ammonium phosphate (map), 44 cases (61.1%); control group, the stone is the main component of calcium oxalate and uric road stone, respectively 62 cases (48.4%) and 46 cases (35.9%). By statistical analysis, the difference was statistically

  9. Treatment of giant ureterocele calculi by Holmium Laser Lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Söylemez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Most ureteral stones pass spontaneously. But patients who have a calculi in an ureterocele could not pass their stone, because of narrow ureteral orifice. These stones may remain asymptomatic until hematuria or obstruction occurs.Materials and Methods: Holmium laser has many uses in urology, including soft tissue incision and calculus fragmentation. These properties are ideal for endoscopic management of the ureterocele calculusResults: We present a young patient who has no spesific and severe symptoms with a hypofunctional left kidney because of giant calculi in an ureterocele Conclusion: Its imaging characteristics on intravenous pyelography and endoscopic treatment were emphasized.

  10. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  11. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany......, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment...... spectra and qualification of the staff for an accurate analysis of stone composition. Regular quality control is essential in carrying out routine stone analysis....

  12. Candida Bezoars with Urinary Tract Obstruction in Two Women without Immunocompromising Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Paola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the cases of fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida sp., but occurrence of obstructive uropathy caused by mycetomas or fungus balls (urobezoars is extremely rare. The latter are conglomerates of fungal hyphae. Diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, chronic disease, and malignancies are known predisposing factors. Preoperative imaging is not pathognomonic; blood clots, radiolucent urinary calculi, air bubbles, and inflammatory debris can mimic urobezoars. We report on two otherwise healthy women presenting with urinary tract obstruction caused by candidal mycetomas of the renal pelvis that mimicked matrix lithiasis.

  13. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Eiji; Murata, Hajime; Kanemura, Mikio; Yokoyama, Masao

    1988-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Twelve patients with renal calculi were examined in this study. In three patients, bilateral kidneys were treated with ESWL. Sequential renal images of the vascular phase, and the functional and excretory phases were taken using a gamma camera (ZLC 7500, Siemens), after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Renograms were generated using data stored every 10 seconds for a period of 30 minutes by computer (Scintipac-2400, Shimadzu). Some treated kidneys were enlarged and/or showed uniform retention of radioactivity on sequential images, within a week after ESWL. Renogram patterns after ESWL were varied in each patient. The renogram findings after ESWL seemed to be affected by the presence or absence of stone fragments in the urinary tract.

  14. Ureteroscopy assisted retrograde nephrostomy for complete staghorn renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2012-09-01

    Complete staghorn calculi are typically managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, dilating nephrostomy and inserting a nephro access sheath can be difficult to perform without hydronephrosis. We reported the procedure of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) during PCNL. UARN is effective without dilating the renal collecting system in cases of complete staghorn calculi. A 63-year old female with a left complete staghorn renal calculus was referred to our hospital. Under general and epidural anesthesia, the patient was placed in a modified-Valdivia position. A flexible ureteroscope was inserted and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire was advanced into the flexible ureteroscope. The puncture wire was forwarded along the route from the renal pelvis to the exit skin. Calculus fragmentation was done using a pneumatic lithotripter and the Ho: YAG laser. UARN during PCNL was effective for the treatment of a complete staghorn calculus.

  15. Bacterial spectrum of urine in staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan М.I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the role of the bacterial spectrum of urine in the development and clinical course of staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods. From 2008 to 2010 in the urological department of Rostov State Medical University urine culture was assessed in 86 patients with staghorn calculi. Mean age was 50,4±5,9 (25-73 years. Results: Most of the patients with staghorn calculus (89,5% have microbial contamination of urine, which has a high correlation with leucocituria, and the spectrum of microorganisms often has the various bacterial associations, which caused more infection complications during treatment. Conclusion: In the urine urease-producing bacteria, E. Coli, gram-positive organisms, nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria were predominated

  16. Determination of Lead in Human Calculi and Its Effects on Renal Function of Lead Occupational Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Memon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five samples of renal and eighteen samples of supra gingival calculi of lead recycling workers were collected over the period of seven years (2008-2014 and studied for the accumulation of lead. The results were compared with those of non exposed subjects. The lead content of calculi was investigated for its dependence on type and composition of calculi, blood lead, job status and duration of exposure. The effect of blood lead and renal calculi was also investigated in relation to kidney function of respective subjects. The mean lead levels of various types of calculi were found to follow the order as phosphate > oxalate > urate .> cystine while single principal group of supra gingival calculi resulted in lower levels of metal. The lead content of calculi positively correlated with phosphate content of both of the renal (r = 0.655 and supra gingival calculi (r= 0.866, Impaired renal function was more pronounced in active workers and depended on blood lead levels in addition to presence of metal in renal calculi

  17. Treatment of giant ureterocele calculi by Holmium Laser Lithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Haluk Söylemez; Bülent Altınoluk; Murat Y. Uğraş

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Most ureteral stones pass spontaneously. But patients who have a calculi in an ureterocele could not pass their stone, because of narrow ureteral orifice. These stones may remain asymptomatic until hematuria or obstruction occurs.Materials and Methods: Holmium laser has many uses in urology, including soft tissue incision and calculus fragmentation. These properties are ideal for endoscopic management of the ureterocele calculusResults: We present a young patient who has no spesific and ...

  18. The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griwan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ′t′ test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

  19. Detection of urinary stones at reduced radiation exposure: a phantom study comparing computed radiography and a low-dose digital radiography linear slit scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Chakraborty, D. P.; Thoeny, Harriet C.; Loupatatzis, Christos; Vock, Peter; Harald, Bonel

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this experimental study we assessed the diagnostic performance of linear slit scanning radiography (LSSR) compared to conventional computed radiography (CR) in the detection of urinary calculi in an anthropomorphic phantom imitating patients weighing approximately 58 to 88 kg. Conclusion Compared to computed radiography, LSSR is superior in the detection of urinary stones and may be used for pretreatment localization and follow-up at a lower patient exposure. PMID:19457787

  20. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

  1. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite.

  2. Possible etiology of calculi formation in salivary glands: biophysical analysis of calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Ichinose, Shizuko; Kimijima, Yutaka; Amagasa, Teruo

    2005-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the common diseases of the salivary glands. It was speculated that, in the process of calculi formation, degenerative substances are emitted by saliva and calcification then occurs around these substances, and finally calculi are formed. However, the exact mechanism of the formation of calculi is still unclear. In this study, we identify some possible etiologies of calculi formation in salivary glands through biophysical analysis. Calculi from 13 patients with submandibular sialolithiasis were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalyzer, and electron diffraction. Transmission electron microscopic observation of calculi was performed in the submandibular gland (n = 13). In 3 of the 13 cases, a number of mitochondria-like structures and lysosomes were found near calcified materials. Scanning electron microscopic examination of these materials revealed that there were lamellar and concentric structures and that the degree of calcification was different among the calculi. X-ray microanalysis disclosed the component elements in the calculi to be Ca, P, S, Na, etc., and the main constituents were Ca and P. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was 1.60-1.89. Analysis of the area including mitochondria-like structures, lysosomes, and the fibrous structures by electron diffraction revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite and calcified materials. It is speculated that mitochondria and lysosomal bodies from the ductal system of the submandibular gland are an etiological source for calcification in the salivary gland.

  3. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus...

  4. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus...

  5. Covariance biplot analysis of trace element concentrations in urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandt, M A; Underhill, L G

    1988-06-01

    The covariance biplot, a relatively new technique for displaying multivariate data, was applied to trace element contents and compound concentrations of urinary stones. The biplot is demonstrated to give a compact graphical representation of the multivariate data with interpretations in terms of familiar statistical concepts such as correlations and standard deviations. It displays strong correlations between various trace elements like Zn and Sr, and Sr and Na. The biplot also suggests concentration relationships which could play a hitherto unknown role in the genesis of calculi. It is shown to help in the interpretation of analytical results as well as in exposing erroneous or incomplete analyses.

  6. Types of Renal Calculi and Management Regimen for Chinese Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Si-Ping; Zeng, Guo-Hua; You, Zhi-Yuan; Lu, Yi-Jin; Huang, Yun-Teng; Wang, Qing-Mao; He, Zhao-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Strict selection of patients for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy could effectively improve the success rate of surgery. This study aimed to understand the required skills and the efficacy of mini-PCNL in the treatment of five types of upper ureteral calculi. Data collected after X-ray analysis and B mode ultrasound from 633 patients with upper ureteral and renal pelvis calculi who underwent B ultrasound-guided lithotomy was reviewed, including the following: type I, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi with moderate hydronephrosis (154 cases); type II, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi with severe hydronephrosis (157 cases); type III, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi without hydronephrosis (61 cases); type IV, renal pelvis calculi, one or two renal calyx calculi (206 cases); and type V, renal staghorn calculi (55 cases). Operations on 611 cases were successful. The treatment method for five patients was converted to open surgery. Twelve cases were treated by indwelling double-J tube retro-catheterization and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Five patients gave up the treatment. The rate of calculus clearance was 82.3 %, and the rate of residual calculus was 17.6 %. Selective renal artery embolization was performed in nine cases. Hydropneumothorax occurred in nine cases. No intestinal fistula occurred, and no patient had to undergo nephrectomy. The difficulty and the curative effect of the operation were different because the types of calculi varied. Selection of the procedure based on the different types of calculi could effectively improve the success rate of the procedure, reduce complications, and shorten the learning curve.

  7. Diagnosis of uric acid calculi by dual energy CT: with ex vivo calculi spectroscopy as the reference standard%双能CT对离体泌尿系尿酸结石的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范兵; 邱建星; 王霄英; 郭小超; 董健; 张蓓; 龚侃; 黄海超

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To prospectively determine the capability of dual energy CT Gemstone spectral imaging and advanced post-processing techniques to identify uric acid calculi, with ex vivo urinary calculi spectroscopy as the reference standard. Methods: Sixty-three urinary stones were obtained by endoscopic lithotripsy. The chemical composition of the stones was confirmed by spectroscopy (including 9 cases of uric acid calculus,54 cases of non-uric acid stones). These urinary calculi were placed in the fresh porcine kidney pelvis dipped in physiological saline. Both routine CT scan and dual energy CT scan were performed. All the images of 63 urinary calculi were analyzed at workstation. CT value of the calculi was measured on the images of routine scan,40keV monoenergic (MONO) images,and 140keV MONO images,respectively. Effective Z (Eff-Z) was measured for each calculus. The spectral HU curve and histogram of 63 urinary calculi were created. Kruskal-Wallis U test and ROC curve analysis were used to evaluate the capability of these parameters to differentiate the urinary calculi components. Results:CT values of uric acid stones were as follows:(403±112)HU on routine scan images, (341±127)HU on 40keV MONO images,(404± 119) HU on 140keV MONO images. CT values of non-uric acid stones were as follows: (854 ± 335) HU on routine scan images, (1689±853) HU on 40keV MONO images, (445 ± 130) HU on 140keV MONO images. The CT values of uric acid stone and non-uric acid stone were different on both routine scan (P< 0. 01) and 40keV MONO images (P<0. 01). But the CT values of uric acid stone and non-uric acid stone were not significantly different (P=0. 436) on 140keV MONO images. Eff-Z of uric acid stones and non-uric acid stones were significantly different (P<0. 01). Seven in 9 (77. 8%) uric acid stones demonstrated rising spectral energy curve,whereas the other 56 non-uric acid stones all demonstrated reversed spectral energy curve. Conclusion: Dual energy CT is a promising

  8. Spectral triples and differential calculi related to the Kronecker foliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, R.; Richter, O.; Rudolph, G.

    2003-04-01

    Following the ideas of Connes and Moscovici, we describe two spectral triples related to the Kronecker foliation, whose generalized Dirac operators are related to first and second order signature operators. We also consider the corresponding differential calculi Ω D, which are drastically different in the two cases. For the second order signature operator we calculate the Chern character of the spectral triple and the Dixmier trace of certain powers of its Dirac operator. As a side-remark, we give a description of a known calculus on the two-dimensional noncommutative torus in terms of generators and relations.

  9. [Dissolution therapy of struvite calculi with solution G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, M; Maeda, O; Matsumiya, K; Koide, T; Takaha, M; Oka, T; Sonoda, T

    1988-07-01

    In 6 patients (9 kidneys) irrigation with Solution G in the renal pelvis was performed for the dissolution of their infectious stones. Staghorn calculi larger than 30 mm in diameter were observed in all patients. In two kidneys all stones were dissolved and the rest were dissolved into small fragments that constituted no problem in those kidneys. Irrigation was done with no major side effects or complications. The dissolution of infectious stones with Solution G is another possible treatment that could be first chosen among percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and other treatments.

  10. Ultrasonic fragmentation in the treatment of male urethral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazi, M H; Samiei, M R

    1988-11-01

    In the last 8 months, 7 patients have presented with acute retention of urine due to impacted urethral stones. Four stones were in the posterior urethra, 2 in the penile urethra and 1 proximal to the external urethral meatus. The patients were managed as emergencies. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound (US) through a 24F obliquely offset eyepiece nephroscope was achieved with minimal urethral trauma. Follow-up was for 6 months and no evidence of urethral stricture or recurrent stones was found. It was concluded that US fragmentation of urethral calculi is a safe and efficient procedure with minimal complications when used in the management of impacted urethral stones.

  11. Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-qing GUO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83 and URL/PCNL group (n=32. In ESWL group, the patients received ESWL for a maximum of 3 times. In URL/PCNL group, the patients received URS or PCNL after ESWL for 3 times without lithecbole. Results All the patients were male and the mean age was 36.1±9.1 years. The average diameter of the stones was 0.68±0.22cm in ESWL group and 0.78±0.25cm in URL/PCNL group. There was no significant difference in stone diameter between the two groups (P=0.526. The rate of qualification for flying was 68.7% in ESWL group and 81.3% in URL/PCNL group (URL 80.0%, PCNL 100%, showing a significant difference (P=0.002. In ESWL group, the rate of qualification for flying of pilots harboring renal and proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 64.3%, 88.9% and 33.3% respectively, with a significant difference (P=0.023. The rate of flying qualification of pilots harboring proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 71.4%, 86.7% and 87.5% respectively after URL, and there was no significant difference (P=0.174. Among the five patients who received URL but did not achieve satisfactory effect, two had stones retreated to the renal pelvis during the operation, and in two patients distal ureter was too narrow to allow passage of ureteroscope, and the ureteroscope was enveloped by inflammatory polyp in one patient. Conclusion URL/PCNL maybe more effective than ESWL in the treatment of proximal urinary calculus in pilots

  12. Unusual Clinical Presentation of Bilateral Adult Non-Obstructing Ureteroceles Containing Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hoşcan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureterocele, while not an uncommon pediatric urologic problem, has been reported only rarely in adults. Adult bilateral ureteroceles with calculi is an uncommon and well tolerated, relatively rare clinical entity. Although ureteroceles in adults are usually asymptomatic, various symptoms tend to appear in ureteroceles with stones, such as flank pain, urinary tract infections and bladder irritability. While ureteroceles occur more commonly in women, stones in ureteroceles tend to be more common in men. Most ureteroceles can be safely managed transurethrally endoscopically which is generally well tolerated by most patients. We present an unusual clinical presentation of bilateral adult non-obstructing ureteroceles containing urinary stones.

  13. Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia

    2012-10-01

    In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

  14. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation.

  15. Urinary catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incontinence. There is no tube placed inside the penis. Instead, a condom-like device is placed over the penis. A tube leads from this device to a ... too small Bladder spasms Constipation The wrong balloon size Urinary tract infections POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS Complications of catheter ...

  16. 头孢曲松钠相关双侧输尿管结石%Ceftriaxone sodium associated with bilateral ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 岳明; 刘小勇

    2013-01-01

    1例26岁女性患者因上呼吸道感染静脉滴注头孢曲松钠2 g,1次/d.第4天突然出现下腹持续性胀痛,腹部超声及CT检查提示双侧输尿管结石.给予对症支持治疗.第5天患者尿中排出少许沉渣.当天腹痛缓解,尿频、尿急症状消失.第6天复查CT,双侧输尿管结石消失.%A 26-year-old female patient received an Ⅳ infusion of ceftriaxone 2 g once daily for upper respiratory tract infection.On day 4,the patient developed persistent distending pain in her lower abdomen.Abdominal ultrasonography and CT examinations revealed bilateral ureteral calculi.The patient received symptomatic treatments and supportive therapy.On day 5,little sediment was excreted in the urine.On the same day,the abdominal pain was alleviated and symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency disappeared.On day 6,CT reexamination showed that the bilateral ureteral calculi disappeared.

  17. [Experiences with transparenchymal coral calculi removal under local hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, L; Zacher, W; Meyer, S

    1984-06-01

    Under certain conditions genuine coral calculi are an absolute offication for nephrotomy. In order to achieve complete hygienization of the cavity ischaemia times of more than 25-30 min are often necessary. Controlled surface cooling proved to be very good for improving ischaemia tolerance and reducing post-ischaemic loss of function in 21 necessary nephrotomies out of a total of 651 operations for concrements in the calyx system of the renal pelvis (= 3.2%; = 32.8% of all nephrotomies). A kidney thermometer with a temperature feeler developed by us allows fine control of the hypothermia induced by means of plastic bags filled with ice crystals. The technique of operation together with its advantages and disadvantages are described.

  18. Ureteral Stent Placement for Ureteral Calculi during Pregnancy:An Analysis of 50 Cases%输尿管支架置入术治疗孕期输尿管结石50例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进峰; 卢晓明; 王礼平; 尹九湖

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To explorer the value of ureteral stent placement in the treatment of ure-teral calculi during pregnancy.Methods Clinical data of 50 patients who underwent ureteral stent placement for ureteral calculi during pregnancy were retrospectively analyzed.Auxiliary examina-tion confirmed that all patients had ureteral calculi complicated by renal colic and failed to respond to conservative drug treatment.Among the 50 patients,25 had right ureteral calculi,22 had left u-reteral calculi,3 had bilateral ureteral calculi,31 had middle/upper ureteral calculi,and 19 had lower ureteral calculi.Results Thirty-seven patients successfully underwent cystoscopic catheter-ization after topical anesthesia.Twelve patients underwent successful ureteroscopic catheterization after failed cystoscopic catheterization.One patient underwent successful percutaneous renal an-terograde catheterization under local anaesthesia after failed retrograde catheterization.After treatment,renal colic was relieved obviously and hydronephrosis was alleviated to varying degrees with no threatened abortion in all patients.Postoperative reexamination showed that ureteral stents were placed appropriately in 48 patients and were located in upper ureter in 1 patient.In ad-dition,ureteral stents fell out in 1 patient when urinary catheter was removed on postoperative day 3.However,ureteral stents were appropriately placed after recatheterization in this patient. Conclusion Ureteral stent placement is a simple,effective,safe and reliable treatment for ureteral calculi during pregnancy.%目的:探讨输尿管支架置入术在治疗孕期输尿管结石中的应用价值。方法对50例输尿管支架置入术治疗的孕期输尿管结石患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。50例患者均经辅助检查证实输尿管结石,同时合并肾绞痛,经药物保守治疗无效,其中右输尿管结石25例、左输尿管结石22例、双侧输尿管结石3例,31例

  19. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  20. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  1. Herbal medicines for urinary stone treatment. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Monti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical evidence on the efficacy of phytotherapy in the treatment of calculi in the urinary tract. Methods: To be eligible, full-length articles should include the results of randomized controlled trials enrolling patients affected by urolithiasis, reporting any comparison between an experimental herbal agent versus placebo or any active comparator, aimed at preventing the formation or facilitating the dissolution of calculi in any portion of the urinary tract. Fifteen databases were searched for relevant references. The primary outcomes investigated were (i the reduction of stone size and/or number and (ii the urinary excretion rates of calcium, urate, or oxalate. The secondary outcome of the review was the adverse effects (AE of treatment. Risk of bias (ROB and quality of the evidence were assessed according to Cochrane and GRADE guidelines. We performed a randomeffect meta-analysis. Results: 541 articles were retrieved and 16 studies were finally confirmed as eligible. Multiple Cochrane ROB tool items were rated as having high risk of bias in each analyzed trial report. Pooled analysis of continuous data could be performed for three different comparisons: (i phytotherapy versus citrate as single agent (ii phytotherapy versus placebo, (iii preparation of Didymocarpus pedicellata (DP -combined with other herbal agents- versus placebo. Results showed that citrate is superior to phytotherapy in significantly decreasing both the size of urinary stones (mean difference: phytotherapy, 0.42 mm higher; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.6; Z = 4.42, P < 0.0001; I2 = 30% and the urinary excretion rate of urate (mean difference: 42.32 mg/24h higher, 95% CI: 19.44 to 65.19; Z = 3.63, P = 0.0003; I2 = 96%, assessed after 3 months on-therapy. No significant differences in the excretion rates of urinary calcium or oxalate were found. The DP preparation was superior to placebo in inducing total clearance (risk ratio: 6.19, 95% CI: 2.60 to 14.74; Z

  2. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children.

  3. Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Migrated into the Urinary Bladder and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Zorba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine contraceptive devices are being used in clinical practice since 1962. Due to their efficiency and low cost, intrauterine contraceptive devices are the most popular method of reversible contraception in developing countries. The incidence of migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device, and related uterine perforation ranges from 0.003% to 0.87%. Intrauterine contraceptive device may migrate into urinary bladder, appendix, rectum, colon, peritoneum, anterior abdominal wall or ovary. Foreign bodies like sutures, stents, and needles in the urinary bladder act as niduses for calculi formation. Intrauterine contraceptive device migrated into the bladder can also become a nidus for a stone formation.Herein we report about a case whose intrauterine contraceptive devices had migrated into the bladder, and presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and suprapubic discomfort 6 years after its insertion.

  4. Epidemiological Survey of Renal Calculi in Adult Yao Population in Guangxi%广西瑶族成年人肾结石流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤宗源; 江顺建; 李江; 李秀清; 钟明涛; 黄日波; 李萍; 邹爱俐

    2015-01-01

    ,dietary condition and history of diseases. Renal calculus was diagnosed by renal ultrasound. Univariate analyses and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were conducted on the influencing factors for renal calculi. Results Among 3 475 subjects,418 were diagnosed with renal calculi with a prevalence rate of 12. 0% (418 / 3 475). The prevalence rate of renal calculi was significantly different( P <0. 05)among populations with different genders,ages,occupations,education degrees,marital status,yearly income and BMI. The prevalence of renal calculus was significantly different( P < 0. 05) among subjects with regard to smoking or not, alcohol consumption,the source of drinking water,drinking before sleep or not,drinking water being boiled or not and the frequency of eating fresh green vegetables,bean products,persimmon and animal giblets. The prevalence of renal calculus was also significantly different(P < 0. 05) among subjects as regards the history of gall stone,nephritis and urinary calculi. The multivariate Logistic regression analyses showed that age,gender,occupation,education degree,yearly income,the source of drinking water,drinking water being boiled or not,the intake of persimmon,fresh green vegetables,bean products and animal giblets,history of nephritis and the family history of urinary stone were influencing factors( P < 0. 05) for renal calculi. Conclusion The prevalence of renal calculi in adult Yao people in Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County is relatively higher and is related with diet and other various factors. The precaution of renal calculi should be carried out with the high risk factors as the focus.

  5. MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY OF URETERIC CALCULI - OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uretric stones can be treated with multiple modalities including medical therapy, uretroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy (SWS, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open/laparoscopic stone removal, and/or combinations of these modalities. The aim is to study the effectivene ss of medical management of uretric stones and to compare the effectiveness of Tamsulosin and Tamsulosin with steroid . MATERIALS & METHODS: 120 Patients who came with acute uretric colic were categorized into III categories of less than 5mm, 5mm to 7mm and more than 7mm based on NCCT. They were consecutively allotted to one of the three groups, the group I patients received Anti - Biotics with NSAIDs group II received Tamsulosin in addition Anti - Biotics and NSAIDs and III rd group received Anti - Biotics, Tamsu losin, NSAIDs in addition Deflazacart 30mg for a period of 10 days. The results were evaluated at the end of 10 days medical treatment. RESULTS : 90 out of 120 patients were re - evaluated at the end of 10 days. The calculi of 7mm should be removed as the chances of passage is <20%. The medical treatment with Tamsulosin or Tamsulosin with Deflazacart does not offer significant benefit.

