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Sample records for urease isozyme synthesized

  1. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, [ 35 S] methionine labelling shows no de novo synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root

  2. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from [ 35 S]methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root

  3. Syntheses of 4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine diones, their urease inhibition, in vitro, in silico, and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Munira Taj; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Arshia; Khan, Ajmal; Arshad, Fiza; Fatima, Bibi; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Syed, Naima; Moin, Syed Tarique

    2017-12-01

    A library of 4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine diones (1-35) were synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of inhibition were also studied. All compounds were found to be active with IC 50 values between 22.6±1.14-117.4±0.73µM, in comparison to standard, thiourea (IC 50 =21.2±1.3µM). Kinetics studies on the most active compounds 2-7, 16, 17, 28, and 33 were performed to investigate their modes of inhibition, and dissociation constants K i . Compounds 2, 3, 7, 16, 28, and 33 were found to be mixed-type of inhibitors with K i values in the range of 7.91±0.024-13.03±0.013µM, whereas, compounds 4-6, and 17 were found to be non-competitive inhibitors with K i values in the range of 9.28±0.019-13.05±0.023µM. In silico study was also performed, and a good correlation was observed between experimental and docking studies. This study is continuation of our previously reported urease inhibitory activity of pyrimidine diones, representing potential leads for further research as possible treatment of diseases caused by ureolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Mutational analysis of the major soybean UreF paralogue involved in urease activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In soybean, mutation at Eu2 or Eu3 eliminates the urease activities of both the embryo-specific and the tissue-ubiquitous (assimilatory) isozymes, encoded by Eu1 and Eu4, respectively. Eu3 encodes UreG, a GTP’ase necessary for proper emplacement of Ni and carbon dioxide in the urease active site. ...

  5. A single gene (Eu4) encodes the tissue-ubiquitous urease of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisky, R S; Griffin, J D; Yenofsky, R L; Polacco, J C

    1994-02-01

    We sought to determine the genetic basis of expression of the ubiquitous (metabolic) urease of soybean. This isozyme is termed the metabolic urease because its loss, in eu4/eu4 mutants, leads to accumulation of urea, whereas loss of the embryo-specific urease isozyme does not. The eu4 lesion eliminated the expression of the ubiquitous urease in vegetative and embryonic tissues. RFLP analysis placed urease clone LC4 near, or within, the Eu4 locus. Sequence comparison of urease proteins (ubiquitous and embryo-specific) and clones (LC4 and LS1) indicated that LC4 and LS1 encode ubiquitous and embryo-specific ureases, respectively. That LC4 is transcribed into poly(A)+ RNA in all tissues was indicated by the amplification of its transcript by an LC4-specific PCR primer. (The LS1-specific primer, on the other hand, amplified poly(A)+ RNA only from developing embryos expressing the embryo-specific urease.) These observations are consistent with Eu4 being the ubiquitous urease structural gene contained in the LC4 clone. In agreement with this notion, the mutant phenotype of eu4/eu4 callus was partially corrected by the LC4 urease gene introduced by particle bombardment.

  6. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  7. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  8. Cross-Reactivity of Polyclonal Antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) Urease and Helicobacter pylori Urease Subunit A Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Zbigniew Jerzy; Relich, Inga; Konieczna, Iwona; Kaca, Wieslaw; Kolesinska, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Overlapping decapeptide fragments of H. pylori urease subunit A (UreA) were synthesized and tested with polyclonal antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) urease. The linear epitopes of UreA identified using the dot blot method were then examined using epitope mapping. For this purpose, series of overlapping fragments of UreA, frameshifted ± four amino acid residues were synthesized. Most of the UreA epitopes which reacted with the Jack bean urease polyclonal antibodies had been recognized in previous studies by monoclonal antibodies against H. pylori urease. Fragments 11 - 24, 21 - 33, and 31 - 42 were able to interact with the Jack bean urease antibodies, giving stable immunological complexes. However, the lack of recognition by these antibodies of all the components in the peptide map strongly suggests that a non-continuous (nonlinear) epitope is located on the N-terminal domain of UreA. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Characterization of silica particles prepared via urease-catalyzed urea hydrolysis and activity of urease in sol–gel silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nishida, Masakazu; Ito, Kimiyasu; Tomita, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silica precipitation occurred via urease-catalytic reactions. ► Higher urease activity for silica synthesis enables mesostructure of silica–urease composites. ► Urease encapsulating in silica matrix retained high activity. - Abstract: Urease templated precipitation of silica synthesized by sol–gel chemistry produces a composite material allowing high urease activity. This study investigates the structural properties of the composite material that allow for the retention of the urease hydrolysis activity. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy reveal that the composite has a mesoporous structure composed of closely packed spherical structures ∼20–50 nm in diameter. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis revealed that the surface area and pore volume of the composite prepared under the conditions of 50 mM urea and 25 °C is relatively high (324 m 2 /g and 1.0 cm 3 /g). These values are equivalent to those of usual mesoporous silica materials synthesized from the self-assembly of triblock copolymers as organic templates. In addition, after encapsulating in a sol–gel silica matrix, urease retained high activity (∼90% of the activity compared with native urease). Our results suggest a new method for synthesizing mesoporous silica materials with highly tunable pore sizes and shapes under mild conditions.

  10. Infection (urease) stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Osborne, C A

    1987-01-01

    Infection-induced stones in man probably form solely as a consequence of urealysis which is catalyzed by the bacterial protein urease. Urease stones composed of struvite and carbonate-apatite may form primarily, or as secondary stones or pre-existent metabolic stones. Struvite stones form and grow rapidly owing to (a) supersaturation of urine with stone forming salts, (b) 'salting out' of poorly soluble organic substances normally dissolved in urine and (c) ammonia-induced destruction of the normally protective urothelial glycosaminoglycan layer. Immature (predominantly organic) matrix stones mature into densely mineralized stones. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone and by eradicating all urinary and parenchymal infection. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches are available. Patient treatment must be individualized inasmuch as some patients are better candidates for one type of treatment than another.

  11. Synthesis of urease hybrid nanoflowers and their enhanced catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somturk, Burcu; Yilmaz, Ismail; Altinkaynak, Cevahir; Karatepe, Aslıhan; Özdemir, Nalan; Ocsoy, Ismail

    2016-05-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to enhance catalytic activity and stability. Although stability of enzyme was accomplished with immobilization approaches, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Herein, we synthesize the flower shaped-hybrid nanomaterials called hybrid nanoflower (HNF) consisting of urease enzyme and copper ions (Cu(2+)) and report a mechanistic elucidation of enhancement in both activity and stability of the HNF. We demonstrated how experimental factors influence morphology of the HNF. We proved that the HNF (synthesized from 0.02mgmL(-1) urease in 10mM PBS (pH 7.4) at +4°C) exhibited the highest catalytic activity of ∼2000% and ∼4000% when stored at +4°C and RT, respectively compared to free urease. The highest stability was also achieved by this HNF by maintaining 96.3% and 90.28% of its initial activity within storage of 30 days at +4°C and RT, respectively. This dramatically enhanced activity is attributed to high surface area, nanoscale-entrapped urease and favorable urease conformation of the HNF. The exceptional catalytic activity and stability properties of HNF can be taken advantage of to use it in fields of biomedicine and chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Overexpression of host plant urease in transgenic silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Huang, Chunlin; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Huizhen; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Liu, Weiqiang; Xing, Dongxu; Xu, Guowen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-06-01

    Bombyx mori and mulberry constitute a model of insect-host plant interactions. Urease hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and is important for the nitrogen metabolism of silkworms because ammonia is assimilated into silk protein. Silkworms do not synthesize urease and acquire it from mulberry leaves. We synthesized the artificial DNA sequence ureas using the codon bias of B. mori to encode the signal peptide and mulberry urease protein. A transgenic vector that overexpresses ure-as under control of the silkworm midgut-specific P2 promoter was constructed. Transgenic silkworms were created via embryo microinjection. RT-PCR results showed that urease was expressed during the larval stage and qPCR revealed the expression only in the midgut of transgenic lines. Urea concentration in the midgut and hemolymph of transgenic silkworms was significantly lower than in a nontransgenic line when silkworms were fed an artificial diet. Analysis of the daily body weight and food conversion efficiency of the fourth and fifth instar larvae and economic characteristics indicated no differences between transgenic silkworms and the nontransgenic line. These results suggested that overexpression of host plant urease promoted nitrogen metabolism in silkworms.

  13. Biosynthesis of the Urease Metallocenter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Mark A.; Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Metalloenzymes often require elaborate metallocenter assembly systems to create functional active sites. The medically important dinuclear nickel enzyme urease provides an excellent model for studying metallocenter assembly. Nickel is inserted into the urease active site in a GTP-dependent process with the assistance of UreD/UreH, UreE, UreF, and UreG. These accessory proteins orchestrate apoprotein activation by delivering the appropriate metal, facilitating protein conformational changes, and possibly providing a requisite post-translational modification. The activation mechanism and roles of each accessory protein in urease maturation are the subject of ongoing studies, with the latest findings presented in this minireview. PMID:23539618

  14. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF BACTERIAL UREASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak YuV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This brief review concerns the basic principles of structural organization of multi-subunit bacterial ureases and formation of their quaternary structure. Urease is a nickel-containing enzyme (urea amidohydrolase, ЕС 3.5.1.5 that catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to get ammonia and carbamate which then decomposes with water to get ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urease is produced by bacteria, fungi, yeast and plants. On the basis of similarities in amino acid sequences, ureases assumed to have a similar structure and conservative catalytic mechanism. Within past two decades bacterial ureases have gained much attention in research field as a virulence factor in human and animal infections. The first crystal structure of urease has been determined for that from Klebsiella aerogenes. The native enzyme consists of three subunits, UreA (α-chain, UreB (β-chain and UreC (γ-chain, and contains four structural domains: two in α-chain (α-domain 1 and α-domain-2, one in β- and one in γ-chain. These three chains form a T-shaped heterotrimer αβγ. Three αβγ heterotrimers form quaternary complex (αβγ3. In case of Helicobacter pilori, the analogous trimers of corresponding dimeric subunits (αβ3 form tetrameric structure ((αβ34 in which four trimers are situated at the vertexes of the regular triangle pyramid. Active center is located in α-domain 1 and contains two atoms of nickel coordinated by residues His134, His136, carboxylated Lys217, His 246, His272 and Asp360, as well as residues involved in binding (His219 and catalysis (His320. Active site is capped by a flap that controls substrate ingress to and product egress from the dinickel center. Urease requires accessory proteins (UreD, UreF, UreG and UreE for the correct assembly of their Ni-containing metallocenters. The accessory proteins UreD, UreF, and UreG sequentially bind to the apoprotein (UreABC3 to finally form (UreABC-UreDFG3 activation complex. UreE metallochaperone delivers

  15. Dihydropyrimidine based hydrazine dihydrochloride derivatives as potent urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ajmal; Hashim, Jamshed; Arshad, Nuzhat; Khan, Ijaz; Siddiqui, Naureen; Wadood, Abdul; Ali, Muzaffar; Arshad, Fiza; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-02-01

    Four series of heterocyclic compounds 4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiones 7-12 (series A), N,S-dimethyl-dihydropyrimidines 13-18 (series B), hydrazine derivatives of dihydropyrimidine 19-24 (series C), and tetrazolo dihydropyrimidine derivatives 25-30 (series D), were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro urease inhibitory activity. The series B-D were first time examined for urease inhibition. Series A and C were found to be significantly active with IC50 values between 34.7-42.9 and 15.0-26.0 μM, respectively. The structure-activity relationship showed that the free S atom and hydrazine moiety are the key pharmacophores against urease enzyme. The kinetic studies of the active series A (7-12) and C (19-24) were carried out to determine their modes of inhibition and dissociation constants Ki. Compounds of series A (7-12) and series C (19-24) showed a mixed-type of inhibition with Ki values ranging between 15.76-25.66 and 14.63-29.42 μM, respectively. The molecular docking results showed that all the active compounds of both series have significant binding interactions with the active sites specially Ni-ion of the urease enzyme. Cytotoxicity of all series A-D was also evaluated against mammalian mouse fibroblast 3T3 cell lines, and no toxicity was observed in cellular model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 3-Arylpropionylhydroxamic acid derivatives as Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors: Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Kang; Deng, Rui-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Fei; Yue, Qin-Qin; Liu, Qi; Ding, Kun-Ling; Yang, Mei-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Gong, Si-Hua; Deng, Min; Liu, Wen-Run; Feng, Qiu-Ju; Xiao, Zhu-Ping; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori urease is involved in several physiologic responses such as stomach and duodenal ulcers, adenocarcinomas and stomach lymphomas. Thus, inhibition of urease is taken for a good chance to treat H. pylori-caused infections, we have therefore focused our efforts on seeking novel urease inhibitors. Here, a series of arylpropionylhydroxamic acids were synthesized and evaluated for urease inhibition. Out of these compounds, 3-(2-benzyloxy-5-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxypropionylhydroxamic acid (d24) was the most active inhibitor with IC50 of 0.15±0.05μM, showing a mixed inhibition with both competitive and uncompetitive aspects. Non-linear fitting of kinetic data gives kinetics parameters of 0.13 and 0.12μg·mL(-1) for Ki and Ki', respectively. The plasma protein binding assays suggested that d24 exhibited moderate binding to human and rabbit plasma proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 2-(Hetero(aryl)methylene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamides as potent urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Imran, Aqeel; Channar, Pervaiz A; Shahid, Mohammad; Mahmood, Wajahat; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2015-02-01

    A small series of 2-(hetero(aryl)methylene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamides including two aryl derivatives was synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against urease. Compound (E)-2-(Furan-2-ylmethylene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamide (3f), having a furan ring, was the most potent inhibitor of urease with an IC50 value of 0.58 μM. Molecular modeling was carried out through docking the designed compounds into the urease binding site to predict whether these derivatives have analogous binding mode to the urease inhibitors. The study revealed that all of the tested compounds bind with both metal atoms at the active site of the enzyme. The aromatic ring of the compounds forms ionic interactions with the residues, Ala(440), Asp(494), Ala(636), and Met(637). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Isozyme variation in wild and cultivated pineapple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozyme variation was studied in 161 accessions of pineapple including four species of Ananas and one of Pseudananas. Six enzyme systems (ADH, GPI, PGM, SKDH, TPI, UGPP) involving seven putative loci revealed 35 electromorphs . Considerable variation exists within and between species of Ananas. Sixt...

  19. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant...... physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate.......Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...

  20. A New Urease Inhibitor from Viola betonicifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urease has attracted much attention, as it is directly involved in the formation of infection stones and contributes to the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic coma and urinary catheter encrustation. Moreover, urease is the major cause of pathologies induced by H. pylori, such as gastritis and peptic ulcer. In the present work, the new natural compound, 3-methoxydalbergione, was isolated from Viola betonicifolia. A mechanistic study of this compound as a natural urease inhibitor was performed by using enzyme kinetics and docking studies. 3-Methoxydalbergione could be considered as a lead molecule for drugs useful in the urease associated diseases.

  1. TiO2 beads and TiO2-chitosan beads for urease immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, İlyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO 2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO 2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO 2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO 2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2 mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5 mg/ml for A and 1.0 mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0 mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30 °C (A), 40 °C (B) and 35 °C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65 °C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 and TiO 2 -chitosan beads for urease immobilization have been prepared and characterized. • The beads used in this work are good matrices for the immobilization of urease. • The immobilized urease was shown to have good properties and stabilities (pH and thermal stability, operational stability). • The 50

  2. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

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    Johnson M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  3. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking of N-phenyl thiosemicarbazones as urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zehra, Syeda Tazeen; Ahmed, Ramasa; Shafiq, Zahid; Bakht, Syeda Mahwish; Yaqub, Muhammad; Hussain, Mazhar; de la Vega de León, Antonio; Furtmann, Norbert; Bajorath, Jürgen; Shad, Hazoor Ahmad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2015-08-01

    Urease is an important enzyme which breaks urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide during metabolic processes. However, an elevated activity of urease causes various complications of clinical importance. The inhibition of urease activity with small molecules as inhibitors is an effective strategy for therapeutic intervention. Herein, we have synthesized a series of 19 benzofurane linked N-phenyl semithiocarbazones (3a-3s). All the compounds were screened for enzyme inhibitor activity against Jack bean urease. The synthesized N-phenyl thiosemicarbazones had varying activity levels with IC50 values between 0.077 ± 0.001 and 24.04 ± 0.14 μM compared to standard inhibitor, thiourea (IC50 = 21 ± 0.11 μM). The activities of these compounds may be due to their close resemblance of thiourea. A docking study with Jack bean urease (PDB ID: 4H9M) revealed possible binding modes of N-phenyl thiosemicarbazones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urease from seeds of 'Citrullus vulgaris'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, A.B.; Souza Marcondes, N. de; Elias, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the urea analogs acetanide and hidroxi-urea on the enzyme kinetic of urease obtained from seeds of 'Citrullus vulgaris' fruits has been studied. The action of the sulphydryl reagents and the enzyme and the effect of x-rays and the protective action of the cysteamine are also studied. Acetamide has no effect on urease kinetic. Hydroxi-urea acts as a competitive inhibitor of urease. Spectrophotometric experiments suggest that the studied urease decomposes hidroxi-urea with liberation of hydroxilamine. The sulphydril reagent, p-hydroxi-mercuribenzoate inhibts the enzyme. Cysteine and dithiotreitol reactivate the enzyme activity in no more than 50% even when excess of the substances is used. Urease is very sensitive to x-rays. Cysteamine acts as a protective agent of the enzyme. Dithiotreitol reinforces this protective action [pt

  5. Supramolecular polyaniline hydrogel as a support for urease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Słoniewska, Anna; Pałys, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels of conducting polymers are successfully used in bioelectrochemistry because of their mechanical and swelling properties of gels added to the specific electron transport properties of conducting polymers. We have studied polyaniline-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PANI–PSS) hydrogel as a substrate for the urease. The hydrogels were synthesized at pH = 0 and pH = 5. PANI–PSS hydrogel is a supramolecular self-assembly material consisting of positively-charged PANI chains and negatively-charged PSS chains. The hydrogel was studied by cyclic voltammetry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Raman spectra revealed presence of phenazine rings in the hydrogel structure. Phenazine rings form covalent cross-linkers contributing to the hydrogel mechanical stability. The covalent cross-linkers influence the cyclic voltammetry responses of the hydrogel in acidic media. We tested the activity of urease immobilized in the PANI–PSS hydrogel by the physical adsorption or by the covalent bonding with the carbodiimide reaction. The enzyme immobilized in hydrogels prepared at higher pH value reveals significantly higher sensitivity. The method of the enzyme immobilization has smaller impact on the sensitivity. All hydrogel sensors reveal largely higher sensitivity to urea comparing to urease immobilized in the typical electrochemically deposited PANI films. The sensitivity of urease covalently bond to the hydrogel obtained at pH = 5 was as high as 1693 μA/(mol dm 3 ). The sensor response was linear in the urea concentration range from 10 −4 to 7 × 10 −2 mol/dm 3

  6. Synthesis of 2-acylated and sulfonated 4-hydroxycoumarins: In vitro urease inhibition and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Umer; Rahim, Fazal; Taha, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Ullah, Hayat; Mahmood, Tariq; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    Sixteen 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives were synthesized, characterized through EI-MS and (1)H NMR and screened for urease inhibitory potential. Three compounds exhibited better urease inhibition than the standard inhibitor thiourea (IC50=21±0.11μM) while other four compounds exhibited good to moderate inhibition with IC50 values between 29.45±1.1μM and 69.53±0.9μM. Structure activity relationship was established on the basis of molecular docking studies, which helped to predict the binding interactions of the most active compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isozymes and the genetic resources of forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. H. D. Brown; G. F. Moran

    1981-01-01

    Genetic data are an essential prerequisite for analysing the genetic structure of tree populations. The isozyme technique is the best currently available method for obtaining such data. Despite several shortcomings, isozyme data directly evaluate the genetic resources of forest trees, and can thus be used to monitor and manipulate these resources. For example,...

  8. Bisindolylmethane thiosemicarbazides as potential inhibitors of urease: Synthesis and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Ullah, Hayat; Al Muqarrabun, Laode Muhammad Ramadhan; Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Rahim, Fazal; Ahmat, Norizan; Javid, Muhammad Tariq; Ali, Muhammad; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Bisindolylmethane thiosemicarbazides 1-18 were synthesized, characterized by 1 H NMR and ESI MS and evaluated for urease inhibitory potential. All analogs showed outstanding urease inhibitory potentials with IC 50 values ranging between 0.14 ± 0.01 to 18.50 ± 0.90 μM when compared with the standard inhibitor thiourea having IC 50 value 21.25 ± 0.90 μM. Among the series, analog 9 (0.14 ± 0.01 μM) with di-chloro substitution on phenyl ring was identified as the most potent inhibitor of urease. The structure activity relationship has been also established on the basis of binding interactions of the active analogs. These binding interactions were identified by molecular docking studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  10. Isozyme-specific ligands for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, a novel antibiotic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Spyrakis

    Full Text Available The last step of cysteine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants is catalyzed by O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase. In bacteria, two isozymes, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B, have been identified that share similar binding sites, although the respective specific functions are still debated. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase plays a key role in the adaptation of bacteria to the host environment, in the defense mechanisms to oxidative stress and in antibiotic resistance. Because mammals synthesize cysteine from methionine and lack O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, the enzyme is a potential target for antimicrobials. With this aim, we first identified potential inhibitors of the two isozymes via a ligand- and structure-based in silico screening of a subset of the ZINC library using FLAP. The binding affinities of the most promising candidates were measured in vitro on purified O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B from Salmonella typhimurium by a direct method that exploits the change in the cofactor fluorescence. Two molecules were identified with dissociation constants of 3.7 and 33 µM for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B, respectively. Because GRID analysis of the two isoenzymes indicates the presence of a few common pharmacophoric features, cross binding titrations were carried out. It was found that the best binder for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B exhibits a dissociation constant of 29 µM for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A, thus displaying a limited selectivity, whereas the best binder for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A exhibits a dissociation constant of 50 µM for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B and is thus 8-fold selective towards the former isozyme. Therefore, isoform-specific and isoform-independent ligands allow to either selectively target the isozyme that predominantly supports bacteria during infection and long-term survival or to completely block

  11. Mutational analysis of the major soybean UreF paralogue involved in urease activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacco, Joe C.; Hyten, David L.; Medeiros-Silva, Mônica; Sleper, David A.; Bilyeu, Kristin D.

    2011-01-01

    The soybean genome duplicated ∼14 and 45 million years ago and has many paralogous genes, including those in urease activation (emplacement of Ni and CO2 in the active site). Activation requires the UreD and UreF proteins, each encoded by two paralogues. UreG, a third essential activation protein, is encoded by the single-copy Eu3, and eu3 mutants lack activity of both urease isozymes. eu2 has the same urease-negative phenotype, consistent with Eu2 being a single-copy gene, possibly encoding a Ni carrier. Unexpectedly, two eu2 alleles co-segregated with missense mutations in the chromosome 2 UreF paralogue (Ch02UreF), suggesting lack of expression/function of Ch14UreF. However, Ch02UreF and Ch14UreF transcripts accumulate at the same level. Further, it had been shown that expression of the Ch14UreF ORF complemented a fungal ureF mutant. A third, nonsense (Q2*) allelic mutant, eu2-c, exhibited 5- to 10-fold more residual urease activity than missense eu2-a or eu2-b, though eu2-c should lack all Ch02UreF protein. It is hypothesized that low-level activation by Ch14UreF is ‘spoiled’ by the altered missense Ch02UreF proteins (‘epistatic dominant-negative’). In agreement with active ‘spoiling’ by eu2-b-encoded Ch02UreF (G31D), eu2-b/eu2-c heterozygotes had less than half the urease activity of eu2-c/eu2-c siblings. Ch02UreF (G31D) could spoil activation by Chr14UreF because of higher affinity for the activation complex, or because Ch02UreF (G31D) is more abundant than Ch14UreF. Here, the latter is favoured, consistent with a reported in-frame AUG in the 5' leader of Chr14UreF transcript. Translational inhibition could represent a form of ‘functional divergence’ of duplicated genes. PMID:21430294

  12. Pharmacologic modulation of protein kinase C isozymes: the role of RACKs and subcellular localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csukai, M; Mochly-Rosen, D

    1999-04-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are highly homologous kinases and several different isozymes can be present in a cell. Each isozyme is likely to mediate unique functions, but pharmacological tools to explore their isozyme-specific roles have not been available until recently. In this review, we describe the development and application of isozyme-selective inhibitors of PKC. The identification of these inhibitors stems from the observation that PKC isozymes are each localised to unique subcellular locations following activation. Inhibitors of this isozyme-unique localisation have been shown to act as selective inhibitors of the functions of individual isozymes. The identification of isozyme-specific inhibitors should allow the exploration of individual PKC isozyme function in a wide range of cell systems. Copyright 1999 The Italian Pharmacological Society.

  13. Studies of peroxidase isozyme profile in mungbean mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auti, S.G.; Apparao, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Peroxidase is an important oxygen-scavenging enzyme. The activity of peroxidase is often correlated with growth, development and hormonal activity. Traditional methods of cultivar identification usually involve observation and recording of morphological characters or description such as yield, height, weight, earliness etc. which vary with environmental conditions and often misleading. So molecular markers like protein and isozymes profiles, RFLP, RAPDs markers etc. are widely employed in varietal identification of cultivars. It plays important role in respiration and is an indicator of oxidative status of plants. Electrophoretic techniques have been used to group species and identify cultivars. Such identification has various advantages including the unique pattern of protein or isozymes bands for each pure cultivar under any set of environmental conditions. Peroxidase isozyme serves as very good marker for any mutational studies. In the present investigation, peroxidase isozyme profiles of various mutants of mungbean was studied employing the technique of electrophoresis

  14. Food constituents enhance urease activity in Healicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Mizote, Tomoko; Inatsu, Sakiko; Ehara, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    Urease activity of Helicobacter pylori recovered from the stomach of H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils was affected by the diet used after infection. The effect of dietary components on urease activity was investigated by growth of H. pylori in…

  15. TiO₂ beads and TiO₂-chitosan beads for urease immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design, synthesis, in vitro Evaluation and docking studies on dihydropyrimidine-based urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Fatima; Ali, Yousaf; Ahmad Kiani, Farooq; Fahad Hassan, Syed; Fatima, Tabeer; Khan, Ajmal; Niaz, Basit; Hassan, Abbas; Latif Ansari, Farzana; Rashid, Umer

    2017-10-01

    In our previous report, we have identified 3,4-dihydropyrimidine scaffold as promising class of urease inhibitor in a structure based virtual screen (SBVS) experiment. In present study, we attempted to optimize the scaffold by varying C-5 substituent. The elongation of the C-5 chain was achieved by the reaction of C-5 ester with hydrazine leading to C-5 carbohydrazides which were further used as building blocks for the synthesis of fifteen new compounds having diverse moieties. A significantly higher in vitro urease inhibitory activity with IC 50 values in submicromolar range was observed for semithiocarbazide derivatives (4a-c, 0.58-0.79µM) and isatin Schiff base derivative 5a (0.23µM). Docking analysis suggests that the synthesized compounds were anchored well in the catalytic site and extending to the entrance of binding pocket and thus restrict the mobility of the flap by interacting with its key amino acid residues. The overall results of urease inhibition have shown that these compounds can be further optimized and developed as lead urease inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of 4-thiazolidinone analogs as potent in vitro anti-urease agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Fazal; Zaman, Khalid; Ullah, Hayat; Taha, Muhammad; Wadood, Abdul; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Rehman, Wajid; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Reaz; Uddin, Imad; Asghar, Humna; Khan, Aftab Ahmad; Khan, Khalid M

    2015-12-01

    4-Thiazolidinone analogs 1-20 were synthesized, characterized by (1)H NMR and EI-MS and investigated for urease inhibitory activity. All twenty (20) analogs exhibited varied degree of urease inhibitory potential with IC50 values 1.73-69.65μM, if compared with standard thiourea having IC50 value of 21.25±0.15μM. Among the series, eight derivatives 3, 6, 8, 10, 15, 17, 19, and 20 showed outstanding urease inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 9.34±0.02, 14.62±0.03, 8.43±0.01, 7.3±0.04, 2.31±0.002, 5.75±0.003, 8.81±0.005, and 1.73±0.001μM, respectively, which is better than the standard thiourea. The remaining analogs showed good to excellent urease inhibition. The binding interactions of these compounds were confirmed through molecular docking studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of an Acid Urease with Urethanase Activity in E. coli and Analysis of Urease Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Nandi; Tian, Yaping

    2017-03-01

    Urea in alcoholic beverage is a precursor of ethyl carbamate (EC), which is carcinogenic. Enzymatic elimination of urea has attracted much research interest. Acid urease with good tolerance toward ethanol and acid is ideal enzyme for such applications. In the present work, the structural genes of urease from Providencia rettgeri JN-B815, ureABC were efficiently expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) in an active form (apourease) exhibiting both urease and urethanase (hydrolyze EC) activities. The specific activities of the purified apourease were comparatively low, which were 2.1 U/mg for urease and 0.6 U/mg for urethanase, respectively. However, apourease exhibited good resistance toward ethanol and acidic conditions. The relative activities of urease and urethanase remained over 80% in the buffers within pH 4-7. And the recoveries of both urease and urethanase activities were more than 50% in 5-25% ethanol solution. Apourease was utilized to eliminate urea in wine, and the residual urea in model wine was less than 50% after treatment with apourease for 30 h. Then 3D structure of UreC was predicted, and it was docked with urea and EC, respectively. The docking result revealed that three hydrogen bonds were formed between urea and amino acid residues in the active site of urease, whereas only one hydrogen bond can be formed between EC and the active center. Moreover, EC exhibited greater steric hindrance than urea when combined with the active site. Due to the low specific activities of apourease, both structural genes and accessory genes of urease were co-expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The holoenzyme was expressed as inclusion body. After renaturation and purification, the specific activities of urease and urethanase reached 10.7 and 3.8 U/mg, which were 5.62-fold and 6.33-fold of those of apourease, respectively. Therefore, accessory subunits of urease play an important role in enhancing urease and urethanase activities.

  19. Characteristics of Immobilized Urease on Grafted Alginate Bead Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas N. Danial

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biological importance of immobilized urease enzyme over the free urease. The support material used for urease immobilization was alginate. Generally, the immobilization of urease in alginate gel showed a marked increase in Km and Vmax. However, the immobilized urease showed higher thermal stability than that of free enzyme. The rate of thermal inactivation of the immobilized enzyme decreased due to entrapment in gel matrix. Also, the activity of the immobilized urease was more stable in retention than that of the free enzyme during the storage in solution, although the activity of the immobilized enzyme was lower in comparison with the free enzyme. A stable immobilized system and long storage life are convenient for applications that would not be feasible with a soluble enzyme system. These results highlighted the technical and biochemical benefits of immobilized urease over the free enzyme.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structures, molecular docking and urease inhibition studies of Ni(II) and Cu(II) Schiff base complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeeta, S.; Ahmad, K.; Noorussabah, N.; Bharti, S.; Mishra, M. K.; Sharma, S. R.; Choudhary, M.

    2018-03-01

    [Ni(L)2] 1 and [Cu(L)2] 2 [HL = 2-((E)-(2-methoxyphenylimino)methyl)-4,6-dichlorophenol] Schiff base complexes have been successfully synthesized and were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structures of the two complexes were determined through X-ray crystallography. Its inhibitory activity against Helicobacter pylori urease was evaluated in vitro and showed strong inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease compared with acetohydroxamic acid (IC50 = 42.12 μmolL-1), which is a positive reference. A docking analysis using the AutoDock 4.0 program could explain the inhibitory activity of the complex against urease.

  1. Urease activity in different soils of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shinnawi, M M

    1978-01-01

    Samples from two depths (0--15 and 15--30 cm) of five Egyptian soils: sandy, calcareous, fertile alluvial, saline alluvial, and alkali alluvial were tested for urease activity. Samples were treated with farmyard manure at rates of 0 and 0.5% C, and moisture at levels of 50, 65, and 80% of the water holding capacity. The studied Egyptian soils showed different activities of urease. Decreases in the values were shown by depth of sampling and varied in their intensities according to soil type, except for saline soil which revealed an opposite trend by the higher activity of its sub-surface layer. Order of activity was the following: fertile, saline, alkali, calcareous, and sandy soil. Farmyard manure slightly increased the activity of the enzyme. Incubation of moistened samples revealed that the optimum moisture content was 50% of W.H.C. for the tested soils, except for saline which showed best results at 65% of W.H.C.

  2. Bisphenol A Modifies the Regulation Exerted by Testosterone on 5α-Reductase Isozymes in Ventral Prostate of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development, growth, and function of the prostate gland depend on androgen stimulation. The primary androgen in prostate is 5-dihydrotestosterone (DHT which is synthesized from circulating testosterone (T through the action of 5-reductase (5-R. Although 5-R occurs as five isozymes, only 5-R1 and 5-R2 are physiologically involved in steroidogenesis. The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA alters sexual organs, including the prostate. Our previous findings indicated that BPA decreased the expression of 5-R1 and 5-R2 in rat prostate but also circulating T. Thus, it is unclear whether BPA exerts this effect on 5-R isozymes by reducing circulating T or by any other mechanism. In this study, we examine the effects of short-term exposure to BPA at doses below 25 g/Kg/d and above 300 g/Kg/d of the TDI on mRNA levels of 5-R1 and 5-R2 in prostate of adult castrated rats supplemented with T to achieve constant circulating T levels. mRNA levels were measured by absolute quantitative RT-PCR, T levels by RIA, and DHT levels by ELISA. Our results indicated that in castrated rats treated with T BPA at the two doses studied significantly decreased the mRNA levels of both 5-R isozymes in a dose-dependent manner without modifications in circulating T.

  3. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  4. Creatine kinase isozyme expression in embryonic chicken heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Geerts, W. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Dottin, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution pattern of creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) isozymes in developing chicken heart was studied by immunohistochemistry. Creatine kinase M, which is absent from adult heart, is transiently expressed between 4 and 11 days of incubation. During that period, numerous muscular cells in the

  5. Large allozyme variation within populations and isozyme differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant pair-wise contingency chi-square differences, one isozyme and another fixed allele difference at LDH, were found between the species. Nevertheless, a relatively small genetic distance value (D = 0.134) between the species supports recent morphological and DNA results by other researchers, confirming the ...

  6. Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1973-06-22

    Jun 22, 1973 ... Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp. Efisue, A. A.. Development of Crop & Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt,. Rivers State, Nigeria. (Received 29:10:13, Accepted 20:12:13). Abstract. Many cassava varieties have been released into farmers' fields in ...