  6. Ureteroscopic Holmium Laser Combined with Ultrasound Lithotripsy for Treating Ureteral Calculi%输尿管镜下钬激光联合超声碎石治疗输尿管结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华武; 黄群; 黄勇平; 吴军; 梁庆祖

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the method and efficacy of ureteroscopic holmium laser combined with ultrasound lithotripsy for treating ureteral calculi.Methods:163 cases of ureteral calculi were treated with ureterosopic holmium laser combined with ultrasound lithotripsy.The greatest dimension of the calculus ranged from 5 to 17 mm.The calculus were located in upper ureter in 51 cases,middle ureter in 52 cases,lower ureter in 60 cases.5 ~7F double J tube were put in routine place postoperative 1~4 weeks, antibiotics was used to prevent infection.Results:The calculi clearance rate was 95.9% (155/163) once,8 cases of failure were changed to PCNL ,open operation or double J tube and ESWL treatment , no the complications such as perforation avulsed ureter and urinary severe infection.Conclusion:The holmium laser combined ultrasound lithotripsy is a safe and effective for treating ureteral calculi ,and calculi removes completely.%目的:探讨输尿管镜下钬激光联合超声碎石治疗输尿管结石的方法和疗效。方法:采用输尿管镜下钬激光联合超声碎石治疗输尿管结石163例,结石直径5~17 mm,其中上段结石51例,中段结石52例,下段结石60例。常规放置5~7F双J管于术后1~4周拔除,应用抗生素预防感染。结果:结石一次性成功取出155例占95.09%,8例失败术中转PCNL、开放手术或留置双J管再行ESWL后结石排净。无输尿管穿孔撕脱及泌尿系严重感染等并发症。结论:输尿管镜下钬激光联合超声碎石治疗输尿管结石效率高、结石清除彻底、安全有效。

  7. Urinary Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Dimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted into the extracellular space or body fluids when a multivesicular body (MVB fuses with the cell membrane. Interest in exosomes intensified after their description in antigen-presenting cells and the observation that they can significantly moderate immune responses in vivo. In the past few years, several groups have reported on the secretion of exosomes by almost all cell types in an organism. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic molecules, exosomes harbor unique subsets of proteins, reflecting their cellular source. Major research efforts were put into their surprisingly various biological functions and in translating knowledge into clinical practice. Urine provides an exciting noninvasive alternative to blood or tissue samples as a potential source of disease biomarkers. Urinary exosomes (UE became the subject of serious studies just a few years ago. A recent large-scale proteomics-based study of normal UE revealed a myriad of proteins, including disease-related gene products. Thus, UE have valuable potential as a source of biomarkers for early detection of various types of diseases, monitoring the disease evolution and/or response to therapy. As a relatively new field of research, it still faces many challenges, but UE have already shown some straightforward potential.

  8. FT-IR spectroscopic, thermal analysis of human urinary stones and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, FT-IR, XRD, TGA-DTA spectral methods have been used to investigate the chemical compositions of urinary calculi. Multi-components of urinary calculi such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid have been studied. The chemical compounds are identified by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The mineral identification was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction patterns as compared with JCPDS reported values. Thermal analysis techniques are considered the best techniques for the characterization and detection of endothermic and exothermic behaviors of the urinary stones. The percentages of each hydrate (COM and COD) are present together, in the presences of MAPH or UA. Finally, the present study suggests that the Urolithiasis is significant health problem in children, and is very common in some parts of the world, especially in India. So that present study is so useful and helpful to the scientific community for identification of latest human health problems and their remedies using spectroscopic techniques.

  9. First-order differential calculi over multi-braided quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1996-01-01

    A differential calculus of the first order over multi-braided quantum groups is developed. In analogy with the standard theory, left/right-covariant and bicovariant differential structures are introduced and investigated. Furthermore, antipodally covariant calculi are studied. The concept of the *-structure on a multi-braided quantum group is formulated, and in particular the structure of left-covariant *-covariant calculi is analyzed. A special attention is given to differential calculi covariant with respect to the action of the associated braid system. In particular it is shown that the left/right braided-covariance appears as a consequence of the left/right-covariance relative to the group action. Braided counterparts of all basic results of the standard theory are found.

  10. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; 10.4204/EPTCS.40

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of biochemical substances and information that underlies their functioning. The modeling and analysis of biological systems has also attracted considerable interest of the process algebra research community. Thus the notions of membranes and compartments have been explicitly represented in a family of calculi, such as ambients and brane calculi. A cross fertilization of these two research areas has ...

  11. US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglar Uzun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula.

  12. US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Ustuner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula.

  13. Flexible Ureteroscopic Management of Horseshoe Kidney Renal Calculi

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    Jie Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of flexible ureteroscope (F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter in treating renal calculi in horseshoe kidney.Materials and Methods:From November 2010 to December 2013, the medical history and charts of sixteen patients (mean age 42.9±11.6 years, range 26-66 years, including 13 males and 3 females were analyzed retrospectively. Mean stone burden was 29±8 mm (range 17-42 mm2. Mean stone digitized surface area (DSA was 321±94 mm2 (range 180-538 mm2. Under spinal anesthesia in a modified lithotomy position with the head down, rigid ureteroscope was placed firstly into the ureter to reach the level of the pelvis, a zebra guide wire was inserted and following the removal of the rigid ureteroscope, an ureteral access sheath was positioned along the guide wire, then passed the URF P-5 flexible ureteroscope into the renal cavities over the guidewire. After locating the stones, holmium laser lithotripsy was performed.Results:The average operative time was 92±16 minutes (range 74-127 min.. No major complications were encountered. Ten patients obtained stone-free status with one session, four obtained stone-free status after two sessions. Single session stone-free rate was 62.5%, overall stone-free rate was 87.5%. Two patients have small residual stones in the lower pole.Conclusions:F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter and nitinol basket, is safe and effective in dealing with moderate stone diameter (<30 mm in HSKs with high clearance rates and low complication rates.

  14. Adjunctive chemotherapy of infection-induced staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Moskowitz, P A; Carlton, C E

    1979-06-01

    Bacteria induce urinary crystallization of struvite and carbonate-apatite as a by-product of ureolysis by urease. Eradication of infection and/or inhibition of urease with acetohydroxamic acid for 5 to 30 months retarded stone growth and brought about partial or comple dissolution of stones in 9 patients. Long-term chemotherapy with antimicrobial agents that achieve steril urine or acetohydroxamic acid in those patients with recalcitrant infection lessens the risk of recurrent calculogenesis.

  15. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory ...

  16. Effect of Dietary Countermeasures and Impact of Gravity on Renal Calculi Size Distributions Predicted by PBE-System and PBE-CFD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, M.; Thompson, D.; Goodenow, D.; Gokoglu, S.; Myers, J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal stone disease is not only a concern on earth but can conceivably pose a serious risk to the astronauts health and safety in Space. In this work, two different deterministic models based on a Population Balance Equation (PBE) analysis of renal stone formation are developed to assess the risks of critical renal stone incidence for astronauts during space travel. In the first model, the nephron is treated as a continuous mixed suspension mixed product removal crystallizer and the PBE for the nucleating, growing and agglomerating renal calculi is coupled to speciation calculations performed by JESS. Predictions of stone size distributions in the kidney using this model indicate that the astronaut in microgravity is at noticeably greater but still subcritical risk and recommend administration of citrate and augmented hydration as effective means of minimizing and containing this risk. In the second model, the PBE analysis is coupled to a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for flow of urine and transport of Calcium and Oxalate in the nephron to predict the impact of gravity on the stone size distributions. Results presented for realistic 3D tubule and collecting duct geometries, clearly indicate that agglomeration is the primary mode of size enhancement in both 1g and microgravity. 3D numerical simulations seem to further indicate that there will be an increased number of smaller stones developed in microgravity that will likely pass through the nephron in the absence of wall adhesion. However, upon reentry to a 1g (Earth) or 38g (Mars) partial gravitational fields, the renal calculi can lag behind the urinary flow in tubules that are adversely oriented with respect to the gravitational field and grow agglomerate to large sizes that are sedimented near the wall with increased propensity for wall adhesion, plaque formation, and risk to the astronauts.

  17. POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KIDNEY, GALL AND URINARY STONES

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    Choubey Ankur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity.

  18. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  19. On the expressiveness and decidability of higher-order process calculi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanese, Ivan; Perez, Jorge A.; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In higher-order process calculi, the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a d

  20. Declarative event based models of concurrency and refinement in psi-calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Håkon; Johansen, Christian; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    -calculi representation of Dynamic Condition Response Graphs, which conservatively extends prime event structures to allow finite representations of (omega) regular finite (and infinite) behaviours and have been shown to support run-time adaptation and refinement. We end by outlining the final aim of this research, which...

  1. From exponential coordinates to bicovariant differential calculi on matrix quantum groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijligenberg, N.W. van den; Martini, R.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure to obtain bicovariant differential calculi on matrix quantum groups is presented. The construction is based on the description of the matrix quantum group as a quantized universal enveloping algebra by the use of exponential coordinates. The procedure is illustrated by applying it to the

  2. A Case of Randall's Plugs Associated to Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of a patient who developed multiple calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi, some of them connected to intratubular calcifications (Randall's plugs, is presented. Randall's plugs were isolated and studied. The mechanism of Randall's plug development is also suggested.

  3. Ureteropyeloscopy and homium: YAG laser lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi (report of 356 cases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong; Din, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-wen; Zen, Jing-cun; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium YAG laser lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 356 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy using holmium YAG laser with a semirigid uretesopyeloscope, 93 upper, 135 middle, and 128 lower ureteral stones were treated. Results: The overall successful fragmentation rate for all ureteral stones in a single session achieved 98% (349/356). The successful fragmentation rate stratified by stone location was 95% 88/93 in the upper ureter, 99% (134/135) in the mid ureter , and 99%(127/128) in the distal ureter. 12 cases with bilateral ureteral stones which caused acute renal failure and anuria were treated rapidly and effectively by the holmium YAG laser lithotripsy. No complications such as perforation and severe trauma were encountered during the operations. 2 weeks 17months (with an average of 6.8 month ) follow up postoperatively revealed that the overall stone-free rate was 98%(343/349) and no ureteral stenosis was found. Conclusions Holmium YAG laser lithotripsy is a highly effective, minimally invasive and safe therapy for ureteral calculi. It is indicated as a first choice of treatment for patients with ureteral calculi, especially for the ones with mid- lower levels of ureteral calculi.

  4. Medical and Surgical Treatment Modalities for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in the Male Patient Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Matthew Ryan; Raynor, Mathew C

    2016-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is one of the most common ailments affecting aging men. Symptoms typically associated with BPH include weak stream, hesitancy, urgency, frequency, and nocturia. More serious complications of BPH include urinary retention, gross hematuria, bladder calculi, recurrent urinary tract infection, obstructive uropathy, and renal failure. Evaluation of BPH includes a detailed history, objective assessment of urinary symptoms with validated questionnaires, and measurement of bladder function parameters, including uroflowmetry and postvoid residual. In general, treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is based on the effect of the symptoms on quality of life (QOL) and include medical therapy aimed at reducing outlet obstruction or decreasing the size of the prostate. If medical therapy fails or is contraindicated, various surgical options exist. As the elderly population continues to grow, the management of BPH will become more common and important in maintaining patient's QOL.

  5. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

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    Vaidyanathan S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Subramanian Vaidyanathan,1 Azi Samsudin,2 Gurpreet Singh,3 Peter L Hughes,4 Bakul M Soni,1 Fahed Selmi1 1Regional Spinal Injuries Center, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK; 2Department of Urology, Whiston Hospital, Prescot, UK; 3Department of Urology, 4Department of Radiology, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK Introduction: Paraplegic patients are at greater risk of developing complications following ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of urine infection associated with neuropathic bladder, difficulties in access due to altered anatomy of urinary bladder and urethra, spinal curvature, spasticity, and contractures. We report the occurrence of large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopy and discuss lessons we learn from this case.Case report: A 48-year-old male patient with spina bifida underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy and ureteric stenting for left ureteric stone and staghorn calculus with hydronephrosis; laser lithotripsy was repeated after 3 months; both procedures were performed by a senior urologist and did not result in any complications. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy was performed 5 months later by a urological trainee; it was difficult to negotiate the scope as vision became poor because of bleeding (as a result of the procedure. Postoperatively, hematuria persisted; temperature was 39°C. Cefuroxime was given intravenously followed by gentamicin for 5 days; hematuria subsided gradually; he was discharged home. Ten days later, this patient developed temperature, the urine culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin was given orally. Computed tomography (CT of the urinary tract, performed 4 weeks after ureteroscopy, revealed a 9×7 cm subcapsular collection on the left kidney compressing underlying parenchyma. Percutaneous drainage was not feasible because of severe curvature of spine. Isotope renogram revealed deterioration in left renal function from 30

  6. Development of a urinary lithiasis localizer mechanism to couple ultrasound and extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment in canine model

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    Enrico Andrade

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the evolution of extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment (ESWL and presently, the fact that most part of the equipment does not present ultrasound to localize urinary calculi, a system that allows adapting ultrasound equipment to ESWL equipment was developed, disposing only of fluoroscopy. Thus, this equipment was developed and was tested in urinary stones in canine models, to check its precision in relation to fluoroscopy. METHOD: Seven male dogs were utilized with the introduction, in the bladder through the ureteral route, of chalkstones, with initial localization by fluoroscopy, with a further ultrasound coincidence check localization of the vesical stones, being submitted to ESWL with a 3-hour, 21 days and 60 days follow-up after the procedure. RESULTS: Success of localization in all animals was verified presenting elimination of stones in the first micturitions, after ESWL. No complications were verified in those animals for 60 days. CONCLUSION: We verified that this equipment can lead to an update of the equipment that use only fluoroscopy, increasing in this way, their technical capacity in the treatment of urinary calculi, mainly in cases of non-radiopaque stones.

  7. The female urinary microbiota, urinary health and common urinary disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions. Common clinical conditions, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), a common form of urinary incontinence (UI), may be usefully reconsidered to determine the role of the FUM. Knowledge of FUM characteristics may help advance prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and other common lower urinary disorders in women. The FUM appears related to UTI and UUI in adult women. The specific role of the FUM remains to be clarified and requires significant additional work in describing FUM variability and resilience in health. Unique aspects of the FUM prompt re-evaluation of existing nomenclature to more appropriately define health and disease; the concept of dysbiosis may be useful for understanding the interaction of the FUM with other aspects of lower urinary tract physiology, including urothelial signaling. Clinicians, through their clinical laboratories, can adopt enhanced urine culture techniques that more fully describe the living microbes within the FUM. This additional information may provide clinicians and their patients an opportunity to impact clinical care without antibiotic use, if the FUM can be appropriately modified to improve treatment precision for UTI and UUI. PMID:28217699

  8. Aphallia with urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Movarrekh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphallia is a very rare urogenital anomaly with incidence rate of 1 in 30,000,000. It usually coexists with other anomalies such as cardiovascular anomalies which are incompatible with normal life, and therefore infants are delivered stillbirth or live for a very short period of time. Methods: We present an 18 months old boy with aphallia associated with congenital urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral stones. All stones were removed endourologically, recto-urethral fistula was repaired and perincal urethrostomy was performed. Results: The stones were composed of calcium phosphate colonized by klebiella pneumonia and proteus mirabilis. Urethrorectal fistula repairment was confirmed by cystography. Patient was discharged without a urinary catheter. Conclusion: In developed countries, management of such patients is to raise them as females. However, we must consider socio-cultural conditions, parents preference and patients tendency in management of aphallia.

  9. Urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGeros, R Z; Orly, I; LeGeros, J P; Gomez, C; Kazimiroff, J; Tarpley, T; Kerebel, B

    1988-03-01

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO3-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGeros, R.Z.; Orly, I.; LeGeros, J.P.; Gomez, C.; Kazimiroff, J.; Tarpley, T.; Kerebel, B.

    1988-03-01

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO/sub 3/-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO/sub 3/ (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification.

  12. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and polarizing microscope (PM techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system.

  13. FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniello Primiano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Analysis kit in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The same samples were analyzed by FT-IR using the Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR Spectrometer. All FT-IR spectra of kidney stones were then computer matched against a library of spectra to generate a report on the various components. Results. On the basis of FT-IR analysis, the 48 calculi were divided into three groups: pure stone, mixed stone, and pure stone with substances in trace. Results of each group were compared with those obtained with chemical spot test. A general disagreement between methods was observed. Conclusions. According to our data, the introduction of the FT-IR technique in clinical chemistry laboratory may be more responsive to clinician expectations.

  14. FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primiano, Aniello; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Cocci, Andrea; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Zuppi, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Analysis kit in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The same samples were analyzed by FT-IR using the Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR Spectrometer. All FT-IR spectra of kidney stones were then computer matched against a library of spectra to generate a report on the various components. Results. On the basis of FT-IR analysis, the 48 calculi were divided into three groups: pure stone, mixed stone, and pure stone with substances in trace. Results of each group were compared with those obtained with chemical spot test. A general disagreement between methods was observed. Conclusions. According to our data, the introduction of the FT-IR technique in clinical chemistry laboratory may be more responsive to clinician expectations. PMID:24868112

  15. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  16. Swapping: a natural bridge between named and indexed explicit substitution calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelzon, Ariel; Ziliani, Beta; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.1

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the presentation of lambda_rex, an explicit substitution calculus with de Bruijn indexes and a simple notation. By being isomorphic to lambda_ex - a recent formalism with variable names -, lambda_rex accomplishes simulation of beta-reduction (Sim), preservation of beta-strong normalization (PSN) and meta-confluence (MC), among other desirable properties. Our calculus is based on a novel presentation of lambda_dB, using a swap notion that was originally devised by de Bruijn. Besides lambda_rex, two other indexed calculi isomorphic to lambda_x and lambda_xgc are presented, demonstrating the potential of our technique when applied to the design of indexed versions of known named calculi.

  17. Primary Giant Cell Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Kidney with Staghorn Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH as primary renal tumours are rare, with less than 50 cases described in the literature. We report a case of primary renal MFH of giant cell type in a 56-year-old man, who presented with bilateral dull flank pain, intermittent gross haematuria and body weight loss (6 kg in 3 months. Intravenous urography, computerized tomography (CT and magnetic resonance image (MRI showed right ureteral stones with mild hydronephrosis, and a solid mass at the lower pole of the left kidney associated with staghorn calculi, as well as tumour thrombi in the left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Left radical nephrectomy and evacuation of tumour thrombi from the left renal vein and inferior vena cava were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of giant cell type. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of primary renal MFH associated with staghorn calculi.

  18. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  19. Towards a Theory of Bisimulation for the Higher-Order Process Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-JianLi; Xin-XinLiu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a labelled transition semantics for higher-order process calculi is studied. The labelled transition semantics is relatively clean and simple, and corresponding bisimulation equivalence can be easily formulated based on it. And the congruence properties of the bisimulation equivalence can be proved easily. To show the correspondence between the proposed semantics and the well-established ones, the bisimulation is characterized as a version of barbed equivalence and a version of context bisimulation.

  20. Towards a Theory of Bisimulation for the Higher-Order Process Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Jian Li; Xin-Xin Liu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a labelled transition semantics for higher-order process calculi is studied. The labelled transition semantics is relatively clean and simple, and corresponding bisimulation equivalence can be easily formulated based on it. And the congruence properties of the bisimulation equivalence can be proved easily.To show the correspondence between the proposed semantics and the well-established ones, the bisimulation is characterized as a version of barbed equivalence and a version of context bisimulation.

  1. SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY IN INFANTS PRESENTING WITH OBSTRUCTIVE RENAL CALCULI AND ANURIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugesh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Urolithiasis in infancy is rare but important health issue. Etiology is multi factorial . Optimal management of pediatric stone disease is still evolving . Infants with bilateral obstructive renal stones are unique group of patients in whom prompt evaluation and management is necessary. AI MS AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and efficacy of PCNL in infants presenting with bilateral obstructive renal calculi and anuria . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: From N ov . 2012 to M arch 2014, 18 renal units with calculi in 9 infants (6 boys, 3 girls were treated with PCNL ( P ercutaneous N ephrolithotomy at our institution. All infants presented with anuria, rised serum creatinin (mean 6.1mg/dl and uremic symptoms due to bilateral obstructive renal calculi. All patients managed initially with peritoneal dialysis a t nephrology u nit, followed by bilateral DJ (D ouble J stenting, then bilateral PCNL performed in two sittings. Mean age 8.5 months (4m to 12m, mean stone burden 1.7 cm (0.6cm to 3.0 cm, 20 F pediatric nephroscope through 22F percutaneous access was used . Stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripter. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 60.22 mins (30 mins to 90 mins. Complete stone clearance was done in all cases without need for second look PCNL. Mean post op serum creatinin is 0.6 mg/dl. No patient r equired blood transfusion, developed urosepsis, or had a procedure related complications. CONCLUSION: When performed by experienced urologists, PCNL is safe and effective procedure in infants presenting with bilateral obstructive renal calculi and anuria, provided these patients managed preoperatively with peritoneal dialysis and DJ stenting to optimise renal function and to relieve sepsis.

  2. Application and analysis of ureteral calculi with double J tube in pregnancy%双J管在治疗妊娠期输尿管结石的应用与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 夏勇

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the clinical effect and safety of double J tube in treatment of pregnancy complicated with ureteral calculi.Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data of 36 cases of pregnancy complicated with ureteral calculi treated with double J tube under the endoscope in the hospital from January 2009 to December 2014 were performed.The curative effect and the occurrence of adverse events were record and observed.Results The operations of 36 patients were successful and no serious complications occurred.36 patients with renal colic,kidney water and upper urinary tract infection were relieved after implantation of double J tube.Patients were successfully delivered at term.After delivery,22 cases of patients with stone self discharge,the other 14 cases were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and holmium laser lithotripsy.Conclusions For invalid conservative treatment of pregnancy with ureteral calculi,the occurrence of renal colic,kidney water and upper urinary tract infection,double J tube placed under the endoscope is a safe and effective treatment method.%目的 探讨放置双J管治疗妊娠合并输尿管结石的临床疗效和安全性.方法 回顾性分析汉中市中心医院2009年1月至2014年12月行膀胱镜下置入双J管治疗的36例妊娠合并输尿管结石患者的临床资料.观察其疗效并记录不良事件发生情况.结果 36例手术均成功,无严重并发症出现.置入双J管后36例患者肾绞痛、肾积水及上尿路感染均缓解,患者均足月顺利分娩.分娩后复查22例患者结石自行排出,另14例患者行体外碎石、输尿管镜钬激光碎石术.随访7~60个月,无严重不良反应发生.结论 对于保守疗法无效的妊娠合并输尿管结石患者,发生肾绞痛、肾积水及上尿路感染者,膀胱镜下放置双J管是一种安全、有效的治疗方法.

  3. Er:YAG removal of subgingival calculi: efficiency, temperature, and surface quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Hibst, Raimund; Keller, Ulrich

    1996-12-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a handpiece with a special fiber tip for Er:YAG laser removal of subgingival calculus. The morphological changes of the treated areas were observed by light microscopy and SEM. To evaluate the efficiency, the time for complete removal of the calculi was measured. The temperature development in the pulp during laser treatment was investigated by a thermocouple inserted into a root canal. After calculi ablation, only smooth ablation traces are visible. The depth of the ablation traces is about 100 micrometers . Roughness of the treated area is similar to the untreated area. The ablation efficiency depends strongly on the shape and location of the calculi and varies between 4.6 and 20 mm2/min. During non stop preparation the maximum occurred temperature in pulp was 7.8 K. The results show that the Er:YAG laser with the used fiber delivery systems and handpiece is suitable for effective and sparing removal of subgingival calculus in periodontal treatment.

  4. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  5. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielo Garcia de Freitas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory urography, cystoscopy or ultrasonography. Two months after the calculus had been eliminated, the patient began to have serious symptoms and a grade III transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter was discovered. Total nephroureterectomy and M.V.A.C. (Metotrexate + Vinblastina + Doxo Rubicina + Cisplatina chemotherapy were tried unsuccessfully. In this report we emphasize the diagnostic difficulty caused by the concomitant presence of the two pathologies. In our opinion, the rapid evolution in this case is directly related to the high grade of the tumor.

  6. Long-term incidence and risk factors for recurrent stones following percutaneous nephrostolithotomy or percutaneous nephrostolithotomy/extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for infection related calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streem, S B

    1995-03-01

    A study was done to determine the long-term incidence and cause of recurrent stones following percutaneous nephrostolithotomy alone (13 patients) or combined with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (31) for management of documented infection related struvite renal calculi. The patients were followed for 12 to 111 months (mean 41.7) to censorship or time of new stone formation. Of these patients 12 (27%) had recurrent stones at 12 to 61 months (mean 32.3) after treatment. As determined by a Kaplan-Meier estimate, the risk of new stone formation 5 years after treatment was 36.8%. Potential risk factors for recurrence, including history of stones, associated anatomical abnormalities, procedure used, radiographic status at completion of treatment and recurrent infection during followup, were analyzed with Cox's proportional hazards model. Of these potential risk factors, only an associated anatomical abnormality was found to influence significantly the rate of recurrent stone formation (p = 0.005). We conclude that continued surveillance for recurrent stones is mandatory even for patients initially rendered stone-free and those who maintain sterile urine. In addition, because the presence of a significant anatomical or functional urinary tract abnormality places a patient at much higher risk for recurrence, we suggest that subsequent studies be stratified as to the presence or absence of these abnormalities.

  7. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promove o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully

  8. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; Ureteral calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  9. Drinking water composition and incidence of urinary calculus: introducing a new index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Abbas; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Khoshdel, Ali Reza; Pakmanesh, Hamid; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. We searched for a pathophysiologically based feature of major water electrolytes, which may define water quality better than the water hardness, respecting urinary calculus formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Utilizing a multistage stratified sampling, 2310 patients were diagnosed in the imaging centers of the provincial capitals in Iran between 2007 and 2008. These were composed of 1755 patients who were settled residents of 24 provincial capitals. Data on the regional drinking water composition, obtained from an accredited registry, and their relationships with the region's incidence of urinary calculi were evaluated by metaregression models. The stone risk index (defined as the ratio of calcium to magnesium-bicarbonate product in drinking water) was used to assess the risk of calculus formation. RESULTS. No correlation was found between the urinary calculus incidence and the amount of calcium, bicarbonate, or the total hardness of the drinking water. In contrast, water magnesium had a marginally significant nonlinear inverse relationship with the incidence of the disease in the capitals (R(2) = 26%, P = .05 for a power model). The stone risk index was associated nonlinearly with the calculus incidence (R(2) = 28.4%, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS. Urinary calculus incidence was inversely related with drinking water magnesium content. We introduced a new index constructed on the foundation of a pathophysiologically based formula; the stone risk index had a strong positive association with calculus incidence. This index can have therapeutic and preventive applications, yet to be confirmed by clinical trials.

  10. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR DISTAL THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a common condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of Urolithiasis is rising. Ureteric stones account for 20% of urinary tract stones and about 70% of them are found in the lower third of the ureter at presentation. Recent literatures show the efficacy of various drugs and minimally invasive procedures for the management of lower third ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess and compare the efficacy of tamsulosin and silodosin as medical expulsive therapy for lower third ureteral stones. SETTING AND DURATION: Department of Surgery, Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences/ Teaching Hospital, Hassan. from August 2013 to August 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective data of 60 symptomatic patients with unilateral, lower third ureteral calculi of less than ≤10 mm were randomly allocated for out- patient treatment with tamsulosin and silodosin groups Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radio-opaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and vesico-ureteric junction were included. For Group I tamsulosin a daily single dose of 0.4 mg for 28days and for Group II a daily single dose of silodosin 8mg was given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used on demand for both the groups. All the patients were told to observe passage of stone by filtering urine stream. The primary end point was the expulsion of the stone and the secondary end points were expulsion time, analgesic use, socioeconomic status, need for hospitalization, endoscopic treatment and drug side effects were documented. RESULTS: The stone expulsion rates in patients treated with tamsulosin and silodosin were 83.3% and 86.6% respectively. Mean stone expulsion times in tamsulosin group and silodosin group were 6.8 and 6.2 days respectively. Mean number of pain episodes were

  11. A Comparative Study of Ultrasound Examination of Urinary Tract Performed on Spinal Cord Injury Patients with No Urinary Symptoms and Spinal Cord Injury Patients with Symptoms Related to Urinary Tract: Do Findings of Ultrasound Examination Lead to Changes in Clinical Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings of ultrasound examination of the urinary tract and changes in clinical management, which were instituted on the basis of ultrasound examination, were compared between two groups of spinal cord injury patients. Group 1 had no urinary symptoms when they underwent the scan, whereas group 2 was comprised of patients with symptoms pertaining to the urinary tract. Between 2000 and 2006, ultrasound examination of the urinary tract was performed in 87 spinal cord injury patients who had no urinary symptoms when they underwent the ultrasound scan. No abnormality was found in 63 patients. The ultrasound scan showed some abnormality of the urinary tract in 24 patients (simple cyst in the kidney: 4; reduced size of a kidney: 3; increased echogenicity of left kidney: 1; prominent extrarenal pelvis and mild calyceal dilatation: 1; slightly dilated renal pelvis and calyceal system: 1; pelvic kidney showing mild hydronephrosis: 1; foetal lobulation of kidney: 2; multicystic kidney with no interval change in the appearance since last examination: 1; 2-cm-diameter parapelvic cyst: 1; small renal calyceal calculus: 5; a little cortical scarring bilaterally: 1; focal renal scar: 2; generalised thinning of renal cortex: 3; increase in renal sinus fat: 3; trabeculated bladder: 2; small vesical diverticulum: 1; mild generalised bladder wall thickening: 1; small residual urine in postvoid scan; 2. No specific interventions were performed in these patients on the basis of ultrasound findings. In Group 2, ultrasound examination revealed serious abnormalities such as hydronephrosis, pyonephrosis, vesical calculi, vesical polyp in 20 of 21 patients, and all 20 patients required therapeutic intervention on the basis of ultrasound scan findings.In conclusion, routine ultrasound examination of the urinary tract in spinal cord injury patients who have no urinary symptoms may not be justifiable in terms of cost effectiveness; limited hospital resources should be

  12. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The synthetic midurethral slings were introduced in the 1990s and were rapidly replaced the Burch colposuspension as the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence. It has been reported that the retropubic midurethral tape has an objective and subjective cure rate of 85% at 5...... years of follow-up, but the rate of reoperation after retropubic midurethral tape at the long-term follow-up is less well described. The existing literature specifies an overall lifetime rate of reoperation of about 8-9% after an initial operation for urinary incontinence. There are, however......, conflicting statements about the risk of reoperation after specific surgical procedures for urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the cumulative incidence of reoperation within a 5 year period after different types of surgical procedures for urinary incontinence based...

  13. Urinary incontinence - collagen implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007373.htm Urinary incontinence - injectable implant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E.; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrim...

  15. Comparison of the trauma degree after retroperitoneoscopy and percutaneous nephtoscopy treatment of complicated upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Run Zhao; Zhan-Peng Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the trauma degree after retroperitoneoscopy and percutaneous nephtoscopy treatment of complicated upper ureteral calculi.Methods:A total of 82 cases of patients with complicated upper ureteral calculi who received surgical treatment in our hospital from July 2013 to January 2015 were included for study. According to the different surgical methods, included subjects were randomly divided into observation group 41 cases and control group 41 cases. Control group received percutaneous nephtoscopy treatment, observation group received retroperitoneoscopy treatment, and then differences in early postoperative coagulation indicators, blood glucose and insulin levels, stress protein levels as well as PI3K/Akt and p38MAPK signaling pathway expression were compared between two groups.Results:Early postoperative PLCR, PDW, APTT and D-D values of observation group were lower than those of control group while Ca2+ value was higher than that of control group; early postoperative GLU, fasting lactate, fasting lactate/pyruvic acid and HOMA-IR values of observation group were lower than those of control group while HOMA-β value was higher than that of control group; early postoperative HSP70, DNA ligaseⅣ, JAB1 and ATF4 expression levels of observation group were higher than those of control group whileβ-tubulin and IFIT1 expression levels were lower than those of control group; early postoperative p38MAPK mRNA and protein expression levels of observation group were lower than those of control group while PI3K and Akt mRNA and protein expression levels were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Retroperitoneoscopy treatment of patients with complicated upper ureteral calculi causes less injury to patients and less effect on internal environment, and helps to patients’ early postoperative rehabilitation.

  16. Treatment of small lower pole calculi--SWL vs. URS vs. PNL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Tasca, Andrea; Buchholz, Noor P

    2011-03-01

    According to current guideline recommendations extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) remains the first choice treatment for small and mid-sized renal calculi. However, the results of SWL treatment for lower pole stones can be disappointing whilst more invasive endoscopic modalities, such as flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are often considered more effective. This article summarizes a point-counterpoint discussion at the 9th eULIS symposium in Como, Italy, and discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of the different therapeutic approaches.

  17. 上尿路胱氨酸结石诊治22例报告%Diagnosis and Treatment of Upper Urinary Cystine Calculi:a Report of 22 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建国; 侯飓; 宋飞; 赵谦; 郭环宇; 黄伟; 韩增箎

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨上尿路胱氨酸结石的诊治方法。方法2005年3月~2013年3月治疗22例上尿路胱氨酸结石,其中肾脏铸型结石10例,肾多发结石9例,肾多发结石合并输尿管结石3例,8例仅行经皮肾镜碎石清石术( percutaneous nephrolithotomy lithotripsy,PCNL),3例行PCNL+输尿管镜碎石术( ureteroscopic lithotripsy,URL),9例行PCNL+体外冲击波碎石(extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy,ESWL)+经肾造瘘管肾盂内灌注氨基丁三醇-E(THAM-E)溶石,2例仅行ESWL。结果17例结石完全清除,5例结石残留,清石清除率77.2%(17/22),无严重并发症发生。22例随访6~36个月,平均24个月,3例结石复发,5例结石残留中4例结石体积增大。结论 PCNL联合ESWL及药物溶石治疗上尿路复杂胱氨酸结石,结石清除效果满意。%Objective To evaluate diagnosis and treatment of upper urinary cystine calculi. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 22 patients with upper urinary cystine calculi from March 2005 to March 2013.There were 10 cases of staghorm calculi, 9 cases of multiple calculi, and 3 cases of upper ureteral calculi combined with multiple renal calculi.Eight patients underwent PCNL only, 3 patients underwent PCNL+URL, 9 patients underwent PCNL +ESWL +litholytic therapy with THAM-E perfusing into renal pelvis through nephrostomy tubes, and 2 patients underwent ESWL only. Results The calculi completely disappeared in 17 cases (77.2%), while residual stones occurred in 5 cases, the clearance rate being 77.2% (17/22).No major complications were noted.All the 22 patients were followed up for 6-36 months, with an average of 24 months.Recurrence of calculi was found in 3 cases, and calculi enlarged with different degree in 4 out of 5 cases of residual stones. Conclusion Combination of PCNL, ESWL, and litholytic therapy has good effects in the treatment of complicated renal cystine calculi.

  18. Ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy for 204 cases of ureteral calculi%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石204例效果观察及治疗策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 胡兴平; 王凯

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. Methods Pneumatic lithotripsy under ureteroscopy was used to treat 204 cases of ureteral calculi, including 16 cases (8% ) in middle ureter and 188 cases (92% ) in lower ureter, in which 6 cases were in the wall of urinary bladder. Results The operation time varied from 15 to 116 min (45 min on average). The success rate of ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy was 98.0% (200 cases). The intraoperative stone free rate was 96. 6%. Stones in 2 cases transferred to kidney. Thus the surgery ended in failure. Some stones in 3 cases transferred to kidney after ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy (diameterIS3 mm). Stones in 1 case were exceptionally hard which could not be shattered by pneumatic lithotripsy probe and transferred to surgery. In another case, due to severe local mucosal edema with hemorrhage caused by swelling in the opening of the wall of urinary bladder, we could not find the front opening of ureter and insert a guide wire into it. This case was then cured by both surgery and ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy. Postoperative hematuria was observed by naked eye or microscope in all the cases, and disappeared 2-3 days after operation. No complications such as perforation and infection were found in any cases. Conclusions Ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi is effective, safe, with small damage of tissue, fewer complications, which can be used as the top choice for ureteral calculi in middle and lower ureter.%目的 观察输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的效果.方法 应用输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管结石204例,其中输尿管中段结石16例(占8%),输尿管下段结石188例(占92%),膀胱壁内段结石6例.结果 204例手术时间15 ~116分钟,平均45分钟;碎石成功率98.0%(200例),术中结石排净率96.6%,2例结石漂移至肾脏,未能完成手术;3例碎石后,

  19. Urinary p75ECD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepheard, Stephanie R.; Wuu, Joanne; Cardoso, Michell; Wiklendt, Luke; Dinning, Phil G.; Chataway, Tim; Schultz, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain (p75ECD) levels as disease progression and prognostic biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The population in this study comprised 45 healthy controls and 54 people with ALS, 31 of whom were sampled longitudinally. Urinary p75ECD was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay and validation included intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation, effect of circadian rhythm, and stability over time at room temperature, 4°C, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Longitudinal changes in urinary p75ECD were examined by mixed model analysis, and the prognostic value of baseline p75ECD was explored by survival analysis. Results: Confirming our previous findings, p75ECD was higher in patients with ALS (5.6 ± 2.2 ng/mg creatinine) compared to controls (3.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg creatinine, p analysis, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, p = 0.0035), rate of disease progression from onset to baseline (HR 4.4, p survival. Conclusions: The assay for urinary p75ECD is analytically robust and shows promise as an ALS biomarker with prognostic, disease progression, and potential pharmacodynamic application. Baseline urinary p75ECD provides prognostic information and is currently the only biological fluid–based biomarker of disease progression. PMID:28228570

  20. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  1. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  2. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  3. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  4. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy for lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawahara Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We previously reported on the effectiveness of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy and report two cases of lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney that were successfully treated with ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy. During the ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy procedure, a ureteroscope is advanced in the desired calyx and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire is inserted. The wire is advanced through the calyx to exit the skin. The wire is then used for the percutaneous dilation. Case presentation Case 1 was a 68-year-old man who was shown on radiography to have left lower calyx calculi (19 × 15mm, 7 × 5mm, and 7 × 3mm in horseshoe kidney. Case 2 was a 36-year-old woman shown on radiography to have a left lower calyx calculus (10 × 8mm in horseshoe kidney. Conclusions Both patients were stone-free after ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy is a promising procedure for safely and effectively treating lower calyx stones in horseshoe kidney.

  5. Ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy in treatment of middle or lower ureteral calculi:a report of 70 cases%输尿管镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管中下段结石70例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海斌; 关超; 谷明利; 方文革; 赵维多; 徐卫强; 谢海龙; 郭园园

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨输尿管镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管中下段结石的有效性及安全性.方法:应用硬性输尿管镜联合钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管中下段结石70例,其中中段结石26例,下段结石44例.结石合并急性肾绞痛8例,合并输尿管息肉22例,合并输尿管狭窄5例.结果:单次碎石成功67例,成功率95.7%.1例因输尿管开口水肿狭窄导致置镜困难,1例术中结石移位至肾脏,1例结石息肉包裹改开放手术.术中发生输尿管穿孔4例,术后并发泌尿系感染1例,经积极抗感染治疗后痊愈.随访2~6个月,无结石残留及输尿管狭窄发生.结论:输尿管镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管中下段结石具有高效、微创、安全等优点,是输尿管中下段结石首选的治疗方法.%Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy in treatment of middle or lower ureteral calculi. Methods: Holmium laser lithotripsy was conducted in 70 cases of middle and lower ureteral calculi via rigid ureteroscope. There were 26 cases with middle ureteral calculi and 44 cases with lower ureteral calculi. Acute renal colic was occurred in 8 cases. Polyp was found in 22 cases and ureteral stenosis was found in 5 cases. Results: The successful lithotripsy in a single procedure was achieved in 67 cases and the success rate was 95.7%. Failure of ureteroscopy placement occurred in one case because of stricture of ureteral orifice. Calculi was translocated to renal pelvis in one case. Conversion to open surgery was occurred in one case because of polyp package of ureteral calculi. Ureteral perforation was occurred in 4 cases and urinary tract infection was occurred in one case who was recovered after use of antibiotics. There was no ureteral stenosis or calculous remnant happening after following-up of 2 to 6 months. Conclusions:Treatment of ureteral calculi by ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is an effective,less invasive and safe

  6. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What ...

  9. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  10. Paraganglioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are tumors of chromaffin tissue originating from the sympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder wall and are extremely rare. Being functional, in most of the cases they are recognized by their characteristic presentation of hypertensive crisis and postmicturition syncope. A silent presentation of a bladder paraganglioma is very unusual but quite dangerous as they are easily misdiagnosed and adequate peri-operative attention is not provided. Here, we are presenting one such silent paraganglioma in adult women who presented with only a single episode of hematuria and severe hypertensive crisis occur during its trans-urethral resection.

  11. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneaki Kenzaka; Ken Kato; Akihito Kitao; Koki Kosami; Kensuke Minami; Shinsuke Yahata; Miho Fukui; Masanobu Okayama

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection ...

  12. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  13. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    10.1 Kidney function2004116 Measurement of urinary neutral endopeptid-ase and its significance in diagnosing renal tubular injury. ZHANG Zhi (张智), et al. Div Nephrol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Nephrol 2003; 19(6) :392-396.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  15. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondos, Adnan S; Al-Moyed, Khaled A; Al-Robasi, Abdul Baki A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alyousefi, Naelah A

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  16. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan S Gondos

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT, which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%. The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  17. Multislice computed tomography urography in the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT has triggered considerable changes in uroradiological imaging. The aim of this study was to establish the place of MSCT urography (MSCTU in comparison with intravenous urography (IVU and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MSCT in the evaluation of urothelial abnormalities. Methods. This prospective study included 120 patients with a high clinical suspicion of urinary tract diseases divided into two groups. The group I consisted of 60 patients with macroscopic hematuria, bladder carcinoma and malignant pelvic tumors after radiotherapy or operation. They underwent both IVU and MSCTU. The group II included 60 patients (≥ 40 years old with retroperitoneal and malignant pelvic tumors, complicated pyelonephritis, microscopic hematuria, acute urinary tract obstruction (without visible calculi on unenhanced scans, and they were submitted to computed tomography with additional scan phase enabling MSCTU. Results. Compared with IVU, MSCTU is more sensitive for the detection of urinary tract diseases (parenchymal changes, renal tumors, urolithiasis, fibrosis and extraurinary processes. MSCTU is more specific than IVU for renal parenchymal abnormalities, tumors of the excretory system, urolithiasis, bladder tumors, fibrosis and extraurinary diseases. MSCTU is equally sensitive, but more specific for hydronephrosis compared to MSCT. The diagnosis made by the use of MSCTU in patients with macroscopic and microscopic hematuria and with obstruction not caused by stones, perfectly comply with operative findings and histological diagnosis. Conclusion. The obtained results support MSCTU to be the modality of choice in the diagnostic algorithm of patients with macroscopic hematuria and in the evaluation of microscopic hematuria and unexplained obstruction of the urinary tract. The only remaining role for IVU in our institution is imaging of the upper urinary tract in patients with hematuria under

  18. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  19. The management of urolithiasis (ureteral calculi)in pregnancy%妊娠合并泌尿系结石的治疗方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵纯雄; 陈洪波; 胡晓辉; 朱圣亮

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨妊娠合并泌尿系结石的治疗方法。方法:对51例因泌尿系结石入院的患者先给予间苯三酚(40 mg,每天2次)止痛解痉;若症状无缓解,给予单纯双 J 管留置或者硬膜外麻醉下输尿管镜碎石术。结果:23例患者经过保守治疗结石自动排出;28例症状无缓解,12例给予单纯双 J 管留置(2例结石自动排出,10例产后给予碎石治疗后痊愈),16例给予输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术,术后3周结石完全排出。所有患者治疗期间无产科及泌尿外科相关并发症发生。结论:妊娠合并泌尿系结石,首选保守治疗;若保守治疗无效,双 J 管留置或者输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术亦是安全有效的治疗措施。%Objective:To explore the treatment of of urolithiasis in pregnancy.Methods:51 pregnant women with urinary stone were given the benzene three phenol (40 mg,2 times a day)firstly;if symptoms were not re-lieved,patients were treated with double J tube insertion or ureteroscopic lithotripsy under local anesthesia or contin-ued epidural anesthesia.Results:Twenty-eight cases received conservative therapy which resulted in spontaneous stone expulsion.For patients failed to passage stone spontaneously,ten cases were performed double J tube insertion and 1 6 cases were performed ureteroscopic lithotripsy.There was no complication occurring associated to obstetrics and urology.Conclusions:It is advisable that conservative treatment is preferred to pregnancy associated with urinary calculi.if conservative treatment is invalid,the double J tube insertion or ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is also safe and effective.

  20. Dual energy new application of CT in the determination of urinary stone composition%双能 CT 在尿路结石成分分析中的最新应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青春; 罗志刚

    2013-01-01

    Urinary calculus is the most common clinical diseases of urinary system, the prevalence of the world is about 1% ~5%, up to 20% to the Middle East in 25%, followed byAmerica, Europe, Asia[1],relationship it closely with therace, diet, climate is a. Chinese south is one of the threemain epidemic area of urinary calculi.%尿路结石是临床最常见的泌尿系疾病,全球患病率约为1%~5%,中东地区高达20%~25%,其后依次为美国、欧洲、亚洲,它与种族、饮食、气候有着密切的关系[1]。中国南方是世界三个主要的泌尿系结石流行地区之一。

  1. PRE-AND POST-OPERATIVE CORTICAL FUNCTION OF THE KIDNEY WITH STAGHORN CALCULI ASSESSED BY 99mTc-DMSA RENAL SCINTIGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    川村, 寿一

    1982-01-01

    99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 pati...

  2. Zdravljenje s tamsulozinom pri kamnih v spodnji tretjini sečevoda: Treatment with tamsulosin in patients with distal ureteral calculi:

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak, Igor; Erklavec, Marko; Jagodič, Klemen; Korošec, Helena; Poteko, Sandi

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptomatic ureteral calculi are one of the most important issues in urologist emergency clinical settings. Spontaneous passage of distal ureteral calculi is usually achieved with good hydration and spasmoanalgetic drugs. á-blocker therapy may facilitate and accelerate the spontaneous passageof ureteral stones.Patients and In retrospective study we analyzed patients with renal colic admitted to our department in methods 2006. All of them had clinical examination, urine and blood an...

  3. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  4. [Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rais, H; Rabii, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological profile of urinary stones based on one thousand cases observed in our institution over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients was 45 years and two-thirds of patients were males. The kidney was the commonest site of stones, in 57.8% of cases. The stone was radiopaque in 86.4% of cases and was a staghorn calculus in 12.2% of cases. An associated renal malformation was observed in 10.4% of cases. Urinary stones is therefore a common disease, essentially observed in a young population and characterized by recurrence. It therefore constitutes a public health problem and prevention consists of detecting recurrences and treating stone-inducing factors.

  5. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  6. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  7. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  8. Influence of ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope on inflammation mediators and stress hormones of patients with infectious renal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Lu; Xiao-Lei Jiang; Ming-Hui Wu; Yun-Jun Wu; Qiang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope on inflammation mediators and stress hormones of the patients with infectious renal calculi. Methods:A total of 62 patients with infectious renal calculi in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 were selected as the study object,and they were randomly divided into control group(pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope group) 31 cases and observation group(ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope group) 31 cases,then the serum expression levels of inflammation mediators and stress hormones of two groups before the treatment and at 12 h-24 h and 48 h after the treatment were compared. Results:The serum expression levels of inflammation mediators and stress hormones of two groups before the treatment were compared,all P>0.05,and the serum expression levels of observation group at 12 h-24 h and 48 h after the treatment were significantly lower than those of control group,while the expression levels of two groups after the treatment were all significantly higher than those before the treatment,all P<0.05. Conclusions:The inflammation mediators and stress hormones of patients with infectious renal calculi who are treated with pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope are relatively lower,and it shows that the trauma and bad stress for the body are better controlled, so its clinical application value are relatively higher.

  9. Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andankar M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

  10. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  11. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Robert L.; Olson, David R.; Backer, Lorraine; Malilay, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis—also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis—upon discharge from Guam’s sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients’ residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000) or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000), and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000). No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro ethnicity, residents

  12. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Robert L; Olson, David R; Backer, Lorraine; Malilay, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis-also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis-upon discharge from Guam's sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients' residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000) or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000), and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000). No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro ethnicity, residents should be

  13. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Haddock

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis—also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis—upon discharge from Guam’s sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients’ residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000 or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000, and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000. No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro

  14. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  15. Urinary incontinence: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K L; Steidle, C P; Letizia, T M

    1995-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a widely prevalent problem that affects people of all ages and levels of physical health, both in healthcare settings and in the community. Contributing to the problem are that many practitioners remain uneducated about this condition, individuals are often too ashamed or embarrassed to seek professional help, and there are significant variations in diagnostic and treatment practices. Five types of UI are stress, urge, overflow, functional and manufactured incontinence. Stress, urge and overflow are caused by factors within the urinary tract and will be concentrated on in this article. To diagnose UI a three-part assessment should be conducted, including the patient history, physical examination, and urinalysis. A behavioral program should be designed which incorporates identification and education for both patient and clinician. Treatment options include pelvic floor exercises (Kegel), vaginal cones, bladder training (retraining), habit training (timed voiding), electrostimulation and biofeedback, clean intermittent catheterization, indwelling catheters, medications, collagen injections, surgery, and absorption products. Most patients can be helped dramatically or cured with the appropriate treatment.

  16. In vitro crystallization, characterization and growth-inhibition study of urinary type struvite crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihir J.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of urinary stones, known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is a serious, debilitating problem throughout the world. Struvite—NH4MgPO4·6H2O, ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate, is one of the components of urinary stones (calculi). Struvite crystals with different morphologies were grown by in vitro single diffusion gel growth technique with different growth parameters. The crystals were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR, thermal analysis and dielectric study. The powder XRD results of struvite confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure. The FT-IR spectrum proved the presence of water of hydration, metal-oxygen bond, N-H bond and P-O bond. For thermal analysis TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. Vickers micro-hardness and related mechanical parameters were also calculated. The in vitro growth inhibition studies of struvite by the juice of Citrus medica Linn as well as the herbal extracts of Commiphora wightii, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn and Rotula aquatica Lour were carried out and found potent inhibitors of struvite.