  7. Isozyme patterns of powdery mildew resistant wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wengau; Li Zhengkui; Wang Kefeng

    1989-01-01

    Full Text: Wheat mutants induced by gamma irradiation and showing improved resistance to powdery mildew were analysed for isozymes. The peroxidase band 3A could be related to the disease reaction. The band 3A is absent in resistant mutants, the higher the activity of band 3A the greater the susceptibility. (author)

  8. Purification and characterization of three laccase isozymes from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... improve wine quality by removing fermentation inhibitors so as to increase yield of ethanol (Baldrian, 2006). They have also been used .... Summary of purification of laccase isozymes from Trametes sp. HS-03a. Purification .... and kinetics of a thermostable laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus. (SCC 108).

  9. Acrolein-detoxifying isozymes of glutathione transferase in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Jun'ichi; Ishibashi, Asami; Muneuchi, Hitoshi; Morita, Chihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Biswas, Md Sanaullah; Koeduka, Takao; Kitajima, Sakihito

    2017-02-01

    Acrolein is a lipid-derived highly reactive aldehyde, mediating oxidative signal and damage in plants. We found acrolein-scavenging glutathione transferase activity in plants and purified a low K M isozyme from spinach. Various environmental stressors on plants cause the generation of acrolein, a highly toxic aldehyde produced from lipid peroxides, via the promotion of the formation of reactive oxygen species, which oxidize membrane lipids. In mammals, acrolein is scavenged by glutathione transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) isozymes of Alpha, Pi, and Mu classes, but plants lack these GST classes. We detected the acrolein-scavenging GST activity in four species of plants, and purified an isozyme showing this activity from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. The isozyme (GST-Acr), obtained after an affinity chromatography and two ion exchange chromatography steps, showed the K M value for acrolein 93 μM, the smallest value known for acrolein-detoxifying enzymes in plants. Peptide sequence homology search revealed that GST-Acr belongs to the GST Tau, a plant-specific class. The Arabidopsis thaliana GST Tau19, which has the closest sequence similar to spinach GST-Acr, also showed a high catalytic efficiency for acrolein. These results suggest that GST plays as a scavenger for acrolein in plants.

  10. Biomonitoring of ecosystem degradation caused by CPO waste of Mentaya River in Central Kalimantan use of esterase isozyme electromorph method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABANG SETYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of CPO (Crude Palm Oil dock activity in Mentaya River of Central Borneo caused degradation of ecosystem, particularly on both mangrove and macrozoobenthos community. One of methods used for monitoring of ecosystem degradation was to determine species that were still survive under the polluted conditions. These survival species were assumed to synthesize alloenzyme that can be used as indicator. Alloenzyme was synthesized as an effort of adaptation processes toward environmental pressures caused by CPO spill on Mentaya River. Alloenzyme would be expressed as phenotypic and genotypic adaptation processes or phenotypic plasticity. Research was carried out, consisted of field research included collecting sample and environmental data (oil content, temperature, pH, electric conductivity and redox potential, and laboratory research included series analysis of water quality (DO, BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and also alloenzyme content of Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. The alloenzyme of root and leaves mangrove and prawn’s hepatopancreas was analyzed using Spencer starch gel electrophoresis modified method of exposed on sucrose solution. Separated components of alloenzyme were detected by special staining for Esterase isozyme. The results revealed that Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man were bioindicator organisms for the polluted site by oil spills from CPO loading activities. The polluted river water by oil spill from CPO activities decreased redox potential, DO, increased oil content, DHL, water temperature, pH sediment, pH water, TDS, BOD, COD, TSS. Gel electrophoretical analysis demonstrated that Mangrove Soneratia caseolaris synthesized alloenzyme consisted of complex enzymes such as EST in its root and leave cells. Those enzymes were nearly similar to those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The oil spill from CPO have ester bonding so its adaptation mechanism with release Esterase

  11. Hybrid Pharmacophoric Approach in the Design and Synthesis of Coumarin Linked Pyrazolinyl as Urease Inhibitors, Kinetic Mechanism and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Mahesar, Parvez Ali; Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Raza, Hussain; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-08-01

    The current research article reports the synthesis of coumarinyl pyrazolinyl thioamide derivatives and their biological activity as inhibitors of jack bean urease. The coumarinyl pyrazolinyl thioamides were synthesized by reacting thiosemicarbazide with newly synthesized chalcones to afford the products in good yields and the synthesized compounds were purified by recrystallization. Coumarinyl pyrazolinyl thioamide derivatives 5a - 5q showed significant activity against Urease enzyme and also exhibited good antioxidant potential. The compound 3-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide (5n) was found to be superior agent in the series with an IC 50  = 0.358 ± 0.017 μm compared to standard thiourea with an IC 50  = 4720 ± 174 μm. To undermine the binding mode of inhibition kinetic studies were performed for most potent derivative and it was found that compound 5n inhibits urease enzyme by non-competitive mode of inhibition. Molecular docking studies were carried out to delineate the binding affinity of the synthesized derivatives. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Synthesis and molecular docking study of piperazine derivatives as potent urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Wadood, Abdul

    2018-04-13

    Urease is known to be one of the major causes of diseases induced by Helicobacter pylori, thus allow them to survive at low pH inside the stomach and thereby, play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric and peptic ulcer, apart from cancer as well. Keeping in view the great importance of urease inhibitors, here in this study we have synthesized piperazine derivatives (1-15) and evaluated for their urease inhibitory activity. All analogs showed excellent inhibitory potential with IC 50 values ranging between 1.1 ± 0.01 and 33.40 ± 1.50 µM when compared with the standard inhibitor thiourea (IC 50  = 21.30 ± 1.10 µM). Structure activity relationship has been established for all compounds which are mainly based upon the substitution on phenyl ring. Molecular docking study was performed in order to understand the binding interaction of the compounds in the active site of enzyme. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The assembly of the plant urease activation complex and the essential role of the urease accessory protein G (UreG) in delivery of nickel to urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrach, Till; Zhu, Anting; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2017-09-01

    Urease is a ubiquitous nickel metalloenzyme. In plants, its activation requires three urease accessory proteins (UAPs), UreD, UreF, and UreG. In bacteria, the UAPs interact with urease and facilitate activation, which involves the channeling of two nickel ions into the active site. So far this process has not been investigated in eukaryotes. Using affinity pulldowns of Strep-tagged UAPs from Arabidopsis and rice transiently expressed in planta , we demonstrate that a urease-UreD-UreF-UreG complex exists in plants and show its stepwise assembly. UreG is crucial for nickel delivery because UreG-dependent urease activation in vitro was observed only with UreG obtained from nickel-sufficient plants. This activation competence could not be generated in vitro by incubation of UreG with nickel, bicarbonate, and GTP. Compared with their bacterial orthologs, plant UreGs possess an N-terminal extension containing a His- and Asp/Glu-rich hypervariable region followed by a highly conserved sequence comprising two potential H X H metal-binding sites. Complementing the ureG-1 mutant of Arabidopsis with N-terminal deletion variants of UreG demonstrated that the hypervariable region has a minor impact on activation efficiency, whereas the conserved region up to the first H X H motif is highly beneficial and up to the second H X H motif strictly required for activation. We also show that urease reaches its full activity several days after nickel becomes available in the leaves, indicating that urease activation is limited by nickel accessibility in vivo Our data uncover the crucial role of UreG for nickel delivery during eukaryotic urease activation, inciting further investigations of the details of this process. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  15. Characterizing Isozymes of Chlorite Dismutase for Water Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mobilia, Kellen C.; Hutchison, Justin M.; Zilles, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the potential for biocatalytic degradation of micropollutants, focusing on chlorine oxyanions as model contaminants, by mining biology to identify promising biocatalysts. Existing isozymes of chlorite dismutase (Cld) were characterized with respect to parameters relevant to this high volume, low-value product application: kinetic parameters, resistance to catalytic inactivation, and stability. Maximum reaction velocities (V max) were typically on the order of 104 μmol m...

  16. Comparative analysis of peroxidase profiles in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.): evaluation of leaf growth related isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Wang, Chenchen; Huang, Jiabao; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui; Wang, Haiou

    2013-01-15

    Plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) with different isoforms catalyze various reactions in plant growth and development. However, it is difficult to elucidate the function of each isozyme in one plant. Here, we compared profiles of entire isozyme in young seedling and mature leaves of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) on zymogram and ion exchange chromatography in order to investigate leaf growth related peroxidase isozymes. The results showed that four isozymes were constitutively expressed in kale leaves, whereas other two isozymes were induced in the mature leaves. The Mono Q ion exchange chromatography separated the six isozymes into two major groups due to the difference in their isoelectric points. The results suggested that although there were several isozymes in the leaves of Chinese kale, one isozyme functioned mainly through the leaf development. Two anionic isozymes with molecular weights lower than 32 kDa were considered mature related. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ureases display biological effects independent of enzymatic activity: Is there a connection to diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olivera-Severo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ureases are enzymes from plants, fungi and bacteria that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. While fungal and plant ureases are homo-oligomers of 90-kDa subunits, bacterial ureases are multimers of two or three subunit complexes. We showed that some isoforms of jack bean urease, canatoxin and the classical urease, bind to glycoconjugates and induce platelet aggregation. Canatoxin also promotes release of histamine from mast cells, insulin from pancreatic cells and neurotransmitters from brain synaptosomes. In vivo it induces rat paw edema and neutrophil chemotaxis. These effects are independent of ureolytic activity and require activation of eicosanoid metabolism and calcium channels. Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach mucosa, causes gastric ulcers and cancer by a mechanism that is not understood. H. pylori produces factors that damage gastric epithelial cells, such as the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, and a urease (up to 10% of bacterial protein that neutralizes the acidic medium permitting its survival in the stomach. H. pylori whole cells or extracts of its water-soluble proteins promote inflammation, activate neutrophils and induce the release of cytokines. In this paper we review data from the literature suggesting that H. pylori urease displays many of the biological activities observed for jack bean ureases and show that bacterial ureases have a secretagogue effect modulated by eicosanoid metabolites through lipoxygenase pathways. These findings could be relevant to the elucidation of the role of urease in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal disease caused by H. pylori.

  18. 2-nitrobenzohydrazide as a potent urease inhibitor: synthesis, characterization and single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, N.; Khan, I.; Hameed, S.; Batool, S.

    2018-01-01

    2-Nitrobenzohydrazide was efficiently synthesized in two steps by the esterification of 2-nitrobenzoic acid followed by the treatment with hydrazine hydrate in methanol. The structure of 2-nitrobenzohydrazide was established by modern spectro-analytical techniques including FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and unequivocally confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction data. 2-Nitrobenzohydrazide crystallized in orthorhombic space group P 21 21 21 with unit cell dimensions a = 4.9764(4) Å, b = 12.5280 (3) Å, c = 12.8512(1) Å, α = β = γ = 90°. A combination of N‒H…N and N‒H…O hydrogen bonds stabilized the crystal packing of 3. The synthesized compound 3 was assessed as urease inhibitor against Jack bean urease and the results revealed good inhibitory potency with an IC50 value of 4.25 ± 0.08 µM. This inhibition strength was 5-fold higher compared to the reference inhibitor thiourea (IC50 = 21.00 ± 0.11 µM). The molecular docking studies of the synthesized inhibitor 3 inside the active pocket of urease revealed several important binding interactions. (author)

  19. List of isozyme loci - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP gmap98 List of isozyme loci Data detail Data name List of isozyme loci DOI 10.18908/lsdb...he present high-density linkage map, and that were putatively identified as isozyme genes. Data file File name: rgp_gmap98_iso...gmap98/LATEST/rgp_gmap98_isozyme_loci.zip File size: 611 B Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/...0001 were considered as functionally identical clones. And we have selected the ones that hit the isozyme ge...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us List of isozyme loci - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Preparation and Properties of Urease Immobilized onto Glutaraldehyde Cross-linked Chitosan Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Pei LIANG; Ya Qing FENG; Shu Xian MENG; Zhi Yan LIANG

    2005-01-01

    Urease was immobilized onto the glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads that were prepared under microwave irradiation. The activity and the yield of activity of immobilized urease was 10.83 U/g B and 47.7%, respectively. The conditions of urease immobilization were optimized. The properties of the immobilized urease were investigated and compared with that of the free enzyme.

  1. Purification and characterization of creatine kinase isozymes from the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K A; Grossman, S H; Summers, D D

    1986-01-01

    Creatine kinase from nurse shark brain and muscle has been purified to apparent homogeneity. In contrast to creatine kinases from most other vertebrate species, the muscle isozyme and the brain isozyme from nurse shark migrate closely in electrophoresis and, unusually, the muscle isozyme is anodal to the brain isozyme. The isoelectric points are 5.3 and 6.2 for the muscle and brain isozymes, respectively. The purified brain preparation also contains a second active protein with pI 6.0. The amino acid content of the muscle isozyme is compared with other isozymes of creatine kinase using the Metzger Difference Index as an estimation of compositional relatedness. All comparisons show a high degree of compositional similarity including arginine kinase from lobster muscle. The muscle isozyme is marginally more resistant to temperature inactivation than the brain isozyme; the muscle protein does not exhibit unusual stability towards high concentrations of urea. Kinetic analysis of the muscle isozyme reveals Michaelis constants of 1.6 mM MgATP, 12 mM creatine, 1.2 mM MgADP and 50 mM creatine phosphate. Dissociation constants for the same substrate from the binary and ternary enzyme-substrate complex do not differ significantly, indicating limited cooperatively in substrate binding. Enzyme activity is inhibited by small planar anions, most severely by nitrate. Shark muscle creatine kinase hybridizes in vitro with rabbit muscle or monkey brain creatine kinase; shark brain isozyme hybridizes with monkey brain or rabbit brain creatine kinase. Shark muscle and shark brain isozymes, under a wide range of conditions, failed to produce a detectable hybrid.

  2. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K

    1980-01-01

    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0....

  3. Role of Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase in urease maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa G.; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.; Benoit, Stéphane; Maier, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is due in part to urease and Msr (methionine sulfoxide reductase). Upon exposure to relatively mild (21% partial pressure of O2) oxidative stress, a Δmsr mutant showed both decreased urease specific activity in cell-free extracts and decreased nickel associated with the partially purified urease fraction as compared with the parent strain, yet urease apoprotein levels were the same for the Δmsr and wild-type extracts. Urease activity of the Δmsr mutant was not significantly different from the wild-type upon non-stress microaerobic incubation of strains. Urease maturation occurs through nickel mobilization via a suite of known accessory proteins, one being the GTPase UreG. Treatment of UreG with H2O2 resulted in oxidation of MS-identified methionine residues and loss of up to 70% of its GTPase activity. Incubation of pure H2O2-treated UreG with Msr led to reductive repair of nine methionine residues and recovery of up to full enzyme activity. Binding of Msr to both oxidized and non-oxidized UreG was observed by cross-linking. Therefore we conclude Msr aids the survival of H. pylori in part by ensuring continual UreG-mediated urease maturation under stress conditions. PMID:23181726

  4. Urease and Dental Plaque Microbial Profiles in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou-Bermudez, Evangelia; Rodriguez, Selena; Bello, Angel S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Urease enzymes produced by oral bacteria generate ammonia, which can have a significant impact on the oral ecology and, consequently, on oral health. To evaluate the relationship of urease with dental plaque microbial profiles in children as it relates to dental caries, and to identify the main contributors to this activity. 82 supragingival plaque samples were collected from 44 children at baseline and one year later, as part of a longitudinal study on urease and caries in children. DNA was extracted; the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Urease activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with Qiime. Plaque urease activity was significantly associated with the composition of the microbial communities of the dental plaque (Baseline P = 0.027, One Year P = 0.012). The bacterial taxa whose proportion in dental plaque exhibited significant variation by plaque urease levels in both visits were the family Pasteurellaceae (Baseline Purease and positively associated with dental caries (Bonferroni Purease enzymes primarily from species in the family Pasteurellaceae can be an important ecological determinant in children's dental plaque. Further studies are needed to establish the role of urease-associated bacteria in the acid/base homeostasis of the dental plaque, and in the development and prediction of dental caries in children.

  5. Characterisation of taro (Colocasia esculenta based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimanto, Sajidan, Sugiyarto. 2011. Characterization of taro (Colocasia esculenta based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers. Nusantara Bioscience: 7-14. The aims of this research were to find out: (i the variety of Colocasia esculenta based on the morphological characteristics; (ii the variety of C. esculenta based on the isozymic banding pattern; and (iii the correlation of genetic distance based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern. Survey research conducted in the Karanganyar district, which include high, medium and low altitude. The sample was taken using random purposive sampling technique, including 9 sampling points. The morphological data was elaborated descriptively and then made dendogram. The data on isozymic banding pattern was analyzed quantitatively based on the presence or absence of bands appeared on the gel, and then made dendogram. The correlation based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern were analyzed based on the product-moment correlation coefficient with goodness of fit criterion. The result showed : (i in Karanganyar was founded 10 variety of C. esculenta; (ii morphological characteristics are not affected by altitude; (iii isozymic banding pattern of peroxides forms 14 banding patterns, esterase forms 11 banding patterns and shikimic dehydrogenase forms 15 banding patterns; (iv the correlation of morphological data and the isozymic banding pattern of peroxidase has good correlation (0.893542288 while esterase and shikimic dehydrogenase isozymes have very good correlation (0.917557716 and 0.9121985446; (v isozymic banding pattern of data supports the morphological character data.

  6. Localization of urease activity in ureaplasma urealyticum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinther, O.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the urease activity of various cell fractions of U. urealyticum showed that this activity was confined to the soluble fraction of the cytoplasm. An attempt was made to devise a method for electron microscopic detection of the sites of urease activity based on precipitation of electron-dense MnO 2 at the alkaline pH created by the hydrolysis of urea. The results obtained supported the previous results indicating a cytoplasmatic localization of the urease activity in the cells. Helical ribosome patterns were observed when glutaraldehyde-fixed cells were treated with cytochemical test solutions. (author)

  7. Localization of urease activity in Ureaplasma urealyticum cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, O [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the urease activity of various cell fractions of U. urealyticum showed that this activity was confined to the soluble fraction of the cytoplasm. An attempt was made to devise a method for electron microscopic detection of the sites of urease activity based on precipitation of electron-dense MnO/sub 2/ at the alkaline pH created by the hydrolysis of urea. The results obtained supported the previous results indicating a cytoplasmatic localization of the urease activity in the cells. Helical ribosome patterns were observed when glutaraldehyde-fixed cells were treated with cytochemical test solutions.

  8. Genetic analysis of an Escherichia coli urease locus: evidence of DNA rearrangement.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C M; Falkow, S

    1988-01-01

    Ureolytic Escherichia coli strains are uncommon clinical isolates. The urease phenotype in a large percentage of these isolates is unstable and lost upon storage. We examined two urease-positive uropathogenic E. coli isolates that give off urease-negative segregants and determined that the urease phenotype was chromosomally encoded. The urease phenotype was cloned from E. coli 1021 and found to be encoded on a 9.4-kilobase HindIII restriction fragment. Transposon mutagenesis indicated that at...

  9. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K

    1980-03-01

    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0.08, 0.12, and 0.17 M NaCl, whereas the two peaks of the variant, with 0.01 and 0.06 M NaCl. The pH optimum and thermal denaturation at 57 degrees C were the same in all enzyme peaks of both isozymes. Rabbit antiacid alpha-glucosidase antibodies produced against the common isozyme were found to cross-react with both peaks of the variant isozyme. The two isozymes shared antigenic identity and had similar Km's with maltose as substrate. Normal substrate saturation kinetics were observed with the common isozyme when glycogen was the substrate, but the variant produced an S-shaped saturation curve indicating a phase of negative and positive cooperativity at low and high glycogen concentrations, respectively. The activity of the variant was only 8.6% and 19.2% of the common isozyme when assayed with nonsaturating and saturating concentrations of glycogen, respectively. A similar rate of hydrolysis of isomaltose by both isozymes was found indicating that the reduced catalytic activity of the variant isozyme toward glycogen is not the result of a reduced ability of this enzyme to cleave the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen.

  10. Robust Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Urease Inhibitory Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Qayum, Mughal; Khan, Ajmal; Farooq, Umar; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ali, Rashid

    2016-03-25

    The fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin (cip) has been used to cap metallic (silver and gold) nanoparticles by a robust one pot synthetic method under optimized conditions, using NaBH₄ as a mild reducing agent. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) showed constancy against variations in pH, table salt (NaCl) solution, and heat. Capping with metal ions (Ag/Au-cip) has significant implications for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fluoroquinolone molecules. The metallic nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods. The nanoparticles synthesized using silver and gold were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray tests in order to show their metallic composition. The NH moiety of the piperazine group capped the Ag/Au surfaces, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. The synthesized nanoparticles were also assessed for urease inhibition potential. Fascinatingly, both Ag-cip and Au-cip NPs exhibited significant urease enzyme inhibitory potential, with IC50 = 1.181 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 52.55 ± 2.3 µg/mL, compared to ciprofloxacin (IC50 = 82.95 ± 1.62 µg/mL). MNPs also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains.

  11. Inactivation of urease by catechol: Kinetics and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Musiani, Francesco; Lente, Gábor; Palombo, Marta; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Urease is a Ni(II)-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia and carbamate at a rate 10 15 times higher than the uncatalyzed reaction. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, efficient urease inhibitors are actively sought. In this study, we describe a molecular characterization of the interaction between urease from Sporosarcina pasteurii (SPU) and Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean, JBU) with catechol, a model polyphenol. In particular, catechol irreversibly inactivates both SPU and JBU with a complex radical-based autocatalytic multistep mechanism. The crystal structure of the SPU-catechol complex, determined at 1.50Å resolution, reveals the structural details of the enzyme inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urease testing of mycobacteria with BACTEC radiometric instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, J.J.; Collins, M.T.; McClatchy, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 140 mycobacterial isolates from patients treated at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center or the National Jewish Hospital and Research Center and from animal specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory were tested by using a urease procedure modified for use with a BACTEC model 301. Mycobacterial suspensions were prepared by using Middlebrook 7H10 Tween broth. Of the 98 mycobacteria isolates which were urease positive utilizing standard methodology, all were positive using the radiometric procedures. Similarly, all 42 urease-negative isolates were also negative employing the new methodology. Although maximum radiometric readings were observed at 48 h, all positive strains were readily identified 24 h after inoculation without sacrificing either test sensitivity or specificity. Thus, urease testing of mycobacteria, using the modified BACTEC radiometric methodology, was as sensitive, as specific, and more rapid than conventional methods

  13. Biocolloids with ordered urease multilayer shells as enzymatic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, Y; Caruso, F

    2001-09-01

    The preparation of biocolloids with organized enzyme-containing multilayer shells for exploitation as colloidal enzymatic nanoreactors is described. Urease multilayers were assembled onto submicrometer-sized polystyrene spheres by the sequential adsorption of urease and polyelectrolyte, in a predetermined order, utilizing electrostatic interactions for layer growth. The catalytic activity of the biocolloids increased proportionally with the number of urease layers deposited on the particles, demonstrating that biocolloid particles with tailored enzymatic activities can be produced. It was further found that precoating the latex spheres with nanoparticles (40-nm silica or 12-nm magnetite) enhanced both the stability (with respect to adsorption) and enzymatic activity of the urease multilayers. The presence of the magnetite nanoparticle coating also provided a magnetic function that allowed the biocolloids to be easily and rapidly separated with a permanent magnet. The fabrication of such colloids opens new avenues for the application of bioparticles and represents a promising route for the creation of complex catalytic particles.

  14. V. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ISOZYMES OF SHOREA JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. JUNIARTI and M. I. J. UMBOH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of genetic variability in natural or man-made populations/ plantations is useful in both basic and applied biology. In addition to the various facets of studies on Shorea javanica already initiated by Torquebiau (1984 and alongside with his recommendations on focus for future research, a study on the genetic aspects of the species should be given important considerations. As the trees are tapped for resin, an important forest product, the genetic basis of the production as well as the range of variation in amount of resin production among t he trees must be known. Coupled with this is a thorough investigation on the differences in pest resistance/susceptability among the trees and their genetic basis. While the assumption (Torquebiau 1984 that trees in natural forest areas are-rarely attacked by diseases because of mycorrhizal fungi is interesting, its confirmation is necessary. If this is true, problems would arise when plants are introduced into a new plantation site as experienced by the Forest Research Institute (Ardikoesuma 1954. Thus, we need to look for pest resistant plants i.e. those that can remain healthy even in the absence of mycorrhizae. The above studies on possible genetic variation could give vital information for development of forest plantations of the species and for breeding and tree improvement strategies. By knowing the extent of genetic variation in natural population or in plantations one could be guided to maintain or increase the genetic base in these areas. Biochemical characters such as isozyme banding patterns have been useful in several areas of plant biology, population genetics, evolution and breeding. Isozymes are detected by starch gel electrophoresis and when their genetic control is established, they could be genetic markers in analyzing variation in morphological or physiological characters. The present study is an attempt to detect the isozymes in leaves, seeds and cotyledons of Shorea

  15. Protein Tunnels: The Case of Urease Accessory Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiani, Francesco; Gioia, Dario; Masetti, Matteo; Falchi, Federico; Cavalli, Andrea; Recanatini, Maurizio; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-05-09

    Transition metals are both essential micronutrients and limited in environmental availability. The Ni(II)-dependent urease protein, the most efficient enzyme known to date, is a paradigm for studying the strategies that cells use to handle an essential, yet toxic, metal ion. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Ni(II) insertion in the urease active site is performed through the action of three essential accessory proteins: UreD, UreF, and UreG. The crystal structure of the UreD-UreF-UreG complex from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HpUreDFG) revealed the presence of tunnels that cross the entire length of both UreF and UreD, potentially able to deliver Ni(II) ions from UreG to apo-urease. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations performed on the HpUreDFG complex in explicit solvent and at physiological ionic conditions demonstrate the stability of these protein tunnels in solution and provide insights on the trafficking of water molecules inside the tunnels. The presence of different alternative routes across the identified tunnels for Ni(II) ions, water molecules, and carbonate ions, all involved in urease activation, is highlighted here, and their potential role in the urease activation mechanism is discussed.

  16. Synthesis of chiral pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine sulfonamides with tyrosinase and urease inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzych, Mariusz; Tarasiuk, Paweł; Kotwica-Mojzych, Katarzyna; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Nicewicz, Michał; Fornal, Emilia

    2017-12-01

    A new series of sulfonamide derivatives of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine with chiral amino group has been synthesized and characterized. The compounds were tested for their tyrosinase and urease inhibitory activity. Evaluation of prepared derivatives demonstrated that compounds (8b) and (8j) are most potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors whereas all of the obtained compounds showed higher urease inhibitory activity than the standard thiourea. The compounds (8a), (8f) and (8i) exhibited excellent enzyme inhibitory activity with IC 50 0.037, 0.044 and 0.042 μM, respectively, while IC 50 of thiourea is 20.9 μM.

  17. Determination of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH Isozymes in Human Cancer Samples - Comparison of Kinetic and Immunochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Borecka

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluorimetric assay of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes, based on naphthaldehyde oxidation, is compared with Western Blotting analysis on several clinical samples obtained from surgery. The comparison reveals qualitatively good correlation of ALDH1A1 isozyme detection with two methods and somewhat worse on ALDH3A1 assay.

  18. Azomethines, isoxazole, N-substituted pyrazoles and pyrimidine containing curcumin derivatives: Urease inhibition and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mahmood; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Hameed, Abdul; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Asiri, Abdullah M; Muddassar, Muhammad

    2017-08-19

    Curcumin has shown large number of pharmacological properties against different phenotypes of various disease models. Different synthetic routes have been employed to develop its various derivatives for diverse biological functions. In this study, curcumin derived azomethine, isoxazole, pyrimidines and N-substituted pyrazoles were synthesized to investigate their urease enzyme inhibition. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were described by IR, MS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectral data. Urease enzyme inhibition was evaluated through in vitro assays in which compound 8b was found to be the most potent (IC 50  = 2.44 ± 0.07 μM) among the tested compounds. The compounds with diazine ring system except the 4d showed better urease inhibition (IC 50  = 11.43 ± 0.21-19.63 ± 0.28 μM) than the standard urease inhibitor thiourea (IC 50  = 22.61 ± 0.23 μM). Similarly enzyme kinetics data revealed that compounds 3c-3e and 8b were competitive inhibitors with Ki values of 20.0, 19.87, 20.23 and 19.11 μM respectively while the compounds 4b, 4c and 4e were mixed type of inhibitors with Ki values 6.72, 19.69 and 6.72 μM respectively. Molecular docking studies were also performed to identify the plausible binding modes of the most active compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis, Density Functional Theory (DFT), Urease Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of 5-Aryl Thiophenes Bearing Sulphonylacetamide Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Mnaza; Rasool, Nasir; Gull, Yasmeen; Zubair, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Ayub, Khurshid; Nasim, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Yaqoob, Asma; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; de Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-11-05

    A variety of novel 5-aryl thiophenes 4a-g containing sulphonylacetamide (sulfacetamide) groups were synthesized in appreciable yields via Pd[0] Suzuki cross coupling reactions. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were determined using spectral data and elemental analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were performed using the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) basis set to gain insight into their structural properties. Frontier molecular orbital (FMOs) analysis of all compounds 4a-g was computed at the same level of theory to get an idea about their kinetic stability. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules indicated the reactive sites. First hyperpolarizability analysis (nonlinear optical response) were simulated at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level of theory as well. The compounds were further evaluated for their promising antibacterial and anti-urease activities. In this case, the antibacterial activities were estimated by the agar well diffusion method, whereas the anti-urease activities of these compounds were determined using the indophenol method by quantifying the evolved ammonia produced. The results revealed that all the sulfacetamide derivatives displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtiles, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa at various concentrations. Furthermore, the compound 4g N-((5-(4-chlorophenyl)thiophen-2-yl)sulfonyl) acetamide showed excellent urease inhibition with percentage inhibition activity ~46.23 ± 0.11 at 15 µg/mL with IC50 17.1 µg/mL. Moreover, some other compounds 4a-f also exhibited very good inhibition against urease enzyme.

  20. Characterizing Isozymes of Chlorite Dismutase for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen C. Mobilia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the potential for biocatalytic degradation of micropollutants, focusing on chlorine oxyanions as model contaminants, by mining biology to identify promising biocatalysts. Existing isozymes of chlorite dismutase (Cld were characterized with respect to parameters relevant to this high volume, low-value product application: kinetic parameters, resistance to catalytic inactivation, and stability. Maximum reaction velocities (Vmax were typically on the order of 104 μmol min-1 (μmol heme-1. Substrate affinity (Km values were on the order of 100 μM, except for the Cld from Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii (NdCld, which showed a significantly lower affinity for chlorite. NdCld also had the highest susceptibility to catalytic inactivation. In contrast, the Cld from Ideonella dechloratans was least susceptible to catalytic inactivation, with a maximum turnover number of approximately 150,000, more than sevenfold higher than other tested isozymes. Under non-reactive conditions, Cld was quite stable, retaining over 50% of activity after 30 days, and most samples retained activity even after 90–100 days. Overall, Cld from I. dechloratans was the most promising candidate for environmental applications, having high affinity and activity, a relatively low propensity for catalytic inactivation, and excellent stability.

  1. Ferrocene-based guanidine derivatives: in vitro antimicrobial, DNA binding and docking supported urease inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Rukhsana; Rauf, Muhammad Khawar; Badshah, Amin; Azam, Syed Sikander; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Khan, Azim

    2014-10-06

    Some novel ferrocenyl guanidines 1-8 were synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and single crystal X-rays diffraction techniques. The crystallographic studies revealed that the existence of the strong non-bonding interactions facilitate these molecules to interact with biological macro-molecules like DNA that described to inherit good biological activities. The DNA interaction studies carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-visible spectroscopy are in close agreement with the binding constants (K) (0.79-5.4) × 10(5) (CV) and (0.72-5.1) × 10(5) (UV-vis). The shift in peak potential, current and absorption maxima of the studied ferrocenyl guanidines in the presence of DNA revealed that CV coupled with UV-vis spectroscopy could provide an opportune to characterize metal-based compounds-DNA interaction mechanism, a prerequisite for the design of new anticancer agents and understanding the molecular basis of their action. The compounds 1-8 have been screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and urease inhibition potency. A concurrent in silico study has also been applied on ferrocene moiety impregnated guanidines 1-8 to identify most active compounds having for inhibiting the activity of urease (pdb id 3LA4). Most of the compounds were found as potent inhibitors of urease and the compound 1 was found to be the most active with an IC50 of 16.83 ± 0.03 μM. The docking scores are in close agreement with the in vitro obtained IC50 values of inhibitors 1-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of trace elements on urease activity in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, M A

    1977-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludges and effluents on agricultural land is becoming a widespread practice. Most sludge samples disposed on soils contain large quantities of various trace elements. Studies of 20 trace elements commonly found in sludge samples showed that they inhibit the activity of urease in soils and that their order of effectiveness as inhibitors of urease depends on the soil. When the trace elements were compared by using 5 ..mu..mol . g/sup -1/ soil, however, some of them showed the same order of effectiveness as urease inhibitors in the six soils studied i.e., for the monovalent and divalent ions. Ag/sup +/ greater than or equal to Hg/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cd/sup 2 +/ > Zn/sup 2 +/ > Sn/sup 2 +/ > Mn/sup 2 +/, and generally, Fe/sup 3 +/ > Fe/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup +/. Other trace element ions that inhibited urease were Ni/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, As/sup 3 +/, B/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Al/sup 3 +/, V/sup 4 +/, Se/sup 4 +/, and Mo/sup 6 +/. Of the trace element ions studied, only As/sup 5 +/ and W/sup 6 +/ did not inhibit urease activity in soils. Studies on the distribution of urease activity showed that it is concentrated in surface soils and decreases with depth. Urease activity was proportional to organic C distribution in each soil profile and was significantly correlated with organic C in the surface soils studied.

  3. Plant-Derived Urease Inhibitors as Alternative Chemotherapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Žemlička, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Inhibition of the metalloenzyme urease has important pharmacologic applications in the field of antiulcer and antigastric cancer agents. Urease is involved in many serious infections caused by Helicobacter pylori in the gastric tract as well as by Proteus and related species in the urinary tract. Although numerous studies have described several novel urease inhibitors (UIs) used for the treatment of gastric and urinary infections, all these compounds have exhibited severe side effects, toxicity, and instability. Therefore, to overcome such problems, it is necessary to search for new sources of UIs, such as natural products, that provide reduced side effects, low toxicity, greater stability, and bioavailability. As limited studies have been conducted on plant-derived UIs, this paper aims to highlight and summarize the most promising compounds isolated and identified from plants, such as terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and other substances with inhibitory activities against plant and bacterial ureases; these are in vitro and in vivo studies with an emphasis on structure-activity relationship studies and types of inhibition that show high and promising levels of anti-urease activity. This will aid medicinal chemists in the design and synthesis of novel and pharmacologically potent UIs useful for the development of antiulcer drugs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Expression analysis of polyphenol oxidase isozymes by active staining method and tissue browning of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Saito, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce. By expression analysis of the PPO isozymes after wounding, PPO isozymes that correlated with time-course of tissue browning were detected. The wound-induced PPO may play a key role in enzymatic browning.