  17. Ureaplasma urealyticum as a causative organism of urinary tract infection stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, A; Tharwat, A

    1996-01-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum is a fastidious organism which is not recovered by conventional bacterial cultures techniques, but special cultures are required for its isolation and identification. As it is a urease-producing organism, it is considered a risk factor for the formation of struvite calculi in the urinary tract. A total of 30 patients with urinary infection stones (19 of them with the 1st formation and 11 with recurrent stone formation) were included in the study. Both bladder urine specimen (cystoscopically obtained) and stones removed were subjected to conventional cultures and also to Ureaplasma specific cultures (A7 agar and U9 broth). The results of culture techniques revealed that 86.7% of patients had aerobic organisms (E. coli in 46.7%, Klebsiella in 30%, Proteus in 6.7% and Pseudomonas in 3.3%) and 26.7% showed U. urealyticum in mid stream urine. As regards stone cultures, they revealed aerobic organisms in 76.7%, and U. urealyticum in 20%. Sensitivity tests for U. urealyticum showed that minocycline was the most effective antimicrobial followed by tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. From these data, we conclude that U. urealyticum may be the causative organism for infection stone and should be searched for via its specific cultures, especially in patients with recurrent stones and with the so-called sterile pyuria.

  18. 双源双能量CT对新疆南疆地区儿童输尿管结石的诊断价值%The Value of Dual-source Dual-energy CT in the Diagnosis of Ureteral Cal-culi in Children in Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马依迪丽·尼加提; 田序伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application value of low-dose dual-source dual-energy CT in the diagnosis of urinary tract stones in children. Methods This study will explore the dual energy CT technology in southern xinjiang xinjiang regional chil-dren's disease diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ureteral calculi application value, and the image quality, the signal-to-noise ratio, lesion detection rate and identify differences, evaluate the feasibility of its application in clinical, 56 children cases CT in-spection and ultrasonic inspection group, analysis between the two groups statistically for difficult diagnosis of ureteral calculi. Results The dual source CT dual energy diagnosis of 56 cases of ureteral calculi children, all cases by ultrasound, including 1 case of abdominal segment, 3 cases of basin section, 2 cases of multiple ultrasound was not diagnosed or missed diagnosis of ureteral calculi. CT in the diagnosis of 47 cases with kidney seeper, 14 patients with moderately severe water, 9 cases with merger of urinary tract infection, 2 cases of diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis, 1 case of neurogenic bladder. Conclusion Low-dose CT in the diagnosis of dual energy not diagnosed with routine inspection method and its complications, complications were found very good diagnostic value.%目的:双源双能量低剂量CT在诊断儿童泌尿系结石中的应用价值。方法该研究将探究采用双能量CT技术在新疆南疆地区儿童输尿管结石疾病诊断和鉴别诊断的意义,然后比较其图像质量、信噪比、病变检出率这几方面,分析其在临床诊断中的可行性,将56例儿童病例分CT检查组及超声检查组,分析两组间对于难诊断型输尿管结石的统计学差异。结果双源双能量CT诊断输尿管结石儿童56例,所有病例均经过B超检查,其中1例腹段、3例盆段、2例多发输尿管结石B超未诊出或漏诊;CT诊断47例有肾积水、其中14例伴有中重度积水,9

  19. Post-operative urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  1. Hemagglutination and biofilm formation as virulence markers of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in acute urinary tract infections and urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma B Maheswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI are a major public health concern in developing countries. Most UTIs are caused by E. coli, accounting for up to 90% of community-acquired UTIs (CAUTI. Recurrent UTI is considered as a major risk factor for urolithiasis. Virulence factors like adhesins and biofilm have been extensively studied by authors on UPEC isolated from recurrent UTI.The studies on isolates from infection stones in kidney are scanty . In a prospective study, we aimed to determine the expression of Haemagglutinins, (Type 1 and P fimbriae , Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics of Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC isolates from Community acquired Acute Urinary Tract Infection(CAUTI and Urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 UPEC isolates , 23 mid-stream urine (MSU samples from patients with CAUTI attending Out Patient Departments and 20 from renal calculi of urolithiasis patients at the time of Percutaneous nephrolithostomy (PCNL were included in the study and the expression of Haemagglutinins,(Type 1 and P fimbriae , Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics was assessed. Results: A total of 43 UPEC isolates 23 from CAUTI and 20 from renal calculi were tested for production of biofilm and hemagglutinins. In CAUTI, biofilm producers were 56.52% and hemagglutinins were detected in all isolates 100%. In urolithiasis, biofilm producers were 100% but hemagglutinins were detected only in 70% of isolates. All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics used. CAUTI isolates were susceptible to 3 rd generation cephalosporins, whereas urolithiasis isolates were resistant to 3 rd generation cephalosporins and 25% were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases ESBL producers. Conclusions: HA mediated by type 1 fimbriae plays an important role in CAUTI (P < 0.001 highly significant, whereas, in chronic conditions like urolithiasis, biofilm plays an important role in persistence of infection and

  2. Combined micro-and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy for complex renal calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, İbrahim; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Karatağ, Tuna; İnan, Ramazan; Armağan, Abdullah; İstanbulluoğlu, Okan

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to present the technique of combination of standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) with microperc for achieving higher success rates without increasing complication rates in the management of complex renal calculi. Material and methods The patients who underwent microperc procedure as a complementary procedure to standard PNL for complex kidney stones in two reference hospitals between 2013 and 2015, were evaluated retrospectively. Results All patients underwent a total of two accesses one for standard PNL and one for microperc. The mean stone size was measured as 54.3 mm. The procedures were completed after an average operative time of 88.2 minutes and fluoroscopy time of 5.3 minutes. Stone free status was achieved in 18 cases (78.2%) and small residual fragments (≤4 mm) were detected in 3 cases (13.1%). Complications were seen in three patients (13%) as hemorrhage in one and postoperative fever in two patients. Conclusion Despite the limitations of this study, the combination of standard PNL and microperc might reduce the complication rates and increase the success rates when treating complex kidney stones. Future prospective and comparative studies are needed. PMID:27635289

  3. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonannavar, J.; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B.; Patil, Nikhil A.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400 cm- 1) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  4. Tratamiento no quirúrgico de la litiasis biliar Non-Surgical treatment of biliary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Franco

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se describen diversos procedimientos para el tratamiento no quirúrgico de la colelitiasis: la administración de ácidos billares orales, la litotripsia extracorpórea, la colecistostomía percutánea, la escleroterapia de la vesícula y la litotripsia mecánica; se consignan las indicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y limitaciones de cada uno de ellos.

    Several procedures are described for non-surgical treatment of biliary calculi, namely: oral administration of bile acids, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrypsy I percutaneous cholecystostomy I gallbladder sclerotherapy

    and mechanicallithotrypsy. lndications, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed.

  5. Urinary physiologic and chemical metabolic effects on the urothelial cytotoxicity and potential DNA adducts of o-phenylphenol in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Christenson, W R; Bartels, M J; Arnold, L L; St John, M K; Cano, M; Garland, E M; Lake, S G; Wahle, B S; McNett, D A; Cohen, S M

    1998-06-01

    ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP), a fungicide and antibacterial agent with food residues, is carcinogenic to rat bladder. The present studies provide information on changes in urinary composition and urinary metabolites, urothelial cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia, and DNA adducts in male F344 rats fed OPP. An initial experiment evaluated dietary doses of 0, 1,000, 4,000, and 12,500 ppm OPP fed for 13 weeks. There was no evidence of urinary calculi, microcrystalluria, or calcium phosphate-containing precipitate, but urothelial cytotoxicity and hyperplasia occurred at the highest dose only. In a second experiment, rats were fed dietary OPP levels of 0, 800, 4,000, 8,000, and 12,500 ppm. Urinary pH was > 7 in all groups. Urinary volume was increased at the 2 highest doses with consequent decreases in osmolality, creatinine, and other solutes. Total urinary OPP metabolite excretions were increased, mostly excreted as conjugates of OPP and of phenylhydroquinone. Free OPP or free metabolites accounted for less than 2% excreted in the urine without a dose response. Urothelial toxicity and hyperplasia occurred only at doses of 8,000 and 12,500 ppm. OPP-DNA adducts were not detected in the urothelium at any dose. In summary, OPP produces cytotoxicity and proliferation of the urothelium at dietary doses > or = 8,000 ppm without formation of urinary solids. The paucity of unconjugated metabolites and the lack of OPP-DNA adducts suggests that OPP is acting as a bladder carcinogen in male rats by inducing cytotoxicity and hyperplasia without it or its metabolites directly binding to DNA.

  6. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  7. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  8. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  9. 输尿管硬镜下钬激光碎石取石术治疗输尿管上段结石112例%Study on treatment of upper ureteral calculi using rigid ureteroscope and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy (report of 112 cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐汉新; 吴兆春; 黄海

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical effect and safety of holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy under ureteroscopy for managing upper ureteral calculi. Methods The clinical data of 112 cases of ureter calculi treated by ureteroscope with Holmium laser lithotripsy were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 63 were male, and 49 were female. The age of the patients varied between 18~87 years with a mean age of 46.7 years. The largest diameter of the largest stone was 0.7~2.2 cm (1.2±0.5 cm). There are 5 cases of bilateral upper ureteral calculi, and the total number of left upper ureteral calculi was 61, and the right side was 46. There were 26 cases affiliated with ureteral polypus, and 31 cases with ESWL treatment history preoperative. All the cases had different degrees of hydronephrosis. Results The overall successful operation rate for all level of ureteral stones in single procedure was 88.4% (99/112). The operation time ranged 15~80 min (33.6 ±16.8 min), and the postoperative hospital stay was 3~14 d (4.7 ±2.1 d). No complications occurred such as severe hematouria, ureteral perforation, ureteral avulsion and ureteral stone street in this post cohort operation. There were three cases with urinary tract infection and suffered fever. Urosepsis occurred in one case , and cured by timely anti-infection treatment. Conclusion Rigid ureterorenoscopy using Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy for upper ureteral calculi can be an effective and safely performed technique.%目的:探讨输尿管硬镜下钬激光碎石取石术治疗输尿管上段结石的临床效果及安全性。方法应用输尿管硬镜下钬激光碎石取石术治疗112例输尿管上段结石患者。男63例,女49例,年龄18~87岁(46.7±13.6岁),左侧61例,右侧46例,双侧5例。结石长径0.7~2.2 cm (1.2±0.5 cm)。26例合并输尿管息肉,31例曾行体外冲击波碎石术,所有患侧肾脏均合并不同程度肾积水。结果手术成功率88.4

  10. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your cat’s urinary tract with bacteria, fungi, parasites or possibly even viruses can cause signs of ... of their urine prevents infection. Diseases such as kidney disease and diabetes are more common in cats ...

  11. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science. 2003; ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  14. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy with Cyberwand Dual Probe Ultrasonic Lithotriptor for Treatment of Renal Staghorn Calculi%经皮肾镜Cyberwand双导管超声碎石清石系统治疗肾铸型结石体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文增; 崔振宇; 马涛; 魏若晶; 张伟; 李昱; 师晓强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and skill of ultrasonography - guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy with dual probe ultrasonic lithotriptor in the treatment of renal staghorn calculi. Methods Clinical data of 27 cases including one case with cavitas pelvisectopic kidney staghorn calculi treated hy ultrasonography - guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy with dual probe ultrasonic lithotriptor from July 2009 to April 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The percutaneous renal accesses were successfully established under ultrasound guidance and phase one operation was performed in all patients. The operative duration was 40 ~ 100 minutes, averaged 68 minutes. The intraoperative hlood loss was 30 ~ 150 ml, averaged 72 ml. 23 cases were discharged completely in first phase operation and the stone clearance rate was 85. 2% . 3 cases were treated by ESWL due to residual stones and the residual stones were discharged completely. One case with big residual stones due to hemorrhage was performed second operation. The length of hospitalization was 9 ~ 12 days, averaged 10 days. No severe complications such as delayed hemorrhage and severe infection were found during 1 to 9 months' follow - up. Conclusion Ultrasonography - guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy with dual probe ultrasonic lithotriptor in treatment of upper urinary tract calculi has the advantages of high efficacy, short operative duration, little blood loss and few complications. Estahlishment of Percutaneous renal accesses is very important and attention should be paid in operational skills.%目的 探讨B超引导下经皮肾镜Cyberwand双导管超声碎石清石系统治疗肾铸型结石的疗效及技巧.方法 回顾性分析2009年7月-2010年4月27例在B超引导下应用经皮肾镜Cyberwand双导管超声碎石清石系统治疗肾铸型结石患者的临床资料,其中1例为盆腔异位肾铸型结石.结果 27例均成功建立F24皮肾通道,Ⅰ期完成手术.手术时间40~100

  15. First case report of staghorn calculi successfully removed by mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in a 2-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2015-10-01

    Less-invasive therapy for pediatric urolithiasis is available due to the miniaturization of equipment and improved optics; however, surgical treatment strategies, especially for large calculi, remain controversial. We describe here our experience of treating a 2-year-old boy with left renal staghorn calculi with a single session of mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in the prone split-leg position with pre-ureteral stenting and the directional enhanced flow imaging ultrasound technique. This is the first report of successful pediatric mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery without any major complications. We believe this technique provides an important therapeutic option for large renal calculus in pediatric patients.

  16. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  17. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  18. Chemolysis of residual stone fragments after extensive surgery for staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaivas, J G; Pais, V M; Spellman, R M

    1975-12-01

    Chemical dissolution of residual stone fragments was attempted in twelve instances via nephrostomy tube irrigation. Appropriate solutions containing either hemiacidrin or sodium bicarbonate were used for struvite and uric acid stones, respectively. Precautions were taken to prevent and recognize outflow obstruction and urinary infection. Seventy-five per cent of the stones so treated were completely dissolved, and there were no major complications. The incidence of retained stones, natural history, and indications for chemical dissolution are reviewed.

  19. La incontinencia urinaria Urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Robles

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa.Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are difficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary

  20. The value of ultrasound-monitoring calculi drifting in transureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for upper ureteral calculi%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管上段结石时B超监测结石漂移的价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹刚; 郑如华; 金永有; 陈尧康; 虞利民

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术(URSL)治疗输尿管上段结石时B超监测结石漂移的临床价值。方法对40例输尿管上段结石患者行URSL治疗时采用床边B超实时监测术中结石漂移情况。结果原位碎石成功32例(80.0%),结石一次清除23例(57.5%),碎石失败8例(20.0%)。进镜时B超发现结石整枚漂移9例(9/40),其中1例移入肾内;碎石时B超早于输尿管镜发现结石整枚漂移12例(12/36),其中2例移入肾内;结石粉碎后B超发现有结石碎片逆向漂移16例(16/32),其中5例共7枚碎片漂移入肾内,其余漂移碎片最后均被输尿管镜证实并在B超引导下成功清除。结论 URSL治疗输尿管上段结石时,B超监测能早于输尿管镜发现结石漂移,有助于减少结石漂移入肾内的风险。%Objective To evaluate the application of ultrasound- monitoring calculi drifting in transureteroscopic pneu-matic lithotripsy (URSL) for upper ureteral calculi. Methods From January 2010 to December 2012, a total of 40 patients with upper ureteral calculi underwent pneumatic lithotripsy through rigid ureteroscope, and intraoperative drifting stones were moni-tored by bedside ultrasonography(US) in our hospital. Results Among 40 cases of ureteral calculi, rate of successful fragmen-tation in situ was 80.0%(32/40), and the stones were cleared away immediately after a single procedure in 23 patients (57.5%) and 8 patients failed, among whom calculi integral drifted into the kidney pelvis in 3 cases. Before ureteroscope entering ureter and calculi were found, calculi integral drifting were detected by US in 9 patients(9/40). During stones broke, 12 cases with cal-culi integral drifting and 16 cases with calculi debris drifting were detected by US in time, and a total of 7 calculi debrises drifted into the kidney in 5 patients, the others debrises were cleaned away under ultrasound- guidance. Al the drifting stones

  1. Ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: an emerging definitive management strategy for symptomatic ureteral calculi in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, James D.; Girvan, Andrew R.; Beiko, Darren T.; Nott, Linda; Wollin, Timothy A.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Denstedt, John D.

    2003-06-01

    Objectives: Symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy that does not respond to conservative measures has traditionally been managed with ureteral stent insertion or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy using state-of-the-art ureteroscopes represents an emerging strategy for definitive stone management in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to review the results of holmium laser lithotripsy in a cohort of patients who presented with symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at 2 tertiary stone centers from January 1996 to August 2001 to identify pregnant patients who were treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for symptomatic urolithiasis or encrusted stents. Eight patients with a total of 10 symptomatic ureteral calculi and 2 encrusted ureteral stents were treated. Mean gestational age at presentation was 22 weeks. Mean stone size was 8.1 mm. Stones were located in the proximal ureter/ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) (3), mid ureter (1), and distal ureter (6). Results: Complete stone fragmentation and/or removal of encrusted ureteral stents were achieved in all patients using the holmium:YAG laser. The overall procedural success rate was 91%. The overall stone-free rate was 89%. No obstetrical or urological complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy can be performed safely in all stages of pregnancy providing definitive management of symptomatic ureteral calculi. The procedure can be done with minimal or no fluoroscopy and avoids the undesirable features of stents or nephrostomy tubes.

  2. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  3. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  4. 急诊首选B超定位ESWL治疗输尿管结石%Preferred B-positioning emergency ESWL treatment of ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏远峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结急诊首选B超定位ESWL治疗输尿管结石的临床经验。方法:回顾分析2010年5月~2014年3月急诊首选第五代JC-Eswl-B型体外碎石机治疗2328例输尿管结石患者临床资料。结果:ESWL治疗输尿管结石成功率97.2%(1次成功率86.3%)。结论:急诊首选B超定位ESWL治疗输尿管结石是有效的,但要严格掌握适应证,以提高治疗效果。%Objective:To summarize the preferred B ~positioning emergency ESWL treatment of ureteral calculi clinical experience . Methods:Analysis from May 2010-November 2014 B-positioning emergency preferred using electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy ma -chine2328 cases of clinical data in patients with ureteral calculi .Results:ESWL treatment of ureteral calculi success rate of 97.2% ( a success rate of 86.3%).Conclusion:Preferred B-positioning emergency ESWL treatment of ureteral calculi was effective , but to strictly indications to improve the therapeutic effect .

  5. Treatment of lower urethral calculi with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and pneumatic ureteroscopic lithotripsy: a comparison of effectiveness and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟惟德; 曾广翘; 蔡岳斌; 戴奇山; 胡建波; 魏鸿蔼

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy and incidence of complications of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) compared with pneumatic ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) in the treatment of lower uretheral calculi. Methods From August 1997 to June 1999, 210 patients with lower ureteric calculi were treated with ESWL and the other 180 with URSL. The stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripter. The outcome was assessed by evacuation, retreatment and complication rates.Results ESWL for lower ureteric calculi resulted in a stone evacuation rate of 78.1%, compared with 93.3% for URSL (P<0.05). ESWL had a retreatment rate of 11.9% and a perforation rate of 0, while URSL caused perforation of ureters in 3.3% of patients and a refreatment of 2.2%. Conclusion For the management of lower ureteric calculi, ESWL provides a non-invasive, simple and safe option, and URSL has a higher stone evacuation rate but causes ureter perforation more frequently than ESWL does. Both ESWL and URSL have their respective advantages. It is recommended, however, that URSL be extensively developed for better treatment efficacy, given that the operator has an adequate technical background.

  6. A rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialolithiasis: a giant, fistulized calculus on the right and multiple calculi on the left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Hatice; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Uzunkulaoglu, Hakki; Dogan, Sedat

    2010-10-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of the submandibular gland; sialoliths account for at least 80% of all salivary duct calculi. We present a rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialoliths. On the right, the patient had a giant (35 × 35 mm) sialolith that had fistulized into the oral cavity. In the left submandibular gland, he had 30 differently sized sialoliths.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of tamsulosin with or without deflazacort for stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for upper ureteral and renal calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Addition of alpha-blocker tamsulosin along with deflazacort post ESWL for renal and upper ureteric calculi increases the stone expulsion rate and reduces the expulsion duration as shown by highly statistically significant results in group C. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 643-648

  8. The relative cost-effectiveness of PCNL and ESWL for medium sized (2 cms renal calculi in a tertiary care urological referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep P Rao

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of cost-effectiveness studies in India comparing PCNL and ESWL in the treatment of renal cal-culi. We are dependent on costing studies from western literature, although the nature of expenses in developed countries is quite different from those in India. This study compares the two procedures with regards to cost-effec-tiveness & efficacy in clearing medium-sized renal calculi (2.0 cms at our institute. All costs borne by the patient & the institute were taken into account, including equip-ment costs, stay charges & cost of travel incurred, for re-peat visits to the institute. The groups compared had similar stone characteristics & were from our early experience with the two methods. All costing was done at 1998 rates by submitting case sheets to a fresh billing. PCNL, was significantly more efficient at clearing calculi (94% vs 69% than ESWL, but patients needed hospitalization. The re-quirement of ancillary procedures was significantly less with PCNL than ESWL (1 vs 35 and ESWL was more expensive although the difference was not statistically sig-nificant. High initial cost of a lithotripter along with the need for repeated visits to the hospital for clearance of the calculus contribute to the increased cost of ESWL. PCNL ensures clearance of calculi at a single hospital admission with minimal morbidity.

  9. [Proteomic analysis of urinary exosomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Aki

    2014-07-01

    Exosomes are 40-100-nm membrane vesicles secreted into the extracellular space by various types of cell in many biological fluids, including serum, saliva, breast milk, amniotic fluid, and urine. Exosomes, which contain several key proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs, were considered as an alternative secretion pathway. In addition, recent findings suggest that the exosome itself is a functional biomolecule involved in intracellular communication; thus, its components can be transferred to recipient cells by fusion, changing the function of the target cell. Recently, urinary exosomes have attracted much attention because some of their proteins have been identified as biomarkers related to certain physiological events and disease-related metabolism of the kidney. This review provides an overview of urinary exosomes, including methods of isolation and associated problems, and focuses on urinary exosomes as protein biomarker sources involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes.

  10. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and

  11. COMPARISON OF ROLE OF IVP AND USG IN EVALUATING URETERIC CALCULI DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rathore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of urolithiasis varies according to geographic area, age, and sex distribution. 1 Various studies have shown that in economically developed countries the prevalence rate ranged between 4% and 20%. Urolithiasis may affect up to 10% of the population over the course of a lifetime. In India, upper and lower urinary tract stones occur frequently, but the incidence shows wide regional variation. Smaller stones (Up to 5 mm may cause severe symptoms such as flank pain and nausea, but pass without intervention. Though, they may need supportive care, but larger stones need intervention. Surgery has been used to remove stones (Lithotomy or to break them all into small pieces (Lithotripsy since antiquity. Twenty five years ago, open surgery was the sole form of therapy for urolithiasis, but now endourology is the surgical treatment of choice. 2 URETERIC JET When the bolus of urine being transmitted through the ureter reaches the terminal portion. It is ejected forcefully into the bladder through the Vesicoureteric Junction (VUJ. This creates a jet of urine that can be seen within the urinary bladder during cystoscopy and grey-scale Ultrasonography (US. Urine secreted from the renal glomeruli is excreted into the upper urinary tract including the collecting system, calyces-pelvis system, and ureter. Although, the precise mechanism of urine drainage through the whole system remains somewhat contentious. The trigger of ureteric jets is undoubtedly the pumping effect of calyceal peristalsis. 3 The latter comprises an autonomic and rhythmic minor calyceal peristalsis and a pressure-dependent major calyceal peristalsis, and the pressure of the major calyces comes from the resistance of the intrinsic tone of the upper ureter to the urine draining in the renal pelvic volume and tone and the rate of urine inflow. 4 Continuous discrete boluses of urine drainage into the ureter from pelvis, then fill the ureter, and finally, a ureteric jet is produced

  12. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  13. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan B. Cohn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  15. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  16. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  17. Clinical Observation on Electroacupuncture Against Urinary Incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文洁; 胡昌东; 王洁茹; 洪珏

    2009-01-01

    @@ Urinary incontinence is a common problem, usually classified as stress incontinence or urge incontinence[1]. With the development of medical science, people have got more and more profound knowledge towards urinary incontinence. We treated urinary incontinence with electroacupuncture since 2006, and now reported it as follows.

  18. Best practices in urinary catheter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Rebecca; Kazer, Meredith Wallace

    2010-06-01

    Urinary catheterization is a common healthcare intervention used to manage urinary dysfunction that poses serious associated risks and complications. This article discusses methods of urinary catheterization and their indications, catheter-associated complications, and assessment and management strategies that home healthcare practitioners can employ to ensure best patient outcomes and minimize complications.

  19. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary trac

  20. Combined minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retrograde intrarenal surgery for staghorn calculi in patients with solitary kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehui Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To present our experience with simultaneous combined minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS to manage patients with staghorn calculi in solitary kidney, and evaluate the safety, efficiency and feasibility of this approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study included 20 patients with staghorn calculi in solitary kidney. Demographic characteristics, stone location and surface area were recorded. After informed consent, the patients underwent one stage MPCNL firstly. Combined second stage MPCNL and RIRS simultaneously were performed at postoperative 5-7 days. Operative parameters, stone-free rate (SFR, stone analyses and complications were evaluated. Serum creatinine (Scr, glomerular filtration rate (GFR and chronic kidney disease (CKD were measured preoperatively, postoperatively at 1 month, and each follow-up visit. All patients had staghorn stones involving multiple calyces. The mean stone burden was 1099.9 ± 843.95 mm(2. All patients had only one percutaneous access tract. The mean whole operative duration was 154.37 ± 32.45 min. The mean blood loss was 64 (12-140 ml. The final SFR was 90%. During the 1-month follow-up study period, four patients improved in CKD stage. Two patients who had CKD (stage 5 still needed dialysis postoperatively. Mean Scr of the rest patients preoperatively was 187.16 ± 94.12 compared to 140.99 ± 57.92 umol/L by the end of 1-month follow-up period (p = 0.019. The same findings were observed in GFR in that preoperatively it was 43.80 ± 24.74 ml/min and by the end of the 1-month follow-up it was 49.55 ± 21.18 ml/min (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combined MPCNL and RIRS management effectively decrease the number and size of percutaneous access tracts, which is safe, feasible, and efficient for managing staghorn calculi in solitary kidney with satisfactory SFR and reducing blood loss, potential morbidity associated with multiple

  1. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who rep...

  2. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  3. [Conservative treatment of urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljanik, I; Schorsch, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    Urinary incontinence can be treated with medicinal products in addition to active pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation. A local hormone therapy should be first discussed with the gynaecologist. The active substance duloxetine has been used for a few years for treating stress incontinence. Several older and newer active substances are available for treating irritable bladder and stress incontinence.

  4. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniyan Ramanathan; Devendra Kumar; Maneesh Khanna; Mahmoud Al Heidous; Adnan Sheikh; Vivek Virmani; Yegu Palaniappan

    2016-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract(CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis(bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number(agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography(US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, noninvasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management.

  5. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

  6. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  7. Influence of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy on blood rheology and oxidative stress in patients with upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Chen; Jian Dong; Jun Ding; Guo-Bo Li; Chen-Xi Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy on blood rheology and oxidative stress in patients with upper ureteral calculi.Methods:A total of 113 cases patients who underwent surgical treatment of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy were divided into observation group (n=76) and the control group (n=37) according to different therapeutic methods. Patients in the observation group were treated by ureteroscopy holmium laser lithotripsy treatment and patients in control group were treated by open surgery treatment. Venous blood was collected ro test the blood rheology and oxidative stress indicators respectively in the preoperative and postoperative 1 d, 7 d after treatment.Results:The postoperative backlog of red blood cells increased performance first decreased after treatment in two groups, the plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood were increased after the stable trend, the postoperative hematocritg, plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood were significantly lower than the control group in the observation group 1 d and 7 d after operation; The postoperative Cor, MDA in two groups showed a rising trend, SOD showed a decreasing trend, the difference was statistically significant; MDA in observation group 1 d and 7 d after operation was significantly lower than the control group, SOD was significantly higher than control group in the same point in time.Conclusions:Patients with upper ureteral calculi treated by surgical treatment may cause abnormal blood rheology and oxidative stress. And compared with open surgery, ureteroscopy holmium laser lithotripsy is of smaller side effect, and is beneficial for postoperative recovery.

  8. 应用拦石网输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管上段结石%Treatment of upper ureteral calculi with intercept stone network combined with holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy under ureteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令超; 杨嗣星

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment of upper ureteral calculi with intercept stone network combined with holmium: YAG lithotripsy under ureteroscopy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 58 patients(36 males and 22 females,with an average age of 47.2 years) with upper ureteral calculi, who were treated with intercept stone network combined with holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy under ureteroscopy.The width of calculus ranges from 3 to 23 mm,and the length 3 to 25 mm. Results The success rate of fragmenta tion in a single procedure was 93.1 % (54/58 ). The calculi retrograded to renal in 2 cases. 1 case converted to open surgery because the upper ureter twisted. Operations in 1 case had to be changed to PCNL, because the zebra urological guidewire can not reach the upper ureter. The operation time was 25~90 min,and the mean operative time was 37.4 min. The postoperative hospital stay was 3~11 d,and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.7 d. Only 2cases had urinary infection. No severe complications such as ureteral perforation were seen in this operation. Conclusions The treatment of upper ureteral calculi with intercept stone network combined with holmium laser lithotripsy under ureteroscopy is safe and effective, and the intercept stone network is an effective tool that blocks the upward movement of the stone and aids in safe stone removal. This therapeutic method and tool are worth recommending in clinical practice.%目的 探讨应用拦石网输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管上段结石的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析输尿管镜下拦石网配合钬激光碎石术治疗58例输尿管上段结石患者的临床资料.男36例,女22例,平均47.2岁.结石横径为3~23 mm,纵径为3~25mm.结果 本组单次碎石成功率93.1%(54/58).2例结石上移入肾内,1例因输尿管上段迂曲而改行输尿管切开取石术,1例因斑马导丝无法进入输尿管上段而改为经皮肾镜钬激

  9. 联用多种措施提高经皮肾镜取石术治疗鹿角形肾结石的清除率%Several strategies of increasing the stone-free rate of staghorn calculi by percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟东亮; 吴玉姬; 刘冠炤; 吴文起

    2016-01-01

    目的::总结提高经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)治疗鹿角形肾结石的结石清除率的措施。方法:83例鹿角形肾结石术前行 CT 平扫,PCNL术时,如患侧输尿管扩张,留置两条 F5输尿管导管,术中见尿液混浊或合并多发微细结石,联用负压吸引器,用气压弹道碎石器有序碎石,手术结束前必须用C 臂复查结石残余情况,术后2~4 d 行 KUB 检查,统计结石清除率。结果:一期手术后56例鹿角形肾结石完全清除(67.5%,56/83),手术时间平均81 min(28~142 min),血红蛋白平均下降23 g/L(0~54 g/L),1例患者术后血红蛋白持续下降,行肾动脉造影+超选择性血管栓塞术,术后发热7例,无尿源性脓毒血症发生,无周围脏器损伤,无患者死亡。结论:术前CT平扫,术中必要时留置两条输尿管导管、联用负压吸引器,有序碎石,手术结束前C臂机检查结石残余等综合措施有助提高鹿角形肾结石PCNL术的结石清除率。%Objective:To summarize the strategies of increasing the stone-free rate of staghorn calculi by per-cutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).Methods:Eighty-three cases of staghorn calculi were subjected to kidney non-contrast CT (NCCT)scan preoperatively.During PCNL,two F5 ureteral catheters were indwelled when the expansion of the ipsilateral ureter was found,together with a suction device if preoperative diagnosis of urinary tract infection was done or cloudy urine or merge multiple tiny stones were found intraoperatively.Pneumatic lith-otripsy device was used to shatter stones orderly.The C-arm was used to check the residual stones before the end of operation.KUB radiography was carried out to statistically analyze the stone free-rate 2-4 days postoperation. Results:After the first stage PCNL,56 cases of staghorn calculi were removed completely (67.5%,56/83).The mean operative time was 81 min (28-142 min),and mean hemoglobin decrease was 23 g/L (0-54 g/L),In one case of postoperatively declined

  10. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  11. Artificial urinary sphincters for male stress urinary incontinence: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordon BH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Billy H Cordon,1 Nirmish Singla,1 Ajay K Singla2 1Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 2Department of Urology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH, USA Abstract: The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS, which has evolved over many years, has become a safe and reliable treatment for stress urinary incontinence and is currently the gold standard. After 4 decades of existence, there is substantial experience with the AUS. Today AUS is most commonly placed for postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. Only a small proportion of urologists routinely place AUS. In a survey in 2005, only 4% of urologists were considered high-volume AUS implanters, performing >20 per year. Globally, ~11,500 AUSs are placed annually. Over 400 articles have been published regarding the outcomes of AUS, with a wide variance in success rates ranging from 61% to 100%. Generally speaking, the AUS has good long-term outcomes, with social continence rates of ~79% and high patient satisfaction usually between 80% and 90%. Despite good outcomes, a substantial proportion of patients, generally ~25%, will require revision surgery, with the rate of revision increasing with time. Complications requiring revision include infection, urethral atrophy, erosion, and mechanical failure. Most infections are gram-positive skin flora. Urethral atrophy and erosion lie on a spectrum resulting from the same problem, constant urethral compression. However, these two complications are managed differently. Mechanical failure is usually a late complication occurring on average later than infection, atrophy, or erosions. Various techniques may be used during revisions, including cuff relocation, downsizing, transcorporal cuff placement, or tandem cuff placement. Patient satisfaction does not appear to be affected by the need for revision as long as continence is restored. Additionally, AUS following prior sling surgery has comparable

  12. Curriculum integration of urinary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WANG; Li WANG; Wen-xie XU

    2015-01-01

    As the organ-system oriented integration of medical education has been carried out in many domestic medical schools for years,an urgent need of discussions on various problems of integrated medical education emerges.This paper reviews the urinary integrated educational work in Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine(SJTU-MS)and introduces the contents of the integrated curriculum of urinary system.We focus on whether we should apply the single cycle integration mode or dual cycle mode,and compare the vocational medical education and elite medical education,and demonstrate the importance of inter-system integration and the ideal integrated textbooks.Multifarious teaching methods and other issues are also mentioned.The future development of integrated medical education is prospected positively.

  13. Simple cyst of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.

  14. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  15. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  16. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Evan B.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1). Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance req...

  17. Clinical effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with drug therapy in the treatment of lower ureteral calculi%体外冲击波碎石联合药物治疗输尿管下段结石的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪海; 谭琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with terazosin hydrochloride in the treatment of lower ureteral calculi. Methods 184 patients with lower ureteral calculi in the urinary system in our hospital from November 2012 to November 2014 were selected and randomly divided into the control group and the experiment group,92 patients in each group.The control group was treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy alone,the experiment group was treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with terazosin hydrochloride.The clinical effect in two groups was compared. Results The cure rate and the total effective rate in the experiment group was higher than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05).The application rate of painkiller in the experiment group was lower than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Con-clusion The effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with terazosin hydrochloride in the treatment of lower ureteral calculi in the urinary system is significant,which can eliminate the stones inside patients’body,reduce patients’pain.%目的:探讨体外冲击波碎石联合盐酸特拉唑嗪治疗输尿管下段结石的临床效果。方法选取2012年11月~2014年11月本院收治的184例泌尿系统输尿管下段结石患者作为研究对象,随机分为对照组和试验组,各92例。对照组采用体外冲击波碎石治疗,试验组采用体外冲击波碎石联合盐酸特拉唑嗪治疗,比较两组的临床效果。结果试验组的治愈率与总有效率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。试验组的止痛药物使用率显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论体外冲击波碎石联合盐酸特拉唑嗪治疗输尿管下段结石效果显著,能更好地清除患者体内的碎石,减少患者病痛。

  18. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy before Urethral Calculi in Situ%体外冲击波治疗原位前尿道结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游加芹; 沈金秀

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy Eswl treatment effect for the treatment of urethral calculi before.Methods Selection in our hospital between January 2011 and January 2013, 23 patients with former urethral calculi in situ as the research object, al patients prone position, the implementation of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment.Results 23 cases of urethral calculi before al the pieces, success rate 100%, no serious complications. Postoperative folow-up of 12 months, without the occurrence of impotence and urethral stricture.Conclusion Urethral calculi before taking Eswl treatment effect is significant, economic, convenient and damage in patients with smal, safe and reliable, has the value of clinical application.%目的 分析探讨体外冲击波碎石术Eswl治疗前尿道结石的治疗效果.方法 选取本院2011年1月~2013年1月收治的原位前尿道结石患者23例为本组研究对象,所有患者采用俯卧位,实施体外冲击波碎石治疗.结果 23例前尿道结石均全部粉碎,成功率100%,无严重并发症.术后随访12个月,无阳痿与尿道狭窄的发生.结论 前尿道结石采取Eswl治疗效果显著,经济方便,对患者的损伤小,安全可靠,具有临床推广应用的价值.

  19. 腹膜后腹腔镜治疗难治性输尿管结石45例分析%Retroperitoneal laparoscopy in the treatment of 45 cases with refractory ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖祥钧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopy in the treatment of refractory for ureteral stones.Methods From January 2010 to January 2015,the clinical data of 45 patients with refractory ureteral stones were retrospectively analyzed.The manner,duration of surgery,complications and length of stay and other indicators were summarized,and the treatment effect was evaluated.Results 45 patients were success-fully operated,of which 38 patients taken simple lithotomy,7 cases received simultaneous resection and anastomosis of ureter stenosis,the surgery time was 35 -135 minutes,5 -15 days in the hospital after surgery.Postoperative compli-cations:urinary fistula in 3 cases and 2 cases of wound infection was curable with appropriate treatment.Postoperative follow -up 3 -24 months,3 cases of recurrent calculus,2 patients with mild stenosis of ureter.Conclusion The retroperitoneal laparoscopy in treatment of refractory ureteral calculi trauma has quicker recovery and fewer complica-tions,which is currently the preferred method for treatment of refractory for ureteral calculi.%目的:探讨腹膜后腹腔镜治疗难治性输尿管结石的临床疗效。方法回顾性分析2010年1月至2015年1月收治的45例难治性管结石输尿患者的临床资料,总结手术方式、手术时间、并发症及住院时间等指标,评价治疗效果。结果45例患者均顺利完成手术,其中38例采取单纯切开取石术,7例同时行狭窄段输尿管切除吻合术,手术时间35~135 min,术后住院时间5~15 d。术后并发症:3例发生尿瘘,2例发生切口感染,均通过相应治疗后治愈。术后随访3~24个月,3例结石复发,2例并发输尿管轻度狭窄。结论腹膜后腹腔镜治疗难治性输尿管结石创伤小,恢复快,并发症少,是目前治疗难治性输尿管结石的首选方法。

  20. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based ap...

  1. First experience with blind lithotripsy of ureteral calculi by ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Reznikov, Leonid L.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Mursin, A. G.; Soms, Leonid N.; Berenberg, Vladimir A.; Polikarpov, Sergey S.; Parkhomchuk, N. A.; Voskresensky, M. A.

    1994-05-01

    For the last two years we have applied continuous dual-wavelength Nd:YAG 20 - 60 W power laser to various urologic operations. Transmission of laser irradiation via a flexible quartz fiber permitted operating at any depth of the wound. High-intensity irradiation of 1.06 mkm wavelength was effective in making thin incisions into a variety of tissues, including skin, subcutaneous fat, aponeurosis, muscles, urinary bladder wall, prostate gland, renal pelvis, renal capsule and parenchyma, and urethra. The incisions were especially effective if the contact method was used. Operational access was accomplished in 3 - 5 minutes. At the same time, hemostasis occurred in small diameter vessels. More reliable hemostasis could be achieved by means of 1.32 mkm wavelength. With the present laser device, we carried out 57 different urologic operations in our clinic. Examples of such operations include prostatectomy, pyelolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, nephrectomy, resection of renal cysts, condylomata acuminata of the urogenital organs, and papilloma of the urethra and bladder. The results suggest that a combination of these two wavelengths may prove most effective. Advantages of this approach include a decreased blood loss and decreased surgical time, asepsis, good short- and long-term results, and no complications.

  2. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  3. [Leiomyoma of the urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the urinary tract are benign and uncommon forms of tumor. In the present study, two cases have been described of leiomyomas situated in the bladder. Following this description, the pathological characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these lesions have been examined. The clinical symptomatology depends on the tumor site, and this type of lesion is more frequently found in women.. Treatment mainly consists of endoscopic resection, but may involve cystectomy. The prognosis for patients with this type of tumor is invariably favorable.

  4. 输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的疗效分析%Efficacy Analysis of Ureteral Microscopically Pneumatic Ballistic Lithoclast in the Treatment of Ureteral Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄斌; 陈桂莲; 黄伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察经输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结结石的疗效和并发症.方法 随机选取牡丹江医学院第二附属医院泌尿外科自2007年10月至2010年10月收治的180例输尿管结石患者.根据治疗方法的不同,将180例患者分为两组,A组80例采用经输尿管镜超声碎石术,B组100例采用经输尿管镜气压弹道碎石.观察两组患者的单次手术操作成功率、结石排净率、平均住院时间及并发症发生率.结果 A组的首次结石排净率76.3%,尿路感染、输尿管狭窄、穿孔的发生率分别为12.5%、11.3%、12.5%,平均住院时间(6.0 ±2.3)d.B组的结石排净率89.0%,尿路感染、输尿管狭窄、穿孔的发生率分别为25.0%、3.0%、4.0%,平均住院时间(4.2 ±1.8)d,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术是高效、安全、易使用的方法.%Objective To observe the curative effect and complications of the ureteral mirror pneumatic ballistic lithoclast in the treatment of ureteral calculi.Methods To randomly selecte 180 patients since October 2007 October 2010 from urinary surgical of the second affiliated hospital of Mudanjiang medical School.According to the different treatment methods, 180 were divided into two groups, A group of 80 patients with ureteral mirror by ultrasonic lithotripsy,B group of 100 patients with ureteral mirror by pneumatic ballistic gravel.To observe two groups in single operation success rate, the stone row net rate, the average hospitalization time and complications.Results The first stone row net rate of group A was 76.3%, the incidence of urinary tract infection, ureteral stricture, fenestration showed 12.5 %, 11.3 %, 12.5 % respectively, the average hospitalization time was( 6.0 ±2.3 )d.The stone row net rate of group B was 89.0% ,the incidence of urinary tract infection,ureteral stricture,fenestration showed 25.0% 、3.0% 、4.0% respectively,the average

  5. Undertreatment of urinary incontinence in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning-van Beest, F.J.A.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Herings, R.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the urinary incontinence guidelines that are issued by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, treatment guidelines are related to the type of incontinence. It is unknown whether treatment of urinary incontinence in general practice complies with these guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To de

  6. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahzadeh M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

  7. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  8. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinary Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection.

  9. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    , the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "

  11. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

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    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  12. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144...... incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin...... regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation....

  13. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented.

  14. STUDY OF URINARY CALCIUM AND URINARY CREATININE LEVELS AND URINARY CALCIUM/CREATININE RATIO IN GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertension (BP>140/90mmHg or pregnancy induced hypertension usually precedes pre - eclampsia (BP>140/90mmHg associated with proteniuria. Many tests to predict pre - eclampsia are coming up on the horizon. Hypocalciuria is one such test to predict pre - eclampsia which may be present before other clinical signs and symptoms. AIM: To determine urinary calcium, urinary creatinine and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in pregnancy induced hypertension and in normal pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 100 subjects with gestational age between 24 - 38 weeks and divided into two groups’ viz. control group and study group . The control group included 50 subjects who were normal pregnant women and study group included 50 subjects who were gestational hypertensive patients. Urinary calcium was estimated by Ortho - Cresolphthalein Complexone (CPC method, urinary creatinine was estimated by Jaffe’s method in all the subjects. RESULTS: The estimated mean levels (Mean±SD of urinary calcium, creatinine in control group were 263.0±80.3, 0.95±0.16 respectively and in patients with gestational hypertension they were 86.2±19.5, 1.21±0. 37 respectively. The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium were significantly decreased (p<0.001 and the urinary creatinine were significantly increased (p <0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compar ed to healthy controls. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in control group were 0.28±0.08 and in gestational hypertensive patients were 0.07±0.03.The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a regular evaluation of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio after 20wks of gestation may be an effective screen ing method for

  15. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tepel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r =  -0.33; P<0.001. Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66. Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.

  16. 自拟方治疗虚实夹杂型肾结石的疗效观察%Observation of Efficacy of Self-made Prescription in Treatment of Kidney Calculi of Deficiency-excessiveness Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟明

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To probe into the efficacy of self-made prescription in treatment of kidney calculi of deficiency-excessiveness types .METHODS:90 cases with kidney calculi of deficiency-excessiveness types admitted into the Community Health Services Center of Guangzhou Yuexiu District Beijing St .from Jun.2013 to Nov.2014 were selected as the research objects , who were divided into observation group and control group via the random number table , with 45 cases in each group .The control group were treated with orally hydrochlorothiazide ( 25 mg/time, 3 times/day), and orally anisodamine (10 mg/time, 3 times/day), and patients with urinary tract infection would be treated with antibiotics .The observation group received the self-made prescription treatment .The efficacy of patients, efficacy of TCM syndrome and indicators changes of urine β2-MG, blood β2-MG, Cr and BUN before and after treatment in two group of patients were observed .RESULTS: The total effective rate of observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group [ 93.33%( 42/45 ) VS 82.22%( 37/42 ) ] , with statistically significant difference(P<0.05).The urineβ2-MG, bloodβ2-MG, Cr and BUN of observation group was significantly lower than that of before treatment ,and it was lower than the control group , with statistically significant difference ( P<0.05).Also, the total effective rate of TCM syndrome in observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group [ 91.11%(41/45)VS 80.00%(36/45)], the difference was significant(P<0.05).CONCLUSIONS:Self-made prescription in treatment of kidney calculi of deficiency-excessiveness types has good efficacy , which is worthy of clinical promotion .%目的:探讨自拟方治疗虚实夹杂型肾结石的疗效。方法:选取2013年6月—2014年11月广州市越秀区北京街社区卫生服务中心收治的90例虚实夹杂型肾结石患者为研究对象,按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各45例。对

  17. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

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    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  18. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension......This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long......-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy...

  19. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samawi, Abdullah Saleh; Aulaqi, Saleh Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification. Methods This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification. Results Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78%) were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2%) were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1%) were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3), small cell carcinoma (n=1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1). The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%), papilloma 7 (3%), papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%), and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%), with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group. Conclusion This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age. PMID:24044060

  20. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

  1. [Urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotová, D

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.

  2. Urine cytology to evaluate urinary urothelial damage of shock-wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Mahmoud; Pancaroglu, Kuddusi

    2011-06-01

    Our aim is to study the prospective trial where urine cytology was used to detect the acute urothelial mucosal damage in patients who undergo extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (SWL). The study included 48 consecutive patients (28 male, 20 female) with mean age of 49.02 years (range 18-66) who were treated with SWL due to renal stones (30 patients) or upper ureter stones (18 patients). The mean calculi diameter was 12.44 mm (range 5-20). Urinary cytologic examinations were done for all patients immediately before and after SWL therapy and 10 days latter. The average numbers of transitional cells, red blood cells and myocytes were counted under 40 × magnification. In overall patients the average numbers of transitional cells at the cytologic examinations done immediately before and after SWL therapy were 1.6 and 7.53 cell/field, respectively (p = 0.001). The increment in transitional cells at cytologic examination after SWL was significantly influenced only by number of shock waves applied (p = 0.003). No muscle cell was detected in all cytologic examinations. The cytologic examinations which were done after 10 days of SWL therapy showed recovery from all cytologic abnormalities. The acute increment in number of transitional cells after the SWL is not clinically important and it is a temporary change. Urothelial lesion is limited to mucosal layer and there is no evidence of damage to basal membrane or deeper muscle layer. SWL safety on urothelial and muscular layer was demonstrated. However, evaluation of larger series with use of other lithotripters is necessary before reaching any definitive conclusions.

  3. Obesity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David James; Strain, Matthew; Gomelsky, Alex; Rothschild, Jennifer; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in the obese female patient and draw conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of this condition in this unique patient population. Obesity results in increased intra-abdominal pressure and this leads to weakening of the pelvic floor innervation and musculature. Weight loss through lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery improves stress urinary incontinence. Success of stress urinary incontinence surgery in obese women is similar to nonobese patients. Obese women should not be excluded from potentially curative surgery based on their body mass index (BMI) alone.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results.

  5. B超诊断输尿管结石的价值%Diagnostic value of B type ultrasound in ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of B type ultrasound in ureteral calculi. Methods B type ultrasound examination were performed on 100 cases with ureteral calculi who were confirmed by open surgery, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and comprehensive therapy. Results The diagnostic accuracy was 94. 00% in 100 cases,no false positive was found,and the rate of missed diagnosis was 6.00% (6 cases). Conclusion B type ultrasound has a high application value in the diagnosis of ureteral calculi, which has low false positive rate and can clear display negative stone. It can also afford some accurate clues for diagnosis and clinical treatment in tihe according to abdomenal B type ultrasound and it will be preferred in way for diagnosis of acute nephrite colic especially in basic hospitals.%目的 评价B超在输尿管结石中的诊断价值.方法 对100例经手术取石、体外震波碎石和综合疗法排石证实为输尿管结石患者进行B超检查诊断分析.结果 本组100例输尿管结石患者中,B超诊断正确率为94.00%,无假阳性,漏诊6例,占6.00%.结论 B超诊断输尿管结石假阳性率低,可清晰显示X线阴性结石,有较高的临床应用价值和为临床及时准确地提供诊断和治疗依据,是急性肾绞痛的首选检查方法,特别是在基层医疗单位为首选检查方法.