  5. NikR mediates nickel-responsive transcriptional induction of urease expression in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); S.W. Poppelaars (Sophie); B.J. Davies; J. Stoof (Jeroen); S. Bereswill (Stefan); M. Kist (Manfred); C.W. Penn (Charles); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.G. Kusters (Johannes)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe important human pathogen Helicobacter pylori requires the abundant expression and activity of its urease enzyme for colonization of the gastric mucosa. The transcription, expression, and activity of H. pylori urease were previously demonstrated to be induced by

  6. Innovative approach for urease inhibition by Ficus carica extract-fabricated silver nanoparticles: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Wagh, Nilesh D; Patil, Satish V

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a rapid, low-cost, and ecofriendly method of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis using leaves extract of Ficus carica (F. carica), a plant with diverse metabolic consortium, is reported for the first time. An absorption peak at 422 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy, a spherical shape with an average size of 21 nm in transmission electron microscopy, and crystalline nature in X-ray powder diffraction studies were observed for the synthesized AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins of F. carica might have a vital role in AgNP synthesis and stabilization. AgNPs were found to inhibit urease, a key enzyme responsible for the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. Inhibition of urease by AgNPs was monitored spectrophotometrically by the evaluation of ammonia release. The urease inhibition potential of AgNPs can be explored in the treatment of H. pylori by preparing novel combinations of standard drugs with AgNPs- or AgNPs-encapsulated drug molecules. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of a urease-negative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroya; Takahashi, Sayaka; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Koshi

    2018-01-01

    An atypical urease-negative mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 2 was isolated in Japan. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the urease gene cluster revealed that the insertion of a short DNA sequence into the cbiM gene was responsible for the urease-negative activity of the mutant. Veterinary diagnostic laboratories should be watchful for the presence of aberrant urease-negative A. pleuropneumoniae isolates.

  8. Urease Plays an Important Role in the Chemotactic Motility of Helicobacter pylori in a Viscous Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Mizote, Tomoko; Okita, Kiwamu; Nakazawa, Teruko

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the ...

  9. Adherence of urease-induced crystals to rat bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenabo, L; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S

    1988-01-01

    Apart from urine supersaturation with respect to struvite and calcium phosphate caused by urease-producing microorganisms, retention of formed crystals in the urinary tract is necessary for the formation of infection stones. This study was performed to investigate the role of the mucous coat lining the urothelium in the adhesion of urease-induced crystals. Removal of this glycosaminoglycan-containing layer from rat bladders increased the adherence of struvite and calcium phosphate crystals 5-6 times compared to that in intact rat bladders. Heparin completely restored the antiadherence capacity while chondroitin sulphate had a very weak restorative effect and human urine had no restorative effect. These findings support the view that the mucous coat is of importance in preventing retention of urease-induced crystals.

  10. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J. L.; Tomaszewski, E. K.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. PMID:19277175

  11. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L; Tomaszewski, E K; Mundo-Ocampo, M; Baldwin, J G

    1996-12-01

    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme..., nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum. It contains the enzyme urease (CAS Reg. No. 9002-13-5), which...

  13. Enzymatic, immunological and phylogenetic characterization of Brucella suis urease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriranganathan Nammalwar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequenced genomes of the Brucella spp. have two urease operons, ure-1 and ure-2, but there is evidence that only one is responsible for encoding an active urease. The present work describes the purification and the enzymatic and phylogenomic characterization of urease from Brucella suis strain 1330. Additionally, the urease reactivity of sera from patients diagnosed with brucellosis was examined. Results Urease encoded by the ure-1 operon of Brucella suis strain 1330 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The urease was purified 51-fold with a recovery of 12% of the enzyme activity and 0.24% of the total protein. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5, and showed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 28–35°C. The purified enzyme exhibited a Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics with a Km of 5.60 ± 0.69 mM. Hydroxyurea and thiourea are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki of 1.04 ± 0.31 mM and 26.12 ± 2.30 mM, respectively. Acetohydroxamic acid also inhibits the enzyme in a competitive way. The molecular weight estimated for the native enzyme was between 130–135 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 157 ± 7 kDa using 5–10% polyacrylamide gradient non-denaturing gel. Only three subunits in SDS-PAGE were identified: two small subunits of 14,000 Da and 15,500 Da, and a major subunit of 66,000 Da. The amino terminal sequence of the purified large subunit corresponded to the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by ureC1. The UreC1 subunit was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. By phylogenetic and cluster structure analyses, ureC1 was related to the ureC typically present in the Rhizobiales; in contrast, the ureC2 encoded in the ure-2 operon is more related to distant species. Conclusion We have for the first time purified and characterized an active urease from B. suis. The enzyme was characterized at the kinetic

  14. Discrimination of damages depending on the types of lactic dehydrogenase isozymes in electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Akishige; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Liu Xiaolan; Takizawa, Haruki.

    1995-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27,LDH) was a tetrameric molecule. The five different combinations of two different polypeptide chains can be readily identified by electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. Injury patterns of LDH activity following electron-beam irradiation was investigated by assaying activities of three isozymes (pig heart LDH;M 4 , rabbit muscle LDH;H 4 , chicken heart LDH;M 3 H 1 ). Following results were obtained in the electron beam irradiation to three kinds of LDH isozymes: 1) Each isozyme has respective different reactivities to the electron beam irradiation. 2) Among the isozymes, M 4 enzyme was increased its enzymatic activity by the irradiations of low-level doses. 3) For the H 4 enzymes, an increasing phenomenon of -SH group was found in the low-level doses of electron beam irradiation. (author)

  15. Akt3 is a privileged first responder in isozyme-specific electrophile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Marcus J C; Parvez, Saba; Zhao, Yi; Surya, Sanjna L; Wang, Yiran; Zhang, Sheng; Aye, Yimon

    2017-03-01

    Isozyme-specific post-translational regulation fine tunes signaling events. However, redundancy in sequence or activity renders links between isozyme-specific modifications and downstream functions uncertain. Methods to study this phenomenon are underdeveloped. Here we use a redox-targeting screen to reveal that Akt3 is a first-responding isozyme sensing native electrophilic lipids. Electrophile modification of Akt3 modulated downstream pathway responses in cells and Danio rerio (zebrafish) and markedly differed from Akt2-specific oxidative regulation. Digest MS sequencing identified Akt3 C119 as the privileged cysteine that senses 4-hydroxynonenal. A C119S Akt3 mutant was hypomorphic for all downstream phenotypes shown by wild-type Akt3. This study documents isozyme-specific and chemical redox signal-personalized physiological responses.

  16. Isozymes variability in rice mutants induced by fast neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, J.L.; Alvarez, A.; Gutierrez, L.; Deus, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The isozyme variability of a group of rice mutants induced through gamma and fast neutron (14 MeV) irradiation was studied. Polymorphisms were detected using esterase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase systems. The mean value of genetic similarity among the different cultivars, which arose from isozymes, was 0.75. The dendrogram was constructed based on genetic similarity matrices, designed with isozyme data using the unweighed pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) method. The efficiency of the UPGMA model for the estimation of genetic relationship among cultivars was supported by cophenetic correlation coefficients. Such values indicate that the distortion degree for the estimated similarities was minimal. It was found that both gamma rays and fast neutrons generated a wide range of variability which can be detected by means of isozyme patterns, even in closely related cultivars. (author)

  17. Isozymes variability in rice mutants induced by fast neutrons and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, J L; Alvarez, A [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Miramar, Playa, Havana (Cuba); Gutierrez, L; Deus, J E [Instituto de Investigaciones del Arroz, Bauta, Havana (Cuba)

    2001-05-01

    The isozyme variability of a group of rice mutants induced through gamma and fast neutron (14 MeV) irradiation was studied. Polymorphisms were detected using esterase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase systems. The mean value of genetic similarity among the different cultivars, which arose from isozymes, was 0.75. The dendrogram was constructed based on genetic similarity matrices, designed with isozyme data using the unweighed pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) method. The efficiency of the UPGMA model for the estimation of genetic relationship among cultivars was supported by cophenetic correlation coefficients. Such values indicate that the distortion degree for the estimated similarities was minimal. It was found that both gamma rays and fast neutrons generated a wide range of variability which can be detected by means of isozyme patterns, even in closely related cultivars. (author)

  18. Gel-Based Purification and Biochemical Study of Laccase Isozymes from Ganoderma sp. and Its Role in Enhanced Cotton Callogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna K. Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomycetous fungi, Ganoderma lucidum MDU-7 and Ganoderma sp. kk-02 secreted multiple laccase isozymes under diverse growth condition. Aromatic compounds and metal salts were also found to regulate the differential expression of laccase isozymes from both the Ganoderma sp. Laccase isozymes induced in the presence of copper from G. lucidum MDU-7 were purified by gel-based (native-PAGE purification method. The purity of laccase isozymes was checked by zymogram and SDS-PAGE. The SDS-PAGE of purified proteins confirmed the multimeric nature of laccase isozymes. The molecular mass of isozymes was found to be in the range of 40–66 kDa. Further, the purified laccase isozymes and their peptides were confirmed with the help of MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting. The biochemical characterization of laccase isozymes viz. Glac L2, Glac L3, Glac L4, and Glac L5 have shown the optimum temperature in the range of 30°–45°C and pH 3.0. The Km values of all the laccase isozymes determined for guaiacol were (96–281 μM, ABTS (15–83 μM and O-tolidine (78–724 μM. Further, laccase isozymes from G. lucidum whole genome were studied using bioinformatics tools. The molecular modeling and docking of laccase isozymes with different substrates showed a significant binding affinity, which further validates our experimental results. Interestingly, copper induced laccase of 40 U/ml in culture medium was found to significantly induce cotton callogenesis. Interestingly, all the laccase isozymes were found to have an antioxidative role and therefore capable in free radicals scavenging during callogenesis. This is the first detailed study on the biochemical characterization of all the laccase isozymes purified by a gel-based novel method.

  19. Enzymatic and thermodynamic profiles of a heterotetramer lactate dehydrogenase isozyme in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tatsufumi; Sugawara, Kotomi; Nakamura, Shigeyoshi; Kidokoro, Shun-Ichi; Wakui, Hideki; Nunomura, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the final step of glycolysis and produces NAD + . In somatic cells, LDH forms homotetramers and heterotetramers that are encoded by two different genes: LDHA (skeletal muscle type, M) and LDHB (heart type, H). Analysis of LDH isozymes is important for understanding the physiological role of homotetramers and heterotetramers and for optimizing inhibition of their enzymatic activity as it may result in distinct effects. Previously, we reported that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) inhibited LDH activity, but we did not examine isozyme specificity. In the present study, we isolated heterotetrameric LDH (H 2 M 2 ) from swine brain, determined its kinetic and thermodynamic properties, and examined the effect of HCQ on its activity compared to homotetrameric LDH isozymes. We show that: (1) the K m values for H 2 M 2 –mediated catalysis of pyruvate or lactate were intermediate compared to those for the homotetrameric isozymes, M 4 and H 4 whereas the V max values were similar; (2) the K m and V max values for H 2 M 2 –mediated catalysis of NADH were not significantly different among LDH isozymes; (3) the values for activation energy and van't Hoff enthalpy changes for pyruvate reduction of H 2 M 2 were intermediate compared to those for the homotetrameric isozymes; (4) the temperature for half residual activity of H 2 M 2 was closer to that for M 4 than for H 4 . We also show that HCQ had different affinities for various LDH isozymes. - Highlights: • Heterotetrameric (H 2 M 2 ) LDH isozyme was isolated from swine brain. • Kinetics of H 2 M 2 were intermediate between the two homotetramers. • Thermodynamics of H 2 M 2 were also intermediate between the two homotetramers. • Hydroxychloroquine inhibited more strongly H 2 M 2 than homotetramers.

  20. Effects of ultraviolet light irradiation on several isozymes in Helicoverpa armigera adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Jianyu; Zhang Changyu; Lei Chaoliang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV)light stress on esterase, peroxidases (POX ), and catalase (CAT) isozymes in Helicoverpa armigera (Hiiber) adults were studied by isozyme eleetrophoresis. When exposed to UV light irradiation, zymogram of esterase isozyme changed mainly in number and activity of isozyme. After 30 min and 60 min exposure, the intensity of isozyme bands E4, E9 and El0 were enhanced, E2 and E8 were weakened. The bands E1, E5, E7 and Ell disappeared after UV light irradiation, while E3 and E6 newly emerged. At the longest exposure time (90 min), the intensity of isozyme bands E4 and E9 was enhanced, while the intensity of E2 and E8 was weakened. The bands E1, E5 and E7 disappeared after UV light irradiation, whereas E3 and E6 newly emerged. The intensity of POX band P5 was enhanced in adults following the exposure to UV light for 30, 60, 90 minutes. The intensity of CAT band C1 was enhanced in adults following the exposure to UV light for 30, 60, 90 minutes, but that of band C2 was weakened after 30 min and 90 min exposure in comparison with the control

  1. Genome sequence of a urease-positive Campylobacter lari strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter lari is frequently isolated from shore birds and can cause illness in humans. Here we report the draft whole genome sequence of an urease-positive strain of C. lari that was isolated in estuarial water on the coast of Delaware, USA....

  2. Immobilization of urease on grafted starch by radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyenanh Dung; Nguyendinh Huyen

    1995-01-01

    The acrylamide was grafted by radiation onto starch which is a kind of polymeric biomaterial. The urease was immobilized on the grafted starch. Some experiments to observe the quantitative relationships between the percent graft and the activity of immobilized enzyme were determined. The enzyme activity was maintained by more than seven batch enzyme reactions. (author)

  3. Poly(acrylonitrile)chitosan composite membranes for urease immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovska, Katya; Georgieva, Aneliya; Godjevargova, Tzonka; Stoilova, Olya; Manolova, Nevena

    2007-05-10

    (Poly)acrylonitrile/chitosan (PANCHI) composite membranes were prepared. The chitosan layer was deposited on the surface as well as on the pore walls of the base membrane. This resulted in the reduction of the pore size of the membrane and in an increase of their hydrophilicity. The pore structure of PAN and PANCHI membranes were determined by TEM and SEM analyses. It was found that the average size of the pore under a selective layer base PAN membrane is 7 microm, while the membrane coated with 0.25% chitosan shows a reduced pore size--small or equal to 5 microm and with 0.35% chitosan--about 4 microm. The amounts of the functional groups, the degree of hydrophilicity and transport characteristics of PAN/Chitosan composite membranes were determined. Urease was covalently immobilized onto all kinds of PAN/chitosan composite membranes using glutaraldehyde. Both the amount of bound protein and relative activity of immobilized urease were measured. The highest activity (94%) was measured for urease bound to PANCHI2 membranes (0.25% chitosan). The basic characteristics (pH(opt), pH(stability), T(opt), T(stability), heat inactivation and storage stability) of immobilized urease were determined. The obtained results show that the poly(acrylonitrile)chitosan composite membranes are suitable for enzyme immobilization.

  4. Determination of Urease Biochemical Properties of Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp sesquipedalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusfahair; Ningsih, D. R.; Fatoni, A.; Pertiwi, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    Urease is enzyme that plays a role in nitrogen metabolism during plant germination. Plants that produce a lot of urease are grains. This study used asparagus bean as source of urease. The purpose of this research is to learn the effect of germination time on the activity of urease enzyme from asparagus bean and its biochemical properties. The research was started by germination of asparagus bean on day 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Asparagus bean sprouts were extracted using acetone and separated by centrifugation to obtain the crude extract of urease. The biochemical properties of the crude extract of urease was further determined including: the effect of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and metal addition to urease activity. The urease activity is determined by the Nessler method. The germination time of asparagus bean in yielding urease enzyme reached the optimum activity on the 8th day with activity value of 593.7 U/mL. The biochemical properties of urease from asparagus bean have optimum activity at 35 °C, pH 7.0 and substrate concentration 0.125% with activity value of 600 U/mL. Addition of CaCl2, SnCl2 and ZnCl2 metals decrease the activity of urease.

  5. Comparative study on Pulsed Laser Deposition and Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation of urease thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smausz, Tomi; Megyeri, Gabor; Kekesi, Renata; Vass, Csaba; Gyoergy, Eniko; Sima, Felix; Mihailescu, Ion N.; Hopp, Bela

    2009-01-01

    Urease thin films were produced by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) and Pulsed Laser Deposition from two types of targets: frozen water solutions of urease with different concentrations (1-10% m/v) and pure urease pellets. The fluence of the ablating KrF excimer laser was varied between 300 and 2200 mJ/cm 2 . Fourier transform infrared spectra of the deposited films showed no difference as compared to the original urease. Morphologic studies proved that the films consist of a smooth 'base' layer with embedded micrometer-sized droplets. Absorption-coefficient measurements contradicted the traditional 'absorptive matrix' model for MAPLE deposition. The laser energy was absorbed by urease clusters leading to a local heating-up and evaporation of the frozen matrix from the uppermost layer accompanied by the release of dissolved urease molecules. Significant enzymatic activity of urease was preserved only during matrix assisted transfer.

  6. Structure of Rv1848 (UreA), the Mycobacterium tuberculosis urease γ subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, Jeff E.; Bursey, Evan H.; Rho, Beom-Seop; Kim, Chang-Yub; Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Park, Min S.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Hung, Li-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Crystal and solution structures of Rv1848 protein and their implications in the biological assembly of Mtb urease is presented. The crystal structure of the urease γ subunit (UreA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv1848, has been determined at 1.8 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contains three copies of Rv1848 arranged into a homotrimer that is similar to the UreA trimer in the structure of urease from Klebsiella aerogenes. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments indicate that the Rv1848 protein also forms trimers in solution. The observed homotrimer and the organization of urease genes within the M. tuberculosis genome suggest that M. tuberculosis urease has the (αβγ) 3 composition observed for other bacterial ureases. The γ subunit may be of primary importance for the formation of the urease quaternary structure

  7. Colorimetric detection of urea, urease, and urease inhibitor based on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hao-Hua; Hong, Guo-Lin; Lin, Feng-Lin; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xia, Xing-Hua; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-07

    Herein, we reported for the first time that gold nanoparticles-catalyzed 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine-H2O2 system can serve as an ultrasensitive colorimetric pH indicator. Gold nanoparticles acted as a catalyst and imitated the function of horseradish peroxidase. The absorbance at 450 nm of the yellow-color product in the catalytic reaction exhibited a linear fashion over the pH range of 6.40-6.60. On the basis of this property, we constructed a novel sensing platform for the determination of urea, urease, and urease inhibitor. The limit of detection for urea and urease was 5 μM and 1.8 U/L, respectively. The half-maximal inhibition value IC50 of acetohydroxamic acid was found to be 0.05 mM. Urea in human urine and urease in soil were detected with satisfied results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of the urease gene cluster among and urease activities of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 isolates from humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, Alexander W; Köck, Robin; Bielaszewska, Martina; Zhang, Wenlan; Karch, Helge; Mathys, Werner

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 strains belong to two closely related major groups, which are differentiated by their sorbitol fermentation phenotypes. Here we studied the conservation of urease genes and their expression in sorbitol-fermenting (SF) and non-SF EHEC O157 isolates. PCR

  9. Kimpul (Xanthosoma spp. characterization based on morphological characteristic and isozymic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJIDAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurmiyati, Sugiyarto, Sajidan. 2009. Kimpul (Xanthosoma spp. characterization based on morphological characteristic and isozymic analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 138-145. This research is aimed: (i to know the variety of kimpul (Xanthosoma spp. based on morphological characteristics and isozymes analysis; (ii to know the correlation between its genetic space based on morphological characteristics and its genetic resemblance based on isozymes-banding pattern. This research results were analyzed and described by descriptive qualitative methods. Morphological observation was carried out in sub-District of Galur, Lendah and Girimulyo, Kulonprogo District, Yogyakarta. Morphological data of the kimpul plant was explored descriptively and then made dendogram. Data of isozymic banding pattern were analyzed quantitatively based on the appearance of the band on the gel, and qualitatively based on the thickness of the band formed, and then made dendogram. The correlation, between its genetic distance based on morphological characteristics and its genetic resemblance based on isozymes-banding pattern, were then analyzed grounded on coefficient correlation between product-moment and goodness of it criteria based on correlation. The results pointed out that morphologically, on eight observed samples which were consist of four different types (species, each Xanthosoma from different locations did not indicate obvious differences. Esterase was formed four different banding-patterns, Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase indicated eight different banding-patterns, and Peroxidase indicated seven different banding-patterns. Correlation between morphological data and data from EST and GOT isozymic banding pattern were very good (0.967918 and 0.937113, While, the correlations between morphological data and POD isozymes were good (0.892721.

  10. A Bacillus paralicheniformis Iron-Containing Urease Reduces Urea Concentrations in Rice Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingtao; Chen, Yuqi; Yuan, Minglai; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Urease, a nickel-containing metalloenzyme, was the first enzyme to be crystallized and has a prominent position in the history of biochemistry. In the present study, we identified a nickel urease gene cluster, ureABCEFGDH , in Bacillus paralicheniformis ATCC 9945a and characterized it in Escherichia coli Enzymatic assays demonstrate that this oxygen-stable urease is also an iron-containing acid urease. Heterologous expression assays of UreH suggest that this accessory protein is involved in the transmembrane transportation of nickel and iron ions. Moreover, this iron-containing acid urease has a potential application in the degradation of urea in rice wine. The present study not only enhances our understanding of the mechanism of activation of urease but also provides insight into the evolution of metalloenzymes. IMPORTANCE An iron-containing, oxygen-stable acid urease from B. paralicheniformis ATCC 9945a with good enzymatic properties was characterized. This acid urease shows activities toward both urea and ethyl carbamate. After digestion with 6 U/ml urease, approximately 92% of the urea in rice wine was removed, suggesting that this urease has great potential in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wade, Kristina L.; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 280–340 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386

  12. Molecular docking of Glycine max and Medicago truncatula ureases with urea; bioinformatics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz, Ertugrul; Vatansever, Recep; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker

    2016-03-01

    Urease (EC 3.5.1.5) is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is present in many bacteria, fungi, yeasts and plants. Most species, with few exceptions, use nickel metalloenzyme urease to hydrolyze urea, which is one of the commonly used nitrogen fertilizer in plant growth thus its enzymatic hydrolysis possesses vital importance in agricultural practices. Considering the essentiality and importance of urea and urease activity in most plants, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the ureases of two important legume species such as Glycine max (soybean) and Medicago truncatula (barrel medic) from Fabaceae family. With additional plant species, primary and secondary structures of 37 plant ureases were comparatively analyzed using various bioinformatics tools. A structure based phylogeny was constructed using predicted 3D models of G. max and M. truncatula, whose crystallographic structures are not available, along with three additional solved urease structures from Canavalia ensiformis (PDB: 4GY7), Bacillus pasteurii (PDB: 4UBP) and Klebsiella aerogenes (PDB: 1FWJ). In addition, urease structures of these species were docked with urea to analyze the binding affinities, interacting amino acids and atom distances in urease-urea complexes. Furthermore, mutable amino acids which could potentially affect the protein active site, stability and flexibility as well as overall protein stability were analyzed in urease structures of G. max and M. truncatula. Plant ureases demonstrated similar physico-chemical properties with 833-878 amino acid residues and 89.39-90.91 kDa molecular weight with mainly acidic (5.15-6.10 pI) nature. Four protein domain structures such as urease gamma, urease beta, urease alpha and amidohydro 1 characterized the plant ureases. Secondary structure of plant ureases also demonstrated conserved protein architecture, with predominantly α-helix and random coil structures. In

  13. Urease and serine protease inhibitory alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat; Afza, Nighat; Malik, Abdul; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2008-12-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6., 3'-Hydroxyepiglucoisatisin (3), Epiglucoisatisin (2) were found to be potent urease inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values 25.63 +/- 0.74, 37.01 +/- 0.41 and 31.72 +/- 0.93, 47.33 +/- 0.31 microM against Bacillus pasteurii & Jack bean urease, respectively. Compounds 3 and 2 also showed potent inhibitory potential against alpha-chymotrypsin with IC(50) values of 23.40 +/- 0.21 and 27.45 +/- 0.23 microM, respectively.

  14. AMP deaminase histochemical activity and immunofluorescent isozyme localization in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. L.; Sabina, R. L.; Ogasawara, N.; Riley, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The cellular distribution of AMP deaminase (AMPda) isozymes was documented for rat soleus and plantaris muscles, utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation methods. AMPda is a ubiquitous enzyme existing as three distinct isozymes, A, B and C, which were initially purified from skeletal muscle, liver (and kidney), and heart, respectively. AMPda-A is primarily concentrated subsarcolemmally and intermyofibrillarly within muscle cells, while isozymes B and C are concentrated within non-myofiber elements of muscle tissue. AMPda-B is principally associated with connective tissues surrounding neural elements and the muscle spindle capsule, and AMPda-C is predominantly associated with circulatory elements, such as arterial and venous walls, capillary endothelium, and red blood cells. These specific localizations, combined with documented differences in kinetic properties, suggest multiple functional roles for the AMPda isozymes or temporal segregation of similar AMPda functions. Linkage of the AMPda substrate with adenosine production pathways at the AMP level and the localization of isozyme-C in vascular tissue suggest a regulatory role in the microcirculation.

  15. Na,K-ATPase isozymes in colorectal cancer and liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBaker Bechmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to define Na,K-ATPase α and β subunit isoform expression and isozyme composition in colorectal cancer cells and liver metastases. The α1, α3 and β1 isoforms were the most highly expressed in tumor cells and metastases; in the plasma membrane of non-neoplastic cells and mainly in a cytoplasmic location in tumor cells. α1β1 and α3β1 isozymes found in tumor and metastatic cells exhibit the highest and lowest Na+ affinity respectively and the highest K+ affinity. Mesenchymal cell isozymes possess an intermediate Na+ affinity and a low K+ affinity. In cancer, these ions are likely to favor optimal conditions for the function of nuclear enzymes involved in mitosis, especially a high intra-nuclear K+ concentration. A major and striking finding of this study was that in liver, metastasized CRC cells express the α3β1 isozyme. Thus, the α3β1 isozyme could potentially serve as a novel exploratory biomarker of CRC metastatic cells in liver.

  16. Characterization of Boerhavia diffusa L. mutant lines by RAPD and isozyme, selected for agronomically valuable traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, N.; Sangwan, N.S.; Misra, H.O.; Sangwan, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Boerhavia diffusa is a medicinally important plant and finds extensive uses in traditional herbal drug preparations. For the development of improved varieties in terms of superior yield and quality of herb/root of B. diffusa, mutation breeding was attempted. Mutants generated by physical and chemical mutagenic treatments were screened for yield and quality parameters of the root/herb up to three consecutive generations. The selected-screened lines generated by physical and chemical mutagenic treatments on two selected genotypes I and II were molecularly analyzed using eight isozymes and eleven RAPD primers producing good amplification. Mutants from BD10 (selected genotype I) were distinct, while, in case of BD22 (selected genotype II), only one mutant BDMu7 was recorded distinct by isozyme analysis. The wild mutant (BDMu16, with maximum height and mouve coloured flower) was distinct in RAPD banding pattern. Isozymes differentiated the mutants from their respective controls, whereas RAPD differentiated the mutants and controls and also distinguished the mutants. The RAPD analysis was found to be better suited than isozymes for detecting genetic differences among controls and their mutants. However, both RAPD and isozyme analyses gave similar patterns of genetic relationships [it

  17. Structure of the horseradish peroxidase isozyme C genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, K; Takemura, H; Shibayama, S; Kobayashi, K; Choi, J K; Shinmyo, A; Takano, M; Yamada, Y; Okada, H

    1988-05-02

    We have isolated, cloned and characterized three cDNAs and two genomic DNAs corresponding to the mRNAs and genes for the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase isoenzyme C (HPR C). The amino acid sequence of HRP C1, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of one of the cDNA clone, pSK1, contained the same primary sequence as that of the purified enzyme established by Welinder [FEBS Lett. 72, 19-23 (1976)] with additional sequences at the N and C terminal. All three inserts in the cDNA clones, pSK1, pSK2 and pSK3, coded the same size of peptide (308 amino acid residues) if these are processed in the same way, and the amino acid sequence were homologous to each other by 91-94%. Functional amino acids, including His40, His170, Tyr185 and Arg183 and S-S-bond-forming Cys, were conserved in the three isozymes, but a few N-glycosylation sites were not the same. Two HRP C isoenzyme genomic genes, prxC1 and prxC2, were tandem on the chromosomal DNA and each gene consisted of four exons and three introns. The positions in the exons interrupted by introns were the same in two genes. We observed a putative promoter sequence 5' upstream and a poly(A) signal 3' downstream in both genes. The gene product of prxC1 might be processed with a signal sequence of 30 amino acid residues at the N terminus and a peptide consisting of 15 amino acid residues at the C terminus.

  18. A novel nanobody against urease activity of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardekani, Leila Safaee; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rasooli, Iraj; Bazl, Masoumeh Rajabi; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimizadeh, Walead; Bakherad, Hamid; Zare, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis and in some cases with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and even adenocarcinoma. Antibiotic therapy has significant limitations, such as the high cost and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, generating the need for new treatments. The administration of antibody against H. pylori is a new effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we successfully developed a single-variable domain of heavy chain antibody against recombinant UreC. A VHH phagemid library was constructed from immune camel heavy chain antibodies. The nanobodies were displayed on M13 phage. Library selection was performed against UreC recombinant protein. A specific single-variable domain of heavy chain antibody against UreC was screened in five rounds of panning. The nanobody with the highest score in the phage ELISA was selected for soluble expression. The nanobody was purified with a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column and confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. Affinity, specificity, and urease inhibitory properties of the nanobody were assayed. Here we showed the isolation and purification of a specific nanobody with high affinity against UreC recombinant protein that can inhibit urease activity. The isolated UreC nanobody can specifically detect and bind to UreC and inhibit urease activity. This nanobody could be a novel class of treatment measure against H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of urease by Haemophilus influenzae during human respiratory tract infection and role in survival in an acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a common cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infection in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prior studies have shown that H. influenzae expresses abundant urease during growth in the middle ear of the chinchilla and in pooled human sputum, suggesting that expression of urease is important for colonization and infection in the hostile environments of the middle ear and in the airways in adults. Virtually nothing else is known about the urease of H. influenzae, which was characterized in the present study. Results Analysis by reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that the ure gene cluster is expressed as a single transcript. Knockout mutants of a urease structural gene (ureC) and of the entire ure operon demonstrated no detectable urease activity indicating that this operon is the only one encoding an active urease. The ure operon is present in all strains tested, including clinical isolates from otitis media and COPD. Urease activity decreased as nitrogen availability increased. To test the hypothesis that urease is expressed during human infection, purified recombinant urease C was used in ELISA with pre acquisition and post infection serum from adults with COPD who experienced infections caused by H. influenzae. A total of 28% of patients developed new antibodies following infection indicating that H. influenzae expresses urease during airway infection. Bacterial viability assays performed at varying pH indicate that urease mediates survival of H. influenzae in an acid environment. Conclusions The H. influenzae genome contains a single urease operon that mediates urease expression and that is present in all clinical isolates tested. Nitrogen availability is a determinant of urease expression. H. influenzae expresses urease during human respiratory tract infection and urease is a target of the human antibody response. Expression of urease enhances viability in an acid

  20. Effect of heavy metal stress on the catalase activity and expression of isozymes in the leaves of rice seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Cailin; Yang Xiaoyong; Zhu Hongxia; Wang Zegang; Luo Shishi; Ma Fei; Sun Jinhe

    2002-01-01

    The effect of heavy metal stress on the catalase (CAT) activity and expression of isozymes in the leaves of rice (Wuyujing, Yangdao 6, Shanyou 818) seedling was measured and analyzed. The results showed as follows. (1) When the concentration of Cu, Cd and Hg was in the range of 0.05-2.0 mM, the CAT activity decreased continuously with the concentration of Cu and Cd increasing. However, with the concentration of Hg increasing the CAT activity rapidly decreased first, and then increased slightly, and again decreased obviously, indicating that the Cu, Cd and Hg of 0.05-2.0 mM inhibited the CAT activity in the leaves of rice seedling. (2) The results by using polyacrylamide concentration gradient gel electrophoresis technique to analyze the CAT isozymes indicated that, on the normal condition, there were 1 to 2 CAT isozymes being expressed in the rice leaves (2 CAT isozymes being expressed in Wuyujing leaves, 1 CAT isozymes in Yangdao 6 and Shanyou 818 leaves). 0.1 mM Cd stress induced Wuyujing leaves to express 1 new CAT isozymes, 0.1 mM Cd and Hg stress also induced Yangdao 6 leaves to express 1 new CAT isozymes, but the expression of CAT isozymes, which were expressed in normal condition, were inhibited by Cu, Cd and Hg stress

  1. Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) inhibits jack bean urease activity due to methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriemen, Jana; Klemm, Oliver; Henle, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) exerts a strong antibacterial effect. Bacterial enzymes are an important target for antibacterial compounds. The enzyme urease produces ammonia and enables bacteria to adapt to an acidic environment. A new enzymatic assay, based on photometric detection of ammonia with ninhydrin, was developed to study urease activity. Methylglyoxal (MGO) and its precursor dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which are naturally present in manuka honey, were identified as jack bean urease inhibitors with IC 50 values of 2.8 and 5.0mM, respectively. Urease inhibition of manuka honey correlates with its MGO and DHA content. Non-manuka honeys, which lack MGO and DHA, showed significantly less urease inhibition. MGO depletion from manuka honey with glyoxalase reduced urease inhibition. Therefore, urease inhibition by manuka honey is mainly due to MGO and DHA. The results obtained with jack bean urease as a model urease, may contribute to the understanding of bacterial inhibition by manuka honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial Urease and its Role in Long-Lasting Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Iwona; Żarnowiec, Paulina; Kwinkowski, Marek; Kolesińska, Beata; Frączyk, Justyna; Kamiński, Zbigniew; Kaca, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Urease is a virulence factor found in various pathogenic bacteria. It is essential in colonization of a host organism and in maintenance of bacterial cells in tissues. Due to its enzymatic activity, urease has a toxic effect on human cells. The presence of ureolytic activity is an important marker of a number of bacterial infections. Urease is also an immunogenic protein and is recognized by antibodies present in human sera. The presence of such antibodies is connected with progress of several long-lasting diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis or urinary tract infections. In bacterial ureases, motives with a sequence and/or structure similar to human proteins may occur. This phenomenon, known as molecular mimicry, leads to the appearance of autoantibodies, which take part in host molecules destruction. Detection of antibodies-binding motives (epitopes) in bacterial proteins is a complex process. However, organic chemistry tools, such as synthetic peptide libraries, are helpful in both, epitope mapping as well as in serologic investigations. In this review, we present a synthetic report on a molecular organization of bacterial ureases - genetic as well as structural. We characterize methods used in detecting urease and ureolytic activity, including techniques applied in disease diagnostic processes and in chemical synthesis of urease epitopes. The review also provides a summary of knowledge about a toxic effect of bacterial ureases on human body and about occurrence of anti-urease antibodies in long-lasting diseases. PMID:23305365

  3. HOMOLOGY MODELING AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS UREASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. M. tuberculosis urease (MTU is an attractive target for chemotherapeutic intervention in tuberculosis by designing new safe and efficient enzyme inhibitors. A prerequisite for designing such inhibitors is an understanding of urease's three-dimensional (3D structure organization. 3D structure of M. tuberculosis urease is unknown. When experimental three-dimensional structure of a protein is not known, homology modeling, the most commonly used computational structure prediction method, is the technique of choice. This paper aimed to build a 3D-structure of M. tuberculosis urease by homology modeling and to study its stability by molecular dynamics simulations. Materials and methods. To build MTU model, five high-resolution X-ray structures of bacterial ureases with three-subunit composition (2KAU, 5G4H, 4UBP, 4СEU, and 4EPB have been selected as templates. For each template five stochastic alignments were created and for each alignment, a three-dimensional model was built. Then, each model was energy minimized and the models were ranked by quality Z-score. The MTU model with highest quality estimation amongst 25 potential models was selected. To further improve structure quality the model was refined by short molecular dynamics simulation that resulted in 20 snapshots which were rated according to their energy and the quality Z-score. The best scoring model having minimum energy was chosen as a final homology model of 3D structure for M. tuberculosis. The final model of MTU was also validated by using PDBsum and QMEAN servers. These checks confirmed good quality of MTU homology model. Results and discussion. Homology model of MTU is a nonamer (homotrimer of heterotrimers, (αβγ3 consisting of 2349 residues. In MTU heterotrimer, sub-units α, β, and γ tightly interact with each other at a surface of approximately 3000 Å2. Sub-unit α contains the enzyme active site with two Ni atoms coordinated by amino acid residues His347, His

  4. Differential expression of 5-alpha reductase isozymes in the prostate and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of human benign or malignant prostatic diseases is closely associated with androgens, primarily testosterone (T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. T is converted to DHT by 5-alpha reductase (5-AR isozymes. Differential expression of 5-AR isozymes is observed in both human benign and malignant prostatic tissues. 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARI are commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and were once promoted as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer (PCa. This review discusses the role of the differential expression of 5-AR in the normal development of the human prostate and in the pathogenesis and progression of BPH and PCa.