  6. Therapeutic effect evaluation of TUPKEP combined with percutaneous cystotomy and nephroscopic EMS minimally invasive therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with multiple large bladder calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hu Zhu; Bing-Xun He; Hou-Bin Kang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic effect of TUPKEP combined with nephroscopic EMS pneumatic minimally invasive therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with multiple large bladder calculi.Methods: Benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with multiple (large) bladder calculi who received surgical treatment in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into TUPKEP group and TURP group, and then perioperative situation, serum PSA levels, liver and kidney function and the degree of inflammation were compared between two groups.Results: During operation, the amount of bleeding and the weight of removed prostate of TUPKEP group were significantly lower than those of TURP group; during postoperative recovery, the time of retention catheterization of TUPKEP group was shorter than that of TURP group; 1 d, 3 d and 7 d after operation, serum PSA levels of both groups were significantly higher than those before operation and serum PSA levels of TUPKEP group were significantly lower than those of TURP group; 3 days after operation, ALT, AST, BUN and Scr levels of TUPKEP group and TURP group were not different, and IL-1β and IL-18 levels in serum as well as mRNA levels of NLPR3, ACS, Caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of TUPKEP group were significantly lower than those of TURP group.Conclusion: TUPKEP combined with nephroscopic EMS pneumatic minimally invasive therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with multiple large bladder calculi causes less damage, has better resection effect on the hyperplastic gland tissue than TURP, and has equivalent long-term curative effect to TURP.

  7. Nursing adverse downstream flushing ureteroscopic ultrasound lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi ;after operation%逆向顺流冲洗输尿管镜超声碎石治疗输尿管结石的术后护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞玉霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨逆向顺流冲洗经输尿管镜超声碎石清石治疗输尿管结石的护理措施。方法回顾性分析我院2013年3月至2014年6月运用逆向顺流冲洗经输尿管镜超声碎石清石治疗30例输尿管结石的临床资料。术前对患者进行心理护理和术后针对并发症护理。结果30例患者经精心的护理均取得良好的临床疗效,1例结石移位,经体外碎石排出;肉眼血尿18例、术后肾绞痛4例、发热2例( T<38℃)经及时处理和针对性护理均迅速改善;双“J”管移位1例,经输尿管镜取出。无输尿管损伤及尿脓毒症等并发症发生。29例碎石清石成功,清石率96.67%。结论逆向顺流冲洗经输尿管镜超声碎石清石治疗输尿管结石清石率高,术前心理护理和术后针对并发症护理是减少并发症发生和提高手术安全性、促进术后康复的重要措施。%Objective To explore the nursing measures of reverse flow rinsing ureteroscopic ultrasound lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi .Methods Retrospective analysis of our hospital from 2013 March to 2014 June using the reverse flow rinsing clinical data of ureteroscopic ultrasound lithotripsy in treating 30 ureteral calculus .The patients psychological nursing and preoperative nursing for complications after operation . Results 30 cases of patients with careful nursing can obtain good clinical curative effect , 1 case of calculi translocation, discharged after extracorporeal lithotripsy;2 cases of hematuria , 18 cases of renal colic in 4 cases after operation , postoperative fever ( T<38℃) after timely treatment and nursing were improved rapidly;shift of 1 cases of double "J"tube, ureteroscopic removal .No ureteral injury and complications such as urinary sepsis . 29 cases of successful lithotripsy , stone clearance rate was 96.67%.Conclusions Reverse flow rinsing ureteroscopic ultrasound lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral calculi

  8. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  9. Trends in cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thor Knak; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Jørgensen, Simon Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of cancers of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with particular focus on elderly patients over age 70 years. Design Cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary...

  10. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p incontinence occurring...... during sleep (p urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p

  11. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... suspension Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  12. Primary liquid intake and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R L; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1985-01-01

    This investigation indicates that there are important associations between urinary stone disease and a person's primary liquid intake. Based on data collected from 2295 caucasian male patients from two geographical regions, the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Rockies (including Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah and Wyoming) an important (p less than 0.01) positive association was found between urinary stone disease and soda (carbonated beverage) consumption within both geographical regions. It was also found that negative associations exist between urinary stone disease and both beer consumption and coffee consumption in the Rockies and that no important associations exist between urinary stone disease and any of milk, water, or tea, when these beverages represent a person's primary liquid intake. Moreover, soda can be viewed almost synonymously as sugared cola, since few subjects had diet sodas or sugared non-cola soda as primary fluid. No cause/effect relationships are implied in this paper.

  13. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women.

  14. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  15. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  16. [Imaging in urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, P; Lagard, D; Leroy, C; Dracon, M; Biserte, J; Lemaître, L

    2004-02-01

    Uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract is frequent and usually resolves rapidly with treatment and imaging is unnecessary. Progression to complex infection often occurs in patients with predisposing factors. Imaging assists in evaluating the extent of disease, plays a role in directing therapy and guides interventional procedures if necessary. This pictorial essay reviews the role of imaging and intervention in infections of the urinary tract.

  17. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  18. Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for treatment of complicated ureteral calculi%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文生; 薛建; 俞小明; 张钢; 李鑫; 李保国; 唐科伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石的疗效.方法 采用输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石56例,其中输尿管上段结石15例,中下段结石41例,体外冲击波碎石术(ESWL)失败25例,合并高热8例.结果 56例患者中,中下段结石均一次完全粉碎,成功率100.0%(41/41).上段结石一次完全粉碎10例,成功率66.7%(10/15).3例结石术中移位至肾脏,后辅以ESWL治疗1~2次,1例进镜困难终止手术,1例因输尿管穿孔改行开放手术.术后4周结石总清除率87.5%(49/56).8例合并高热者均急诊手术,7例一次结石粉碎成功,1例结石移位至肾脏,但梗阻均经手术得以解除,术后高热停止.输尿管穿孔发生率为1.8%(1/56).结论 输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石安全、有效.%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for treatment of complicated ureteral calculi. Methods Clinical data of 56 cases with complicated ureteral calculi who were treated with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was reviewed. Among them 15 cases were proximal ureteral calculi,41 cases were middle and distal ureteral calculi. Treatment by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) failed in 25 cases,8 cases complicated with fever. Results In 41 cases with middle and distal ureteral calculi, successful lithotripsy was achieved after the first treatment session,the success rate was 100.0% (41/41). In 15 cases with proximal ureteral calculi ,successful lithotripsy was achieved in 10 cases after the first treatment session,the success rate was 66.7%(l0/15). Calculi migrated to kidney in 3 cases who treated by ESWL for 1-2 times. The failure was due to ureteral kink in 1 case and due to ureteral perforation that required surgical repair in another case. Forty-nine cases were calculi-free after 4 weeks,the calculi-free rate was 87.5%(49/56). Emergency operation was performed in 8

  19. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.

  20. STUDY OF URINE PH, HYPERCALCIURIA, URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STONE COMPOSITION IN BHOPAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This prospective case control study is an attempt to study the importance and significance of urinary pH, urinary tract infection (Urinary Culture and hypercalciuria and its correlation with stone composition in patients of urolithiasis. METHODS: This prospective cases control study is done at the Department of Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal (M.P. India from October 2013 to October 2014. We have included 25 healthy persons as control group for the comparison of study group i.e. patients of urolithiasis. RESULTS: Total (43.5% persons were having stones in upper urinary tract. The mean age (+/-SD of the study group was 31.5 for the males and 34.5 for the females. In control group it was 30.4 males and 30.2 for the females. The overall ratio of M/F was 1.5:1.0 in stone former (Study group group and 2.1:1.0 in control group. Most (82.5% of stone former persons were in lower and middle socioeconomic group. 65.2% persons in stone former group were taking water less than 2 liters per day while in normal control group it was 48%. Milk and milk products consumption was very high in stone formers i.e. 34/46(73.9%. Pain in the flanks is the first symptom of upper urinary tract calculi. Haematuria and burning during micturition were present in 75% and 50% patients respectively. Pain during micturition was in 75% of the stone formers. Urinary pH was mostly acidic in stone formers. The pH of urine in stone formers was 5.40±0.05 whereas in control group it was 6.34±0.08. In our study we found that most of the stones formed in normal acidic urine pH were composed of mainly calcium oxalate as dominant component while in alkaline urine at pH 6 to 8 triple phosphate is the major stone component. Uric acid is mainly present in stones formed in acidic urine. 24 Hours urine volume was significantly low in stone formers (750±156ml than in normal individuals (1250±250ml. S. Calcium level was also raised marginally

  1. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-12-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension operation (cure rates after five years 57-78 %) is more likely to help the patient than an anterior colporrhaphy (cure rates 31-70 %) or a transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension (cure rates 39-61 %). In selected patients sling procedures or the use of artificial sphincters may produce excellent results (70-80 %). To estimate the results of different treatments urine loss should be assessed objectively and physical restrictions and hygienic and social implications taken into account. A method of pre- and post-treatment "performance scores" should be developed.

  2. 结石肾并肾癌的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of renal calculi associated with renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光; 宋超; 喻翔翔; 杨嗣星

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of renal calculi associated with renal cell carcinoma ( RCC). Methods The clinical data of 9 cases of renal calculi associated with RCC were retrospectively analyzed. Results The diagnosis were confirmed in 2 cases before open surgery. The remaining were diagnosed during or after operation ;4 cases with doubtful focus were confirmed RCC by in-tra - operative frozen section ,3 were confirmed by pathology after nephrectomy. All 7 confirmed cases were performed radical nephrorectomy. All cases underwent follow up:2 cases were dead of metastasis of RCC within 1 year,and no recurrence or metastasis was noted in other 7 cases during follow up. Conclusion The pre - diagnosis of renal calculi associated with RCC is difficult. Patients with renal calculi over 50 years of age or with a long standing history of urolithiasis within the background of an atypical or asympto-matic presentation should be screened for the possibility of an occult renal cancer by using appropriate in-vestigations. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, radical nephrorectomy rather than treatment of renal calculi should be performed as soon as possible.%目的 探讨结石肾合并肾癌的诊断与治疗策略.方法 回顾分析9例结石肾合并肾癌患者的病例资料及诊治经过.结果 9例患者中2例术前检查已发现结石肾合并肾占位病变行根治性肾切除;另7例中4例因结石手术术中发现可疑病灶行快速冰冻切片病检证实为肾细胞癌而行根治性肾切除,3例因结石肾积水合并感染形成脓肾行患肾切除,术后病理证实为肾癌.对所有患者进行随访,2例术后1年内死于癌肿转移,其他患者在随访期间未发现肾癌复发或转移.结论 结石肾合并肾癌诊断较困难,对50岁以上肾结石患者或长期肾结石并非典型性症状患者,应考虑结石合并肾癌的可能,应联合多种检查方法对其进行检查,争取术前明确诊断.对术

  3. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  4. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had inco...

  5. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  6. [Urinary urgency and reflex incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madersbacher, H

    1991-07-01

    Urge and reflex incontinence are caused by detrusor dysfunction:urgency may be due to hyperactivity or hypersensitivity of the bladder. Neurogenic hyperactivity of the detrusor is called detrusor hyperreflexia: the neurogenic uninhibited bladder is caused by incomplete, and the so-called reflex bladder by complete, suprasacral lesions. The pathophysiology of symptomatic and idiopathic detrusor hyperactivity and the therapeutic armentarium are described. Bladder drill together with biofeedback and pharmacotherapy with spasmolytic drugs - several potent spasmolytic drugs with different modes of action are available - are the basis of treatment for hyperactivity and hypersensitivity of the detrusor. An alternative is electrostimulation: stimulation of the afferents of the pudendal nerve, via the pelvic floor (anal, vaginal), percutaneously (dorsal nerve of the penis, clitoric nerve) or by the implantation of electrodes results in inhibition of the detrusor. Most (80-90%) patients can be treated successfully by conservative means. Operative measurements comprise bladder denervation and bladder augmentation. The results of bladder denervation by transtrigonal phenolization of the pelvic plexus are highly controversial. In patients with uncontrollable hyperactivity of the detrusor, augmentation of the bladder (e.g. clam ileocystoplasty) is the method of choice, while for those with uncontrollable hypersensitivity of the detrusor, cystectomy followed by bladder substitution should be performed as a last resort. Treatment for urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia must be selected bearing in mind that bladder emptying is inadequate, in most cases because of dyssynergia between detrusor and external sphincter. Therapy is basically aimed at transforming hyperreflexia of the detrusor into hyporeflexia, primarily by potent spasmolytic drugs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  8. Characteristic plain radiographic and intravenous urographic findings of bladder calculi formed over a hair nidus: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    We present the characteristic plain radiographic and intravenous urographic (IVU) findings of calculus formed over a hair. A 66-year-old man who had been quadriplegic for 40 years because of vertebral injury was admitted for further evaluation of frequent urinary tract infection. Plain radiography showed a linear, serpiginous calcification in the lower abdomen, and IVU revealed a round filling defect with linear radiopacity in the bladder, suggesting calculus. The gross appearance of the stone after extraction demonstrated that calcification had formed over a hair.

  9. Mathematical modelling of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Antonio Soriano; Fernandez, Daniel Ruiz; Gil, David; Garcia Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Perez, Francisco Macia

    2013-03-01

    The lower urinary tract is one of the most complex biological systems of the human body as it involved hydrodynamic properties of urine and muscle. Moreover, its complexity is increased to be managed by voluntary and involuntary neural systems. In this paper, a mathematical model of the lower urinary tract it is proposed as a preliminary study to better understand its functioning. Furthermore, another goal of that mathematical model proposal is to provide a basis for developing artificial control systems. Lower urinary tract is comprised of two interacting systems: the mechanical system and the neural regulator. The latter has the function of controlling the mechanical system to perform the voiding process. The results of the tests reproduce experimental data with high degree of accuracy. Also, these results indicate that simulations not only with healthy patients but also of patients with dysfunctions with neurological etiology present urodynamic curves very similar to those obtained in clinical studies.

  10. New drug treatments for urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2010-04-01

    Urinary incontinence remains a common and distressing condition affecting many women and is known to have a significant effect on quality of life (QoL). Whilst conservative and behavioural therapy are important in the management of women with both stress incontinence and overactive bladder (OAB) ultimately many may benefit from pharmacological therapy. Antimuscarinic drugs are the commonly used agents in the treatment of OAB although often compliance and persistence are affected by adverse effects. Consequently many newer agents remain under investigation. In addition duloxetine has recently been introduced for the management of women with stress incontinence and may offer an alternative to surgery in selected cases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and new developments in the management of women with urinary incontinence as well as reviewing the role of oestrogen therapy in relation to lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  11. Infezioni delle vie urinarie: appropriatezza in antibioticoterapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Carnelutti, Alessia

    2014-12-01

    Adequacy of antimicrobial therapy in urinary tract infections (UTI)Urinary tract infections are one of the most common reasons for antimicrobial prescriptions, however urine cultures are often unavailable and the choice of antibiotics is therefore empiric. The ideal antimicrobial agent must have specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and an adequate spectrum of activity in order to obtain the potential eradication of the pathogen from the site of infection, minimizing the risk of recurrences and ensuring the best safety profile. There are several factors to be considered in the therapy choice: the type of infection, the increasing presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria showing resistance to most antibiotics and the problem of the bacterial internalization, that is a frequent cause of treatment failure and early recurrences. Prulifloxacin is a recent oral fluoroquinolone antibiotic approved in several European countries for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections and shows some interesting advantages in comparison with other antibiotics.

  12. Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata,Masana

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

  13. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Phair, J.P.; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H.B.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  14. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M

    1989-03-01

    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  15. The clinical analysis of 300 Patients with Lower Ureteral Calculi%输尿管下段结石300例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨输尿管下段结石的治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析300例输尿管下段结石患者的临床资料.300例输尿管下段结石患者中,采用体外冲击波碎石术(ESWL)治疗171例,输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术(URL)治疗95例,腹腔镜输尿管切开取石术治疗34例.结果 ESWL治疗171例患者,1个月后结石排净率为91.81%(151/171);URL治疗95例,输尿管下段结石取净率为86.32%( 82/95);腹腔镜输尿管切开取石取净率为100%(34/34).结论 ESWL可作为输尿管下段结石的首选方法,但当结石长径≥1 cm时,URL的疗效明显优于ESWL;对于合并输尿管下段狭窄或输尿管息肉,结石嵌顿严重,周围形成肉芽组织包裹的输尿管下段结石的治疗,腹腔镜输尿管切开取石术疗效确切.%Objective To evaluate the treatment of lower ureteral calculi.Methods Clinical data of 300 cases of lower ureteral calculi were retrospectively analyzed.Among the 300 patients with lower ureteral calculi,171 patients were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL),95 patients were treated with ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL),34 patients were treated with laparoscopic ureterolithotomy.Results The clearances of the calculus was 91.81% with the treatment of ESWL,86.32% with the treatment of URL and 100% with the treatment of laparoscopic ureterolithotomy after one month of the treatments.Conclusion ESWL is the preferred methods for the treatment of lower ureteral stones.But when the stones≥ 1 cm,URL is superior to ESWL in efficacy; Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is effective for the treatment of lower ureteral stones which combined with ureteral stricture or ureteral polyps,and with serious incarceration,granulation tissue wrapped around the stone.

  16. Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim B. Berdichevskii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  17. Staying Trim, Strong May Cut Risk of Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequency over time, but not with changes in urgency urinary incontinence frequency over time," said the study's lead ... pressure (i.e., coughing, laughing, sneezing)," she explained. "Urgency urinary incontinence is involuntary leakage of urine accompanied or ...

  18. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...... of different activity by comparing it to serum GH, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and clinical activity. There were highly significant, positive correlations between urinary GH and serum GH, serum IGF-I as well as clinical activity score (p

  19. Actinomycosis of urinary bladder - a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Lal Gupta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is considered the most misdiagnosed dis-ease usually involving the cervico fascial region, thorax, abdomen and occasionally also the pelvis, usually in case of the females using intra-uterine devices. The involve-ment of the urinary tract is rare and primary actinomyco-sis of urinary bladder is still rarer. The disease is usually diagnosed by demonstration of the discharged sulphur granules. In our case this was not the usual presentation and the patient was first diagnosed as having appendicu-lar mass and then bladder malignancy. The excised mass demonstrated features suggestive of actinomycosis.

  20. Fungal infections of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D; Vazquez, J A

    1999-12-01

    Funguria, fungal urinary tract infections, are most commonly caused by Candida species but may also be caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, and the endemic mycoses. Candiduria presents as an increasingly common nosocomial infection, which may involve all anatomic levels of the urinary tract, resulting in a spectrum of disease varying from asymptomatic candiduria to clinical sepsis. Although several successful systemic or local therapeutic options exist for the eradication of candiduria, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of candiduria has lagged. This has resulted in confusion among practitioners as to when antifungal therapy is indicated. Treatment guidelines have recently been formulated and are described herein.

  1. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment.

  2. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  3. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  4. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  5. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2016-04-21

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population.

  6. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

  7. Management of daytime urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aniruddh V; Craig, Jonathan C; Smith, Grahame H H; Caldwell, Patrina H Y

    2012-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly urgency, frequency and incontinence are common in school-aged children but are often overlooked. They may cause considerable physical, social and psychological difficulties to children and their families, and usually are manifestations of underlying non-neurogenic voiding disorders. The differential diagnoses include overactive bladder syndrome, dysfunctional voiding and vaginal reflux as well as less common conditions like giggle incontinence, voiding postponement, pollakiuria and diabetes insipidus. In this paper, we discuss an evidence-based approach to the management of conditions causing daytime urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in children from a general paediatrician's perspective.

  8. Secondary or Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism Associated With Urinary Tract Anomaly and Urinary Infection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Krishnappa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is a rare presentation, but may be due to aldosterone deficiency or end organ resistance to its action. There are few cases associating this condition with urinary tract infections or anatomic abnormalities that predispose to infection. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA due to its often atypical presentation. We describe ten month-old infant who presented with this condition and was found to have urinary tract infection complicating unilateral urinary tract anomaly, which may have strong association with renal tubular resistance to aldosterone.

  9. Chateter-associated Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Piljic, Dilista; Porobic-Jahic, Humera; Piljic, Dragan; Ahmetagic, Sead; Jahic, Rahima

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hospital-acquired Urinary tract infections make 35% of all the hospital-acquired infections, and about 80% of them are related to the catheterization of the urinary bladder Purpose: To determine clinical characteristics and dominant etiologic factors of Urinary Tract Infections associated with urinary catheter (C-UTIs). Methods: Determined clinical characteristics of C-UTIs were prospectively analyzed on 38 hospitalized patients in the Clinic for Infectious Diseases at the Unive...

  10. [A rare cause of urinary obstruction: urogenital tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekak, H; Rabii, R; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Debbagh, A; Bennani, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2003-04-01

    The authors reported a rare cause of urogenital tuberculosis complicated by an obstructive acute renal failure in 44 years old man with solitary anatomic kidney. The authors insisted of using the upper urinary tract opacification by percutaneous nephrostomy for diagnosis, the urogenital tuberculosis with this exploration, we can suspected the tuberculosis by abnormalities of the radiologic imagine, and confirmed the koch bacilli urinary into urinary tract. The upper chance of positives of finding koch bacilli in higher than urinary bladder.

  11. Urinary Bladder Problems in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jesudasan, Ajantha

    2012-01-01

    Ajantha Jesudasan, Mohammed A. Rana Parkinson’s Clinic of Eastern Toronto, Toronto, Canada Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is reported to range from 38% to 71%.1 Common symptoms include nocturia, urinary urgency, incomplete bladder emptying and urinary retention. These symptoms may also be caused by urinary tract infection, prostatic hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus or medications used for other medical conditions.

  12. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mungli Prakash; Nagaraj M Phani; Kavya R; Supriya M

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary pepti...

  13. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  14. Urinary incontinence after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, E.J.M.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Kluivers, K.B.; Milani, A.L.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: This study focused on the changes in urinary incontinence (UI) rates pre- and postoperatively and identified risk factors which predict the presence of symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) or stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) without conc

  15. Urinary Tract Infections in Children : EAU/ESPU Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kocvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgul, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Context: In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. Objective: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting

  16. Pre- and post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Juichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex.

  17. Nursing Experience of Gout Calculi in Patients Undergoing Resection%痛风结石切除术患者的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧慧

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析痛风结石切除术后的护理措施。方法分析我科对2013年05月~12月进行的4例痛风结石手术切除患者进行手术前后的护理措施,总结在心理、术前准备、术后恢复方面的护理经验。结果经严密护理,患者对痛风疾病有了深刻的了解,术后恢复快,住院时间短,对护理工作满意。结论认为术前加强患者的心理护理,健康宣教,术后密切观察生命体征的变化,指导患者功能锻炼是患者顺利康复的保证。%Objective Tto analyze the gout calculi after resection of nursing measures. Methods Analysis of our department in 2013 05 months to 2013 December 4 cases of gout calculi operation excision were nursing before and after operation, summarized in the psychological, preoperative preparation, postoperative recovery nursing experience. Results Through careful nursing, patients have a deep understanding of the gout disease, faster postoperative recovery, shorter hospitalization time, satisfaction to nursing work. Conclusion Preoperative mental nursing, the patient's health education, change after close observation of vital signs, guide the patients to exercise is to ensure the successful rehabilitation of the patients.

  18. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  19. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  20. Urinary excretion of Iopamidol following intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrè, D; Zingales, M F; Trevisan, C

    1983-01-01

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro "300". The compound was neither metabolized nor altered in its optical configuration and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection.

  1. Indwelling urinary catheterisation: what is best practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Ann

    Indwelling urinary catheterisation is a common procedure that is governed by best practice guidelines such as those provided by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE), epic3 and the Royal College of Nursing. This article will look how these guidelines influence practice and also look at new innovations in catheter care.

  2. Urinary bisphenol A levels in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...

  3. The colon shuffle : A modified urinary diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R. P.; Mertens, L. S.; Meinhardt, W.; Verwaal, V. J.; Dik, P.; Horenblas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the results of a urinary diversion in patients who already have a colostomy or simultaneously require a (rectum) colon resection. The diversion is created from the distal part of the transected colon with a simultaneously created new colostomy contra-laterally (if necessary). This proc

  4. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673

  5. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  6. Cigarette Smoking and Urinary Organic Sulfides 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLE; CAOWEN-JUN

    2000-01-01

    In order to observe how cigarette smoking influences levels of thio-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid(TTCA),high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to detect TTCA in urine from 18 healthy male volunteers.At the sme time,the total amout of urinary organic sulfides was determined by the iodine azide test(IAT).Nine of the volunteers had smoking higtories(5 to 10 cigarettes per day,as the smoking group),and the rest only occasionally smoke (1 to 2 cigarettes per month,as the control group).Samples were collected in the early morning (limosis)and 90 minutes after smoking a cigarette.Results showed that smoking a single cigaretter could elevate the level of urinary organic sulfides both in the smoking and control groups,while a smoking habit appeared to have no significant influence on the urinary organic sulfide level.No significant cumulative effect of cigarette smoking on urinary organic sulfides was found,The influence of cigarette on uinary organic sulfides was temporary.The results suggest that cigaretter smoking might be a confounding factor in biomontoring the levels of carbon disulfide in exposed workers.

  7. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, Christopher D; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review.

  8. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  9. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for

  10. Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J

    2014-04-01

    The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E. coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E. coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E. coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E. coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E. coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E. coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment

  11. 复杂性肾结石不同手术治疗方法的疗效分析%Different surgical procedures for complex renal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永昌; 陈志雄; 潘翔

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of mini-invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) with that of open surgery for the treatment of complex renal calculi.Methods 82 patients with complex renal calculi who had undergone surgical treatment during the period of April 2006 to April 2011 were assigned to MPCNL group (41 patients) and open-surgery group (41 patients) based on the type of procedures.Surgical duration,intraoperative bleeding volume,rate of complications,postoperative length of hospital stay,total medical cost,and rate of calculi clearance were compared between the two groups.Results Surgical duration and length of hospital stay were shorter,intraoperative bleeding volume was less,rate of complications was lower,medical cost was greater,and rate of calculi clearance was higher in MPCNL group than in open-surgery group [(110 ± 21)min vs.(178 ± 33)min,(7.31 ± 0.94)days vs.(13.32 ± 2.84)days,(96.25 ± 12.34)ml vs.(176.56 ± 11.35)ml,12.2% (5/41) vs.29.3% (12/41),(12 636.6 ± 672.37) yuans vs.(8532.20 ± 350.56) yuans,and 80.49% (33/41) vs.65.85% (27/41); P<0.05].Conclusions As compared with open surgery,mini-invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy has shorter surgical duration and postoperative hospital stay,higher rate of calculi clearance,quicker recovery,less blood loss,and fewer complications,though it has higher total medical cost.It is a safe,effective way to treat complex renal calculi.%目的 比较、分析微创经皮肾镜取石术与开放手术治疗复杂性肾结石的临床疗效.方法 选择2006年3月至2011年3月于我院接受手术治疗的82例复杂性肾结石患者,按治疗方法分为微创经皮肾镜取石组41例和开放手术组41例.比较两组在手术时间、术中出血量、并发症发生率、术后住院时间、总治疗费用及结石清除率方面的差异.结果 微创经皮肾镜取石组手术时间[(110±21) min vs.(178±33) min]、术中出血量[(96.25±12.34) ml vs.(176.56±11

  12. Urinary β-HCG in Benign and Malignant Urinary Tract Diseases

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    A.-B. Halim

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectable leve ls of HCG have been reported in conditions other th an normal pregnancy, including threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, carcinomas of the stomach, liver, pancreas and breast as well as multiple myeloma and melanoma. The present study was conducted to estimate urinary β-HCG in bladder cancer and benign urinary tract disorders. 163 individuals were included, 68 with bladder cancer (60 males and 8 females, 64 with benign urinary tract diseases (55 males and 9 females and 31 normal healthy controls (26 males and 5 females. Urinary β-HCG was estimated by the ELISA technique using the reagents supplied by DRG International Inc., Germany. Results of th e study revealed an overexpression of β-HCG in mali gnant and benign urinary tract diseases. 60.3% of the cancer patients and 29.7% of patients with benign diseases showed urinary β-HCG values above the upper limit of the control group (2mIU/ml .

  13. Pneumatic Ballistic Lithotripsy for Bladder Calculi by Nephroscope Combined with Resectoscope%肾镜联合电切器械气压弹道碎石治疗膀胱结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任维果; 章建胜; 夏宝山; 冒辰; 钱麟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and discuss the efficacy of pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy for bladder calculi by nephroscope combined with resectoscope (electric cutting instrument). Methods A total of 45 patients who had suffered from the bladder calculi were admitted and treated in Boai Hospital between January 2013 and January 2015,whose clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. All of them received therapies of fetching cal-culi by electric cutting ring,pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy,Ellick irrigator rushing out of calculi,via the ne-phroscope and outer sheath of resectoscope combinations. Results All 45 cases went successfully without calculi remnants,no complications were occurred,such as bladder bleeding,bladder perforation and septic shock,etc. The duration of operation was 5~60 minutes,25 minutes in average. Conclusions The pneumatic ballistic litho-tripsy for bladder calculi by nephroscope combined with resectoscope is safe and efficient,which is an effective method in treating the bladder calcui.%目的:探讨肾镜联合电切器械气压弹道碎石治疗膀胱结石的疗效。方法回顾性分析江苏省如皋市博爱医院2013年1月至2015年1月收治45例膀胱结石患者的临床资料,对全部患者均应用肾镜、电切镜鞘组合,利用电切环勾取结石、气压弹道碎石、Ellick冲洗器冲出结石的方法治疗。结果45例均获得成功,无结石残留、无膀胱大出血、膀胱穿孔、感染性休克等并发症。手术时间5~60分钟,平均25分钟。结论肾镜联合电切器械气压弹道碎石治疗膀胱结石安全、高效,是治疗膀胱结石的有效方法。

  14. Dynamics of Urinary Calprotectin after Renal Ischaemia.

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    Jan Ebbing

    Full Text Available Urinary calprotectin has been identified as a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury. To date, however, the time-dependent changes of this parameter during acute kidney injury remain elusive. The aim of the present work was to define the time-course of urinary calprotectin secretion after ischaemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in comparison to neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, thereby monitoring the extent of tubular damage in nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours.The study population consisted of 42 patients. Thirty-two patients underwent either open or endoscopic nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. During the surgery, the renal arterial pedicle was clamped with a median ischaemic time of 13 minutes (interquartile range, 4.5-20.3 minutes in 26 patients. Ten retro-peritoneoscopic living donor nephrectomy patients and 6 nephron sparing surgery patients in whom the renal artery was not clamped served as controls. Urinary calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations were repeatedly measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed according to renal function parameters.Urinary concentrations of calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin increased significantly after ischaemia/reperfusion injury, whereas concentrations remained unchanged after nephron sparing surgery without ischaemia/reperfusion injury and after kidney donation. Calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased 2 and 8 hours, respectively, post-ischaemia. Both proteins reached maximal concentrations after 48 hours, followed by a subsequent persistent decrease. Maximal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and calprotectin concentrations were 9-fold and 69-fold higher than their respective baseline values. The glomerular filtration rate was only transiently impaired at the first post-operative day after ischaemia/reperfusion injury (p = 0

  15. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

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    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  16. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs.

  17. Effects of morphine in the isolated mouse urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, C G; Tamayo, L; Contreras, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute morphine increased the responses to acetylcholine of the isolated mouse urinary bladder. A chronic morphine treatment did not change the responses of the urinary bladder to acetylcholine or ATP. The acute administration of morphine did not modify the contractile response to ATP in the urinary bladders from untreated or chronically morphine treated mice. Methadone and ketocyclazocine decreased the responses to the electrical stimulation of the urinary bladder. These depressant effects were not modified by naloxone. The results suggest the nonexistence of opiate receptors in the mouse urinary bladder and the lack of direct effects of morphine on the neuroeffector junction.

  18. Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2014-06-01

    Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary PAH levels. We conclude that urinary PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276 µg/m(3).

  19. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

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    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  20. Effective Factors on Urinary Incontinence in Natural Menopausal Women

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    Shohani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence are common urogenital problems affecting 7 - 10% of menopausal women. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to quantify effective factors on urinary incontinence in a cohort of menopausal women. Patients and Methods A sample of 150 menopausal women (natural menopause for at least 12 months were recruited from 13 healthcare centers in Ilam, Iran. Data regarding diagnosis, medical history and clinical symptoms were collected using a structured questionnaire and screening patient medical records. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between urinary incontinence and other variables. Results Multiple atrophic urogenital changes were identified including vaginal dryness (42%, decreased libido (41.3%, dyspareunia (16%, vaginal itching (11.3% and vaginal discharge and burning (10.7%. The prevalence of urinary frequency, stress urinary incontinence, nocturia and urge urinary incontinence were 33.3%, 28.7%, 22.7% and 17.3%, respectively. A multivariate logistic model found that urinary infection (OR 5.6; 95% CI: 2.6 - 11.58, cystocele (OR 1.73; 95% CI: 1.29 - 2.33 and rectocele (OR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.20 - 1.80 were potential risk factors for incontinence. A significant association was observed between marital status and vaginal atrophy, body mass index and urinary incontinence and parity type and urinary incontinence (P < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Multiple associations existed between atrophic urogenital changes and urinary incontinence. The most significant interaction was between urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence in menopausal women, with urinary tract infections increasing the risk of incontinence by 5.6 fold. We recommend health professionals to focus on early screening of these issues and implement educational programs for women as part of standard practice.

  1. 经皮肾造瘘术治疗上尿路疾病的临床观察%Clinical application of percutaneous nephrostomy for treatment of upper urinary diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜加强; 孙丹宁; 蒙明森; 孙道冬; 刘元丰; 康元上; 封建立; 杨阳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨经皮肾造瘘术(PCN)治疗上尿路疾病的可行性.方法 回顾性分析应用PCN治疗260例(291侧)上尿路疾病.上尿路结石230例(259侧),肾积脓13例(13侧),肾盂输尿管交接部(UPJ)狭窄10例(10侧)、肾盏憩室3例(3侧),恶性肿瘤致上尿路梗阻、肾功能不全4例(6侧).结果 260例(291侧)一次手术成功率99.3%(289/291);上尿路结石患者中结石取净率90.7%(235/259),肾积脓治疗成功率94.6%(11/13),UPJ狭窄治疗成功率70%(7/10),3例肾盏憩室均治疗成功,4例恶性肿瘤致上尿路梗阻、肾功能不全行PCN后肾功能恢复正常.结论 PCN具有创伤小、安全、疗效可靠、并发症少等优点,在上尿路疾病的治疗中具有较高的临床应用价值.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) for treating upper urinary diseases. Methods The data of 260 cases(291 sides) with upper urinary diseases who underwent PCN were retrospectively reviewed,including 230 cases of renal calculi and proximal ureteral calculi,13 cases of pyonephrosis,10 cases of ureteropelvic junction(UPJ) strictures; 3 cases caliceal diverticulum,and 4 cases of urinary obstruction and renal insufficiency caused by tumor. Results Of all the 260 cases (291 sides) ,PCN one-time success rate was 99. 3%(289/291) ,and the stone clearance rate of the patients with upper urinary tract stones was 90. 7%(235/259). The cure rate of pyonephrosis and UPJ strictures were 94. 6%(11/13) and 70%(7/10) respectively, all the 3 cases of calyceal diverticulum were cured,and the renal function of 4 cases of urinary obstruction and renal insufficiency caused by tumor returned to normal gradually after the treatment by PCN. Conclusion Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) has advantages of fewer traumas,safe,efficient and less complication,thus having important clinical value for the treatment of upper urinary diseases.

  2. Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition

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    Qazi Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient′s age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70% and 30 women (30%, were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05. The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP in 60 patients, uric acid (UA in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001. Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation. Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium

  3. Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Qazi; Masood, Imran; Bhaskar, Neeru; Kaur, Harnam; Singh, Jasbir; Pandey, Rajesh; Sodhi, K S; Prasad, Suvarna; Ishaq, Sheikh; Mahajan, Ruhi

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient's age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70%) and 30 women (30%), were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05). The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx) in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP) in 60 patients, uric acid (UA) in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD) were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001). Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation). Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate

  4. 双源CT对泌尿系结石成分的定性诊断价值评价%The valuation of dual source CT for diagnosis of urinary stone composi-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海鸿; 周应恩; 赵波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of dual source CT on urinary stone constituents qualitative,aims to improve the correct diagnosis rate and the clinical curative effect. Methods Selected 53 patients with suspected urinary calculi hospitalized because of abdominal pain in our hospital from August 2014 to December 2014, 53 patients with suspected urinary calculi treated with dual source CT scan, stone composition, compared with stone infrared spectrum analysis results after the operation were analyzed. Results Dual source CT showed a total of 42 cases patients with gallstone,89 stones,postoperative infrared spectroscopy confirmed that a total of 35 cases of gallstone patients,a total of 66 star stone. There were stone of 8 components, mainly oxalic acid calculi, 30 patients, 59(89.4%) stones;followed by uric acid calculi in 3 cases,4(6.2%),2 cases of other stones 3(4.4%). Dual source CT showed containing calcium oxalate stone 76,accounting for all the stones of the 85.4%(76/89),spectrum proved that the 59(77.6%). Du-al energy that contain calcium oxalate (59/62) with accuracy of 95.2%, sensitivity 100%, specificity 61.0%(36/59),and negative predictive value of 100%. Pure calcium oxalate(20/59)with accuracy of 38.9%,sensitivity of 100%,and negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion Using dual source CT in diagnosis of urinary calculi in the analysis of the composition of the stones in the body, good accuracy, and can better distinguish the different components of the stone,make the qualitative judgment, in order to provide evidence for clinical treatment. In the group of patients with oxalate stones up to about 90%,different from previous research,analysis may be related to regional,national,differ-ences in diet,pending further study.%目的:探讨双源CT对泌尿系结石成分定性的诊断价值,旨在提高临床诊断的正确率,改善患者的临床疗效。方法选取我院2014年8~12月间因腹痛怀疑

  5. Renal transplantation using external continent urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, A M; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Pestana, J O; Arap, S

    1994-02-01

    A 29-year-old man born with bladder exstrophy presented with end stage renal failure many years after ileal conduit diversion. Bilateral nephrectomy and continent external urinary diversion were performed, and 1.5 months later a cadaveric kidney was grafted into the right iliac fossa. The patient was well at 18 months with a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg./dl. and he was completely dry with 4 or 5 daily catheterizations. Although followup is still short, renal transplantation with drainage into an external continent urinary diversion permits excellent quality of life and good renal function. Therefore, this alternative is worth consideration whenever other reconstructive alternatives are not possible in candidates for renal transplantation.

  6. [Conservative treatment of female urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdraon, Jacques; Denys, Pierre; Amarenco, Gérard

    2011-09-01

    Female urinary incontinence can be improved by nonsurgical pharmacologic as well as non-pharmacologic treatments. Hygiene and dietary rules apply to all forms of incontinence. If overweight, weight loss improves stress urinary incontinence. There are levels of evidence to show that pelvic floor muscle training and behavioral therapy improve incontinence. Duloxetine is better than placebo for improvement of quality of life and for the impression of an improvement, but its place is still not determined in the algorithm of conservative treatments. The effects of vaginal electrostimulation and oestrogen are inconsistent or inhomogeneous. In case of urgency incontinence, anticholinergics remain the first line treatment and the place of stimulation of posterieur tibial nerve is still to be defined.

  7. Urinary tract infections in adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, A; Ludwig, E

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract (UTI) is a major disease burden for many patients with diabetes. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is several-fold more common among women and acute plyelonephritis is five to ten times more common in both sexes. The complications of pyelonephritis are also more common in patients with diabetes. These complications include acute papillary necrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis, and bacteremia with metastatic localization to other sites. The management of urinary infection in patients with diabetes is essentially the same as patients without diabetes. Most infections should be managed as uncomplicated except when they occur in a milieu with obstruction or other factors that merit a diagnosis of complicated UTI. Strategies to prevent these infections and reduce morbidity should be a priority for research.

  8. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for urinary vanillylmandelic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, F; Bernard, H; Valleix, A; Créminon, C; Grassi, J; Olichon, D; Deverre, J R; Pradelles, P

    1997-08-29

    An enzyme immunoassay for urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) using polyclonal antiserum and VMA-acetylcholinesterase conjugate as enzymatic tracer is described. Two different strategies for immunogen preparation were developed and enantioselectivity was demonstrated. Selected EIA allowed direct measurement of urinary VMA using D(-)-VMA as standard with good sensitivity (MDC = 0.1 mumol/l) and precision (CV less than 7% in 0.2-2.25 mumol/l range). Cross-reactivity with homovanillic acid (HVA) was 0.8% and less than 0.4% with other structurally related catecholamine metabolites. Intra- and inter-assay repeatability were less than 10% and recovery was 97.3% +/- 3%. Good correlation was obtained for EIA and HPLC analysis with normal and pathologic human urine samples (EIA = 0.895 HPLC-7.085, r2 = 0.98, n = 47).

  9. The Assessment of Urinary Metabolites in Children with Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Nain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the association between urinary tract infection (UTI and urinary metabolites. Material and Method: Eighty children aged below 14 years old who were following for recurrent UTI were enrolled into the study. Urinary calcium (Uca, oxalate (Uox, citrate (Ucit and cysteine (Ucis levels were studied in 24 hours urine samples. Hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia were identified according to the reference values. The positivity of sodium nitroprussid test was accepted as cystinuria. The results were compared between patients and control groups involving thirty children. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of renal scarring (RS on radionuclide scan. The similar comparisons were made between the subgroups. Results: There was no significant difference between the ratios of hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria in patient and control groups (p> 0.05. Uox/Ucr levels were significantly increased in patients compared to controls (p= 0.001 whereas Uca/Ucr and Ucit/Ucr levels were similar among study groups (p= 0. 082 and p= 0.466. There was no significant difference between RS (- and RS ( groups for hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria (p> 0.05. Discussion: The increase in urinary excretion of oxalate might be a risk factor for UTI. There was no evidence regarding that urinary metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria have affected the development of RS in the setting of UTI.

  10. Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Malic, Sladjana; Rachael P. C. Jordan; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oi...

  11. Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radio...

  12. [risk Factors For Urinary Incontinence In Women].

    OpenAIRE

    Higa,Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; dos Reis, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct a review of the main papers published between 1983 and 2003 on the main risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in women. Thirty-eight publications in English and Portuguese were analyzed using the MEDLINE and LILACS databases as well as through research in libraries. There is evidence that the main risk factors are age, pelvic floor trauma, hereditary factors, race, menopausal status, obesity, chronic diseases, use of some sympathomimetics and parasym...

  13. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Daw Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  14. Laparoscopic surgery for intestinal and urinary endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, D B; Sharpe, D R

    1995-12-01

    Intestinal and urinary tract involvement by endometriosis may be symptomatic, particularly when invasive disease is present. Even in expert hands, complete excision of all invasive disease cannot be accomplished laparoscopically in every case. The practitioner must balance enthusiasm for the advantages of a laparoscopic approach with limitations of time and skill. Laparoscopy should be abandoned in a particular case if a better job can be performed by laparotomy. Hysterectomy with castration may not relieve symptoms due to invasive disease.

  15. Urinary tract infection in renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI), especially recurrent UTI, is a common problem, occurring in >75% of kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. UTI degrades the health-related quality of life and can impair graft function, potentially reducing graft and patient survival. As urologists are often involved in treating UTI after KTX, previous reports were searched to elucidate underlying causes, risk factors and treatment options, as well as recommendations for prophylaxis of UTI after KTX. M...

  16. Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

  17. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José G A; Klojda, Carlos A B; Araújo, Claudio P De; Pires, Lucas A S; Babinski, Marcio A

    2016-05-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman.

  18. Urinary tract endometriosis: Review of 19 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: One should have a high index of suspicion with irritative voiding symptoms with or without hematuria, with negative urine culture, in all premenopausal women to diagnose urinary tract endometriosis. Partial cystectomy is a better alternative to transurethral resection followed by GnRh analogue in vesical endometriosis. Approach to the ureter must be individualised depending upon the severity of disease and dilatation of the upper tract to maximise the preservation of renal function.

  19. Treatment Duration of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    van der Starre, Willize E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Nieuwkoop, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Although febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in adults, data on optimal treatment duration are limited. Randomized controlled trials specifically addressing the elderly and patients with comorbidities have not been performed. This review highlights current available evidence. Premenopausal, non-pregnant women without comorbidities can be treated with a 5–7 day regimen of fluoroquinolones in countries with low levels of fluoroquinolone resistance, or, if proven suscep...

  20. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  1. PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR OF URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeshwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PNET of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. Only 12 cases are reported till now in the world. Primitive Neuro Ectodermal Tumor (PNET is a malignant small round blue cell tumor exhibiting a variable degree of neural differentiation, which arises outside the brain, spinal cord and sympathetic nervous system. (1,2 PNET is a very aggressive tumor with rapid local infiltration combined with widespread metastasis.

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Patidar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound has been shown to be a sensitive method for evaluating patients with chronic obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary tract infection, renal failure, renal and bladder neoplasm and renal transplants. It is now recommended as the method of choice for preliminary assessment and follow-up of several of these disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonographic features of neoplastic lesions of urinary bladder. Methods: Clinical impression about the suspected abnormality was obtained from the case papers or from referring by clinical colleagues. Data was recorded under headings like clinical history, clinical examinations, investigations like urine analysis, serum creatinine and blood urea, X-ray of chest and Kidney Urinary Bladder, pelvic and abdominal Ultrasonography, and if require CT scan and guided biopsy. Results: out of total 35 cases 29 were Transitional Cell Carcinoma, 4 were Squamous Cell Carcinoma, One leiomyoma and one was secondary from bronchogenic carcinoma. Most of tumours were irregular in shape in both TCC and SCC patients. Most of tumour showed heterogeneous echo-texture in ultrasonography. While all SCC showed heterogeneous with calcification echo-texture. Most of the cases had residual urine volume was less than 100 cc. Conclusions: The primary advantage of ultrasound over the conventional study was found to be its ability to detect focal or diffuse bladder wall abnormalities in patients who presented with commonest complaint of painless hematuria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3775-3778

  3. Metabolic assessment in patients with urinary lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. Amaro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic investigation in patients with urinary lithiasis is very important for preventing recurrence of disease. The objective of this work was to diagnose and to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders, to assess the quality of the water consumed and volume of diuresis as potential risk factors for this pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 182 patients older than 12 years. We included patients with history and/or imaging tests confirming at least 2 stones, with creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min and negative urine culture. The protocol consisted in the collection of 2, 24-hour urine samples, for dosing Ca, P, uric acid, Na, K, Mg, Ox and Ci, glycemia and serum levels of Ca, P, Uric acid, Na, K, Cl, Mg, U and Cr, urinary pH and urinary acidification test. RESULTS: 158 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 151 (95.5% presented metabolic changes, with 94 (62.2% presenting isolated metabolic change and 57 (37.8% had mixed changes. The main disorders detected were hypercalciuria (74%, hypocitraturia (37.3%, hyperoxaluria (24.1%, hypomagnesuria (21%, hyperuricosuria (20.2%, primary hyperparathyroidism (1.8% secondary hyperparathyroidism (0.6% and renal tubular acidosis (0.6. CONCLUSION: Metabolic change was diagnosed in 95.5% of patients. These results warrant the metabolic study and follow-up in patients with recurrent lithiasis in order to decrease the recurrence rate through specific treatments, modification in alimentary and behavioral habits.

  4. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  5. Lower Levels of Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Might Predict Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in urinary nerve growth factor (uNGF) levels after acute urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the role of uNGF in predicting UTI recurrence in women. Methods: Women with uncomplicated, symptomatic UTIs were enrolled. Cephalexin 500 mg (every 6 hours) was administered for 7–14 days to treat acute UTIs. Subsequently, the patients were randomized to receive either sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 800 mg/160 mg daily at bedtime, or celecoxib 200 mg daily fo...

  6. 318 Cases of Ureteral Calculi Ultrasound Diagnosis Experience%318例输尿管结石超声诊断体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽; 于涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the color doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis value of ureteral calculi. Methods: In our hospital for the treatment of ureteral stones in 318 cases, of which 198 cases were male, female 120 cases, aged 17~69 years old, the GE Vivid7 color doppler ultrasound diagnostic instrument to the diagnosis. Results: the 318 cases are all the medication, gravel or surgery for stone confirmed. Accept ultrasound in patients 306 example actually ureter stone, misdiagnosis in 12 cases. Ultrasound performance as the main performance of the ureter water for no echo with strong echo light appeared at the far end, accompanied by the rear of sound, part of the stone color doppler figure visible "hui tail levy" strong light group with arc light band or avoid looking frumpy fine narrow light band, stone size of 0.3~1 .8 cm. Conclusion: color doppler ultrasound examination of the quick and convenient, and is now the preferred method of ureteral calculi.%目的 评价彩色多普勒超声对输尿管结石的诊断价值.方法 选取在我院进行诊治的输尿管结石患者318 例,其中男198 例,女120 例,年龄17~69 岁,采用GE Vivid7 彩色多普勒超声诊断仪对其进行诊断.结果 接318 例患者均经服药、碎石或手术后证实为结石.接受超声检查患者中306 例证实为输尿管结石,漏诊12 例.超声表现为主要表现为积水的输尿管无回声带远段出现强回声光团,伴有后方声影,部分结石彩色血流图可见"慧尾征"强光团呈弧形细狭光带或粗厚光带,结石大小为0.3~1.8cm.结论 彩色多普勒超声检查快捷方便,是目前输尿管结石的首选方法.