  5. Aspects of gene structure and functional regulation of the isozymes of Na,K-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    genomes, the genes of four alpha-subunit and at least three beta-subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase are identified and two gamma-subunits are expressed in kidney. The isoforms combine in a number of Na,K-ATPase isozymes that are expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner. Models of the molecular...... mechanism of regulation of these isozymes have become more reliable due to progress in understanding the three-dimensional protein structure and conformational transitions mediating transfer of energy from the P-domain to intramembrane Na+ and K+ binding sites....

  6. Direct detection of rutin-degrading isozymes with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Deng, Dandan; Zhang, Xuebin; Zhang, Haina; Wang, Cong; Chen, Peng

    2013-12-15

    Rutin-degrading enzymes (RDEs) specifically hydrolyze the glycosidic linkages of rutin, producing quercetin and rutinose. Here we report a reliable and sensitive polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and staining method for the detection of RDE isozymes, which is based on the aqueous solubility difference between rutin and quercetin, as well as the ultraviolet absorbance of quercetin. With this novel method, we achieved a detection limit of 12 ng with 107 U of RDE activity, enabling us to detect at least five RDE isozymes in tartary buckwheat seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced Peroxide Resistance of In Vitro Mutagenized Fluorideresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Ureases for Catalytic Buffering of Agent Decontamination Reactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fry, Ilona J; DeFrank, Joseph J

    2004-01-01

    .... Fluoride-resistant (FR) ureases developed previously in our laboratory were >95% inhibited by 1% hydrogen peroxide. To overcome this problem, the FR mutant urease structural genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae were mutagenized in vitro in an E...

  8. Fluorescent Water Soluble Polymers for Isozyme-Selective Interactions with Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rinku; Scott, Michael D.; Haldar, Manas K.; Ganguly, Bratati; Srivastava, D. K.; Friesner, Daniel L.; Mallik, Sanku

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in various pathological conditions, including various cancers. Although these isozymes have similar active sites, the patterns of exposed amino acids on their surfaces are different. Herein, we report the synthesis and molecular interactions of two water-soluble, fluorescent polymers which demonstrate selective interactions with MMP-9 compared to MMP-7 and -10. PMID:21367603

  9. Isozyme modifications and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante Alves, J M; Sihachakr, D; Allot, M; Tizroutine, S; Mussio, I; Servaes, A; Ducreux, G

    1994-05-01

    The potential of somatic embryogenesis was evaluated for 10 cultivars of sweet potato through extensive embryogenic response and isozyme analysis. Embryogenic callus was induced by incubating lateral buds on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for 6-8 weeks. The frequency of embryogenic response was low, and varied with genotypes, ranging from 0 to 17%. Embryo to plantlet formation could be enhanced by the use of the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with kinetin, both used at 0.01 μM. Embryogenic callus with its potential of plantlet formation has constantly been maintained for over two years. However, after several subcultures, 0.5 to 12% of embryogenic callus reverted irreversibly into friable fast-growing non-embryogenic callus whose ability to regenerate shoots was then definitively lost. The isozymes of esterase, peroxidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and acid phosphatase investigated in this study were found appropriate to distinguish compact embryogenic from friable non-embryogenic callus in sweet potato. In fact, the callus reversion was associated with a loss of bands or a decline in isozyme activity. On the contrary, very small changes in isozyme activity or no specific changes at all were observed during the differentiation of embryogenic callus into globular embryos.

  10. Interactions of barley alpha-amylase isozymes with Ca2+, substrates and proteinaceous inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou Hachem, Maher; Bozonnet, Sophie; Willemoes, Martin

    2006-01-01

    discovered 'sugar tongs' site in domain C of AMY1 is thus critical for binding to starch granules. Furthermore, mutations of binding sites mostly reduced the degree of multiple attack in amylose hydrolysis. AMY1 has higher substrate affinity than AMY2, but isozyme chimeras with AMY2 domain C and other...

  11. Organellar and cytosolic localization of four phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase isozymes in spinach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1999-01-01

    Four cDNAs encoding phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase were isolated from a spinach (Spinacia oleracea) cDNA library by complementation of an Escherichia coli Δprs mutation. The four gene products produced PRPP in vitro from ATP and ribose-5-phosphate. Two of the enzymes (isozymes 1 and 2...

  12. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation on urease activity in soil and gamma-sterilized soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotti, E.B.R.; Pidello, A.

    1999-01-01

    Azospirillum spp. is considered a PGPR (plant growth promoting rhyzobacteria) bacterium, besides this interest, there is little information about its effects on other functional microbial groups or on soil enzymes. In this paper, the impact that Azospirillum brasilense 7001 inoculation has on urease activity expression in a Typic Argiudoll was studied. Evolution of urease activity of soil and of gamma irradiation (25 KGy) sterilized soil, and the inoculated strain survival were tested. The relation between soil urease activity and soil NH 4 +-N was also determined. In γ-sterilized soil, urease activity of inoculated soil increased with time, showing significant differences with regard to the control soil without inoculum at day 15. In non-sterile soil, urease activity decreased during the studied period in all treatments; in inoculated soil, it showed higher or lower values than the control depending on sampling time. Azospirillum survival was important and different according to soil condition conditions. The negative relation between NH 4 +-N concentration and soil urease activity (r 2 = 0.62) was observed in inoculated soil. The role of the addition of autoclaved inoculum in the urease activity expression is discussed. The research proves that in both studied situations Azospirillum modified soil urease activity, and that the competition with native microorganisms and soil NH 4 +-N may affect this bacterium capacity. (author)

  13. Effect of ohmic heating of soymilk on urease inactivation and kinetic analysis in holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-De; Chen, Chen; Ren, Jie; Wang, Ranran; Wu, Peng

    2015-02-01

    To verify the effect of the ohmic heating on the urease activity in the soymilk, the ohmic heating methods with the different electrical field conditions (the frequency and the voltage ranging from 50 to 10 kHz and from 160 to 220 V, respectively) were employed. The results showed that if the value of the urease activity measured with the quantitative spectrophotometry method was lower than 16.8 IU, the urease activity measured with the qualitative method was negative. The urease activity of the sample ohmically heated was significantly lower than that of the sample conventionally heated (P urease inactivation. In addition, the inactivation kinetics of the urease in the soymilk could be described with a biphasic model during holding time at a target temperature. Thus, it was concluded that the urease in the soymilk would contain 2 isoenzymes, one is the thermolabile fraction, the other the thermostable fraction, and that the thermostable isoenzyme could not be completely inactivated when the holding time increased, whether the soymilk was cooked with the conventional method or with the ohmic heating method. Therefore, the electric field had no effect on the inactivation of the thermostable isoenzyme of the urease. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effects of plant urease inhibitor on crop nutrition and soil characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengyin; Xu Weihong; Huang Yun; Yuan Lujiang; Jia Zhongyuan; Zhou Jun; Ding Shuying

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 15 N-urea and 4 kinds of plant materials (P 1 , P 2 , P 3 and P 4 ) as urease inhibitor on sorghum and rice nutrition and soil characters. The results indicated that the growth, above-ground parts and roots weight of rice and sorghum were respectively promoted by 4 plant urease inhibitors and P 1 with little change of chl.a/chl.b ratios in these treatments. The content of amino acid in rice leaf and utilization rate of nitrogen by rice were enhanced by 12.9%-25.1% and 5.2%-7.7% respectively, and the utilization rate of nitrogen by sorghum was improved by urease inhibitor treatments (except P 1 ). Plant urease inhibitor could obviously increase the apparent utilization rate of nitrogen by 4.3%-19.2% for two crops and improve phosphorus and potassium uptake by rice plant but decrease phosphorus and potassium uptake by sorghum plant. The contents of soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen were increased by plant urease inhibitor under two cultivated condition. The inhibition time of plant urease inhibitor to soil urease was short and it disappeared as 36 days of rice growth under flooded condition, while the activities of soil urease were decreased by 10.6%-18.3% at 48 days of sorghum growth in upland soil

  15. Urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of Helicobacter pylori in a viscous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yoshiyama, H; Takeuchi, H; Mizote, T; Okita, K; Nakazawa, T

    1998-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the mutant strain did not show swarming in motility agar regardless of having flagella. Incubation of the wild-type strain with flurofamide resulted in partial inhibition of the chemotactic activities in the viscous solution. In addition, incubation with acetohydroxamic acid, a low-molecular-weight, diffusible urease inhibitor, resulted in complete loss of chemotactic activity in the viscous solution. The inhibition of the chemotactic activity by urease inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of urease. The chemotactic activity of H. pylori was also inhibited by the proton carrier carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, showing that H. pylori utilizes proton motive force for motility. These results indicate that cytoplasmic urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of H. pylori under a condition that mimics the ecological niche of the bacterium, the gastric mucous layer.

  16. Stabilization of 5A1 urease by covalent attachement to wool | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of five bacterial strains for urease production referred that Bacillus licheniformis 5A1 had the highest urease activity (10.3U/ml/min) after 24h. The enzyme was covalently coupled to different carriers via glutaraldehyde, and wool gave the highest immobilization yield (76.4%) and retained 85% of the original ...

  17. Structure of UreG/UreF/UreH Complex Reveals How Urease Accessory Proteins Facilitate Maturation of Helicobacter pylori Urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Yu Hang; Wong, Ho Chun; Yuen, Man Hon; Lau, Pak Ho; Chen, Yu Wai; Wong, Kam-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Urease is a metalloenzyme essential for the survival of Helicobacter pylori in acidic gastric environment. Maturation of urease involves carbamylation of Lys219 and insertion of two nickel ions at its active site. This process requires GTP hydrolysis and the formation of a preactivation complex consisting of apo-urease and urease accessory proteins UreF, UreH, and UreG. UreF and UreH form a complex to recruit UreG, which is a SIMIBI class GTPase, to the preactivation complex. We report here the crystal structure of the UreG/UreF/UreH complex, which illustrates how UreF and UreH facilitate dimerization of UreG, and assembles its metal binding site by juxtaposing two invariant Cys66-Pro67-His68 metal binding motif at the interface to form the (UreG/UreF/UreH)2 complex. Interaction studies revealed that addition of nickel and GTP to the UreG/UreF/UreH complex releases a UreG dimer that binds a nickel ion at the dimeric interface. Substitution of Cys66 and His68 with alanine abolishes the formation of the nickel-charged UreG dimer. This nickel-charged UreG dimer can activate urease in vitro in the presence of the UreF/UreH complex. Static light scattering and atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the nickel-charged UreG dimer, upon GTP hydrolysis, reverts to its monomeric form and releases nickel to urease. Based on our results, we propose a mechanism on how urease accessory proteins facilitate maturation of urease. PMID:24115911

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe, E-mail: pkarthe@hotmail.com [Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2008-07-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.

  19. Urease from seeds of 'Citrullus vulgaris'. The effect of chemical agents and ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, A B; de Souza Marcondes, N; Elias, C A [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica

    1976-09-30

    The effect of the urea analogs acetanide and hidroxi-urea on the enzyme kinetic of urease obtained from seeds of 'Citrullus vulgaris' fruits has been studied. The action of the sulphydryl reagents and the enzyme and the effect of x-rays and the protective action of the cysteamine are also studied. Acetamide has no effect on urease kinetic. Hydroxi-urea acts as a competitive inhibitor of urease. Spectrophotometric experiments suggest that the studied urease decomposes hidroxi-urea with liberation of hydroxilamine. The sulphydril reagent, p-hydroxi-mercuribenzoate inhibts the enzyme. Cysteine and dithiotreitol reactivate the enzyme activity in no more than 50% even when excess of the substances is used. Urease is very sensitive to x-rays. Cysteamine acts as a protective agent of the enzyme. Dithiotreitol reinforces this protective action.

  20. Adverse effect of urease on salt stress during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yuanyuan; Kou, Jing; Sun, Bo; Takano, Testuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2015-05-22

    Seed germination is a critical stage in the development of crops that grow in saline soils. We noticed that seeds of an Arabidopsis urease mutant have significantly increased salt stress tolerance. To understand why, we treated the wild type (WT) with a urease inhibitor and found that its salt stress tolerance was also improved. We hypothesized that urease acting on urea generates NH₄⁺, which probably exacerbates salt stress. As expected, the urease inhibitor significantly decreased the NH₄⁺ level in WT seeds. These findings suggest that blocking urease activity improves salt tolerance during seed germination by lowering the concentration of NH₄⁺. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2009-01-01

    Jack bean urease was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.05 Å resolution. Plant urease is a seed protein that is common in most legumes. It is also common in many bacteria and fungi and several species of yeast. Urease allows organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source by catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urease from jack bean meal was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving acetone precipitation and size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. The jack bean urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.05 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 3 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 138.57, c = 198.36 Å

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2008-01-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å

  3. Urease Activity Represents an Alternative Pathway for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Nitrogen Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenwei; Mathys, Vanessa; Ang, Emily Lei Yin; Koh, Vanessa Hui Qi; Martínez Gómez, Julia María; Ang, Michelle Lay Teng; Zainul Rahim, Siti Zarina; Tan, Mai Ping; Pethe, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Urease represents a critical virulence factor for some bacterial species through its alkalizing effect, which helps neutralize the acidic microenvironment of the pathogen. In addition, urease serves as a nitrogen source provider for bacterial growth. Pathogenic mycobacteria express a functional urease, but its role during infection has yet to be characterized. In this study, we constructed a urease-deficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and confirmed the alkalizing effect of the urease activity within the mycobacterium-containing vacuole in resting macrophages but not in the more acidic phagolysosomal compartment of activated macrophages. However, the urease-mediated alkalizing effect did not confer any growth advantage on M. tuberculosis in macrophages, as evidenced by comparable growth profiles for the mutant, wild-type (WT), and complemented strains. In contrast, the urease-deficient mutant exhibited impaired in vitro growth compared to the WT and complemented strains when urea was the sole source of nitrogen. Substantial amounts of ammonia were produced by the WT and complemented strains, but not with the urease-deficient mutant, which represents the actual nitrogen source for mycobacterial growth. However, the urease-deficient mutant displayed parental colonization profiles in the lungs, spleen, and liver in mice. Together, our data demonstrate a role for the urease activity in M. tuberculosis nitrogen metabolism that could be crucial for the pathogen's survival in nutrient-limited microenvironments where urea is the sole nitrogen source. Our work supports the notion that M. tuberculosis virulence correlates with its unique metabolic versatility and ability to utilize virtually any carbon and nitrogen sources available in its environment. PMID:22645285

  4. Structural and transcriptional characterization of a novel member of the soybean urease gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; De Oliveira-Busatto, Luisa Abruzzi; Carlini, Célia Regina; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2016-04-01

    In plants, ureases have been related to urea degradation, to defense against pathogenic fungi and phytophagous insects, and to the soybean-Bradyrhizobium japonicum symbiosis. Two urease isoforms have been described for soybean: the embryo-specific, encoded by Eu1 gene, and the ubiquitous urease, encoded by Eu4. A third urease-encoding locus exists in the completed soybean genome. The gene was designated Eu5 and the putative product of its ORF as SBU-III. Phylogenetic analysis shows that 41 plant, moss and algal ureases have diverged from a common ancestor protein, but ureases from monocots, eudicots and ancient species have evolved independently. Genomes of ancient organisms present a single urease-encoding gene and urease-encoding gene duplication has occurred independently along the evolution of some eudicot species. SBU-III has a shorter amino acid sequence, since many gaps are found when compared to other sequences. A mutation in a highly conserved amino acid residue suggests absence of ureolytic activity, but the overall protein architecture remains very similar to the other ureases. The expression profile of urease-encoding genes in different organs and developmental stages was determined by RT-qPCR. Eu5 transcripts were detected in seeds one day after dormancy break, roots of young plants and embryos of developing seeds. Eu1 and Eu4 transcripts were found in all analyzed organs, but Eu4 expression was more prominent in seeds one day after dormancy break whereas Eu1 predominated in developing seeds. The evidence suggests that SBU-III may not be involved in nitrogen availability to plants, but it could be involved in other biological role(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of two barley thioredoxin h isozymes, HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof

    2010-01-01

    -dependent fluorescence, and the barley isozymes, reaction kinetics and thermodynamic properties were readily determined. The reaction constants were 60% higher for HvTrxh1 than HvTrxh2, while their redox potentials were very similar. The primary nucleophile, Cys(N), of the active site Trp-Cys(N)-Gly-Pro-Cys......Barley thioredoxin h isozymes 1 (HvTrxh1) and barley thioredoxin h isozymes 2 (HvTrxh2) show distinct spatiotemporal distribution in germinating seeds. Using a novel approach involving measurement of bidirectional electron transfer rates between Escherichia coli thioredoxin, which exhibits redox...

  6. A phylogenetic comparison of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) and urease-negative (UN) C. lari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Junichi; Tazumi, Akihiro; Hayashi, Kyohei; Tasaki, Erina; Kuribayashi, Takashi; Moore, John E; Millar, Beverley C; Matsuda, Motoo

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the reliability of full-length gene sequence information for several genes including 16S rRNA was examined, for the discrimination of the two representative Campylobacter lari taxa, namely urease-negative (UN) C. lari and urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC). As previously described, 16S rRNA gene sequence are not reliable for the molecular discrimination of UN C. lari from UPTC organisms employing both the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA) and neighbor joining (NJ) methods. In addition, three composite full-length gene sequences (ciaB, flaC and vacJ) out of seven gene loci examined were reliable for discrimination employing dendrograms constructed by the UPGMA method. In addition, all the dendrograms of the NJ phylogenetic trees constructed based on the nine gene information were not reliable for the discrimination. Three composite full-length gene sequences (ciaB, flaC and vacJ) were reliable for the molecular discrimination between UN C. lari and UPTC organisms employing the UPGMA method, as well as among four thermophilic Campylobacter species. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Potentiometric urea biosensor based on an immobilised fullerene-urease bio-conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedfar, Kasra; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling; Rezayi, Majid

    2013-12-06

    A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease) bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10-3 M to 8.28 × 10-5 M. The biosensor's sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor's response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.

  8. Urease inhibitory profile of extracts and chemical constituents of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ghias; Ismail; Rauf, Abdur; Raza, Muslim; Khan, Haroon; Nasruddin; Khan, Majid; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal; Arifullah

    2016-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the urease inhibitory profile of extract and fractions of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks followed by bioactivity-guided isolated compounds. The crude extract was found significantly active with urease inhibitor (95.40% at 0.2 mg/mL) with IC50 values of 32.0 ± 0.28 μg/mL. Upon fractionation, ethyl acetate fraction displayed 100% urease inhibition with IC50 values of 19.9 ± 0.51 μg/mL at 0.2 mg/mL. However, n-hexane and chloroform fractions exhibited insignificant urease inhibition. Similarly, the isolated compound, transilitin (1) and dihydro luteolin (2) demonstrated marked urease attenuation with 95 and 98% respectively, at 0.15 mg/mL. Both the isolated compounds showed marked potency with IC50 values of 8.54 ± 0.54 and 9.58 ± 2.22 μg/mL, respectively. In short, both the extract and fractions and isolated compounds showed marked urease inhibition and thus a useful natural source of urease inhibition.

  9. [Mechanism of anti-Helicobacter pylori urease activity of patchouli alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Da-Wei; Xu, Yi-Fei; Ren, Wen-Kang; Fu, Li-Jun; Fan, Ping-Long; Cao, Hong-Ying; Huang, Ping

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of patchouli alcohol on inhibiting Helicobater pylori urease activity, and its effect on expression levels of related genes, and lay the foundation for further research on the effect of patchouli alcohol on H. pylori colonization and infection. H. pyloriwas cultured and identified by gram staining, rapid urease test (RUT) and PCR method. Then agar dilution method was used to detect the bacterial survival after 1 h intervention by different concentrations of patchouli alcoholin the acidic (pH 5.3) and neutral (pH 7.0) conditions; berthelot method was used to detect urease activity and RT-qPCR method was used to detect the expression changes of ureA, ureB, ureE, ureH, ureI, and nixA related urease genes. The results showed that the survival rate of H. pyloriwas not significantly changed but the urease activity was obviously decreased after intervention by different concentrations of patchouli alcohol; meanwhile, the expression levels of ureA, ureB, ureE, ureH, ureI, and nixA were decreased to different degrees. Therefore, patchouli alcohol could inhibit H. pylori urease activity in both acidic and neutral conditions, and the mechanism may be related to down-regulation of urease gene expression. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Selective antibacterial activity of patchouli alcohol against Helicobacter pylori based on inhibition of urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Xie, Jian-Hui; Wang, Yong-Hong; Li, Yu-Cui; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Su, Ji-Yan; Liang, Ye-er; Liang, Jin-Zhi; Su, Zi-Ren; Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity and urease inhibitory effects of patchouli alcohol (PA), the bioactive ingredient isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, which has been widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The activities of PA against selected bacteria and fungi were determined by agar dilution method. It was demonstrated that PA exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori, without influencing the major normal gastrointestinal bacteria. Noticeably, the antibacterial activity of PA was superior to that of amoxicillin, with minimal inhibition concentration value of 78 µg/mL. On the other hand, PA inhibited ureases from H.pylori and jack bean in concentration-dependent fashion with IC50 values of 2.67 ± 0.79 mM and 2.99 ± 0.41 mM, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that the type of inhibition was non-competitive against H.pylori urease whereas uncompetitive against jack bean urease. Reactivation of PA-inactivated urease assay showed DL-dithiothreitol, the thiol reagent, synergistically inactivated urease with PA instead of enzymatic activity recovery. In conclusion, the selective H.pylori antibacterial activity along with urease inhibitory potential of PA could make it a possible drug candidate for the treatment of H.pylori infection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ureases as a target for the treatment of gastric and urinary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, C

    2010-05-01

    Urease is known to be a major contributor to pathologies induced by Helicobacter pylori and Proteus species. In H pylori, urease allows the bacteria to survive in an acidic gastric environment during colonisation, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric and peptic ulcers. Ureolytic activity also results in the production of ammonia in close proximity to the gastric epithelium, causing cell damage and inflammation. In the case of Proteus species (notably Proteus mirabilis) infection, stones are formed due to the presence of ammonia and carbon dioxide released by urease action. In addition, the ammonia released is able to damage the glycosaminoglycan layer, which protects the urothelial surface against bacterial infection. In this context, the administration of urease inhibitors may be an effective therapy for urease-dependent pathogenic bacteria. This is a review of the role of ureases in H pylori and Proteus species infections, focussing on the biochemical and clinical aspects of the most promising and/or potent urease inhibitors for the treatment of gastric and urinary tract infections.

  12. Polysaccharide fraction from higher plants which strongly interacts with the cytosolic phosphorylase isozyme. I. Isolation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yi; Steup, M.

    1990-01-01

    From leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. or from Pisum sativum L. and from cotyledons of germinating pea seeds a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction was isolated. The apparent size of the fraction, as determined by gel filtration, was similar to that of dextran blue. Following acid hydrolysis the monomer content of the polysaccharide preparation was studied using high pressure liquid and thin layer chromatography. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and ribose were the main monosaccharide compounds. The native polysaccharide preparation interacted strongly with the cytosolic isozyme of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). Interaction with the plastidic phosphorylase isozyme(s) was by far weaker. Interaction with the cytosolic isozyme was demonstrated by affinity electrophoresis, kinetic measurements, and by 14 C-labeling experiments in which the glucosyl transfer from [ 14 C]glucose 1-phosphate to the polysaccharide preparation was monitored

  13. Inhibition of urease by extracts derived from 15 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Da-Hua; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Gu, Zhi-Feng

    2011-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major causative factor in gastritis-like disorders, and urease plays a key role in Helicobacter pylori colonizing and persisting in the mucous layer of the human stomach. In China, a variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been prescribed to attenuate or eradicate gastritis-like disorders. However, little is known about the urease inhibition of Chinese medicinal herbs. The present study was conducted to investigate the urease inhibition activities of the ethanol and water extracts of 15 Chinese medicinal herbs. The ethanol and water extracts derived from 15 medicinal herbs, traditionally used for the treatment of gastritis-like disorders in China, were tested for urease-inhibition activity using the phenol red method. Screened at 10 µg/mL, 14 ethanol extracts and 10 water extracts showed urease inhibition. The ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. (Magnoliaceae) and Cassia obtusifolia L. (Leguminosae) possessed inhibition rates higher than 50% with IC₅₀ values of 6.5 and 12.3 µg/mL, respectively. After fractionating successively, the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis showed the best activity with 90.8% urease inhibition at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. The bioautography of the petroleum ether fraction indicated the existence of the urease inhibitors in the herb. The present results indicated that some Chinese medicinal herbs might treat gastritis-like disorders via the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease and the further possibility for discovering useful novel urease inhibitors from the Chinese medicinal herbs.

  14. Cryptococcus gattii urease as a virulence factor and the relevance of enzymatic activity in cryptococcosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Vanessa; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Staats, Charley Christian; Vidal-Figueiredo, Natalia; Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2015-04-01

    Ureases (EC 3.5.1.5) are Ni(2+) -dependent metalloenzymes produced by plants, fungi and bacteria that hydrolyze urea to produce ammonia and CO2 . The insertion of nickel atoms into the apo-urease is better characterized in bacteria, and requires at least three accessory proteins: UreD, UreF, and UreG. Our group has demonstrated that ureases possess ureolytic activity-independent biological properties that could contribute to the pathogenicity of urease-producing microorganisms. The presence of urease in pathogenic bacteria strongly correlates with pathogenesis in some human diseases. Some medically important fungi also produce urease, including Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. C. gattii is an etiological agent of cryptococcosis, most often affecting immunocompetent individuals. The cryptococcal urease might play an important role in pathogenesis. It has been proposed that ammonia produced via urease action might damage the host endothelium, which would enable yeast transmigration towards the central nervous system. To analyze the role of urease as a virulence factor in C. gattii, we constructed knockout mutants for the structural urease-coding gene URE1 and for genes that code the accessory proteins Ure4 and Ure6. All knockout mutants showed reduced multiplication within macrophages. In intranasally infected mice, the ure1Δ (lacking urease protein) and ure4Δ (enzymatically inactive apo-urease) mutants caused reduced blood burdens and a delayed time of death, whereas the ure6Δ (enzymatically inactive apo-urease) mutant showed time and dose dependency with regard to fungal burden. Our results suggest that C. gattii urease plays an important role in virulence, in part possibly through enzyme activity-independent mechanism(s). © 2015 FEBS.

  15. Preparation of tubular urease immobilized on the inner wall of glass tube by radiation-polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, T; Kawashima, K [National Food Research Inst., Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan); Oka, O

    1981-03-01

    A method to prepare immobilized urease on the inner wall of a glass tube by radiation-polymerization under frozen state was investigated. As a part of a continuous flow analyzer, i.w.. Technicon Auto Analyzer II, the immobilized urease tube of 1 cm length was set and used for the routine determination of urea. This flow-through system could measure urea concentration of up to 30 mM at rate of 30 samples per hour. The system were possible to assay 2000 to 3000 samples, continuously in practice. The activity of the urease tube stored in a refrigerator maintained 94% of the initial activity after 115 days.

  16. Effect of low concentrations of ozone on the enzymes catalase, peroxidase, papain and urease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, G W

    1958-01-01

    The enzymes catalase, peroxidase, papain and urease were treated in vitro with low concentrations of ozone gas. Wide variations were found in the sensitivity of the enzymes to the inhibitory action of the gas. Papain showed the greatest sensitivity; the rest required a much greater amount of ozone for inactivation. Comparisons of ozone and hydrogen peroxide as inhibitors of papain and urease showed ozone to be 30 times as effective as hydrogen peroxide on papain and 3 times as effective on urease. 14 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Extraction of an urease-active organo-complex from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; El-Sayed, M. H.; Mclaren, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an extraction from a Dublin clay loam soil of a colloidal organic matter complex that is urease active and, by X-ray analysis, free of clays. Urease activity in the clay-free precipitates, as in the soil, was not destroyed by the activity of an added proteolytic enzyme, pronase. This is attributed to the circumstance that native soil urease resides in organic colloidal particles with pores large enough for water, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide to pass freely, but nevertheless small enough to exclude pronase.

  18. Nanohybrid-layered double hydroxides/urease materials: Synthesis and application to urea biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, S.; Forano, C.; Shan, D.; Mousty, C.; Barhoumi, H.; Martelet, C.; Jaffrezic, N.

    2006-01-01

    Nanohybrid [ZnAl]-layered double hydroxides/urease were prepared for the first time using the coprecipitation of enzyme and inorganic matrix. By varying the respective amount of urease and LDH, we obtained hybrid materials with various amount and dispersion rate of active biomolecules. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy confirm the preservation of the structure of each partner while the morphology properties are in good agreement with the permeability study. These new nanohybrids were applied for the development of urea biosensors. Biosensor responses to urea additions were obtained using capacitance (C vs. V) measurements at urease-LDH biofilm deposited on an insulated semiconductor (IS) structure

  19. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associated Urease by Palmatine: Investigation on the Potential Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Li, Cai-Lan; Tan, Li-Hua; Xu, Yi-Fei; Liu, Yu-Hong; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Dou, Yao-Xing; Su, Rui; Su, Zi-Ren; Huang, Ping; Xie, Jian-Hui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluated the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and the possible inhibitory effect on its associated urease by Palmatine (Pal) from Coptis chinensis, and explored the potential underlying mechanism. Results indicated that Pal exerted inhibitory effect on four tested H. pylori strains (ATCC 43504, NCTC 26695, SS1 and ICDC 111001) by the agar dilution test with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 100 to 200 μg/mL under neutral environment (pH 7.4), and from 75 to 100 μg/mL under acidic conditions (pH 5.3), respectively. Pal was observed to significantly inhibit both H. pylori urease (HPU) and jack bean urease (JBU) in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 0.53 ± 0.01 mM and 0.03 ± 0.00 mM, respectively, as compared with acetohydroxamic acid, a well-known urease inhibitor (0.07 ± 0.01 mM for HPU and 0.02 ± 0.00 mM for JBU, respectively). Kinetic analyses showed that the type of urease inhibition by Pal was noncompetitive for both HPU and JBU. Higher effectiveness of thiol protectors against urease inhibition than the competitive Ni2+ binding inhibitors was observed, indicating the essential role of the active-site sulfhydryl group in the urease inhibition by Pal. DTT reactivation assay indicated that the inhibition on the two ureases was reversible, further supporting that sulfhydryl group should be obligatory for urease inhibition by Pal. Furthermore, molecular docking study indicated that Pal interacted with the important sulfhydryl groups and inhibited the active enzymatic conformation through N-H ∙ π interaction, but did not interact with the active site Ni2+. Taken together, Pal was an effective inhibitor of H. pylori and its urease targeting the sulfhydryl groups, representing a promising candidate as novel urease inhibitor. This investigation also gave additional scientific support to the use of C. chinensis to treat H. pylori-related gastrointestinal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Pal might be

  20. Preparation of tubular urease immobilized on the inner wall of glass tube by radiation-polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Toru; Kawashima, Koji; Oka, Osamu.

    1981-01-01

    A method to prepare immobilized urease on the inner wall of a glass tube by radiation-polymerization under frozen state was investigated. As a part of a continuous flow analyzer, i.w.. Technicon Auto Analyzer II, the immobilized urease tube of 1 cm length was set and used for the routine determination of urea. This flow-through system could measure urea concentration of up to 30 mM at rate of 30 samples per hour. The system were possible to assay 2000 to 3000 samples, continuously in practice. The activity of the urease tube stored in a refrigirator maintained 94% of the initial activity after 115 days. (author)

  1. Urease inhibitory isoflavonoids from different parts of Calopogonium mucunoides (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemangou, Brigitte; Sielinou, Valerie Tedjon; Vardamides, Juliette Catherine; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Lateef, Mehreen; Iqbal, Lubna; Afza, Nigaht; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem

    2013-12-01

    The dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) soluble part of Calopogonium mucunoides (Fabaceae) resulted in the isolation of 10 isoflavones (4'-O-methylalpinumisoflavone, 4'-O-methylderrone, alpinumisoflavone, daidzeine, Calopogonium isoflavone A, atalantoflavone, 2',4',5',7-tetramethoxyisoflavone, 7-O-methylcuneantin, cabreuvin and 7-O-methylpseudobaptigenin) and a rotenoid (6a,12a-dehydroxydegueline). Among these, daidzeine, 7-O-methylcuneantin, atalantoflavone and 6a, 12a-dehydroxydegueline have been isolated for the first time from C. mucunoides while remaining are already reported from this source. Structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. Among all the isolated constituents, nine were evaluated for their urease inhibitory potential. However, six were found potent. These include 4'-O-methylderrone, daidzeine, atalantoflavone, 2',4',5',7-tetramethoxyisoflavone, 7-O-methylcuneantin and 6a, 12a-dehydroxydegueline.

  2. Protein kinase C isozymes, novel phorbol ester receptors and cancer chemotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, O P

    2012-02-03

    Recent years have seen extensive growth in the understanding of the role(s) of the various PKC isozymes and novel receptors for the phorbol ester tumor promoters. The PKC family of serine-threonine kinases is an important regulator of signaling cascades that control cell proliferation and death, and therefore represent targets for cancer therapy. While past interests have focused on PKC-selective inhibitors, more recently, intensive research has been underway for selective activators and inhibitors for each individual PKC isozyme. In the past few years a large number of PKC activators and inhibitors with potential as anticancer agents have been developed. A number of these compounds are already in Phase II clinical testing. As a new generation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents are designed, developed and put through a series of rigorous clinical trials, we can anticipate achieving exquisite control over PKC-mediated regulatory pathways, leading ultimately to a greater understanding of different cancers.

  3. Rapid urease test (RUT) for evaluation of urease activity in oral bacteria in vitro and in supragingival dental plaque ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Hassan, Haidar; Blomqvist, Susanne; Carlén, Anette

    2018-05-18

    Urease is an enzyme produced by plaque bacteria hydrolysing urea from saliva and gingival exudate into ammonia in order to regulate the pH in the dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the urease activity among oral bacterial species by using the rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format and to examine whether this test could be used for measuring the urease activity in site-specific supragingival dental plaque samples ex vivo. The RUT test is based on 2% urea in peptone broth solution and with phenol red at pH 6.0. Oral bacterial species were tested for their urease activity using 100 μl of RUT test solution in the well of a micro-plate to which a 1 μl amount of cells collected after growth on blood agar plates or in broth, were added. The color change was determined after 15, 30 min, and 1 and 2 h. The reaction was graded in a 4-graded scale (none, weak, medium, strong). Ex vivo evaluation of dental plaque urease activity was tested in supragingival 1 μl plaque samples collected from 4 interproximal sites of front teeth and molars in 18 adult volunteers. The color reaction was read after 1 h in room temperature and scored as in the in vitro test. The strongest activity was registered for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter ureolyticus and some strains of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, while known ureolytic species such as Streptococcus salivarius and Actinomyces naeslundii showed a weaker, variable and strain-dependent activity. Temperature had minor influence on the RUT reaction. The interproximal supragingival dental plaque between the lower central incisors (site 31/41) showed significantly higher scores compared to between the upper central incisors (site 11/21), between the upper left first molar and second premolar (site 26/25) and between the lower right second premolar and molar (site 45/46). The rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format can be used as a simple and rapid method to test urease

  4. An immunoradiometric assay for Helicobacter pylori urease B in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yanyan; Wang Zhaoyue; Bai Xia; Ruan Changgen; Miao Jingcheng; Gu Guanbing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a novel immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for detecting helicobacter pylori (HP) urease B (ureB) in serum. Methods: HP ureB was prepared by the DNA recombinant technique. Monoclonal antibodies against HP ureB were produced by hybridoma technique and were used to establish IRMA for detecting HP ureB. Fifty patients with chronic gastric diseases were recruited in this study, including 36 with gastric ulcer disease, 9 with chronic gastritis and 5 with gastric cancer. The IRMA was compared with rapid urease test (RUT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and direct-ELISA test of serum anti-ureB antibody, using HP culture from gastric biopsy samples as a 'golden standard'. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of IRMA for HP ureB were 94.6% and 76.9%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values being 92.1% and 83.3%. The sensitivity and specificity of RUT, PCR and serum anti-ureB antibody test were 94.6% and 23.1% , 66.8% and 84.6%, 86.5% and 38.5%, respectively. IRMA and the test of serum anti-ureB antibody was not significantly different from the 'golden standard' (X 2 =1.165, P>0.05), but RUT and PCR showed statistically significant difference with the 'gold standard' (X 2 =5.333, 9.436; all P<0.05). Conclusion: IRMA for HP ureB antigen is a sensitive and specific method for detection of HP infection, and can be used in the study of etiology and pathogenesis of gastric and some other related diseases. (authors)

  5. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Kawamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD. We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5 levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI, and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG responders (n=89 and nonresponders (n=31 with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4±4.8 IU/L, P<0.05 and UTI patients (66.0±8.0 IU/L, P<0.01 than in VI patients (17.0±6.2 IU/L. In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1±4.7 IU/L, P<0.05, especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (P<0.05, than IVIG responders (32.0±2.8 IU/L. KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.

  6. LIGAND-BINDING SITES ON THE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS UREASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis that remains a serious medical and social health problem. Despite intensive efforts have been made in the past decade, there are no new efficient anti-tuberculosis drugs today, and that need is growing due to the spread of drug-resistant strains of M.tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis urease (MTU, being an important factor of the bacterium viability and virulence, is an attractive target for anti-tuberculosis drugs acting by inhibition of urease activity. However, the commercially available urease inhibitors are toxic and unstable, that prevent their clinical use. Therefore, new more potent anti-tuberculosis drugs inhibiting new targets are urgently needed. A useful tool for the search of novel inhibitors is a computational drug design. The inhibitor design is significantly easier if binding sites on the enzyme are identified in advance. This paper aimed to determine the probable ligand binding sites on the surface of M. tuberculosis urease. Methods. To identify ligand binding sites on MTU surface, сomputational solvent mapping method FTSite was applied by the use of MTU homology model we have built earlier. The method places molecular probes (small organic molecules containing various functional groups on a dense grid defined around the enzyme, and for each probe finds favorable positions. The selected poses are refined by free energy minimization, the low energy conformations are clustered, and the clusters are ranked on the basis of the average free energy. FTSite server outputs the protein residues delineating a binding sites and the probe molecules representing each cluster. To predict allosteric pockets on MTU, AlloPred and AlloSite servers were applied. AlloPred uses the normal mode analysis (NMA and models how the dynamics of a protein would be altered in the presence of a modulator at a specific pocket. Pockets on the enzyme are predicted using the Fpocket

  7. Conversion of crude Jatropha curcas seed oil into biodiesel using liquid recombinant Candida rugosa lipase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ting-Chun; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Lee, Guan-Chiun

    2015-09-01

    The versatile Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) has been widely used in biotechnological applications. However, there have not been feasibility reports on the transesterification of non-edible oils to produce biodiesel using the commercial CRL preparations, mixtures of isozymes. In the present study, four liquid recombinant CRL isozymes (CRL1-CRL4) were investigated to convert various non-edible oils into biodiesel. The results showed that recombinant CRL2 and CRL4 exhibited superior catalytic efficiencies for producing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Jatropha curcas seed oil. A maximum 95.3% FAME yield was achieved using CRL2 under the optimal conditions (50 wt% water, an initial 1 equivalent of methanol feeding, and an additional 0.5 equivalents of methanol feeding at 24h for a total reaction time of 48 h at 37 °C). We concluded that specific recombinant CRL isozymes could be excellent biocatalysts for the biodiesel production from low-cost crude Jatropha oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Jorge L; Alvarez, Alba [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Deus, Juan E [Instituto de Investigaciones del Arroz. Bauta, La Habana (Cuba); Duque, Miriam C [Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali (Colombia); Cornide, Maria T [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Jorge L.; Alvarez, Alba; Deus, Juan E.; Duque, Miriam C.; Cornide, Maria T.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed

  10. Erythrocyte isozymes of phosphofructokinase in genetically high- and low-2,3-diphosphoglycerate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N A; Kuwashima, L H; Togioka, T T; Tanaka, K R

    1982-12-01

    A major locus (Dpg) with two alleles (d and D) controls erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels in Long-Evans rats and is closely linked to a locus (Hbb) determining a hemoglobin electrophoretic polymorphism. Glycolytic intermediate levels and phosphofructokinase (PFK) kinetic studies suggest that in vivo PFK activity differences underlie the differences in DPG levels. We report here chromatographic and immunologic evidence that rat erythrocyte PFK is composed of two isozymes which elute from DEAE-Sephadex at positions identical to those of the isozymes in platelets and liver, respectively. The percentage of platelet-type PFK is significantly (P less than 0.05) smaller in low-DPG (dd) hemolysates than in DD hemolysates regardless of hemoglobin phenotype. When hemolysates were prepared in a stabilizing buffer, PFK specific activity was significantly (P less than 0.005) higher in DD rats. These data suggest that the PFK kinetic differences may result from alterations in the isozyme composition of active PFK.

  11. Crystal Structures of Two Isozymes of Citrate Synthase from Sulfolobus tokodaii Strain 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Murakami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 has two citrate synthase genes (ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS in the genome with 45% sequence identity. Because they exhibit similar optimal temperatures of catalytic activity and thermal inactivation profiles, we performed structural comparisons between these isozymes to elucidate adaptation mechanisms to high temperatures in thermophilic CSs. The crystal structures of ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS were determined at 2.0 Å and 2.7 Å resolutions, respectively. Structural comparison reveals that both of them are dimeric enzymes composed of two identical subunits, and these dimeric structures are quite similar to those of citrate synthases from archaea and eubacteria. ST0587-CS has, however, 55 ion pairs within whole dimer structure, while having only 36 in ST1805-CS. Although the number and distributions of ion pairs are distinct from each other, intersubunit ion pairs between two domains of each isozyme are identical especially in interterminal region. Because the location and number of ion pairs are in a trend with other CSs from thermophilic microorganisms, the factors responsible for thermal adaptation of ST-CS isozymes are characterized by ion pairs in interterminal region.

  12. Effects of Pristane on Cytochrome P450 Isozyme Expression in Rat Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin A. Cuchens

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical carcinogenesis studies are powerful tools to obtain information on potential mechanisms of chemical factors for malignancies. In this study Western blot analyses, using monoclonal antibodies specific for three different cytochrome P450 (CYP isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B, were employed to examine the effect(s of 3-methylcholanthrene and/or pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane on the basal and inducible levels of expression of CYP proteins within Copenhagen rat tissues. Pristane exposure led to tissue specific differences in the CYP isozymes expressed and elicited increased CYP protein expression over 3-methylcholanthrene induced levels in microsomes isolated from liver, Peyer's Patches, and thymus. Within the context of the chemical carcinogenesis model employed in this study, these observations correlated with the induction of B-cell malignancies by low doses of 3-methylcholanthrene and of thymic lymphomas by a high 3-methylcholanthrene dose. The data suggest that pristane treatment affects CYP isozyme expression. This pristane-mediated effect clearly could be a contributing factor in the chemical carcinogenesis of the previously observed lymphoid malignancies, and a possible basis for the tumor enhancing effects of pristane.

  13. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessega Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  14. Sulfonamide-Linked Ciprofloxacin, Sulfadiazine and Amantadine Derivatives as a Novel Class of Inhibitors of Jack Bean Urease; Synthesis, Kinetic Mechanism and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Saeed, Aamer; Albericio, Fernando; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Raza, Hussain; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-08-16

    Sulfonamide derivatives serve as an important building blocks in the drug design discovery and development (4D) process. Ciprofloxacin-, sulfadiazine- and amantadine-based sulfonamides were synthesized as potent inhibitors of jack bean urease and free radical scavengers. Molecular diversity was explored and electronic factors were also examined. All 24 synthesized compounds exhibited excellent potential against urease enzyme. Compound 3e (IC 50 = 0.081 ± 0.003 µM), 6a (IC 50 = 0.0022 ± 0.0002 µM), 9e (IC 50 = 0.0250 ± 0.0007 µM) and 12d (IC 50 = 0.0266 ± 0.0021 µM) were found to be the lead compounds compared to standard (thiourea, IC 50 = 17.814 ± 0.096 µM). Molecular docking studies were performed to delineate the binding affinity of the molecules and a kinetic mechanism of enzyme inhibition was propounded. Compounds 3e , 6a and 12d exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, while derivative 9e revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. Compounds 12a , 12b , 12d , 12e and 12f showed excellent radical scavenging potency in comparison to the reference drug vitamin C.

  15. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associate Urease by Labdane Diterpenoids Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rafik U; Dawane, Ashwini A; Pawar, Rajendra P; Gond, Dhananjay S; Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-Helicobacter pylori and its associated urease activity of labdane diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata. A molecular docking analysis was performed by using ArgusLab 4.0.1 software. The results obtained indicate that compound A possesses strong inhibition to H. pylori, 28 ± 2.98 (minimum inhibitory concentration, 9 µg/mL), and its urease, 85.54 ± 2.62% (IC50 , 20.2 µg/mL). Compounds B, C, and D also showed moderate inhibition to H. pylori and its urease. The obtained results were in agreement with the molecular docking analysis of compounds. The phytochemicals under investigation were found to be promising antibacterial agents. Moreover, the isolated compounds can be considered as a resource for searching novel anti-H. pylori agents possessing urease inhibition. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. [Influence of a new phosphoramide urease inhibitor on urea-N transformation in different texture soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Wu, Liang Huan; Dai, Feng

    2016-12-01

    Addition of urease inhibitors is one of the important measures to increase nitrogen (N) use efficiency of crop, due to retardant of urea hydrolysis and reduction of ammonia volatilization loss. An incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the urease inhibition effect of a new phosphoramide urease inhibitor, NPPT (N-(n-propyl) thiophosphoric triamide) in different texture soils under dark condition at 25 ℃, and NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide) was obtained to compare the inhibition effect on urease in different soil textures by different dosages of urea adding. Results showed that the effective reaction time of urea was less than 9 d in the loamy and clay soil. Addition of inhibitors for retardation of urea hydrolysis was more than 3 d. In sandy soil, urea decomposition was relatively slow, and adding inhibitor significantly inhibited soil urease acti-vity, and reduced NH 4 + -N content. During the incubation time, the inhibition effect of high dosage urea in the soil was better than that of low dosage. At day 6, the urease inhibition rate of NBPT and NPPT (N 250 mg·kg -1 ) were 56.3% and 53.0% in sandy soil, 0.04% and 0.3% in loamy soil, 4.1% and 6.2% in clay soil; the urease inhibition rate of NBPT and NPPT (N 500 mg·kg -1 ) were 59.4% and 65.8% in sandy soil, 14.5% and 15.1% in loamy soil, 49.1% and 48.1% in clay soil. The urease inhibition effects in different texture soil were in order of sandy soil > clay soil> loamy soil. The soil NH 4 + -N content by different inhibitors during incubation time increased at first and then decreased, while soil NO 3 - -N content and apparent nitrification rate both showed rising trends. Compared with urea treatment, addition of urease inhibitors (NBPT and NPPT) significantly increased urea-N left in the soil and reduced NH 4 + -N content. In short, new urease inhibitor NPPT in different texture is an effective urease inhibitor.

  18. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw Yu-Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Results Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated

  19. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Yu-Ting; Thompson, David; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Berkowitz, Ross S; Ng, Shu-Wing; Yang, Junzheng; Ng, Shu-Kay; Liu, Shubai; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Margit; Welch, William R; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated with specific cell types in ovarian tumor tissues and vary according to

  20. Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Competitive Inhibition of Jack-Bean Urease by Baicalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lirong; Su, Jiyan; Wu, Dianwei; Yu, Xiaodan; Su, Zuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Kong, Songzhi; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Ji; Su, Ziren

    2013-01-01

    Baicalin (BA) is the principal component of Radix Scutellariae responsible for its pharmacological activity. In this study, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition by BA against jack-bean urease were investigated for its therapeutic potential. It was revealed that the IC50 of BA against jack-bean urease was 2.74 ± 0.51 mM, which was proved to be a competitive and concentration-dependent inhibition with slow-binding progress curves. The rapid formation of initial BA-urease complex with an inhibition constant of K i = 3.89 × 10−3 mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of K i* = 1.47 × 10−4 mM. High effectiveness of thiol protectors against BA inhibition indicated that the strategic role of the active-site sulfhydryl group of the urease was involved in the blocking process. Moreover, the inhibition of BA was proved to be reversible due to the fact that urease could be reactivated by dithiothreitol but not reactant dilution. Molecular docking assay suggested that BA made contacts with the important activating sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residues and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. Taken together, it could be deduced that BA was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for treatments on urease-related diseases. PMID:24198731

  1. Mua (HP0868) Is a Nickel-Binding Protein That Modulates Urease Activity in Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stéphane L.; Maier, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel mechanism aimed at controlling urease expression in Helicobacter pylori in the presence of ample nickel is described. Higher urease activities were observed in an hp0868 mutant (than in the wild type) in cells supplemented with nickel, suggesting that the HP0868 protein (herein named Mua for modulator of urease activity) represses urease activity when nickel concentrations are ample. The increase in urease activity in the Δmua mutant was linked to an increase in urease transcription and synthesis, as shown by quantitative real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotting against UreAB. Increased urease synthesis was also detected in a Δmua ΔnikR double mutant strain. The Δmua mutant was more sensitive to nickel toxicity but more resistant to acid challenge than was the wild-type strain. Pure Mua protein binds 2 moles of Ni2+ per mole of dimer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays did not reveal any binding of Mua to the ureA promoter or other selected promoters (nikR, arsRS, 5′ ureB-sRNAp). Previous yeast two-hybrid studies indicated that Mua and RpoD may interact; however, only a weak interaction was detected via cross-linking with pure components and this could not be verified by another approach. There was no significant difference in the intracellular nickel level between wild-type and mua mutant cells. Taken together, our results suggest the HP0868 gene product represses urease transcription when nickel levels are high through an as-yet-uncharacterized mechanism, thus counterbalancing the well-described NikR-mediated activation. PMID:21505055

  2. Contribution of Urease to Colonization by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyert, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a food-borne pathogen with a low infectious dose that colonizes the colon in humans and can cause severe clinical manifestations such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The urease enzyme, encoded in the STEC chromosome, has been demonstrated to act as a virulence factor in other bacterial pathogens. The NH3 produced as urease hydrolyzes urea can aid in buffering bacteria in acidic environments as well as provide an easily assimilated source of nitrogen that bacteria can use to gain a metabolic advantage over intact microflora. Here, we explore the role of urease in STEC pathogenicity. The STEC urease enzyme exhibited maximum activity near neutral pH and during the stationary-growth phase. Experiments altering growth conditions performed with three phylogenetically distinct urease-positive strains demonstrated that the STEC ure gene cluster is inducible by neither urea nor pH but does respond to nitrogen availability. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) data indicate that nitrogen inhibits the transcriptional response. The deletion of the ure gene locus was constructed in STEC strain 88-0643, and the ure mutant was used with the wild-type strain in competition experiments in mouse models to examine the contribution of urease. The wild-type strain was twice as likely to survive passage through the acidic stomach and demonstrated an enhanced ability to colonize the intestinal tract compared to the ure mutant strain. These in vivo experiments reveal that, although the benefit STEC gains from urease expression is modest and not absolutely required for colonization, urease can contribute to the pathogenicity of STEC. PMID:22665380

  3. Impedimetric Urea Biosensor Based on Modified Gold Electrode with Urease Immobilized on Glutathione Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Houcine BARHOUMI; Abderrazak MAAREF; Nicole JAFFREZIC-RENAULT

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a glutathione (GSH) modified gold microelectrode was used for the covalent immobilization of urease biomolecules via the glutaraldehyde-coupling agent. The self- assembled monolayers (SAMs) onto the gold surface was investigated by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS). Before urease grafting, a significant interaction was noticed between urea and the glutathione layer by forming hydrogen bonds. The H-NMR analysis was carried out to highlight the po...

  4. Catalytic performances of chemically immobilized urease under static and dynamic conditions: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Yürekli, Yılmaz; Alsoy Altınkaya, Sacide

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized urease has been used for direct removal of urea from aqueous solution and as biological sensing material in the preparation of urea biosensors. The former application is carried out under dynamic condition using ultrafiltration membrane either in tubular form or in flat sheet, while the latter is used in static condition. In this study, the performance of chemically immobilized urease on poly(acrylonitrile-co-sodium methallyl sulfonate) ultrafiltration membrane was determined unde...

  5. Protein kinase C isozymes as regulators of sensitivity to and self-administration of drugs of abuse-studies with genetically modified mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Michael Foster; Newton, Philip M

    2010-09-01

    Studies using targeted gene deletion in mice have revealed distinct roles for individual isozymes of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of enzymes in regulating sensitivity to various drugs of abuse. These changes in drug sensitivity are associated with altered patterns of drug self-administration. The purpose of this review is to summarize behavioral studies conducted on mice carrying targeted deletions of genes encoding specific PKC isozymes (namely the beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon isozymes), and to critically evaluate the possibility of using pharmacological inhibitors of specific PKC isozymes as modulators of the sensitivity to various drugs of abuse, as well as potential aids in the treatment of substance use disorders.

  6. Reduction of Urease Activity by Interaction with the Flap Covering the Active Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee; Minkara, Mona S.; Hausinger, Robert P.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation for the human microbiome coupled with the global rise of antibiotic resistant organisms, it is imperative that new methods be developed to specifically target pathogens. To that end, a novel computational approach was devised to identify compounds that reduce the activity of urease, a medically important enzyme of Helicobacter pylori, Proteus mirabilis, and many other microorganisms. Urease contains a flexible loop that covers its active site; Glide was used to identify small molecules predicted to lock this loop in an open conformation. These compounds were screened against the model urease from Klebsiella aerogenes and the natural products epigallocatechin and quercetin were shown to inhibit at low and high micromolar concentrations, respectively. These molecules exhibit a strong time-dependent inactivation of urease that was not due to their oxygen sensitivity. Rather, these compounds appear to inactivate urease by reacting with a specific Cys residue located on the flexible loop. Substitution of this cysteine by alanine in the C319A variant increased the urease resistance to both epigallocatechin and quercetin, as predicted by the computational studies. Protein dynamics are integral to the function of many enzymes; thus, identification of compounds that lock an enzyme into a single conformation presents a useful approach to define potential inhibitors. PMID:25594724

  7. Urease immobilized polymer hydrogel: Long-term stability and enhancement of enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcherlapati, S N Raju; Yeole, Niranjan; Jana, Tushar

    2016-02-01

    A method has been developed in which an enzyme namely urease was immobilized inside hydrogel matrix to study the stability and enzymatic activity in room temperature (∼27-30°C). This urease coupled hydrogel (UCG) was obtained by amine-acid coupling reaction and this procedure is such that it ensured the wider opening of mobile flap of enzyme active site. A systematic comparison of urea-urease assay and the detailed kinetic data clearly revealed that the urease shows activity for more than a month when stored at ∼27-30°C in case of UCG whereas it becomes inactive in case of free urease (enzyme in buffer solution). The aqueous microenvironment inside the hydrogel, unusual morphological features and thermal behaviour were believed to be the reasons for unexpected behaviour. UCG displayed enzyme activity at basic pH and up to 60°C. UCG showed significant enhancement in activity against thermal degradation compared to free urease. In summary, this method is a suitable process to stabilize the biomacromolecules in standard room temperature for many practical uses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease with non and semi fermented Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoae Hassani A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent in duodenal and peptic ulcers. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel compounds, especially from natural sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Camellia sinensis extracts on the urease enzyme that is a major colonization factor for H. pylori. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations of nonfermented and semifermented C. sinensis methanol: water extracts were assessed by broth dilution method. Examination of the urease function was performed by Mc Laren method, and urease production was detected on 12% SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from whole cell and membrane bound proteins. Results: Both extracts had inhibitory effects against H. pylori and urease production. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml of nonfermented extract and 3.5 mg/ml of semifermented extract the production of Ure A and Ure B subunits of the urease enzyme were inhibited completely. A concentration of 4 mg/ml of nonfermented and 5.5 mg/ml of semifermented extract were bactericidal for H. pylori. Conclusions: C. sinensis extracts, especially the nonfermented, could reduce H. pylori population and inhibit urease production at lower concentrations. The superior effect of nonfermented extract is due to its rich polyphenolic compounds and catechin contents.

  9. Fluorimetric urease inhibition assay on a multilayer microfluidic chip with immunoaffinity immobilized enzyme reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Tang, Xiuwen; Hou, Fenghua; Yang, Jianping; Xie, Zhiyong; Cheng, Zhiyi

    2013-10-01

    We fabricated a three-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic chip for realizing urease inhibition assay with sensitive fluorescence detection. Procedures such as sample prehandling, enzyme reaction, reagent mixing, fluorescence derivatization, and detection can be readily carried out. Urease reactors were prepared by adsorption of rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoreaction with urease-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a competitive inhibitor of urease was tested on the chip. Microfluidically generated gradient concentrations of AHA with substrate (urea) were loaded into urease reactors. After incubation, the produced ammonia was transported out of reactors and then reacted with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) to generate fluorescent products. Urease inhibition was indicated by a decrease in fluorescence signal detected by microplate reader. The IC50 value of AHA was determined and showed good agreement with that obtained in microplate. The presented device combines several steps of the analytical process with advantages of low reagent consumption, reduced analysis time, and ease of manipulation. This microfluidic approach can be extended to the screening of inhibitory compounds in drug discovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabati Farzaneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration. Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

  11. Study of antioxidant, anti-protease and anti-urease potential of schiff bases of acetophenone with different amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, D.; Mir, H.

    2014-01-01

    Seven acetophenone-derived Schiff bases were synthesized with different amines including 2-aminobenzoic acid (HL1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (HL2), 2-naphthylamine (HL3), phenylhydrazine (HL4), 1,2-ethanediamine (HL5), 1,2-diaminobenzene (HL6) and 1,4-diaminobenzene (HL7), and were subjected to various assays including FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), phosphomolybdate, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. They were also evaluated for protease and urease inhibitory activities. Based on the results, structure-activity relationship (SAR) was determined. Only two bases, HL1 and HL4, exhibited antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity in DPPH assay. HL4 was most potent (IC50 15 micro g/mL), while HL1 was only slightly active. As HL4 was the only base with hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, most probably it involves hydrogen transfer (HT) mechanism. All the bases exhibited a range of antioxidant activity in assays involving electron transfer (ET). In the reducing power assay, HL5, HL6 and HL7 showed considerable potential while in FRAP assay, HL7 was most active followed by HL3. In phosphomolybdate assay, HL6 had the highest potency followed by HL7, while HL4 and HL3 also displayed good activity. All the bases showed moderate to high lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. HL7 exhibited highest protease inhibitory activity (EC50 43.9 mu g/mL) followed by HL6 (EC/sub 50/ 52 mu g/mL). HL4 and HL5 did not show protease inhibitory activity at all. HL2 was most potent in inhibiting urease activity (EC50 29.91 mu g/mL). HL5 and HL6 showed moderate activity. The study showed how variation in structures of Schiff bases alters their antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activities. (author)

  12. The Importance of Urease in Acid Protection for the Gastric-colonising Bacteria Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, R. L.; Lee, A.

    2011-01-01

    The urease of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori shares numerous characteristics with the urease of a bacterium isolated from cat gastric mucosa, Helicobacter felis sp. nov. The native enzymes have similar apparent molecular weights and, when subjected to SDS-PAGE, disassociate into active subunits of comparable relative mobilities. In contrast, a bacterium (St1) that colonises rodent ileal mucosa, and is related to Helicobacter spp., expresses a distinct urease from those of the gastri...

  13. An expedient synthesis of N-(1-(5-mercapto-4-((substituted benzylidene)amino)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-2-phenylethyl)benzamides as jack bean urease inhibitors and free radical scavengers: Kinetic mechanism and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Mehfooz, Haroon; Ashraf, Mohammad Haseeb; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-11-01

    In this study, some new azomethine-triazole hybrids 5a-5l derived from N-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine were synthesized and characterized. The synthesized compounds showed first-rate, urease inhibition, and compounds 5c and 5e were found to be most effective inhibitors with 0.0137 ± 0.00082 μm and 0.0183 ± 0.00068 μm, respectively (thiourea 15.151 ± 1.27 μm). The kinetic mechanism of urease inhibition revealed the compounds 5c and 5e to be non-competitive inhibitors, whereas compounds 5d and 5j were found to be of mixed-type inhibitors. Docking studies also indicated better interaction patterns with urease enzyme. The results of enzyme inhibition, kinetic mechanism and molecular docking suggest that these compounds can serve as lead compounds in the design of more effective urease inhibitors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Preparation of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads Under Microwave Irradiation and Properties of Urease Immobilized onto the Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zupei; FENG Yaqing; MENG Shuxian; ZHANG Weihong

    2005-01-01

    The glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads were prepared under microwave irradiation and urease was immobilized onto the beads. The activity and the yield of enzyme activity of the immobilized urease were 10.83 U/g carrier and 47.7%, respectively. The optimum conditions of immobilization were 1% of glutaraldehyde volume fraction, 10 mg/g of urease/beads weight ratio, 24 h of the processing time and pH 6.5 of the reaction medium for immobilization. The properties of the immobilized urease were investigated and compared with those of the free enzyme. The optimum pH values were 6.5 and 7.0 for the immobilized and free urease, respectively. The optimum temperature was 60 ℃ for the free urease, while it shifted to 65 ℃ for the immobilized enzyme. The Michaelis constant K m was 9.1 mmol/L for the immobilized and 12.5 mmol/L for the free urease. The immobilized urease retained 40% of its initial enzyme activity even after 10 repeated uses. The immobilized urease stored at 4 ℃ retained 46% of its initial activity even after 35 d.

  15. Anti-urease Secondary Metabolites from Seriphidium quettense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Tousif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate layer of the methanolic extract of Seriphidium quettense was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to isolate one new; seriphiloid (1, and four known compounds; ilicic acid (2, 6 a -hydroxy-8(10-oplopen-14-one (3, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-5,6,7-trimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (4 and 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-5,6,7-trimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (5. The chemical structure of the new isolate was established with the help of 1D, 2D NMR techniques and high resolution mass spectrometry. Known compounds were identified because of 1D NMR and mass spectrometric analysis and in comparison with the literature values. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, a -glucosidase and urease inhibitory activities. Most of the metabolites were found inactive; however, compounds 2 and 3 showed good antiurease activity with IC 50 value 21.5±0.1 and 20.8±0.1 µg/mL, respectively.

  16. Helicobacter pylori gene silencing in vivo demonstrates urease is essential for chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, Aleksandra W; Walton, Senta M; Chua, Eng-Guan; Tay, Alfred Chin-Yen; Liao, Tingting; Lamichhane, Binit; Himbeck, Robyn; Stubbs, Keith A; Marshall, Barry J; Fulurija, Alma; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic active gastritis that after many years of infection can develop into peptic ulceration or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterium is highly adapted to surviving in the gastric environment and a key adaptation is the virulence factor urease. Although widely postulated, the requirement of urease expression for persistent infection has not been elucidated experimentally as conventional urease knockout mutants are incapable of colonization. To overcome this constraint, conditional H. pylori urease mutants were constructed by adapting the tetracycline inducible expression system that enabled changing the urease phenotype of the bacteria during established infection. Through tight regulation we demonstrate that urease expression is not only required for establishing initial colonization but also for maintaining chronic infection. Furthermore, successful isolation of tet-escape mutants from a late infection time point revealed the strong selective pressure on this gastric pathogen to continuously express urease in order to maintain chronic infection. In addition to mutations in the conditional gene expression system, escape mutants were found to harbor changes in other genes including the alternative RNA polymerase sigma factor, fliA, highlighting the genetic plasticity of H. pylori to adapt to a changing niche. The tet-system described here opens up opportunities to studying genes involved in the chronic stage of H. pylori infection to gain insight into bacterial mechanisms promoting immune escape and life-long infection. Furthermore, this genetic tool also allows for a new avenue of inquiry into understanding the importance of various virulence determinants in a changing biological environment when the bacterium is put under duress.

  17. Factors Required for Activation of Urease as a Virulence Determinant in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arpita; Panting, Robert J.; Varma, Ashok; Saijo, Tomomi; Waldron, Kevin J.; Jong, Ambrose; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Chang, Yun C.; Rutherford, Julian C.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urease in Cryptococcus neoformans plays an important role in fungal dissemination to the brain and causing meningoencephalitis. Although urea is not required for synthesis of apourease encoded by URE1, the available nitrogen source affected the expression of URE1 as well as the level of the enzyme activity. Activation of the apoenzyme requires three accessory proteins, Ure4, Ure6, and Ure7, which are homologs of the bacterial urease accessory proteins UreD, UreF, and UreG, respectively. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed positive interaction of Ure1 with the three accessory proteins encoded by URE4, URE6, and URE7. Metalloproteomic analysis of cryptococcal lysates using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and a biochemical assay of urease activity showed that, as in many other organisms, urease is a metallocentric enzyme that requires nickel transported by Nic1 for its catalytic activity. The Ure7 accessory protein (bacterial UreG homolog) binds nickel likely via its conserved histidine-rich domain and appears to be responsible for the incorporation of Ni2+ into the apourease. Although the cryptococcal genome lacks the bacterial UreE homolog, Ure7 appears to combine the functions of bacterial UreE and UreG, thus making this pathogen more similar to that seen with the plant system. Brain invasion by the ure1, ure7, and nic1 mutant strains that lack urease activity was significantly less effective in a mouse model. This indicated that an activated urease and not the Ure1 protein was responsible for enhancement of brain invasion and that the factors required for urease activation in C. neoformans resemble those of plants more than those of bacteria. PMID:23653445

  18. Extraction, purification, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of urease from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Urease, one of the highly efficient known enzymes, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The present study aimed to extract urease from pea seeds (Pisum Sativum L). The enzyme was then purified in three consequence steps: acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 column). Results The purification fold was 12.85 with a yield of 40%. The molecular weight of the isolated urease was estimated by chromatography to be 269,000 Daltons. Maximum urease activity (190 U/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 40°C and pH of 7.5 after 5 min of incubation. The kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk fits and found to be 500 mM and 333.3 U/g, respectively. The thermodynamic constants of activation, ΔH, E a , and ΔS, were determined using Arrhenius plot and found to be 21.20 kJ/mol, 23.7 kJ/mol, and 1.18 kJ/mol/K, respectively. Conclusions Urease was purified from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds. The purification fold, yield, and molecular weight were determined. The effects of pH, concentration of enzyme, temperature, concentration of substrate, and storage period on urease activity were examined. This may provide an insight on the various aspects of the property of the enzyme. The significance of extracting urease from different sources could play a good role in understanding the metabolism of urea in plants. PMID:25065975

  19. Helicobacter pylori gene silencing in vivo demonstrates urease is essential for chronic infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra W Debowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic active gastritis that after many years of infection can develop into peptic ulceration or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterium is highly adapted to surviving in the gastric environment and a key adaptation is the virulence factor urease. Although widely postulated, the requirement of urease expression for persistent infection has not been elucidated experimentally as conventional urease knockout mutants are incapable of colonization. To overcome this constraint, conditional H. pylori urease mutants were constructed by adapting the tetracycline inducible expression system that enabled changing the urease phenotype of the bacteria during established infection. Through tight regulation we demonstrate that urease expression is not only required for establishing initial colonization but also for maintaining chronic infection. Furthermore, successful isolation of tet-escape mutants from a late infection time point revealed the strong selective pressure on this gastric pathogen to continuously express urease in order to maintain chronic infection. In addition to mutations in the conditional gene expression system, escape mutants were found to harbor changes in other genes including the alternative RNA polymerase sigma factor, fliA, highlighting the genetic plasticity of H. pylori to adapt to a changing niche. The tet-system described here opens up opportunities to studying genes involved in the chronic stage of H. pylori infection to gain insight into bacterial mechanisms promoting immune escape and life-long infection. Furthermore, this genetic tool also allows for a new avenue of inquiry into understanding the importance of various virulence determinants in a changing biological environment when the bacterium is put under duress.