  7. Clinical Study of Ureter Mirror in the Treatment of Ureteral Calculi%输尿管镜治疗输尿管结石的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏奇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the Ureter mirror (Ureter mirror, UM) in the treatment of ureteral calculus (Ureteral calculi,UC) clinical efficacy; Methods January 2015 forecast December UC patients receiving treatment in hospital in 78 cases, UM-line treatment, observe the upper segment of ureter, middle and lower exploration success rate of stones and the total success rate. Results The success rate of upper ureteral stone removal was 88.89%, the Success rate of middle ureteral stone was 95.24%, the success rate of lower ureteral stone was 95.83%, upper, middle and lower part of the ureter stones no significant differences in success rates (P>0.05). Total exploration success rate of 94.87%.Total ex-ploration success rate of 94.87%. Conclusion UM high UC exploration success rate, effective, more reliable method is the treatment of UC, and clinical applications.%目的:研究输尿管镜(Ureter mirror, UM)治疗输尿管结石(Ureteral calculi,UC)的临床疗效;方法选择2015年1一12月于该院接受治疗的UC患者78例,行UM治疗,观察输尿管上段、中段、下段取石成功率及取石总成功率。结果输尿管上段取石成功率为88.89%,输尿管中段取石成功率为95.24%,输尿管下段取石成功率为95.83%,输尿管上、中、下段取石成功率差异无统计学意义(P〉0.05)。总取石成功率为94.87%。总取石成功率为94.87%。结论 UM治疗UC取石成功率高,疗效显著,是治疗UC较为可靠的方法,值得临床应用。

  8. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi%经皮肾镜下2μm激光碎石治疗肾铸型结石55例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘津念; 陈强; 刘显中; 刘德云; 周健; 闻斌; 刘聪颖; 张茂; 田波; 周述银

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石的有效性、安全性及相关技巧.方法 采用经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石患者55例,其中双侧肾铸型结石8例.结果 55例患者中,一次碎石成功率为74.5%,手术平均时间70 min;术后恢复快、并发症少;随访3个月,无残余碎石,肾积水均有不同程度减轻或消失.结论 经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石是安全、有效的微创治疗方法,具有避免开放手术、手术时间短、恢复快、创伤小等优点.%Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety and techniques of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi. Methods The clinical data of 55 patients treated with PCNL with 2 μm laser during January 2008 to December 2009 were analyzed. Results Among 55 cases of nephritic staghorn calculi,all calculi were successfully fragmented,the one-time calculi clearance rate was 74. 5% (41/55) and the clearance time was 40-120 min(mean 70 min). No severe complications such as massive haemorrhage, ureteral perforation, conglutinant stenosis happened. Infection or recurrence was observed during the postoperative follow-up for 3 months, and no recurrence was found. Conclusion The percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi could avoid patency operation,reduce the operation time,have a quick recovery and take small wound for patients. So this method has the advantages of safety and efficacy, and has higher value for widespread application in clinic.

  9. Management of the upper urinary tract calculi in patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy%抗凝药物治疗的患者合并上尿路结石的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满立波; 李贵忠

    2015-01-01

    抗凝药的使用在一般人群明显增加,这促使外科医生在给长期抗凝治疗的患者手术时需要考虑血栓和出血的风险。对于服用抗凝药物合并上尿路结石的处理尤其比较棘手。本文回顾了服用抗凝药物治疗的患者合并尿路结石处理的文献。同时汇报了北京积水潭医院采用三步法经皮肾镜处理血栓栓塞高危风险长期服用抗凝和抗血小板药物合并上尿路结石的经验。%Use of chronic anticoagulation has increased recently, leading to more surgical intervention on patients taking chronic anticoagulation. This review discusses anticoagulation and the management of urolithiasis. In this study, we would like to report our experience of performing three-step PCNLs. We identified and reviewed 3 patients under antiplatelet/anticoagulant agent therapy performed in a single institute.

  10. Use of computed tomography scout film and Hounsfield unit of computed tomography scan in predicting the radio-opacity of urinary calculi in plain kidney, ureter and bladder radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Chua

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Urolithiases identified on the CT-scout film were also seen as radiopaque on the KUB radiograph while those stones not visible on the CT-scout film, but above the optimal HU cut-off value of 630 are also likely to be radiopaque.

  11. Experience in diagnosis and treatment of urosepsis following ureteroscopic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract calculi%上尿路结石术后尿源性脓毒血症的诊治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程应生; 杨代俊; 郑攀丰; 张志炎

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析上尿路结石尿源性脓毒血症临床特点,为预防尿源性脓毒血症发生及早期诊断、治疗提供依据.方法:回顾性分析2003年4月~2014年4月23例患者行输尿管镜取石术(URL)和经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)术后并发脓毒血症的临床资料.结果:23例均及时诊断尿源性脓毒血症,并进行相应的处理,无一例死亡.结论:对上尿路结石腔内手术后并发尿源性脓毒血症的患者,术前控制感染,术中预防,正确救治,可减少尿源性脓毒血症的发生率,提高抢救成功率.

  12. Holmium laser lithotripsy for the treatment of urinary calculi: Report of 1216 cases%钬激光碎石术治疗泌尿系结石(附1 216例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠; 姜昊文; 张华魏; 陈智新; 历春军; 丁强; 张元芳

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨钬激光碎石术治疗泌尿系结石的疗效及其安全性. 方法应用输尿管肾镜和膀胱镜联合钬激光碎石术治疗1 216例泌尿系结石,其中输尿管结石1 006例(上段302例,中段364例,下段340例),膀胱结石210例. 结果1例输尿管上段结石因前列腺增生症致置镜困难改体外冲击波碎石(extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ESWL)治疗.1 006例输尿管结石单次碎石成功率95.5%(961/1 006)),其中上、中、下段结石单次碎石成功率分别为89.4%(270/302)、96.4% (351/364)和100%(340/340),术中发生6例输尿管穿孔.膀胱结石单次碎石成功率为100%(210/210),无出血和膀胱穿孔发生.881例输尿管结石术后随访0.5~40个月,平均18.6月,输尿管上、中、下段结石排净率分别为91.1%(224/246)、98.5%(318/323)、100%(312/312 ),总结石排净率为96.9%(854/881);6例发生输尿管狭窄.187例膀胱结石术后随访0.5~31个月,平均12.4月,结石排净率98.4%(184/187). 结论钬激光碎石术治疗泌尿系结石疗高效、微创、安全,是输尿管结石和膀胱结石首选治疗方法.

  13. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  14. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  15. Update on duloxetine for the management of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Basu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Maya Basu, Jonathan RA DuckettDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, Kent, UKAbstract: Duloxetine is a relatively balanced serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, which is the first drug with widely proven efficacy to have been licensed for the medical treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Despite favorable results from randomized controlled trials, surgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment for SUI. In this review we explore the pharmacology of duloxetine in the nervous system and lower urinary tract, and the evidence for its use in the management of women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: duloxetine, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder

  16. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  17. Neurological aspects of urinary incontinence in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Anatolyevich Parfenov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the prevalence, pathogenesis, and treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly. There is a high rate of urinary incontinence among the patients who have experienced stroke or suffer from dementia or other neurological diseases. The ideas on the pathogenesis and manifestations of overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence are outlined. Currently available drugs (anticholinergics, antidepressants, botulinum toxin preparations, methods for behavioral therapy and physiotherapy, and skin care in urinary incontinence are discussed. The current treatment options can improve quality of life in the elderly and their milieu.

  18. [Urinary stress incontinence: rehabilitation treatment of the pelvic floor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, S; Toniazzi, P

    1995-11-01

    The authors inspected 112 patients with diagnostic urogynecologic and urodynamic criteria. They suffered from urinary stress incontinence. Forty patients effected rehabilitative therapy of the pelvic floor with visits twice weekly with a method which included: pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback and functional electrostimulation. The patients were divided into two groups in accordance with the kind of urinary stress incontinence: in the first group there were patients with genuine urinary stress incontinence, in the second group patients with mixed urinary stress incontinence. The results at the end of treatment reported a proportion of success of 66% in the first group and of 54% in the second group.

  19. Postoperative Morganella morganii endophthalmitis associated with subclinical urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanaktsidis, Gina; Agarwal, Smita A; Maloof, Anthony J; Chandra, Jay; Mitchell, Paul

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of Morganella morganii acute endophthalmitis following clear corneal phacoemulsification cataract surgery in which a coincident asymptomatic chronic urinary tract infection was detected postoperatively. Morganella morganii is a gram-negative bacillus that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and is part of the normal fecal flora. It is an opportunistic pathogen usually encountered in postoperative and nosocomial settings, causing urinary tract and wound infections. Chronic urinary tract infection may be a risk factor for postoperative endophthalmitis. A dipstick urinalysis before elective cataract surgery in elderly patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections may be considered.

  20. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones.

  1. Effect of urinary pH on the progression of urinary bladder tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van

    1999-01-01

    Systemic alkalosis has been postulated to enhance tumorigenesis, whereas systemic acidosis has been implicated to exert a favourable influence on tumour control and regression. In the present study the urinary pH was influenced by feeding acid-forming or base-forming diets, and the effect of alkalin

  2. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bothra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  3. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  4. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  5. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Decision Aids > Urinary Incontinence > What is UI? Taking Control: Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in ... 0 Page 2 What is urinary incontinence (UI)? Taking Control (5-minute video) Click on the video above ...

  6. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Renal Calculi and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Report of 11 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis accelerates the renal failure in the patients with ADPKD. In order to evaluate the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of calculus in these patients, 11 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and renal stones were included in the study. Two patients had bilateral renal stones. All patients were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance. 13 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed in 1 stage by the urology team under ultrasound guidance. 5 people received second operation with flexible nephroscopy in lateral position. The success rate and morbidity and mortality of the technique and hospital stay were recorded. Results. The puncture procedure was fully successful in all cases. The renal function improved in these patients. 5 patients had moderate fever after the surgery. 5 patients received flexible nephroscopy to take out the residual calculi. 2 persons had ESWL therapy after the surgery. Conclusion. PCNL is an ideal, safe, and effective method to remove the stones from those patients with no definite increase in the risk of complication. The outcome and stone-free rate are satisfactory comparable to the PCNL in the patients without ADPKD.

  7. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  8. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Keon Seok; Choo, Myung Soo [Ulsan Univ. Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angles of the controls were 125.3 deg ({+-}10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg ({+-}7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were 135.3 deg ({+-}11.3) and 139.6 deg({+-}10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg ({+-}4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg ({+-}4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm({+-}5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm({+-}7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm({+-}3.9) and 12.6 mm({+-}4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm ({+-}1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm ({+-}2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg ({+-}2.8) : 132.3 deg ({+-}12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg({+-}3.8) : 136.0 deg({+-}6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg({+-}5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence.

  9. Urinary biomarkers at early ADPKD disease stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Petzold

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course.ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL, Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1, and Uromodulin (UMOD were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16 was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results.In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2 the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found.UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our results is not yet conceivable

  10. Clinical evaluation of genito-urinary fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Companywala Rashida

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical evaluation of 50 cases of genito-urinary fistula from January 1969 to March 1917 is presented. In 84% of the cases the aetiological factor was obstetric injury while in 12% it followed hysterectomy. Sixty per cent of the patients had come within one year of the development of symptoms. Eighty per cent of the cases were operated upon by vaginal route while 14% were operated upon by abdominal route and 6% by pereineo-abdominal route. The operative management is discussed. The success rate was 72%. The literature on this subject is reviewed.

  11. 膀胱镜下留置双 J 管治疗妊娠期输尿管结石的临床观察%The clinical observation and prognosis of indwelling double J tube by cystoscope for pregnancy with ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢大乔; 周长春; 熊冰; 金亿里

    2016-01-01

    delivery status.Results 46 patients were success-fully catheter,the average operation time was (29.14 ±3.27)min.37 patients with lumbar cramps and fever and other symptoms were relieved after treatment.6 patients with replacement of double J tube 2 months later.After treatment, VAS score was (1.16 ±0.83)points,which was lower than (6.93 ±1.02)points before treatment,the difference was statistically significant (t =9.64,P <0.05).After treatment,the infection rates of hydronephrosis and urinary tract were 4.35% (2 /46)and 0% (0 /46),which were lower than before treatment [(15 /46,32.61%)and 19.57%(9 /46)],the differences were statistically significant (χ2 =8.33,9.05,all P <0.05);46 cases of pregnant women were smooth production,no abortion complications.The average indwelling double J tube time was (5.08 ± 1.16)months.Conclusion Cystoscope indwelling double J tube for the treatment of ureteral calculi in pregnancy has less invasion,high stone clearance rate,less postoperative complications and high safety,the prognosis was good,and it is a safe and effective method.

  12. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated......, and 73%, 97%, and 73% for Ualb/Ucreat, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that measurement of the albumin/creatinine concentration ratio is a specific and quite sensitive alternative to measurement of the urinary albumin excretion rate in timed collections, when screening for microalbuminuria....

  13. Female urinary stress incontinence treated with Teflon injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Røhl, H

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-six women with urinary stress incontinence underwent transperineal or transurethral Teflon injections. The results were classified into three grades (good, moderate, and poor). Good or moderate results were obtained in 50%. No major immediate complications or long-term side-effects were...... for urinary incontinence should this prove necessary....

  14. The Management of Urinary Incontinence by Community-Living Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteness, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored ways elderly people (N=30) manage urinary incontinence. Subjects tended to dismiss their urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging and used various behavioral and psychological strategies to maintain their independence, usually without any assistance from the health professions. Management strategies commonly involved some degree of…

  15. Urinary renin and angiotensinogen in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Lu, Xifeng; Rossing, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Urinary levels of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) components may reflect renal RAAS activity and/or the renal efficacy of RAAS inhibition. Our aim was to determine whether urinary angiotensinogen and renin are circulating RAAS-independent markers during RAAS blockade....

  16. Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, E; Guy, N; Cribb, A

    1999-04-01

    A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine.

  17. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John;

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects.......Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  18. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Urinary Tract Infection Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention Español: Infección de las vías urinarias Overview Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in ...

  19. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, you ... make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you ...

  20. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bagi, P; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    Even though the mortality due to urinary tract complications has decreased dramatically during the last decades in individuals with spinal cord lesions (SCL), urinary tract infections (UTI) still cause significant morbidity in this population. Complicated UTI are caused by a much wider variety...

  1. Metabolomics of urinary tract infection : a multiplatform approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a complex clinical entity a common infectious disease that encompasses a variety of clinical syndromes with a positive bacterial culture as common denominator. This thesis provides an exhaustive exploratory study of the metabolic pattern of patients affected by urinary tra

  2. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  3. Dilatation and curettage of urinary bladder: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight-year-old female while undergoing a medical termination of pregnancy (MTP encounter complete urethral loss and massive bladder curettage. After resuscitation, she developed continuous urinary leakage followed by progressive decline in urine output. Case is highlighted here because of the massive vesico-urethral trauma because of MTP, leading to permanent urinary diversion.

  4. Towards patient centered care in female stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labrie, J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focussed on the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. It comprises the results of the PORTRET study (Physiotherapy OR Tvt Effectiveness Trial). Currently, pelvic floor muscle training is advised as initial treatment for all women with stress urinary incontinence. We question

  5. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy.

  6. Determinants of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in South Korean children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.H.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Lenters, V.C.; Cho, S.H.; Strickland, P.; Kang, D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the dominant sources of the urinary pyrene metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), in South Korean children. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 102 non-smoking children (aged 10-14). Urinary 1-OHPG was assayed by synchronous fluor

  7. ProACT for stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Lampe, M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stress urinary incontinence is a bothersome complication of radical prostatectomy. Surgical treatment consists of the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS), the male sling and bulk injections. This study presents the results of the first series of implantations of ProACT in the Netherland

  8. Carcinosarcoma of the Ureter and Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Cho, Hyun Sun; Jeong, Myeong Ja [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Carcinosarcoma is biphasic neoplasm with distinct carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Carcinosarcoma arising from the urinary system is extremely rare and only 14 such cases of the ureteral carcinosarcoma have been reported in the medical literature. We experienced a case of surgically proven carcinosarcoma of the ureter and urinary bladder and we report here on the computed tomography findings of this rare neoplasm

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khameneh Zakieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%, Klebsiella (5.48%, Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available.

  10. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had adolescents from rural than urban areas (P adolescents in our population.

  11. Urinary proteomics to support diagnosis of stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Dawson

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis in suspected ischaemic stroke can be difficult. We explored the urinary proteome in patients with stroke (n = 69, compared to controls (n = 33, and developed a biomarker model for the diagnosis of stroke. We performed capillary electrophoresis online coupled to micro-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Potentially disease-specific peptides were identified and a classifier based on these was generated using support vector machine-based software. Candidate biomarkers were sequenced by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We developed two biomarker-based classifiers, employing 14 biomarkers (nominal p-value <0.004 or 35 biomarkers (nominal p-value <0.01. When tested on a blinded test set of 47 independent samples, the classification factor was significantly different between groups; for the 35 biomarker model, median value of the classifier was 0.49 (-0.30 to 1.25 in cases compared to -1.04 (IQR -1.86 to -0.09 in controls, p<0.001. The 35 biomarker classifier gave sensitivity of 56%, specificity was 93% and the AUC on ROC analysis was 0.86. This study supports the potential for urinary proteomic biomarker models to assist with the diagnosis of acute stroke in those with mild symptoms. We now plan to refine further and explore the clinical utility of such a test in large prospective clinical trials.

  12. Relationship between urinary podocytes and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Zhao, Xudong; Meng, Li

    2012-01-01

    Podocyte loss is an important component of disease progression in glomerular diseases. To some extent, the loss of podocytes can predict the degree of damage and the advancement of renal disease. Detecting the loss of podocytes in the urine could be a valuable, noninvasive method for obtaining information about the activity of the disease or the disease type, allowing the early diagnosis of glomerular diseases. One of the most robust markers that has been successfully used for urinary podocyte diagnostics is podocalyxin (PDX). PDX is a sialoprotein that is expressed on podocytes and on a variety of nonrenal cells as well as on glomerular endothelial and parietal epithelial cells. Therefore, podocyte loss can be detected by the amount of PDX in the urine. The relationship between urinary podocytes and renal diseases is supported by the detection of podocytes in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis, lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The use of technology for detecting podocytes in the urine would have broad implications for the evaluation of disease activity, the degree of dedifferentiation, and the possibility of regeneration.

  13. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  14. Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA) test. Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence rate of 2.6%). The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis. PMID:23795272

  15. Water hardness and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1982-08-01

    On the macrogeographic scale, a strong negative association exists in the United States between water hardness and urinary stone disease. This investigation studies the association on the microgeographical scale, where it is possible to control for confounding environmental factors. The study was conducted on 2,295 patients from 2 regions: the Carolinas which had soft water and high stone incidence, and the Rockies which had hard water and low stone incidence. Home tap water samples from urinary stone patient hospitalizations were compared with that of controls, concurrent inguinal hernia patient hospitalization. After adjusting for environmental factors, no significant difference (p = 0.59) between the 2 groups was obtained in tap water calcium, magnesium, and sodium concentrations. An incidental but potentially important finding was that those consuming water from a private well had an estimated relative risk of 1.5 (p less than 0.01) compared to those using public water. While no cause-effect relationship is suggested, stone-formers might consider avoiding private well water. On the other hand, water hardness should be a minor concern with respect to stone formation.

  16. [Kidney and urinary tract diseases in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulser, T; John, H; Zimmermann, R

    1999-10-01

    Management of urologic disorders in pregnant patients often increases the anxiety of all involved. Based on a thorough understanding of the physiologic changes seen in various organ systems the urologist has to assume the responsibility for the well-being of the mother and the fetus. Apart from the urinary tract infection, which occurs as frequent as in non-pregnant patients but has a significantly higher risk of acute bacterial pyelonephritis, it is mainly the pregnancy-associated symptomatic hydronephrosis and the urolithiasis which are complicating approximately 1 of every 1000-1500 pregnancies. Urinary tract infections should be treated in any case by antibiotics according to a antibiogram. High risk patients with history of vesicoureteral reflux or recurrent pyelonephritis should be treated prophylactically. Following parturition these patients should be investigated urologically to exclude structural abnormalities of the genitourinary system. In case of symptomatic hydronephrosis and calculous disease the first approach should be a watchful conservatism with symptomatic relief. If the symptoms persist insertion of a double-J-stent or in case of live-threatening situations (e.g. urosepsis) when urgent decompression and rapid evacuation is mandatory a percutaneous nephrostomy can be brought in place under sonographic monitoring completely thereby avoiding any radiation exposure.

  17. Urinary tract infection following ritual Jewish circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M; Barr, J; Bistritzer, T; Aladjem, M

    1996-11-01

    Circumcision seems to reduce the overall incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI), although a few studies have suggested that ritual circumcision may be a predisposing factor for UTI within the first 2 weeks following the procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible causal relationship between ritual circumcision and UTI. The study comprised 82 infants with UTI, 55 females and 27 males under the age of 1 year. All males were circumcised on the eighth day of life. The median age of infection was 0.75 and 7.0 months for males and females, respectively. Fifty-two percent (14/27) of UTI episodes were diagnosed within the 2 weeks following circumcision. A significantly lower incidence in Escherichia coli-induced UTI was observed in males compared to females, 67% and 93%, respectively. Similarly, the incidence of E. coli-induced UTI was also significantly lower in males presenting within 2 weeks following circumcision (57%) compared to infants presenting prior or more than 2 weeks following the procedure (92%). Positive blood cultures of an identical microorganism were observed in 6/27 males compared to 2/55 females. The incidence of urinary tract malformations and their severity were similar in both sexes. We conclude that the high incidence of UTI following a ritual Jewish circumcision, as well as the relatively high preponderance of bacteria other than E. coli, may suggest a causal relationship between circumcision and UTI.

  18. Virtual endoscopy of the urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George C. Kagadis; Dimitrios Siablis; Evangelos N. Liatsikos; Theodore Petsas; George C. Nikiforidis

    2006-01-01

    Technological breakthroughs have advanced the temporal and spatial resolutions of diagnostic imaging, and 3 dimensional (3-D) reconstruction techniques have been introduced into everyday clinical practice. Virtual endoscopy (VE)is a non-invasive technique that amplifies the perception of cross-sectional images in the 3-D space, providing precise spatial relationships of pathological regions and their surrounding structures. A variety of computer algorithms can be used to generate 3-D images, taking advantage of the information inherent in either spiral computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). VE images enable endoluminal navigation through hollow organs, thus simulating conventional endoscopy. Several clinical studies have validated the diagnostic utility of virtual cystoscopy, which has high sensitivity and specificity rates in the detection of bladder tumor. Published experience in the virtual exploration of the renal pelvis, ureter and urethra is encouraging but still scarce. VE is a safe, non-invasive method that could be applied in the long-term follow-up of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction, urinary bladder tumors and ureteral and/or urethral strictures. Its principal limitations are the inability to provide biopsy tissue specimens for histopathologic examination and the associated ionizing radiation hazards (unless MRI is used). However, in the case of endoluminal stenosis or obstruction, VE permits virtual endoluminal navigation both cephalad and caudal to the stenotic segment. To conclude, VE provides a less invasive method of evaluating the urinary tract, especially for clinicians who are less familiar with cross-sectional imaging than radiologists.

  19. [Recurrent urinary tract infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito S, Juan Pablo

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (R-UTI) are common among women even though they generally have a normal urinary tract. Women with R-UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens due to a greater propensity for them to adhere to their epithelial cells. Risk factors include frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide use, first UTI at an early age and maternal history of UTI. Prevention of recurrences can be done with low-dose continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis or with post-coital antimicrobial prophylaxis, a method that may be more efficient and acceptable. Estrogen replacement therapy using a vaginal administration in postmenopausal women is also effective in preventing R-UTI. The vaginal vaccine only diminishes percentage of women with Escherichia coli UTI. The oral vaccine reduces R-UTI with inferior results than antimicrobial prophylaxis; Cranberry intake shows some evidence in favor, although further trials are needed. Finally R-UTI can also be effectively managed with self-start antimicrobial therapy.

  20. Urinary tract infections in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T

    2001-08-01

    The elderly population is now increasing in the world. A higher incidence of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI) is observed in elderly patients, in both long-term care facilities and at home. The management of elderly patients with UTI is increasing in clinical significance. Almost all of UTI in the elderly is complicated UTI. Control of the underlying diseases in the urinary tract is quite important in the management of UTIs in elderly patients. For pyelonephritis, switch therapy using aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporines, or penicillins are selections of choice. The recommended duration of treatment for patients with pyelonephritis is 14 days. Seven to 10 days of treatment using fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is recommended for the treatment of elderly patients with symptomatic cystitis. Although asymptomatic bacteriuria is quite common in the elderly population, antibiotic treatment has no benefit for such patients. Intravaginal estrogen replacement is one of choice for the prevention of recurrent UTIs in postmenopausal women.