  20. Potentiometric Urea Biosensor Based on an Immobilised Fullerene-Urease Bio-Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Saeedfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate (PnBA membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10−3 M to 8.28 × 10−5 M. The biosensor’s sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor’s response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.

  1. Studies on esterase isozymes and mycelium growth speed of ganoderma lucidum carried by Shenzhou spaceship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianjun; Chen Xiangdong; Lan Jin

    2002-01-01

    The esterase isozymes and mycelium growth speed of four Ganoderma lucidum strains carried by Shenzhou spaceship were studied. The results showed that different effects occurred to esterase and mycelium growth speed. The SX, S3 esterase band had changed compared with their control CX, C3, respectively, but there were no differences between SH and CH, S4 and C4. The growth speed of S4 strain was faster than its control C4, SX strain lower than its control CX, and there were no difference between SH and CH, S3 and C3

  2. Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, inhibits urease of Helicobacter pylori and jack bean: Susceptibility and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lihua; Li, Cailan; Chen, Hanbin; Mo, Zhizhun; Zhou, Jiangtao; Liu, Yuhong; Ma, Zhilin; Xu, Yuyao; Yang, Xiaobo; Xie, Jianhui; Su, Ziren

    2017-12-15

    In our previous study, Rhizoma Coptidis extract was found to exert more potent inhibitory effect than its major component berberine towards urease from Helicobacter pylori (HPU) and jack bean (JBU). In continuation of our work, the present study was designed to further comparatively investigate the urease inhibitory activities of five major protoberberine alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis, namely berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorhizine to identify the bioactive constituent, and illuminate the potential mechanism of action. Results indicated that the five protoberberine alkaloids acted as concentration-dependent inactivators of urease with IC 50 values ranging between 3.0 and 5087μM for HPU and 2.3->10,000μM for JBU, respectively. Notably, epiberberine (EB) was found to be the most potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC 50 values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU, which was more effective than the standard urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (83±0.01μM for HPU and 22±0.01μM for JBU, respectively). Further kinetic analysis revealed that the type of EB inhibition against HPU was slow-binding and uncompetitive, with K i of 10.6±0.01μM, while slow-binding and competitive against JBU with K i of 4.6±0.01μM. Addition of thiol reagents, such as l-cysteine, glutathione and dithiothreitol, significantly abolished the inhibition, while Ni 2+ competitive inhibitors, boric acid and sodium fluoride, synergetically inhibited urease with EB, indicating the obligatory role of the active site sulfhydryl group for the inhibition. In addition, binding of EB with the urease proved to be reversible, as about 65% and 90% enzymatic activity of HPU and JBU, respectively, could be restored by dithiothreitol application. These findings highlighted the potential role of Rhizoma Coptidis protoberberine alkaloids, especially EB, as a lead urease inhibitor in the treatment of diseases associated with ureolytic bacteria. Thus, EB had good

  3. Safety and efficacy of E coli enterotoxin adjuvant for urease-based rectal immunization against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sougioultzis, Stavros; Lee, Cynthia K; Alsahli, Mazen; Banerjee, Subhas; Cadoz, Michel; Schrader, Robert; Guy, Bruno; Bedford, Philip; Monath, Thomas P; Kelly, Ciaran P; Michetti, Pierre

    2002-12-13

    Low dose E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), delivered orally or enterically, has been used as an adjuvant for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) urease in healthy adults. In this study we aim to test the safety and adjuvant efficacy of LT delivered rectally together with recombinant H. pylori urease. Eighteen healthy adults without present or past H. pylori infection were enrolled in a double blind, randomized, ascending dose study to receive either urease (60 mg), or urease (60 mg) + LT (5 or 25 microg). The immunization preparation was administered per rectum on days 0, 14 and 28. Serum, stool and saliva anti-urease and anti-LT IgG and IgA antibodies (Abs) were measured and urease-specific and LT-specific antigen secreting cells (ASCs) were counted in peripheral blood at baseline and 7 (ASC counts) or 14 days (antibody levels) after each dosing. Peripheral blood lymphoproliferation assays were also performed at baseline and at the end of the study. Rectally delivered urease and LT were well tolerated. Among the 12 subjects assigned to urease+LT, 2 (16.7%) developed anti-urease IgG Abs, 1 (8.3%) developed anti-urease IgA Abs, and 3 (25%) showed urease-specific IgA(+) ASCs. Immune responses to LT were more vigorous, especially in subjects exposed to 5 microg LT. In the urease+ 5 microg LT group, anti-LT IgG and IgA Abs developed in 60 and 80% of the subjects, respectively, while LT-specific IgG(+) and IgA(+) ASCs were detected in all subjects. The magnitude of the anti-LT response was much higher than the response to urease. No IgA anti-urease or anti-LT Abs were detected in stool or saliva and lymphocyte proliferative responses to urease were unsatisfactory. In conclusion, rectal delivery of 5 microg LT is safe and induces vigorous systemic anti-LT immune responses. Further studies are needed to determine if LT can be an effective adjuvant for rectally delivered antigens.

  4. Synthesis and Characterisation of Biocompatible Polymer-Conjugated Magnetic Beads for Enhancement Stability of Urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğaç, Yasemin Ispirli; Teke, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    We reported natural polymer-conjugated magnetic featured urease systems for removal of urea effectively. The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-250 min), reusability (18 times) and storage stability (24 weeks) were studied for characterisation of the urease-encapsulated biocompatible polymer-conjugated magnetic beads. Also, the surface groups and chemical structure of the magnetic beads were determined by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The all urease-encapsulated magnetic beads protected their stability of 30-45 % relative activity at 70 °C. A significant increase was observed at their pH stability compared with the free urease for both acidic and alkaline medium. Besides this, their repeatability activity were approximately 100 % during 4(th) run. They showed residual activity of 50 % after 16 weeks. The importance of this work is enhancement stability of immobilised urease by biocompatible polymer-conjugated magnetic beads for the industrial application based on removal of urea.

  5. [Degradation of urea and ethyl carbamate in Chinese Rice wine by recombinant acid urease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianli; Kang, Zhen; Liu, Qingtao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods. It is important eliminate urea that is the precursors of EC in many fermented foods, including Chinese Rice wine. On the basis of achieving high-level overexpression of food-grade ethanol-resistant acid urease, we studied the hydrolysis of urea and EC with the recombinant acid urease. Recombinant acid urease showed degraded urea in both the simulated system with ethanol and Chinese Rice wine (60 mg/L of urea was completely degraded within 25 h), indicating that the recombinant enzyme is suitable for the elimination of urea in Chinese Rice wine. Although recombinant acid urease also has degradation catalytic activity on EC, no obvious degradation of EC was observed. Further investigation results showed that the Km value for urea and EC of the recombinant acid urease was 0.7147 mmol/L and 41.32 mmol/L, respectively. The results provided theoretical foundation for realizing simultaneous degradation of urea and EC.

  6. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  7. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity.

  8. Structural Basis of Binding and Rationale for the Potent Urease Inhibitory Activity of Biscoumarins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Lodhi, Atif; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Jalil, Saima; Nawaz, Sarfraz Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Iqbal, Sajid; Rahman, Atta-ur

    2014-01-01

    Urease belongs to a family of highly conserved urea-hydrolyzing enzymes. A common feature of these enzymes is the presence of two Lewis acid nickel ions and reactive cysteine residue in the active sites. In the current study we examined a series of biscoumarins 1–10 for their mechanisms of inhibition with the nickel containing active sites of Jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases. All these compounds competitively inhibited Jack bean urease through interaction with the nickel metallocentre, as deduced from Michaelis-Menten kinetics, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopic, and molecular docking simulation studies. Some of the compounds behaved differently in case of Bacillus pasteurii urease. We conducted the enzyme kinetics, UV-visible spectroscopy, and molecular docking results in terms of the known protein structure of the enzyme. We also evaluated possible molecular interpretations for the site of biscoumarins binding and found that phenyl ring is the major active pharmacophore. The excellent in vitro potency and selectivity profile of the several compounds described combined with their nontoxicity against the human cells and plants suggest that these compounds may represent a viable lead series for the treatment of urease associated problems. PMID:25295281

  9. Novel fabrication method of the peritoneal dialysis filter using silk fibroin with urease fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Bo Mi; Choi, Myung-Jin; Sultan, Md Tipu; Yang, Jae Won; Ju, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Ye Ri; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Min Chae; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Lee, Ok Joo; Sung, Gun Yong; Park, Chan Hum

    2017-10-01

    During the last decade, there has been a great advance in the kidney dialysis system by wearable artificial kidney (WAK) system for end-stage renal disease patients. Uremic solute removal and water regeneration system are the most prerequisite for WAK to work properly. In this study, we designed a filtering membrane system by using immobilized urease silk fibroin filter and evaluated its comparative effectiveness with a PVDF filtering system in peritoneal dialysate regeneration system by urea removal efficacy. We evaluated this membrane's characteristic and performances by conducting SEM-EDX analyze, water-binding abilities and porosity test, removal abilities of urea, cytotoxicity assay and enzyme activity assay. Under the condition for optimization of urease, the percentage removal of urea was about 40% and 60% in 50 mg/dL urea solution by urease immobilized PVDF and silk fibroin scaffolds, respectively. The batch experimental result showed that immobilized filter removed more than 50% of urea in 50 mg/dL urea solution. In addition silk fibroin with urease filter removed 90 percent of urea in the peritoneal dialysate after 24 h filtration. We suggest that silk fibroin with urease fixation filter can be used more effectively for peritoneal dialysate regeneration system, which have hydrophilic property and prolonged enzyme activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2136-2144, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Large Scale Screening of Commonly Used Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants against Urease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Nabati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study:H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease andurease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium.Methods:137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effectiveextracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined.Results:37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration. Nine of the whole studiedplants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotianatabacum.Conclusions:The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

  11. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of rifaximin on urease production and on other virulence factors expressed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Annalisa; Coppo, Erika; Barbieri, Ramona; Debbia, Eugenio A; Marchese, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Rifaximin, a topical derivative of rifampin, inhibited urease production and other virulence factors at sub-MIC concentrations in strains involved in hepatic encephalopathy and the expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, urease production was affected in all Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains as well as in all tested Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Other exotoxins, synthesized by P. aeruginosa, such as protease, gelatinase, lipase, lecithinase and DNAse were also not metabolized in the presence of rifaximin. This antibiotic inhibited pigment production in both P. aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum, a biosensor control strain. Lastly, rifaximin affected haemolysin production in S. aureus and was able to restore cefoxitin susceptibility when the strain was cultured in the presence of sub-MICs of the drug. The present findings confirm and extend previous observations about the beneficial effects of rifaximin for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, since in this anatomic site, it reaches a large array of concentrations which prevents enterobacteria from thriving and/or producing their major virulence factors.

  12. 5-Acetyl-6-methyl-4-aryl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones: As potent urease inhibitors; synthesis, in vitro screening, and molecular modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shahbaz; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Salar, Uzma; Ali, Farman; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Taha, Muhammad; Khan, Farman Ali; Ashraf, Sajda; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Shahnaz

    2018-02-01

    5-Acetyl-6-methyl-4-aryl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones 1-43 were synthesized in a "one-pot" three component reaction and structurally characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as 1 H, 13 C NMR, EI-MS, HREI-MS, and IR. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro urease inhibitory activity. It is worth mentioning that except derivatives 1, 11, 12, and 14, all were found to be more potent than the standard thiourea (IC 50  = 21.25 ± 0.15 µM) and showed their urease inhibitory potential in the range of IC 50  = 3.70 ± 0.5-20.14 ± 0.1 µM. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) was rationalized by looking at the varying structural features of the molecules. However, molecular modeling study was performed to confirm the binding interactions of the molecules (ligand) with the active site of enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct physiological roles for the two L-asparaginase isozymes of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikhanta, Yogitha N. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Atack, John M.; Beacham, Ifor R. [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222 (Australia); Jennings, Michael P., E-mail: m.jennings@griffith.edu.au [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222 (Australia)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Escherichia coli contains two L-asparaginase isozymes with distinct localization, kinetics and regulation. •Mutant strains were used to examine the roles of these enzymes in L-asparagine utilization. •We report that L-asparaginase II permits growth on asparagine and glycerol under anaerobic conditions. •We propose that this enzyme is the first step in a co-regulated pathway leading to fumarate. •The pathway is regulated by anaerobiosis and cAMP and provides a terminal elector acceptor. -- Abstract: Escherichia coli expresses two L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1) isozymes: L-asparaginse I, which is a low affinity, cytoplasmic enzyme that is expressed constitutively, and L-asparaginase II, a high affinity periplasmic enzyme that is under complex co-transcriptional regulation by both Fnr and Crp. The distinct localisation and regulation of these enzymes suggest different roles. To define these roles, a set of isogenic mutants was constructed that lacked either or both enzymes. Evidence is provided that L-asparaginase II, in contrast to L-asparaginase I, can be used in the provision of an anaerobic electron acceptor when using a non-fermentable carbon source in the presence of excess nitrogen.

  14. In vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asran-Amal, A; Moustafa-Mahmoud, S M; Sabet, K K; El Banna, O H

    2010-04-01

    The antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. T. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. In vitro screening of 5 isolates of T. harzinum, one isolate of Chaetomium globosum and one isolate of Conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani on PDA medium, significantly. The inhibition percentage ranged from 77.9 % to 55.9% for M. phaseolina and 59.2% to 40.4% for R. solani by T. harzinum and C. mentance, respectively. Inhibition for F. solani ranged from 76.5% to 55.7% by T. harzinum and C. globosum, respectively. Isozyme gel electrophoresis was used to assess chitinase activity secreted by selected isolates of T. harzinum under different pH degrees and temperatures. Obtained results indicated that activity of chitinase isozyme produced at 30 °C was higher than 15-20 °C for all tested isolates and activity of chitinase produced by isolates No. 4 and 5 of T. harzinum at pH (7-7.5) was higher than at pH 6, respectively.

  15. Applications of β-gal-III isozyme from Bacillus coagulans RCS3, in lactose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Navneet; Singh, Jagtar; Joshi, Amit; Bhatia, Sonu

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans RCS3 isolated from hot water springs secreted five isozymes i.e. β-gal I-V of β-galactosidase. β-gal III isozyme was purified using DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G 100 column chromatography. Its molecular weight characterization showed a single band at 315kD in Native PAGE, while two subunits of 50.1 and 53.7 kD in SDS PAGE. β-Gal III had pH optima in the range of 6-7 and temperature optima at 65°C. It preferred nitro-aryl-β-d-galactoside as substrate having K(m) of 4.16 mM with ONPG. More than 85% and 80% hydrolysis of lactose (1-5%, w/v) was recorded within 48 h of incubation at 55°C and 50°C respectively and pH range of 6-7. About 78-86% hydrolysis of lactose in various brands of standardized milk was recorded at incubation temperature of 50°C. These results marked the applications of β-gal III in processing of milk/whey industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The cytology, isozyme, HPLC fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization studies of genus epimedium (berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin

    2013-01-01

    104 samples from 27 accessions belonging to 12 species of genus Epimedium were studied on the basis of cytology observation, POD (i.e., peroxide) isozyme, high performance liquid chromatography (i.e., HPLC) fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization. The cytology observation showed karyotypes of twelve species studied; all are 2A symmetry type of Stebbins standard and similar to each other, and except for karyotype of E. leptorrhizum which is 2n = 2x = 8m (2SAT) + 4sm, the rest are 2n = 2x = 6m (2SAT) + 6sm. Chromosomes C-banding of barrenwort species varies, with 15 to 22 bands, consisting of centromeric bands, intercalary bands, terminal bands, and middle satellite bands. Results of POD isozyme showed that the zymographs vary greatly and sixteen bands were detected in the eleven species, and each species has its own characteristic bands different from the others. Studies on the HPLC fingerprint showed that the HPLC fingerprint of different species has characteristic peaks, divided into two regions (retention time 10 min). Results of interspecific hybridization showed that crosses of any combination among seven species studied are successful and the rates of grain set vary greatly. Based on these results, the system and phylogeny of this genus were inferred.

  17. Analysis of esterase isozyme and SSR for mutagenic progenies induced by space mutation in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jinjuan; Liu Yihua; Zhang Zhaorong; Ran Guangkui; Zhao Shouzhong; Xiao Li

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of five mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) varieties were carried into outer space by 'Shijian No.8' satellite. After five years' consecutive planting and selection, ten relatively stable mutant lines were obtained, which had significant variation in agronomic and economic characters. The mutant lines and their original varieties without space mutation treatment as control were studied by esterase isozyme and SSR analyses. Electrophoresis analysis of esterase isozymes indicated that there were differences between mutant lines and their controls in enzyme types and enzyme activity. Different mustard varieties had different enzymographs, and so did the mutants induced by space mutation, which shows different sensitivity among different mustard varieties. The SSR analysis showed that large differences were found in the SSR loci between mutant lines and their original variety, the variation frequency was between 9.52% and 57.14% with an average frequency of 26.19% for all the mutant lines. Among the mutant SSR loci, about 56.36% showed changes in band number and 43.64% in molecular weight. These results indicated that the ten mutant lines had large genetic difference in phenotype, genomic sequence and gene expression, and the outer space mutation would be an effective method to develop new mustard germplasm and variety. (authors)

  18. Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

    2011-08-01

    To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology.

  19. Transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and XII in the female mouse reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eija

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA classically catalyses the reversible hydration of dissolved CO2 to form bicarbonate ions and protons. The twelve active CA isozymes are thought to regulate a variety of cellular functions including several processes in the reproductive systems. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the expression of transmembrane CAs, CA IX and XII, in the mouse uterus, ovary and placenta. The expression of CA IX and XII was examined by immunoperoxidase staining method and western blotting. CA II and XIII served as positive controls since they are known to be present in the mouse reproductive tract. Results The data of our study indicated that CA XII is expressed in the mouse endometrium. Only very faint signal was observed in the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta remained mainly negative. CA IX showed weak reaction in the endometrial epithelium, while it was completely absent in the ovary and placenta. Conclusion The conservation of CA XII expression in both mouse and human endometrium suggests a role for this isozyme in reproductive physiology.

  20. Nutrient content of wheat and corn in response to the application of urea and the urease inhibitor NPBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the addition of two different urease inhibitors on the volatilization of ammonia from top dressed ammonia sources on winter wheat and dent corn. Two commercial urease inhibitors (NY and AG) were tested. Treatments included compost, compost+NY, u...

  1. Increased Incidence of Urolithiasis and Bacteremia During Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Coinfection Due to Synergistic Induction of Urease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Smith, Sara N.; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. Methods. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Results. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. Conclusions. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI. PMID:24280366

  2. Kinetic and structural studies reveal a unique binding mode of sulfite to the nickel center in urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Benini, Stefano; Bertini, Leonardo; Musiani, Francesco; Ciurli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Urease is the most efficient enzyme known to date, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea using two Ni(II) ions in the active site. Urease is a virulence factor in several human pathogens, while causing severe environmental and agronomic problems. Sporosarcina pasteurii urease has been used extensively in the structural characterization of the enzyme. Sodium sulfite has been widely used as a preservative in urease solutions to prevent oxygen-induced oxidation, but its role as an inhibitor has also been suggested. In the present study, isothermal titration microcalorimetry was used to establish sulfite as a competitive inhibitor for S. pasteurii urease, with an inhibition constant of 0.19mM at pH7. The structure of the urease-sulfite complex, determined at 1.65Å resolution, shows the inhibitor bound to the dinuclear Ni(II) center of urease in a tridentate mode involving bonds between the two Ni(II) ions in the active site and all three oxygen atoms of the inhibitor, supporting the observed competitive inhibition kinetics. This coordination mode of sulfite has never been observed, either in proteins or in small molecule complexes, and could inspire synthetic coordination chemists as well as biochemists to develop urease inhibitors based on this chemical moiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urea biosensor based on Zn3Al-Urease layered double hydroxides nanohybrid coated on insulated silicon structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhoumi, H.; Maaref, A.; Rammah, M.; Martelet, C.; Jaffrezic, N.; Mousty, C.; Vial, S.; Forano, C.

    2006-01-01

    Urea biosensors for medical diagnostic monitoring were developed based on the immobilization of urease within layered double hydroxides (LDH). The urease-LDH material was obtained by a stepwise exchange reaction by urease of a Zn 3 Al-dodecyl sulphate (ZnAl-DS) colloidal suspension. XR diffraction and FTIR analysis show that this method gives rise to a Zn 3 Al-Urease LDH nanohybrid material with urease dispersion and textural properties. An aqueous suspension of this urease-LDH nanohybrid material was deposited on an insulated semiconductor (IS) structure. Biosensor responses to urea additions were obtained using capacitance (C vs. V) and impedance (Z vs. ω) measurements. An enhanced maximum limit of the dynamic range was observed in the case of the impedance measurements (110 mM) compared to (5.6 mM) the capacitive urea biosensor. The Michaelis-Menten constant was also calculated according to the Lineweaver-Burk plot. It was found that the K m value with immobilized enzymes was lower (K m = 0.67 mM) in comparison with free enzymes. This K m value obtained from the capacitance measurements indicates that the urea degradation is performed within any inhibition action on the IS/Zn 3 Al-Urease LDH electrode. A comparative study was carried out between these results and those obtained previously, using urease/ZnAl-Cl layered double hydroxides mixture coated on the pH-ISFET transducer

  4. Increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia during Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii coinfection due to synergistic induction of urease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-05-15

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI.

  5. A semester-long project-oriented biochemistry laboratory based on Helicobacter pylori urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Kate R; Dube, Danielle H

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a 13 week project-oriented biochemistry laboratory designed to introduce students to foundational biochemical techniques and then enable students to perform original research projects once they have mastered these techniques. In particular, we describe a semester-long laboratory that focuses on a biomedically relevant enzyme--Helicobacter pylori (Hp) urease--the activity of which is absolutely required for the gastric pathogen Hp to colonize the human stomach. Over the course of the semester, students undertake a biochemical purification of Hp urease, assess the success of their purification, and investigate the activity of their purified enzyme. In the final weeks of the semester, students design and implement their own experiments to study Hp urease. This laboratory provides students with an understanding of the importance of biochemistry in human health while empowering them to engage in an active area of research. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Chemical studies of launaea nudicaulis hook f. extracts with antioxidant and urease inhibitory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, F.; Anis, I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: An activity guide isolation of Launaea nudicaulis Hook f, medicinal plant of Indo-Pak region has shown antioxidant potentials via its polar solvent soluble fractions while urease inhibition studies (in vitro) indicated compound 8 and 9 as a good urease inhibitors. Eight compounds have also been isolated for the first time from Launaea nudicaulis Hook f., namely, Scopoletin 1, lupeol 2, beta-amyrin 3, beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside 4, stigmasterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside 5, 6- hydroxy flavone 6, 7-methoxy flavone 7 and kaempferol 8, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by EI-MS, FABMS, 1H-NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel catalase-negative, urease-positive Campylobacter from cattle faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, S.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    characteristics typical for Campylobacter species. However, they were unusual in that they produced urease and copious H2S in triple sugar iron (TSI) medium, but did not produce catalase. They did not grow aerobically. None of the strains grew on modified cefoperazone charcoal deoxycholate agar (m......CCDA). Macrorestriction profiles of chromosomal DNA were prepared for 15 strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twelve of 15 profiles were identical and all appeared to be closely related. These catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacters (CNUPC) represent a group not previously reported...

  8. [Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil urease and phosphatase activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijun; Wu, Zhijie; Huang, Guohong; Zhou, Likai

    2002-10-01

    The response of soil urease and phosphatase activities at different rice growth stages to free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) was studied. The results showed that comparing with the ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (370 mumol.mol-1), FACE (570 mumol.mol-1) significantly increased the urease activity of 0-5 cm soil layer at the vigorous growth stage of rice, whole that of 5-10 cm layer had no significant change during the whole growing season. Phosphatase activity of 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil layers significantly increased, and the peak increment was at the vigorous growth stage of rice.

  9. Hemolytic and urease activities in vibrios isolated from fresh and frozen oysters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to survey the Vibrio microbiota of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae obtained from restaurants in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, and to identify virulence factors. METHODS: The isolated vibrios were submitted to biochemical identification and were tested for hemolytic and urease activities. RESULTS: The isolated strains belonged to 13 species, with predominance of Vibrio mimicus. Of the strain isolates only from fresh samples, 20.5% and 2.8% showed hemolytic and urease activities, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the little-publicized claim that Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus can represent a health risk to public health.

  10. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammad Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potential along with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic and aqueous extracts of C. digitatum showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The crude methanolic extract (hot/cold) exhibited good antioxidant activity, while the aqueous extract was a weak antioxidant. The crude methanolic extract was found to be more active against Bacillus subtilis, while both the extracts showed moderate antifungal potential, the methanolic crude extract showed good urease inhibitory activity compared with the aqueous crude extract.

  11. Design and syntheses of MMP inhibitors and photosensitive lipid nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Rajesh

    Drug administration without any compromise to the quality of life and lifespan is the ideal goal for disease management. The molecular mechanisms of several pathologies have shown that site-specific delivery of target-specific drugs seems to be a promising avenue to achieve this goal. This thesis describes the initial steps that we have taken toward that goal. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of about 23 isozymes in humans that were actively targeted for treating a multitude of pathologies. Clinical studies carried out on cancer patients have revealed the complexity of the working of this enzyme family and necessitated the development of isozyme-specific MMP inhibitors. Our studies toward the development of isozyme-specific inhibitors have resulted in the development of several inhibitors that seem to be selective toward some MMP isozymes. Our understanding on the molecular mechanism that confers this selectivity is documented in this thesis. Another aspect of discussion in the thesis is the development of photosensitive liposomes for drug delivery that could be triggered to release the drug by irradiation with light of appropriate wavelength. Development of such delivery vehicles, in principle, would confer external spatiotemporal control on drug delivery. This could potentially lead to better disease management by minimizing side effects and enhancing patient compatibility. The thesis discusses our attempts toward the development of photosensitive liposomes. These liposomes incorporated a photosensitive lipid (PSL) that would be cleaved upon irradiation with UV light, causing liposomal destabilization and release of the enclosed drug. The discussion includes: (i) the syntheses of the PSLs, (ii) formulation of the photosensitive liposomes that contained a model drug, (iii) light-mediated release of the drug and (iv) the mechanism of photocleavage of the PSL that leads to content release from liposomes. The thesis concludes with suggestions toward the

  12. Incorporating a hybrid urease-carbon nanotubes sensitive nanofilm on capacitive field-effect sensors for urea detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, José R; Molinnus, Denise; Beging, Stefan; Schöning, Michael J

    2014-06-03

    The ideal combination among biomolecules and nanomaterials is the key for reaching biosensing units with high sensitivity. The challenge, however, is to find out a stable and sensitive film architecture that can be incorporated on the sensor's surface. In this paper, we report on the benefits of incorporating a layer-by-layer (LbL) nanofilm of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) field-effect sensors for detecting urea. Three sensor arrangements were studied in order to investigate the adequate film architecture, involving the LbL film with the enzyme urease: (i) urease immobilized directly onto a bare EIS [EIS-urease] sensor; (ii) urease atop the LbL film over the EIS [EIS-(PAMAM/CNT)-urease] sensor; and (iii) urease sandwiched between the LbL film and another CNT layer [EIS-(PAMAM/CNT)-urease-CNT]. The surface morphology of all three urea-based EIS biosensors was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), while the biosensing abilities were studied by means of capacitance-voltage (C/V) and dynamic constant-capacitance (ConCap) measureaments at urea concentrations ranging from 0.1 mM to 100 mM. The EIS-urease and EIS-(PAMAM/CNT)-urease sensors showed similar sensitivity (~18 mV/decade) and a nonregular signal behavior as the urea concentration increased. On the other hand, the EIS-(PAMAM/CNT)-urease-CNT sensor exhibited a superior output signal performance and higher sensitivity of about 33 mV/decade. The presence of the additional CNT layer was decisive to achieve a urea based EIS sensor with enhanced properties. Such sensitive architecture demonstrates that the incorporation of an adequate hybrid enzyme-nanofilm as sensing unit opens new prospects for biosensing applications using the field-effect sensor platform.

  13. Analysis of morphology, DNA and isozyme of leaf mutation in Brassica napus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhen; Hu Dongwei; Li Xiaobai

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to study the rule of irradiating effects, provide the effective way of analyzing mutant, and discuss the production application of mutant. By irradiating the 040B of Brassica napus L with . 0Co γ- ray, an obvious leaf mutation (ML) with large leaf area was found. The ML which has been inherited stably after three generations was compared with wide-type (CK) on the morphologic, DNA and isozymic levels. Results showed that S 4 and S17 from RAPD were two molecular markers which can express good polymorphism and have close relationships with leaf mutation sites. And in the analysis of EST and POD between ML and CK, the polymorphisms also proved that many discrepancies exist between ML and CK on the protein level. In addition, the research results in question can be applied to the breeding and genetic research of Brassica napus L

  14. Chitooligosaccharides--preparation with the aid of pectinase isozyme from Aspergillus niger and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittur, Farooqahamed S; Vishu Kumar, Acharya B; Varadaraj, Mandyam C; Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2005-05-02

    An isozyme of pectinase from Aspergillus niger with polygalacturonase activity caused chitosanolysis at pH 3.5, resulting in low-molecular weight chitosan (86%), chitooligosaccharides (COs, 4.8%) and monomers (2.2%). HPLC showed the presence of COs with DP ranging from 2 to 6. Charcoal-Celite chromatography and re-N-acetylation of the COs followed by CD, IR, MALDI-TOF-MS and FAB-MS analyses revealed an abundance of chitobiose, chitotriose and chitotetraose. The COs-monomeric mixture showed a bactericidal effect towards Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli more efficiently than native chitosan. Among the chitooligomers, the hexamer showed maximum antibacterial effect followed by the penta-, tetra-, tri- and dimers. Of the two monomers, only GlcN showed slight bacterial growth inhibition. SEM revealed bactericidal action patterns of COs-monomeric mixture towards B. cereus and E. coli.

  15. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  16. Streptococcus thermophilus urease activity boosts Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus homolactic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Stefania; Della Scala, Giulia; Remagni, Maria Chiara; Stuknyte, Milda; Colombo, Stefano; Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Ragg, Enzio; Mora, Diego

    2017-04-17

    The proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in the yogurt consortium enhances the growth rate and size of each population. In contrast, the independent growth of the two species in milk leads to a slower growth rate and a smaller population size. In this study, we report the first evidence that the urease activity of S. thermophilus increases the intracellular pH of L. delbrueckii in the absence of carbon source. However, in milk, in the presence of lactose the alkalizing effect of urea-derived ammonia was not detectable. Nevertheless, based on glucose consumption and lactic acid production at different pH in , L. delbrueckii showed an optimum of glycolysis and homolactic fermentation at alkaline pH values. In milk, we observed that ammonia provided by urea hydrolysis boosted lactic acid production in S. thermophilus and in L. delbrueckii when the species were grown alone or in combination. Therefore, we propose that urease activity acts as an altruistic cooperative trait, which is costly for urease-positive individuals but provides a local benefit because other individuals can take advantage of urease-dependent ammonia release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipoxygenase and urease inhibition of extracts of polygonatum verticillatum rhizome: augmented by its isolated compound, santonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.; Saeed, M.; Saeed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the enzyme inhibitory profile of extracts of rhizome of Polygonatum verticillatum against lipoxygenase and urease. When tested against lipoxygenase, ethyl acetate fraction was found the most potent (IC50: 69 micro g/ml) and the overall IC50 values of different extracts ranged from 69-174 micro g/ml. In urease assay, n-butanol was the most potent fraction (IC50: 169 micro g/ml) while the overall IC50 values were in the range of 169-288 micro g/ml. Bioactivity guided chromatography led to the isolation of compound 1 which was characterized as santonin on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques. When santonin was tested against lipoxygenase and urease, it showed potent inhibition of lipoxygenase (IC50: 27.4 micro M) but did not attenuate the urease activity. Our findings provided strong evidence for the enzyme inhibitory profile of the extracts of P. verticillatum rhizome and its isolated compound. Thus results are consistent with the traditional use of the plant as an anti-inflammatory agent. (author)

  18. Helicobacter ganmani sp nov., a urease-negative anaerobe isolated from the intestines of laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, B.R.; O'Rourke, J.L.; Vandamme, P.

    2001-01-01

    , isolates possessed single, bipolar, unsheathed flagella and were urease-negative. They were positive for oxidase and reduced nitrate to nitrite but did not hydrolyse hippurate or indoxyl acetate, grew on charcoal agar and were resistant to cephalothin. 16S rDNA sequences from four strains were determined...

  19. Inhibition of Urease by Disulfiram, an FDA-Approved Thiol Reagent Used in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel Gabriel; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro; Aguirre-Reyes, Luis; Orozpe-Olvera, Jesica Aline; Ramos-Soto, Miguel Armando; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; Alvarado-Tenorio, Bonifacio; de la Rosa, Laura Alejandra

    2016-11-26

    Urease is a nickel-dependent amidohydrolase that catalyses the decomposition of urea into carbamate and ammonia, a reaction that constitutes an important source of nitrogen for bacteria, fungi and plants. It is recognized as a potential antimicrobial target with an impact on medicine, agriculture, and the environment. The list of possible urease inhibitors is continuously increasing, with a special interest in those that interact with and block the flexible active site flap. We show that disulfiram inhibits urease in Citrullus vulgaris (CVU), following a non-competitive mechanism, and may be one of this kind of inhibitors. Disulfiram is a well-known thiol reagent that has been approved by the FDA for treatment of chronic alcoholism. We also found that other thiol reactive compounds (l-captopril and Bithionol) and quercetin inhibits CVU. These inhibitors protect the enzyme against its full inactivation by the thiol-specific reagent Aldrithiol (2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide, DPS), suggesting that the three drugs bind to the same subsite. Enzyme kinetics, competing inhibition experiments, auto-fluorescence binding experiments, and docking suggest that the disulfiram reactive site is Cys592, which has been proposed as a "hinge" located in the flexible active site flap. This study presents the basis for the use of disulfiram as one potential inhibitor to control urease activity.

  20. New monoclonal antibody-based test for Helicobacter pylori urease in gastric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Ho Dong; Park, Hyeuk; Choi, Seung; Beom, Jae Won; Kim, Woo Jong; Park, Chang Kook; Lee, Young Jik; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Hyung Rag; Park, Chul; Joo, Young Eun; Jung, Young Do

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a new monoclonal antibody for Helicobacter pylori urease in gastric tissue. A total of 107 volunteers were enrolled. All subjects underwent a (13)C-urea breath test and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Gastric aspirates were analyzed for pH and ammonia. Six biopsy specimens in the gastric antrum and body were obtained for a rapid urease test and histology. The new monoclonal antibody-based H. pylori urease test (HPU) was performed to rapidly and qualitatively detect urease in two biopsy specimens. H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 73 subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPU was 89% and 74%, respectively. The subjects were divided into two groups: one with true-positive and true-negative HPU results (n = 90) and the other with false-positive and false-negative HPU results (n = 17). Across all subjects, ammonia levels were 900.5 ± 646.7 and 604.3 ± 594.3 μmol/L (p > 0.05), and pH was 3.37 ± 1.64 and 2.82 ± 1.51 (p > 0.05). Sensitivity was higher in the presence of atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia. HPU detected H. pylori in approximately 10 min. Gastric aspirate ammonia and pH levels did not affect the test results. Sensitivity was good in the presence of atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia.

  1. Urease Inhibition of Fixed Oils and Fractions of Caralluma tuberculata: Component Identification by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. A.; Khan, H.; Saeed, M.; Rauf, A.; Basharat, T.; Khan, A.

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro urease inhibitory activity of fixed oil and various organic fractions of Caralluma tuberculata followed by GC-MS analysis of the fixed oil are described in this research article. The fixed oil caused marked attenuation of jack bean urease with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.97 mg/ml. The similar urease inhibitory profile was observed for chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions with IC50 values of 3.36 and 4.90 mg/ml, respectively. GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 20 different constituents of the fixed oil by their m/z ratio and retention time in comparison with the standard compounds. The major constituents were methyl linoleate (30.97%) followed by methyl octadecadienoate (19.16%), ethyl linolenate (13.70 %), and methyl palmitate (9.86 %). The fixed oil and organic fractions of C. tuberculata exhibited marked urease inhibition and thus provide scientific background for use of the plant as antiulcer agent. (author)

  2. Soil phosphatase and urease activities impacted by cropping systems and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil enzymes can play an important role in nutrient availability to plants. Consequently, soil enzyme measurements can provide useful information on soil fertility for crop production. We examined the impact of cropping system and water management on phosphatase, urease, and microbial biomass C in s...

  3. Effect of urease inhibitor application rate and rainfall on ammonia emissions from beef manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social, economic, and environmental factors have prompted the desire to reduce global atmospheric ammonia emissions. A research project was conducted to assess the efficacy of the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) for reducing ammonia emissions from simulated open-lot beef...

  4. Synthesis, structures and urease inhibitory activity of cobalt(III) complexes with Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changling; Wang, Cunfang; Yan, Kai; Zhao, Kedong; Sheng, Guihua; Qu, Dan; Niu, Fang; Zhu, Hailiang; You, Zhonglu

    2016-01-15

    A series of new cobalt(III) complexes were prepared. They are [CoL(1)(py)3]·NO3 (1), [CoL(2)(bipy)(N3)]·CH3OH (2), [CoL(3)(HL(3))(N3)]·NO3 (3), and [CoL(4)(MeOH)(N3)] (4), where L(1), L(2), L(3) and L(4) are the deprotonated form of N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide, N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-3-hydroxylbenzohydrazide, 2-[(2-dimethylaminoethylimino)methyl]-4-methylphenol, and N,N'-bis(5-methylsalicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine, respectively, py is pyridine, and bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine. The complexes were characterized by infrared and UV-Vis spectra, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Co atoms in the complexes are in octahedral coordination. Complexes 1 and 4 show effective urease inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 4.27 and 0.35 μmol L(-1), respectively. Complex 2 has medium activity against urease, with IC50 value of 68.7 μmol L(-1). While complex 3 has no activity against urease. Molecular docking study of the complexes with Helicobacter pylori urease was performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains against Growth and Urease Activity of Proteus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Goudarzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Nowadays, the use of probiotic bacteria for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections is growing. Lactobacillus, as probiotic bacterial genus, is well known for its benefits for the human health.Methods:      The effects of partially purified antimicrobial compounds (bacteriocins and biosurfactants of Lactobacillus strains was assessed and their capacity to in vitro inhibit growth and urease production of various strains of Proteus spp, was studied. Inhibition of the urease production of Proteus spp. at sub-MIC levels was screened using spectrophotometry method.  Results:   Results revealed that semi-purified bacteriocins of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum showed a greater inhibitory activity on the bacterial urease, compared to biosurfactants of L. rhamnosus, L. casei and L. fermentum (P < 0.05.Conclusion:    It can be concluded that bacteriocins may affect Proteus pathogenesis by inhibition of the bacterial urease activity and therefore eliminate the stone formation by these bacteria.

  6. Immobilization of urease on copper chelated EC-Tri beads and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum reaction rate (Vmax) and Michaelis-Menten constant (km) were determined for the free and immobilized enzymes. Various characteristics of immobilized urease such as the temperature activity curve, thermal stability, operational stability and storage stability were evaluated. The results demonstrated that triazole ...

  7. Curcumin Prevents Aflatoxin B1 Hepatoxicity by Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Isozymes in Chick Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni-Ya Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to establish if Curcumin (CM alleviates Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced hepatotoxic effects and to determine whether alteration of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450 isozymes is involved in the regulation of these effects in chick liver. One-day-old male broilers (n = 120 were divided into four groups and used in a two by two factorial trial in which the main factors included supplementing AFB1 (< 5 vs. 100 μg/kg and CM (0 vs. 150 mg/kg in a corn/soybean-based diet. Administration of AFB1 induced liver injury, significantly decreasing albumin and total protein concentrations and increasing alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum, and induced hepatic histological lesions at week 2. AFB1 also significantly decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, while increasing malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO-DNA concentrations. In addition, the mRNA and/or activity of enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of AFB1 into AFBO—including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4—were significantly induced in liver microsomes after 2-week exposure to AFB1. These alterations induced by AFB1 were prevented by CM supplementation. Conclusively, dietary CM protected chicks from AFB1-induced liver injury, potentially through the synergistic actions of increased antioxidant capacities and inhibition of the pivotal CYP450 isozyme-mediated activation of AFB1 to toxic AFBO.

  8. Evidence that steroid 5alpha-reductase isozyme genes are differentially methylated in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorantes, M; Lizano-Soberón, M; Camacho-Arroyo, I; Calzada-León, R; Morimoto, S; Téllez-Ascencio, N; Cerbón, M A

    2002-03-01

    The synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is catalyzed by steroid 5alpha-reductase isozymes 1 and 2, and this function determines the development of the male phenotype during embriogenesis and the growth of androgen sensitive tissues during puberty. The aim of this study was to determine the cytosine methylation status of 5alpha-reductase isozymes types 1 and 2 genes in normal and in 5alpha-reductase deficient men. Genomic DNA was obtained from lymphocytes of both normal subjects and patients with primary 5alpha-reductase deficiency due to point mutations in 5alpha-reductase 2 gene. Southern blot analysis of 5alpha-reductase types 1 and 2 genes from DNA samples digested with HpaII presented a different cytosine methylation pattern compared to that observed with its isoschizomer MspI, indicating that both genes are methylated in CCGG sequences. The analysis of 5alpha-reductase 1 gene from DNA samples digested with Sau3AI and its isoschizomer MboI which recognize methylation in GATC sequences showed an identical methylation pattern. In contrast, 5alpha-reductase 2 gene digested with Sau3AI presented a different methylation pattern to that of the samples digested with MboI, indicating that steroid 5alpha-reductase 2 gene possess methylated cytosines in GATC sequences. Analysis of exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene after metabisulfite PCR showed that normal and deficient subjects present a different methylation pattern, being more methylated in patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 mutated gene. The overall results suggest that 5alpha-reductase genes 1 and 2 are differentially methylated in lymphocytes from normal and 5alpha-reductase deficient patients. Moreover, the extensive cytosine methylation pattern observed in exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene in deficient patients, points out to an increased rate of mutations in this gene.

  9. Andrographolide sodium bisulphite-induced inactivation of urease: inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Xie; Su, Ji-Yan; Chen, Hai-Ming; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Zi-Ren

    2015-07-16

    The inhibitory effect of andrographolide sodium bisulphite (ASB) on jack bean urease (JBU) and Helicobacter pylori urease (HPU) was performed to elucidate the inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA, 25 °C. The ammonia formations, indicator of urease activity, were examined using modified spectrophotometric Berthelot (phenol-hypochlorite) method. The inhibitory effect of ASB was characterized with IC50 values. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots for JBU inhibition of ASB was constructed from the kinetic data. SH-blocking reagents and competitive active site Ni2+ binding inhibitors were employed for mechanism study. Molecular docking technique was used to provide some information on binding conformations as well as confirm the inhibition mode. The IC50 of ASB against JBU and HPU was 3.28±0.13 mM and 3.17±0.34 mM, respectively. The inhibition proved to be competitive and concentration- dependent in a slow-binding progress. The rapid formation of initial ASB-JBU complex with an inhibition constant of Ki=2.86×10(-3) mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of Ki*=1.33×10(-4) mM. The protective experiment proved that the urease active site is involved in the binding of ASB. Thiol reagents (L-cysteine and dithiothreithol) strongly protect the enzyme from the loss of enzymatic activity, while boric acid and fluoride show weaker protection, indicating that the active-site sulfhydryl group of JBU was potentially involved in the blocking process. Moreover, inhibition of ASB proved to be reversible since ASB-inactivated JBU could be reactivated by dithiothreitol application. Molecular docking assay suggested that ASB made contacts with the important sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residue and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. ASB was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration

  10. First report of urease activity in the novel systemic fungal pathogen Emergomyces africanus: a comparison with the neurotrope Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Barbra; Kenyon, Chris; Schwartz, Ilan S; Kroukamp, Heinrich; de Witt, Riaan; Govender, Nelesh P; de Hoog, G Sybren; Botha, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for the AIDS-defining illness, cryptococcal meningitis. During the disease process, entry of cryptococcal cells into the brain is facilitated by virulence factors that include urease enzyme activity. A novel species of an Emmonsia-like fungus, recently named Emergomyces africanus, was identified as a cause of disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected persons in South Africa. However, in contrast to C. neoformans, the enzymes produced by this fungus, some of which may be involved in pathogenesis, have not been described. Using a clinical isolate of C. neoformans as a reference, the study aim was to confirm, characterise and quantify urease activity in E. africanus clinical isolates. Urease activity was tested using Christensen's urea agar, after which the presence of a urease gene in the genome of E. africanus was confirmed using gene sequence analysis. Subsequent evaluation of colorimetric enzyme assay data, using Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics, revealed similarities between the substrate affinity of the urease enzyme produced by E. africanus (Km ca. 26.0 mM) and that of C. neoformans (Km ca. 20.6 mM). However, the addition of 2.5 g/l urea to the culture medium stimulated urease activity of E. africanus, whereas nutrient limitation notably increased cryptococcal urease activity. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a stable humic-urease complex: application to barley seed encapsulation for improving N uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvila, Beaufray G; Pilar-Izquierdo, María C; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

    2016-07-01

    Most N fertilizers added to soil are not efficiently used by plants and are lost to the atmosphere or leached from the soil, causing environmental pollution and increasing cost. Barley seed encapsulation in calcium alginate gels containing free or immobilized urease to enhance plant utilization of soil N was investigated. Urease was immobilized with soil humic acids (HA). A central composite face-centered design was applied to optimize the immobilization process, reaching an immobilization yield of 127%. Soil stability of urease was enhanced after the immobilization. Seed encapsulation with free urease (FU) and humic-urease complex (HUC) resulted in a urease activity retention in the coating layer of 46% and 24%, and in germination rates of 87% and 92%, respectively. Under pot culture conditions, the pots planted with seeds encapsulated with FU and HUC showed higher ammonium N (NH4 (+) -N) (26% and 64%, respectively) than the control soil at 28 days after planting (DAP). Moreover, the seed encapsulation with FU and HUC increased the N uptake 83% and 97%, respectively, at 35 DAP. Seed encapsulation with urease could substantially contribute to enhancing plant N nutrition in the early stages of seedling establishment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Biological evaluation and molecular docking of baicalin and scutellarin as Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Zheng, Rong-Bo; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Ji-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Wu, Xiao-Li; Wu, Dian-Wei; Liang, Ye-er; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Su, Zi-Ren; Huang, Ping

    2015-03-13

    Baicalin and scutellarin are the principal bioactive components of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi which has extensively been incorporated into heat-clearing and detoxification formulas for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori-related gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the mechanism of action remained to be defined. To explore the inhibitory effect, kinetics and mechanism of Helicobacter pylori urease (the vital pathogenetic factor for Helicobacter pylori infection) inhibition by baicalin and scutellarin, for their therapeutic potential. The ammonia formations, indicator of urease activity, were examined using modified spectrophotometric Berthelot (phenol-hypochlorite) method. The inhibitory effect of baicalin and scutellarin was characterized with IC50 values, compared to acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), a well known Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitor. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots for the Helicobacter pylori urease inhibition of baicalin and scutellarin was constructed from the kinetic data. SH-blocking reagents and competitive active site Ni(2+) binding inhibitors were employed for mechanism study. Molecular docking technique was used to provide some information on binding conformations as well as confirm the inhibition mode. Moreover, cytotoxicity experiment using Gastric Epithelial Cells (GES-1) was evaluated. Baicalin and scutellarin effectively suppressed Helicobacter pylori urease in dose-dependent and time-independent manner with IC50 of 0.82±0.07 mM and 0.47±0.04 mM, respectively, compared to AHA (IC50=0.14±0.05 mM). Structure-activity relationship disclosed 4'-hydroxyl gave flavones an advantage to binding with Helicobacter pylori urease. Kinetic analysis revealed that the types of inhibition were non-competitive and reversible with inhibition constant Ki of 0.14±0.01 mM and 0.18±0.02 mM for baicalin and scutellarin, respectively. The mechanism of urease inhibition was considered to be blockage of the SH groups of

  13. Spectrometric and Voltammetric Analysis of Urease – Nickel Nanoelectrode as an Electrochemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Urease is the enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide andammonia. This enzyme is substrate-specific, which means that the enzyme catalyzes thehydrolysis of urea only. This feature is a basic diagnostic criterion used in thedetermination of many bacteria species. Most of the methods utilized for detection ofurease are based on analysis of its enzyme activity – the hydrolysis of urea. The aim of thiswork was to detect urease indirectly by spectrometric method and directly by voltammetricmethods. As spectrometric method we used is called indophenol assay. The sensitivity ofdetection itself is not sufficient to analyse the samples without pre-concentration steps.Therefore we utilized adsorptive transfer stripping technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetry to detect urease. The influence of accumulation time, pH of supporting electrolyte and concentration of urease on the enzyme peak height was investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions (0.2 M acetate buffer pH 4.6 and accumulation time of 120 s the detection limit of urease evaluated as 3 S/N was 200 ng/ml. The activity of urease enzyme depends on the presence of nickel. Thus the influence of nickel(II ions on electrochemical response of the enzyme was studied. Based on the results obtained the interaction of nickel(II ions and urease can be determined using electrochemical methods. Therefore we prepared Ni nanoelectrodes to measure urease. The Ni nanoelectrodes was analysed after the template dissolution by scanning electron microscopy. The results shown vertically aligned Ni nanopillars almost covered the electrode surface, whereas the defect places are minor and insignificant in comparison with total electrode surface. We were able to not only detect urease itself but also to distinguish its native and denatured form.

  14. Structural insight into the binding interactions of modeled structure of Arabidopsis thaliana urease with urea: an in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yata, Vinod Kumar; Thapa, Arun; Mattaparthi, Venkata Satish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Urease (EC 3.5.1.5., urea amidohydrolase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urease is present to a greater abundance in plants and plays significant role related to nitrogen recycling from urea. But little is known about the structure and function of the urease derived from the Arabidopsis thaliana, the model system of choice for research in plant biology. In this study, a three-dimensional structural model of A. thaliana urease was constructed using computer-aided molecular modeling technique. The characteristic structural features of the modeled structure were then studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. It was observed that the modeled structure was stable and regions between residues index (50-80, 500-700) to be significantly flexible. From the docking studies, we detected the possible binding interactions of modeled urease with urea. Ala399, Ile675, Thr398, and Thr679 residues of A. thaliana urease were observed to be significantly involved in binding with the substrate urea. We also compared the docking studies of ureases from other sources such as Canavalia ensiformis, Helicobacter pylori, and Bacillus pasteurii. In addition, we carried out mutation analysis to find the highly mutable amino acid residues of modeled A. thaliana urease. In this particular study, we observed Met485, Tyr510, Ser786, Val426, and Lys765 to be highly mutable amino acids. These results are significant for the mutagenesis analysis. As a whole, this study expounds the salient structural features as well the binding interactions of the modeled structure of A. thaliana urease.

  15. Determination of some properties of free and immobilized urease from aspergillus fumigatus and its application in urea assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetiker, A.T.; Ertan, F.

    2016-01-01

    Urease enzyme was extracted from Apergillus fumigatus and immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The immobilization efficiency was calculated as 82.5 %. Optimum pH and temperature for free and immobilized enzymes were found to be 7.0 and 40 degree C, respectively. The immobilized urease had a better Km value but, catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) were very similar. Immobilized enzyme maintained 44% of its initial activity after 5 repeated use of enzyme. It was found that storage stability of immobilized enzyme was better than that of the free enzyme. Immobilized urease enzyme was used for the determination of urea amounts in animal feed. (author)

  16. Enhanced Peroxide Resistance of In Vitro Mutagenized Fluorideresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Ureases for Catalytic Buffering of Agent Decontamination Reactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fry, Ilona J; DeFrank, Joseph J

    2004-01-01

    ...) and oxidative surety agent decontamination technologies. Ammonia production from urea by urease neutralizes the production of Oalkylphosphonic acids resulting from the hydrolysis of Nerve agents such as Sarin and VX...

  17. Iron-responsive repression of urease expression in Helicobacter hepaticus is mediated by the transcriptional regulator Fur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Belzer (Clara); B.A.M. van Schendel (Bart A.); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.G. Kusters (Johannes); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPersistent colonization of mucosal surfaces by bacteria in the mammalian host requires concerted expression of colonization factors, depending on the environmental conditions. Helicobacter hepaticus is a urease-positive pathogen that colonizes the intestinal and hepatobiliary tracts of

  18. Metallochaperone UreG serves as a new target for design of urease inhibitor: A novel strategy for development of antimicrobials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinming Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urease as a potential target of antimicrobial drugs has received considerable attention given its versatile roles in microbial infection. Development of effective urease inhibitors, however, is a significant challenge due to the deeply buried active site and highly specific substrate of a bacterial urease. Conventionally, urease inhibitors are designed by either targeting the active site or mimicking substrate of urease, which is not efficient. Up to now, only one effective inhibitor-acetohydroxamic acid (AHA-is clinically available, but it has adverse side effects. Herein, we demonstrate that a clinically used drug, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, utilizes an unusual way to inhibit urease activity, i.e., disruption of urease maturation process via functional perturbation of a metallochaperone, UreG. Similar phenomena were also observed in various pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that UreG may serve as a general target for design of new types of urease inhibitors. Using Helicobacter pylori UreG as a showcase, by virtual screening combined with experimental validation, we show that two compounds targeting UreG also efficiently inhibited urease activity with inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of micromolar level, resulting in attenuated virulence of the pathogen. We further demonstrate the efficacy of the compounds in a mammalian cell infection model. This study opens up a new opportunity for the design of more effective urease inhibitors and clearly indicates that metallochaperones involved in the maturation of important microbial metalloenzymes serve as new targets for devising a new type of antimicrobial drugs.

  19. Metallochaperone UreG serves as a new target for design of urease inhibitor: A novel strategy for development of antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinming; Koohi-Moghadam, Mohamad; Wang, Runming; Chang, Yuen-Yan; Woo, Patrick C Y; Wang, Junwen; Li, Hongyan; Sun, Hongzhe

    2018-01-01

    Urease as a potential target of antimicrobial drugs has received considerable attention given its versatile roles in microbial infection. Development of effective urease inhibitors, however, is a significant challenge due to the deeply buried active site and highly specific substrate of a bacterial urease. Conventionally, urease inhibitors are designed by either targeting the active site or mimicking substrate of urease, which is not efficient. Up to now, only one effective inhibitor-acetohydroxamic acid (AHA)-is clinically available, but it has adverse side effects. Herein, we demonstrate that a clinically used drug, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, utilizes an unusual way to inhibit urease activity, i.e., disruption of urease maturation process via functional perturbation of a metallochaperone, UreG. Similar phenomena were also observed in various pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that UreG may serve as a general target for design of new types of urease inhibitors. Using Helicobacter pylori UreG as a showcase, by virtual screening combined with experimental validation, we show that two compounds targeting UreG also efficiently inhibited urease activity with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values of micromolar level, resulting in attenuated virulence of the pathogen. We further demonstrate the efficacy of the compounds in a mammalian cell infection model. This study opens up a new opportunity for the design of more effective urease inhibitors and clearly indicates that metallochaperones involved in the maturation of important microbial metalloenzymes serve as new targets for devising a new type of antimicrobial drugs.

  20. Effect of thyroid hormone on the levels of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase isozymes and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T; Taniguchi, N; Ishikawa, N; Ide, H; Takakuwa, E; Murao, M

    1978-05-01

    Levels of rabbit erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase B and C isozymes were determined in experimental hyperthyroidism using a quantitative immunologic technique. Levels of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and protein binding iodine were simultaneously determined. Thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine were administered to rabbits orally for 30 days. A significant decrease in carbonic anhydrase B type was observed after 30 days, although no significant change was observed in carbonic anhydrase C type. These findings suggest that the steady state level of carbonic anhydrase B type in red cells is affected by thyroid hormone more readily than that of carbonic anhydrase C type. The level of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate increased markedly after 10 days of treatment, corresponding to the increase of protein binding iodine. The clinical or pathologic significances were discussed in relation to the changes in the levels of these isozymes and 2,3-diphosphglycerate in red cells.

  1. Phosphate or phosphite addition promotes the proteolytic turnover of phosphate-starvation inducible tomato purple acid phosphatase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Gale G; Singh, Vinay K; Plaxton, William C

    2004-08-27

    Within 48 h of the addition of 2.5 mM phosphate (HPO42-, Pi) or phosphite (H2PO3-, Phi) to 8-day-old Pi-starved (-Pi) tomato suspension cells: (i) secreted and intracellular purple acid phosphatase (PAP) activities decreased by about 12- and 6-fold, respectively and (ii) immunoreactive PAP polypeptides either disappeared (secreted PAPs) or were substantially reduced (intracellular PAP). The degradation of both secreted PAP isozymes was correlated with the de novo synthesis of two extracellular serine proteases having M(r)s of 137 and 121 kDa. In vitro proteolysis of purified secreted tomato PAP isozymes occurred following their 24 h incubation with culture filtrate from Pi-resupplied cells. The results indicate that Pi or Phi addition to -Pi tomato cells induces serine proteases that degrade Pi-starvation inducible extracellular proteins.

  2. Effect of injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of GAD isozymes into rat ventromedial hypothalamus on food intake and locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, M; Ichikawa, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    1998-02-16

    In the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a role in regulating feeding and running behaviors. The GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), consists of two isozymes, GAD65 and GAD67. In the present study, the phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of each GAD isozyme were injected bilaterally into the VMH of male rats, and food intake, body weight and locomotor activity were monitored. ODNs were incorporated in the water-absorbent polymer (WAP, 0.2 nmol/microliter) so that ODNs were retained at the injection site. Each antisense ODN of GAD65 or GAD67 tended to reduce food intake on day 1 (day of injection=day 0) though not significantly. An injection combining both antisense ODNs significantly decreased food intake only on day 1, but body weight remained significantly lower than the control for 5 days. This suppression of body weight gain could be attributed to a significant increase in locomotor activity between days 3 and 5. Individual treatment with either ODNs did not change locomotor activity. The increase in daily locomotor activity in the group receiving the combined antisense ODNs occurred mainly during the light phase. Neither vehicle (WAP) nor control ODN affected food intake, body weight and locomotor activity. Histological studies indicated that antisense ODN distributed within 800 micron from the edge of the area where WAP was located 24 h after the injection gradually disappeared within days, but still remained within 300 micron m distance even 7 days after the injection. Antisense ODN was effectively incorporated by all the cell types examined, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and microglias. Further, HPLC analysis revealed that antisense ODNs of GAD isozymes, either alone or combined, decreased the content of GABA by 50% in VMH 24 h after the injection. These results indicate that suppression of GABA synthesis by either of the GAD isozymes is synergistically involved in suppressing food

  3. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kawashima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1 and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2, in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa and SmeChiB (56 kDa, were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α8–fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases.

  4. Urease Inhibition in the Presence of N-(n-Butyl)thiophosphoric Triamide, a Suicide Substrate: Structure and Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Contaldo, Umberto; Musiani, Francesco; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-10-10

    The nickel-dependent enzyme urease is a virulence factor for a large number of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as well as a negative factor for the efficiency of soil nitrogen fertilization for crop production. The use of urease inhibitors to offset these effects requires knowledge, at a molecular level, of their mode of action. The 1.28 Å resolution structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex obtained upon incubation of Sporosarcina pasteurii urease with N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), a molecule largely utilized in agriculture, reveals the presence of the monoamidothiophosphoric acid (MATP) moiety, obtained upon enzymatic hydrolysis of the diamide derivative of NBPT (NBPD) to yield n-butyl amine. MATP is bound to the two Ni(II) ions in the active site of urease using a μ 2 -bridging O atom and terminally bound O and NH 2 groups, with the S atom of the thiophosphoric amide pointing away from the metal center. The mobile flap modulating the size of the active site cavity is found in the closed conformation. Docking calculations suggest that the interaction between urease in the open flap conformation and NBPD involves a role for the conserved αArg339 in capturing and orienting the inhibitor prior to flap closure. Calorimetric and spectrophotometric determinations of the kinetic parameters of this inhibition indicate the occurrence of a reversible slow inhibition mode of action, characterized, for both bacterial and plant ureases, by a very small value of the dissociation constant of the urease-MATP complex. No need to convert NBPT to its oxo derivative NBPTO, as previously proposed, is necessary for urease inhibition.

  5. Amino Acid Composition, Urease Activity and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity after Toasting of Soybean in Thick and Thin Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Krička, Tajana; Jurišić, Vanja; Voća, Neven; Ćurić, Duška; Brlek Savić, Tea; Matin, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid content, urease activity and trypsin inhibitor activity in soybean grain for polygastric animals’ feed aft er toasting with the aim to introduce thick layer in toasting technology. Hence, soybean was toasted both in thick and thin layer at 130 oC during 10 minutes. In order to properly monitor the technological process of soybean thermal processing, it was necessary to study crude protein content, urease activity, trypsin inhibitor activ...

  6. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  7. Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Sho; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2016-11-26

    The aim of this study was to obtain primary information about the global diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by evaluating morphological, physiological and isozyme variation. A total of 107 garlic accessions collected worldwide were grown in Yamaguchi, Japan. Five morphological traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter, number of cloves per bulb, number of bulbils and scape length) and one physiological trait (bolting period) of the collected garlic showed wide variation. Meanwhile, a total of 140 garlic accessions, including the 107 mentioned above, were characterized by leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) isozyme analyses; they clearly showed polymorphisms in putative isozyme loci (Lap-1, Lap-2 and Pgi-1). Allelic frequencies were estimated in each group of accessions categorized by their geographical origin, and the observed (H o ) and expected (H e ) heterozygosities were calculated. The allelic frequencies differed between groups. A principal component analysis based on morpho-physiological data indicated a grouping of the garlic accessions into Central Asian and Northern Mediterranean groups as well as others. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits, on the assumption that ancestral domesticated garlic populations have adapted in various regions using standing variation or mutations that accumulated during expansion, and have evolved along with human-preferred traits over a long history of cultivation.

  8. Modulation of cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase isozyme expression associated with activation of a macrophage cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justement, L.B.; Aldrich, W.A.; Wenger, G.D.; O'Dorisio, M.S.; Zwilling, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    The RAW 264.7 macrophage (MO) cell line was used to study cAMPdPK isozymes during activation by lymphokine (LK) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Untreated cells were found to have two isozymes of cAMPdPK in their cytosol. PKI and PKII were differentiated based on the M/sub r/ of their regulatory subunits (RI, 45,500; and RII, 52,000, respectively) as determined by photoactivated incorporation of the cAMP analog 8-N 3 -[ 32 P]cAMP. Loss of the RI subunit of PKI occurred in association with activation of the cell line by suboptimal concentrations of LK and LPS. No modulation of the RII subunit of PKII was observed under these conditions. The addition of a suboptimal concentration of LPS after LK or a high dose of LPS alone was required for acquisition of cytolytic activity and loss of RI. The antitumor activity of the RAW 264.7 cell line was transiently expressed after activation. Cells no longer exhibited tumoricidal activity 48 hr after the removal of activating agents. It was observed that the loss of cytolytic function was accompanied by the reexpression of RI in the cytosol. This study provides evidence that modulation of cAMPdPK isozymes occurs during activation, suggesting a potential mechanism for controlling the effects of cAMP on the MO

  9. A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Selective inhibition by chloramphenicol of pregnenolone-16 α-carbonitrile-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, P.E.; Kaminsky, L.S.; Halpert, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pregnenolone-16 α-carbonitrile (PCN) has been shown to induce, in male rats, cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for the formation of R-10-hydroxywarfarin and R-dehydrowarfarin. Antibodies to the major PCN-inducible isozyme (PB/PCN-E) inhibit both activities in microsomal preparations. Recently the authors have shown that PCN treatment of female rats also induces the formation of both R-warfarin metabolites. However, in both sexes chloramphenicol (CAP) treatment selectively inhibits only the rate of formation of the R-dehydrowarfarin. A decrease in microsomal P-450 content occurs after in vivo administration of CAP to PCN-treated rats of both sexes. This is in contrast to the lack of effect of CAP on P-450 levels in phenobarbital-treated rats. Covalent binding of 14 C-CAP to microsomal protein in vitro was increased 3 to 4-fold following PCN treatment. Chromatographic evidences suggests the presence of at least two PCN-induced isozymes of similar molecular weights in both male and female rat liver microsomes. These data are consistent with the multiplicity of PCN-inducible P-450 in rat liver

  11. Isozyme, ISSR and RAPD profiling of genotypes in marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Raghvendra; Chandra, Amaresh

    2010-11-01

    Genetic analysis of 30 accessions of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum Forsk.), a tropical range grass collected from grasslands and open fields of drier regions, was carried out with the objectives of identifying unique materials that could be used in developing the core germplasm for such regions as well as to explore gene (s) for drought tolerance. Five inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers [(CA)4, (AGAC), (GACA) 4; 27 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and four enzyme systems were employed in the present study. In total, ISSR yielded 61 (52 polymorphic), RAPD 269 (253 polymorphic) and enzyme 55 isozymes (44 polymorphic) bands. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) across all polymorphic bands of 3 markers systems ranged from 0.419 to 0.480 and 4.34 to 5.25 respectively Dendrogram analysis revealed three main clusters with all three markers. Four enzymes namely esterase (EST), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (PRX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) revealed 55 alleles from a total of 16 enzyme-coding loci. Of these, 14 loci and 44 alleles were polymorphic. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.43. Mean heterozygosity observed among the polymorphic loci ranged from 0.406 (SOD) to 0.836 (EST) and accession wise from 0.679 (1G3108) to 0.743 (IGKMD-10). Though there was intermixing of few accessions of one agro-climatic region to another largely groupings of accessions were with their regions of collections. Bootstrap analysis at 1000 iterations also showed large numbers of nodes (11 to 17) having strong clustering (> 50 bootstrap values) in all three marker systems. The accessions of the arid and drier regions forming one cluster are assigned as distinct core collection of Dichanthium and can be targeted for isolation of gene (s) for drought tolerance. Variations in isozyme allele numbers and high PIC (0.48) and MI (4.98) as observed with ISSR markers indicated their usefulness for germplasm characterization.

  12. Inactivation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum urease gene using transcription activator-like effector nuclease-based targeted mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyman, Philip D; Beeri, Karen; Lefebvre, Stephane C; Rivera, Josefa; McCarthy, James K; Heuberger, Adam L; Peers, Graham; Allen, Andrew E; Dupont, Christopher L

    2015-05-01

    Diatoms are unicellular photosynthetic algae with promise for green production of fuels and other chemicals. Recent genome-editing techniques have greatly improved the potential of many eukaryotic genetic systems, including diatoms, to enable knowledge-based studies and bioengineering. Using a new technique, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the gene encoding the urease enzyme in the model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was targeted for interruption. The knockout cassette was identified within the urease gene by PCR and Southern blot analyses of genomic DNA. The lack of urease protein was confirmed by Western blot analyses in mutant cell lines that were unable to grow on urea as the sole nitrogen source. Untargeted metabolomic analysis revealed a build-up of urea, arginine and ornithine in the urease knockout lines. All three intermediate metabolites are upstream of the urease reaction within the urea cycle, suggesting a disruption of the cycle despite urea production. Numerous high carbon metabolites were enriched in the mutant, implying a breakdown of cellular C and N repartitioning. The presented method improves the molecular toolkit for diatoms and clarifies the role of urease in the urea cycle. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rapid presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex by radiometric determination of heat stable urease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandy, J.H.; Pruden, E.L.; Cox, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and rapid Bactec methodologies for the determination of neat (unaltered) and heat stable urease activity of mycobacteria are presented. Clinical isolates (63) and stock cultures (32)--consisting of: M. tuberculosis (19), M. bovis (5), M. kansasii (15), M. marinum (4), M. simiae (3), M. scrofulaceum (16), M. gordonae (6), M. szulgai (6), M. flavescens (1), M. gastri (1), M. intracellulare (6), M. fortuitum-chelonei complex (12), and M. smegmatis (1)--were tested for neat urease activity by Bactec radiometry. Mycobacterial isolates (50-100 mg wet weight) were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with microCi14C-urea. Urease-positive mycobacteria gave Bactec growth index (GI) values greater than 100 units, whereas urease-negative species gave values less than 10 GI units. Eighty-three isolates possessing neat urease activity were heated at 80 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by incubation at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with 1 microCi14C-urea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex demonstrated heat-stable urease activity (GI more than 130 units) and could be distinguished from mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), which gave GI values equal to or less than 40 units

  14. Urease inhibition potential of Di-naphthodiospyrol from Diospyros lotus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Raza, Muslam; Patel, Seema; Bawazeer, Saud; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Jehan, Noor; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Khan, Ajmal; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2017-05-01

    The dimeric napthoquione 5,8,4'-trihydroxy-1'-methoxy-6, 6'-dimethyl-7,3'-binaphtyl-1,4,5',8'-tetraone (1) was isolated from the chloroform fraction of Diospyros lotus extract. Compound 1 was screened for its inhibitory effects against four enzymes: urease, phosphodiesterase-I, carbonic anhydrase-II and α-chymotrypsin, and showed selective activity against urease enzyme with an IC 50 value of 254.1 ± 3.82 μM as compared to the standard thiourea (IC 50  = 21 ± 0.11 μM). Furthermore, in silico docking study was carried out to explain the molecular mechanism of compound 1 against the target receptor.

  15. Investigating the Influence of Temperature on the Kaolinite-Base Synthesis of Zeolite and Urease Immobilization for the Potential Fabrication of Electrochemical Urea Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David Ebo; Balapangu, Srinivasan; Fleischer, Heidimarie N A; Viade, Ruth A; Krampa, Francis D; Kanyong, Prosper; Awandare, Gordon A; Tiburu, Elvis K

    2017-08-08

    Temperature-dependent zeolite synthesis has revealed a unique surface morphology, surface area and pore size which influence the immobilization of urease on gold electrode supports for biosensor fabrication. XRD characterization has identified zeolite X (Na) at all crystallization temperatures tested. However, N₂ adsorption and desorption results showed a pore size and pore volume of zeolite X (Na) 60 °C, zeolite X (Na) 70 °C and zeolite X (Na) 90 °C to range from 1.92 nm to 2.45 nm and 0.012 cm³/g to 0.061 cm³/g, respectively, with no significant differences. The specific surface area of zeolite X (Na) at 60, 70 and 90 °C was 64 m²/g, 67 m²/g and 113 m²/g, respectively. The pore size, specific surface area and pore volumes of zeolite X (Na) 80 °C and zeolite X (Na) 100 °C were dramatically increased to 4.21 nm, 295 m²/g, 0.762 cm³/g and 4.92 nm, 389 m²/g, 0.837 cm³/g, in that order. The analytical performance of adsorbed urease on zeolite X (Na) surface was also investigated using cyclic voltammetry measurements, and the results showed distinct cathodic and anodic peaks by zeolite X (Na) 80 °C and zeolite X (Na) 100 °C. These zeolites' molar conductance was measured as a function of urea concentration and gave an average polynomial regression fit of 0.948. The findings in this study suggest that certain physicochemical properties, such as crystallization temperature and pH, are critical parameters for improving the morphological properties of zeolites synthesized from natural sources for various biomedical applications.

  16. Armored Urease: Enzyme-Bioconjugated Poly(acrylamide) Hydrogel as a Storage and Sensing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda R; Kutcherlapati, S N Raju; Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Jana, Tushar

    2017-01-01

    Jack bean urease is an important enzyme not only because of its numerous uses in medical and other fields but also because of its historical significance-the first enzyme to be crystallized and also the first nickel metalloenzyme. This enzyme hydrolyzes urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide; however, the stability of this enzyme at ambient temperature is a bottleneck for its applicability. To improve urease stability, it was immobilized on different substrates, particularly on polymeric hydrogels. In this study, the enzyme was coupled covalently with poly(acrylamide) hydrogel with an yield of 18μmol/cm 3 . The hydrogel served as the nanoarmor and protected the enzyme against denaturation. The enzyme immobilized on the polymer hydrogel showed no loss in activity for more than 30 days at ambient temperature, whereas free enzyme lost its activity within a couple of hours. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) for free and immobilized urease were 0.0256 and 0.2589mM, respectively, on the first day of the study. The K m of the immobilized enzyme was approximately 10 times higher than that of the free enzyme. The hydrogel technique was also used to prepare light diffracting polymerized colloidal crystal array in which urease enzyme was covalently immobilized. This system was applied for the detection of mercury (Hg 2+ ) with the lower limit as 1ppb, which is below the maximum contaminant limit (2ppb) for mercury ions in water. The experimental details of these studies are presented in this chapter. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of crosslinked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of acid urease with urethanase activity and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zha, Xiaohong; Zhou, Nandi; Tian, Yaping

    2016-04-01

    An acid urease from Providencia rettgeri JN-B815 was purified via ultrasonication, ethanol precipitation, and DEAE ion-exchange column chromatography. It was found that the enzyme exhibits not only urease activity, but also urethanase activity, which made it possible to reduce EC already existed or would produce and its precursor urea at the same time. Then, crosslinked enzyme aggregates of P. rettgeri urease (PRU-CLEAs) were prepared using genipin as crosslinking agent. The purification process of acid urease, the effects of genipin concentration, and crosslinking time on PRU-CLEAs activity were investigated. The crosslinking was performed at pH 4.5 for 2.5 h, using 0.3% genipin as crosslinking agent, and 0.3 g · L(-1) bovine serum albumin as protein feeder. Using the obtained PRU-CLEAs, the removal rate of urea was up to 9.31 mg · L(-1) · h(-1). The removal rate of urea was still up to 7.56 mg · L(-1) · h(-1) after PRU-CLEAs was re-used for 6 times. When PRU-CLEAs were applied in a batch stirred and membrane reactor, the removal rate of urea in rice wine reached 5.16 mg · L(-1) · h(-1) and the removal rate of EC was 9.21 μg · L(-1) · h(-1). Furthermore, the treatment with PRU-CLEAs revealed no significant change of volatile flavor substances in Chinese rice wine. Thus PRU-CLEAs have great potential in the elimination of EC in Chinese rice wine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fast and sensitive detection of foodborne pathogen using electrochemical impedance analysis, urease catalysis and microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Dan; Cai, Gaozhe; Xiong, Yonghua; Li, Yuntao; Wang, Maohua; Huo, Huiling; Lin, Jianhan

    2016-12-15

    Early screening of pathogenic bacteria is a key to prevent and control of foodborne diseases. In this study, we developed a fast and sensitive bacteria detection method integrating electrochemical impedance analysis, urease catalysis with microfluidics and using Listeria as model. The Listeria cells, the anti-Listeria monoclonal antibodies modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and the anti-Listeria polyclonal antibodies and urease modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were incubated in a fluidic separation chip with active mixing to form the MNP-Listeria-AuNP-urease sandwich complexes. The complexes were captured in the separation chip by applying a high gradient magnetic field, and the urea was injected to resuspend the complexes and hydrolyzed under the catalysis of the urease on the complexes into ammonium ions and carbonate ions, which were transported into a microfluidic detection chip with an interdigitated microelectrode for impedance measurement to determine the amount of the Listeria cells. The capture efficiency of the Listeria cells in the separation chip was ∼93% with a shorter time of 30min due to the faster immuno-reaction using the active magnetic mixing. The changes on both impedance magnitude and phase angle were demonstrated to be able to detect the Listeria cells as low as 1.6×10(2)CFU/mL. The detection time was reduced from original ∼2h to current ∼1h. The recoveries of the spiked lettuce samples ranged from 82.1% to 89.6%, indicating the applicability of this proposed biosensor. This microfluidic impedance biosensor has shown the potential for online, automatic and sensitive bacteria separation and detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urease from Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Some properties and inhibition by metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemzha, A A; Kovzan, V B; Yuodval' kite, D Yu

    1984-12-01

    Data concerning the molecular weight, the dependence of the enzymic rate of the pH and the concentration of the substrate, and the effect of metal ions on urease activity are presented and discussed. Precipitation with ethanol was used to isolate a urease preparation with a specific activity of 250-300 units/mg of protein from Staphylococcus saprophyticus cells. The molecular weight of the enzyme, determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-200 column is 250,000. Maximum activity of St. saprophyticus urease occurred at pH 6.8-7.0; the K/sub m/ value, at 30/sup 0/C (pH 6.8) equalled 7.36 x 10/sup -3/ M, V/sub max/ is 1.5 ..mu..mol NH/sub 3//min. The enzyme was reversibly inhibited by heavy metal ions. The sequence of inhibiting effect of the ions studied is: Ag/sup +/>Ni/sup 2 +/>Cd/sup 2 +/>Co/sup 2 +/>Hg/sup 2 +/>Cu/sup 2 +/>Zn/sup 2 +/>Pb/sup 2 +/ and pK of groups of the active center equal 5.0-5.25 and 8.25 and are near in value to those of the imidazole ring of histidine (0.5-7.0) and the Sh-group of cysteine (8.3-8.6). 19 references, 4 figures.

  20. Comparison of four urease-dependent tests of detecting HP infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yuan; Huang Gang; Zhu Cuiying; Ling Liqun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the four urease-dependent tests of detecting Hp infection. The authors used following method: 1) rapid urease test (RUT), 2) 14 C urea breath test ( 14 C-UBT), 3) 13 C urea breath test which is measured by with infrared spectrometry ( 13 C-UBT1), 4) 13 C urea breath test with mass spectrometry ( 13 C-UBT). Methods: 54 patients underwent RUT, 14 C-UBT, 13 C-UBT1, 13 C-UBT2 respectively. Results: Sensitivity and specificity, accurate rate, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), respectively, were as follows: RUT (82.1%, 80%, 81.5%, 91.4%, 63.2%), 14 C-UBT (97.4%, 100%, 98.1%, 100%, 93.8%), 13 C-UBT1 (100%, 93.3%, 98.1%, 97.5%, 100%), 13 C-UBT2 (100%, 86.7%, 96.3%, 95.1%, 100%), PPV of four tests are not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion: Four urease-dependent tests are high sensitive and accurate methods for detecting Hp infection. UBT is an ideal tool for diagnosis, screen and follow-up of Hp infection

  1. Impedimetric Urea Biosensor Based on Modified Gold Electrode with Urease Immobilized on Glutathione Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine BARHOUMI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a glutathione (GSH modified gold microelectrode was used for the covalent immobilization of urease biomolecules via the glutaraldehyde-coupling agent. The self- assembled monolayers (SAMs onto the gold surface was investigated by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS. Before urease grafting, a significant interaction was noticed between urea and the glutathione layer by forming hydrogen bonds. The H-NMR analysis was carried out to highlight the possibility of having a covalent link between urea and the GSH deposited layer. In addition, contact angle measurements were carried out to determine the hydrophobic/hydrophilic feature of the modified gold surface electrode. After urease immobilization a stable and high sensitive impedimetric urea biosensors was obtained with a sensitivity of 8.73´10- 8 W-1mM-1 for the low concentrations range and a sensitivity of 7.03´10-9 W-1mM-1 for the high concentrations range.

  2. CYTOTOXIC, α-CHYMOTRYPSIN AND UREASE INHIBITION ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANT Heliotropium dasycarpum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Muhammad Abuzar; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmed; Uzair, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Khuram

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Cytotoxic, α-Chymotrypsin and Urease inhibition activities of the plant Heliotropium dasycarpum . Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the plant were evaluated for cytotoxic, α-Chymotrypsin and Urease inhibition by using in vivo Brine Shrimp lethality bioassay and in vitro enzymatic inhibition assays respectively. The methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic activity. Out of 30 brine shrimp larvae, 2 (6%), 26 (86%) and 28 (93%) larvae were survived at concentration of 1000μg/ml, 100μg/ml and 10μg/ml respectively with LD50; 215.837. Similarly 21 (70%), 25 (83%), 29 (96%) larvae were survived of dichloromethane plant extract with LD50; 6170.64. The methanol and dichloromethane extract exhibited 10.50±0.18% and 41.51±0.15% α-chymotrypsin enzyme inhibition respectively with IC 50 values of greater than 500 μmol. The methanol extract showed 24.39±0.21% Urease enzyme inhibition with IC 50 values of greater than 400 μmol While dichloromethane extract has 11.46±0.09% enzyme inhibition with IC 50 values of greater than 500 μmol. The results clearly indicated that Heliotropium dasycarpum has cytotoxic potential and enzyme inhibition properties. Further study is needed to screen out antitumor and anti-ulcerative agents.

  3. Characterization and immunological identification of cDNA clones encoding two human DNA topoisomerase II isozymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.D.Y.; Drake, F.H.; Tan, K.B.; Per, S.R.; Crooke, S.T.; Mirabelli, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    Several DNA topoisomerase II partial cDNA clones obtained from a human Raji-HN2 cDNA library were sequenced and two classes of nucleotide sequences were found. One member of the first class, SP1, was identical to an internal fragment of human HeLa cell Topo II cDNA described earlier. A member of the second class, SP11, shared extensive nucleotide (75%) and predicted peptide (92%) sequence similarities with the first two-thirds of HeLa Topo II. Each class of cDNAs hybridized to unique, nonoverlapping restriction enzyme fragments of genomic DNA from several human cell lines. Synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide probes specific for each cDNA class hybridized to 6.5-kilobase mRNAs; furthermore, hybridization of probe specific for one class was not blocked by probe specific for the other. Antibodies raised against a synthetic SP1-encoded dodecapeptide specifically recognized the 170-kDa form of Topo II, while antibodies raised against the corresponding SP11-encoded dodecapeptide, or a second unique SP11-encoded tridecapeptide, selectively recognized the 180-kDa form of Topo II. These data provide genetic and immunochemical evidence for two Topo II isozymes

  4. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  5. Simultaneous production of fatty acid methyl esters and diglycerides by four recombinant Candida rugosa lipase's isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Myron; Hsieh, Yu-Hsun; Luo, Ying-Ting; Wu, Tsung-Ta; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2014-07-15

    In this study, the catalytic efficiency of four recombinant CRL (Candida rugosa lipase) isozymes (LIP1-LIP4) towards the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was compared and evaluated as an alternative green method for industrial applications. The results indicated that the recombinant C. rugosa LIP1 enzyme exhibited the highest catalytic efficiency for FAME production compared to the recombinant C. rugosa LIP2-LIP4 enzymes. The optimal conditions were as follows: pH 7.0, methanol/soybean oil molar ratio: 3/1, enzyme amount: 2U (1.6 μL), reaction temperature: 20°C, 22 h of reaction time, and 3 times of methanol addition (1 mol/6h), and resulted in 61.5 ± 1.5 wt.% of FAME conversion. The reaction product contained also 10 wt.% of DAG with a ratio of 1,3-DAG to 1,2-DAG of approximately 4:6, and can be potentially used in industrial applications as a food emulsifier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic relatedness among Solanum L. species assayed by seed morphology and isozyme markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.M.; Fadl, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their economic and medicinal value, no adequate attention has been paid to the diversity, characterization and taxonomical identification of Solanum L. species in Saudi Arabia. In this study, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of seed coat morphology and isozyme electrophoresis were employed for studying the genetic variability and relationships among seven Solanum L. species namely; S. incanum L., S. nigrum L., S. villosum L., S. schemprianum Hochst, S. galabratum Dunal, S. lycopersicum L. and S. melongena L. collected from Taif highlands. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigation of seed coat sculpturing showed three basic patterns namely; rugulate, reticulate and levigate. The analyses on six enzymes were coded by 19 loci. The number of alleles ranged from one to three with a mean of 1.58 alleles per locus. The proportion of polymorphic loci for Solanum L. species ranged from 0.87 for S. nigrum L. and S. villosum L. to 0.80 for S. lycopersicum L. The mean observed heterozygosity varied from 0.00 to 1.00, while mean expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.00 and 0.5. The UPGMA phenogram confirmed the extensive genetic diversity existed in the studied Solanum L. species and showed the close relationship between S. incanum L. and S. melongena L. (author)

  7. Zymogen Activation and Subcellular Activity of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1/Site 1 Protease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Burri, Dominique Julien; Oppliger, Joël; Salamina, Marco; Cendron, Laura; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P) plays crucial roles in cellular homeostatic functions and is hijacked by pathogenic viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P involves sequential autocatalytic processing of its N-terminal prodomain at sites B′/B followed by the herein newly identified C′/C sites. We found that SKI-1/S1P autoprocessing results in intermediates whose catalytic domain remains associated with prodomain fragments of different lengths. In contrast to other zymogen proprotein convertases, all incompletely matured intermediates of SKI-1/S1P showed full catalytic activity toward cellular substrates, whereas optimal cleavage of viral glycoproteins depended on B′/B processing. Incompletely matured forms of SKI-1/S1P further process cellular and viral substrates in distinct subcellular compartments. Using a cell-based sensor for SKI-1/S1P activity, we found that 9 amino acid residues at the cleavage site (P1–P8) and P1′ are necessary and sufficient to define the subcellular location of processing and to determine to what extent processing of a substrate depends on SKI-1/S1P maturation. In sum, our study reveals novel and unexpected features of SKI-1/S1P zymogen activation and subcellular specificity of activity toward cellular and pathogen-derived substrates. PMID:25378398

  8. The B isozyme creatine kinase is active as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretsky, A.P.; Traxler, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the B isozyme of creatine kinase CK B has been expressed in Escherichia coli from a fusion with lacZ carried by λgtll. Western blots indicate that a stable polypeptide with the appropriate mobility for the Β-galactosidase-creatine kinase Β-gal-CK B ) fusion protein cross-reacts with both Β-gal and CK B antiserum. No significant CK activity is detected in control E. coli; however, extracts from cells containing the λgtll-CK B construct have a CK activity of 1.54j0.07 μmol/min per mg protein. The fusion protein appears to provide this activity bacause immunoprecipitation of protein with Β-gal antiserum leads to a loss of CK activity from extracts. That the enzyme is active in vivo was demonstrated by detection of a phosphocreatine (PCr) peak in the 31 P NMR spectrum from E. coli grown on medium supplemented with creatine. As in mammalian brain and muscle, the PCr peak detected was sensitive to the energy status of the E. coli. (author). 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Urease activity as a risk factor for caries development in children during a three-year study period: a survival analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou-Bermudez, E; Elias-Boneta, A; Billings, RJ; Burne, RA; Garcia-Rivas, V; Brignoni-Nazario, V; Suárez-Pérez, E

    2011-01-01

    Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that reduced ability to generate alkali via the urease pathway in dental plaque may be an important caries risk factor, but it has not been assessed prospectively. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of plaque and saliva urease activity on the risk for developing new caries over a three-year period in children. METHODS A panel of 80 children, three to six years of age at recruitment, was followed prospectively for three years. Plaque urease activity, saliva urease activity and dental caries were measured every six months. Survival analysis methodology was used to evaluate the effect of urease on caries development during the study period adjusted for gender, age, baseline caries levels, sugar consumption, amount of plaque, and mutans streptococci levels. RESULTS The risk for developing new caries increased in a dose-responsive manner with increasing levels of urease activity in saliva (adjusted HRQ4 vs. Q1: 4.98; 95%CI: 1.33, 18.69) and with decreasing urease activity in plaque (adjusted HRQ4 vs. Q1: 0.29; 95%CI: 0.11, 0.76). Multiple measurements of urease activity were conducted to overcome the variability of urease activity in this study. Baseline caries and mutans streptococci in saliva were also important predictors of caries risk. CONCLUSIONS Increased urease activity in saliva can be an indicator of increased caries risk in children, while increased urease activity in plaque may be associated with reduced caries risk. The reproducibility of urease measurements must be improved before these findings can be further tested and clinically applied. PMID:21784411

  10. Kinetics and mechanism of jack bean urease inhibition by Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Nana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jack bean urease (EC 3.5.1.5 is a metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal ions are common inhibitors to control the rate of the enzymatic urea hydrolysis, which take the Hg2+ as the representative. Hg2+ affects the enzyme activity causing loss of the biological function of the enzyme, which threatens the survival of many microorganism and plants. However, inhibitory kinetics of urease by the low concentration Hg2+ has not been explored fully. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the low concentration Hg2+ on jack bean urease was investigated in order to elucidate the mechanism of Hg2+ inhibition. Results According to the kinetic parameters for the enzyme obtained from Lineweaver–Burk plot, it is shown that the Km is equal to 4.6±0.3 mM and Vm is equal to 29.8±1.7 μmol NH3/min mg. The results show that the inhibition of jack bean urease by Hg2+ at low concentration is a reversible reaction. Equilibrium constants have been determined for Hg2+ binding with the enzyme or the enzyme-substrate complexes (Ki =0.012 μM. The results show that the Hg2+ is a noncompetitive inhibitor. In addition, the kinetics of enzyme inhibition by the low concentration Hg2+ has been studied using the kinetic method of the substrate reaction. The results suggest that the enzyme first reversibly and quickly binds Hg2+ and then undergoes a slow reversible course to inactivation. Furthermore, the rate constant of the forward reactions (k+0 is much larger than the rate constant of the reverse reactions (k-0. By combining with the fact that the enzyme activity is almost completely lost at high concentration, the enzyme is completely inactivated when the Hg2+ concentration is high enough. Conclusions These results suggest that Hg2+ has great impacts on the urease activity and the established inhibition kinetics model is suitable.

  11. Souper: A Synthesizing Superoptimizer

    OpenAIRE

    Sasnauskas, Raimondas; Chen, Yang; Collingbourne, Peter; Ketema, Jeroen; Lup, Gratian; Taneja, Jubi; Regehr, John

    2017-01-01

    If we can automatically derive compiler optimizations, we might be able to sidestep some of the substantial engineering challenges involved in creating and maintaining a high-quality compiler. We developed Souper, a synthesizing superoptimizer, to see how far these ideas might be pushed in the context of LLVM. Along the way, we discovered that Souper's intermediate representation was sufficiently similar to the one in Microsoft Visual C++ that we applied Souper to that compiler as well. Shipp...

  12. Morphological and isozymic banding pattern study of white grubs (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae as pest of bark crop in mounth Merapi’s slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available White grub (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae is a group of soil pest at any agrosystem., especially at Salak pondoh (Salacca zalacca (Gaert. Voss. crop. The characteristics of this specimen were very crucial to be studied in order to find the exact biocontrol. The aim of this research was to know the characteristics of white grubs (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera based on morphological and isozyme banding patterns. This research was conducted on August - November 2007 at Sleman and Magelang districts for the morphological purposes, while for the isozyme data were conducted at Sub Laboratory Biology, Central Laboratory of Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Sample was taken by using stratified random sampling method, on five stations. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE using the vertical type was taken to isozyme analysis. The enzyme used in this research were peroxidase and esterase to detect the isozyme banding patterns. The results showed that there was no morphological variation of white grubs (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera at salak pondoh agroecosystem in Mounth Merapi’s slope. Based on this character, there was one species of white grub found, i.e. Holotrichia javana. There was a genetic variation based on the variation of isozyme banding patterns.

  13. Tissue-specific Role of the Na,K-ATPase α2 Isozyme in Skeletal Muscle*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyukevich, Tatiana L.; Neumann, Jonathon C.; Rindler, Tara N.; Oshiro, Naomi; Goldhamer, David J.; Lingrel, Jerry B.; Heiny, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase α2 isozyme is the major Na,K-ATPase of mammalian skeletal muscle. This distribution is unique compared with most other cells, which express mainly the Na,K-ATPase α1 isoform, but its functional significance is not known. We developed a gene-targeted mouse (skα2−/−) in which the α2 gene (Atp1a2) is knocked out in the skeletal muscles, and examined the consequences for exercise performance, membrane potentials, contractility, and muscle fatigue. Targeted knockout was confirmed by genotyping, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Skeletal muscle cells of skα2−/− mice completely lack α2 protein and have no α2 in the transverse tubules, where its expression is normally enhanced. The α1 isoform, which is normally enhanced on the outer sarcolemma, is up-regulated 2.5-fold without change in subcellular targeting. skα2−/− mice are apparently normal under basal conditions but show significantly reduced exercise capacity when challenged to run. Their skeletal muscles produce less force, are unable to increase force to match demand, and show significantly increased susceptibility to fatigue. The impairments affect both fast and slow muscle types. The subcellular targeting of α2 to the transverse tubules is important for this role. Increasing Na,K-ATPase α1 content cannot fully compensate for the loss of α2. The increased fatigability of skα2−/− muscles is reproduced in control extensor digitorum longus muscles by selectively inhibiting α2 enzyme activity with ouabain. These results demonstrate that the Na,K-ATPase α2 isoform performs an acute, isoform-specific role in skeletal muscle. Its activity is regulated by muscle use and enables working muscles to maintain contraction and resist fatigue. PMID:23192345

  14. Synthesis of total protein (TP) and myosin heavy chain (HC) isozymes in pressure overloaded rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, R.; Martin, B.J.; Pritzl, N.; Zak, R.; Low, R.B.; Stirewalt, W.S.; Alpert, N.R.; Litten, R.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary artery banding (PO) leads to a rapid increase in right ventricular (RV) weight as well as a shift toward β myosin isozyme. They determined: (1) the contributions of changes in the capacity (RNA content) and efficiency of total protein synthesis to the increase in RV weight; and (2) the relative contributions of translational and pretranslational mechanisms to the shift in myosin HC isotypes. The rates of synthesis in vivo of TP, α- and β-HC were measured by a constant infusion technique using 3 H-leucine. TP synthesis was 7 +/- 2(SD) mg/day in control (RV:367 +/- 70 mg) and was increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 2.9 fold at day 4 following PO (p < 0.01). RV RNA content was increased by 83% at day 2 and 103% at day 4 PO (p < 0.05). The efficiency of synthesis (rate/RNA) was also significantly higher at these time points (1.4- and 1.3-fold). β-HC synthesis was 0.6 +/- 0.2 mg/day in control and increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 3.5 fold at day 4 following PO. In contrast, the rate of synthesis of α-HC was unchanged. The relative rates of β-HC to total HC synthesis was correlated linearly with the relative levels of β-myosin mRNA as measured by S1 nuclease mapping. They conclude that increases in the proportion of β-HC myosin following PO is due to increases in the relative amount of β-myosin mRNA and therefore involves modulation of a pretranslational mechanism

  15. Investigation of structure and function of mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III from Komagataella phaffii GS115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaidong; Li, Qin; Wang, Lina; Chen, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohol using NAD + or NADP + as cofactor. Three ADH homologues have been identified in Komagataella phaffii GS115 (also named Pichia pastoris GS115), ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3, among which adh3 is the only gene responsible for consumption of ethanol in Komagataella phaffii GS115. However, the relationship between structure and function of mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III from Komagataella phaffii GS115 (KpADH3) is still not clear yet. KpADH3 was purified, identified and characterized by multiple biophysical techniques (Nano LC-MS/MS, Enzymatic activity assay, X-ray crystallography). The crystal structure of KpADH3, which was the first ADH structure from Komagataella phaffii GS115, was solved at 1.745 Å resolution. Structural analysis indicated that KpADH3 was the sole dimeric ADH structure with face-to-face orientation quaternary structure from yeast. The major structural different conformations located on residues 100-114 (the structural zinc binding loop) and residues 337-344 (the loop between α12 and β15 which covered the catalytic domain). In addition, three channels were observed in KpADH3 crystal structure, channel 2 and channel 3 may be essential for substrate specific recognition, ingress and egress, channel 1 may be the pass-through for cofactor. KpADH3 plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohols in Komagataella phaffii GS115, and its crystal structure is the only dimeric medium-chain ADH from yeast described so far. Knowledge of the relationship between structure and function of KpADH3 is crucial for understanding the role of KpADH3 in Komagataella phaffii GS115 mitochondrial metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production and characterization of a camelid single domain antibody-urease enzyme conjugate for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baomin; Wong, Wah Yau; Hegmann, Elda; Gaspar, Kim; Kumar, Praveen; Chao, Heman

    2015-06-17

    A novel immunoconjugate (L-DOS47) was developed and characterized as a therapeutic agent for tumors expressing CEACAM6. The single domain antibody AFAIKL2, which targets CEACAM6, was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pT7-7 system. High purity urease (HPU) was extracted and purified from Jack bean meal. AFAIKL2 was activated using N-succinimidyl [4-iodoacetyl] aminobenzoate (SIAB) as the cross-linker and then conjugated to urease. The activation and conjugation reactions were controlled by altering pH. Under these conditions, the material ratio achieved conjugation ratios of 8-11 antibodies per urease molecule, the residual free urease content was practically negligible (95%) L-DOS47 conjugate was produced using only ultradiafiltration to remove unreacted antibody and hydrolyzed cross-linker. L-DOS47 was characterized by a panel of analytical techniques including SEC, IEC, Western blot, ELISA, and LC-MS(E) peptide mapping. As the antibody-urease conjugate ratio increased, a higher binding signal was observed. The specificity and cytotoxicity of L-DOS47 was confirmed by screening in four cell lines (BxPC-3, A549, MCF7, and CEACAM6-transfected H23). BxPC-3, a CEACAM6-expressing cell line was found to be most susceptible to L-DOS47. L-DOS47 is being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent in human phase I clinical studies for nonsmall cell lung cancer.

  17. The Structure of Urease Activation Complexes Examined by Flexibility Analysis, Mutagenesis, and Small-angle X-ray Scattering Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Soledad; Sukuru, Sai Chetan K.; Hausinger, Robert P.; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Heller, William T

    2008-01-01

    Conformational changes of Klebsiella aerogenes urease apoprotein (UreABC) 3 induced upon binding of the UreD and UreF accessory proteins were examined by a combination of flexibility analysis, mutagenesis, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). ProFlex analysis of urease provided evidence that the major domain of UreB can move in a hinge-like motion to account for prior chemical cross-linking results. Rigidification of the UreB hinge region, accomplished through a G11P mutation, reduced the extent of urease activation, in part by decreasing the nickel content of the mutant enzyme, and by sequestering a portion of the urease apoprotein in a novel activation complex that includes all of the accessory proteins. SAXS analyses of urease, (UreABC-UreD) 3 , and (UreABC-UreDF) 3 confirm that UreD and UreF bind near UreB at the periphery of the (UreAC) 3 structure. This study supports an activation model in which a domain-shifted UreB conformation in (UreABC-UreDF) 3 allows CO 2 and nickel ions to gain access to the nascent active site

  18. 1,2-Benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one Derivatives As a New Class of Bacterial Urease Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macegoniuk, Katarzyna; Grela, Ewa; Palus, Jerzy; Rudzińska-Szostak, Ewa; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Biernat, Monika; Berlicki, Łukasz

    2016-09-08

    Urease inhibitors are considered promising compounds for the treatment of ureolytic bacterial infections, particularly infections resulting from Helicobacter pylori in the gastric tract. Herein, we present the synthesis and the inhibitory activity of novel and highly effective organoselenium compounds as inhibitors of Sporosarcina pasteurii and Helicobacter pylori ureases. These studied compounds represent a class of competitive reversible urease inhibitors. The most active compound, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one (ebselen), displayed Ki values equal to 2.11 and 226 nM against S. pasteurii and H. pylori enzymes, respectively, indicating ebselen as one of the most potent low-molecular-weight inhibitors of bacterial ureases reported to date. Most of these molecules penetrated through the cell membrane of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (pGEM::ureOP) in vitro. Furthermore, whole-cell studies on the H. pylori J99 reference strain confirmed the high efficiency of the examined organoselenium compounds as urease inhibitors against pathogenic bacteria.

  19. Novel organophosphorus scaffolds of urease inhibitors obtained by substitution of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts with phosphorus nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntatsopoulos, Vassilis; Vassiliou, Stamatia; Macegoniuk, Katarzyna; Berlicki, Łukasz; Mucha, Artur

    2017-06-16

    The reactivity of Morita-Baylis-Hillman allyl acetates was employed to introduce phosphorus-containing functionalities to the side chain of the cinnamic acid conjugated system by nucleophilic displacement. The proximity of two acidic groups, the carboxylate and phosphonate/phosphinate groups, was necessary to form interactions in the active site of urease by recently described inhibitor frameworks. Several organophosphorus scaffolds were obtained and screened for inhibition of the bacterial urease, an enzyme that is essential for survival of urinary and gastrointestinal tract pathogens. α-Substituted phosphonomethyl- and 2-phosphonoethyl-cinnamate appeared to be the most potent and were further optimized. As a result, one of the most potent organophosphorus inhibitors of urease, α-phosphonomethyl-p-methylcinnamic acid, was identified, with K i  = 0.6 μM for Sporosarcina pasteurii urease. High complementarity to the enzyme active site was achieved with this structure, as any further modifications significantly decreased its affinity. Finally, this work describes the challenges faced in developing ligands for urease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of original assemblies of polyelectrolytes, urease and electrodeposited polyaniline as sensitive films of potentiometric urea biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buron, Cédric C.; Quinart, Mélanie; Vrlinic, Tjasa; Yunus, Sami; Glinel, Karine; Jonas, Alain M.; Lakard, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Elaboration of original polymer materials using self-assembly and electrochemistry. • In situ monitoring of the growth of the polymer materials. • Development of urea electrochemical sensors using a home-made mini-potentiostat. - Abstract: Original assemblies were prepared for use as sensitive films of potentiometric enzyme urea sensors, and compared to identify the more efficient structure with respect to stability. These films included electrodeposited polyaniline, used as transducer, urease, used as catalyst, and biocompatible polyelectrolytes, used as a matrix to preserve the integrity of the enzyme in the sensitive film. Two kinds of assemblies were done: the first one consisted in the adsorption of urease onto a polyaniline film followed by the adsorption of a chitosan-carboxymethylpullulan multilayer film, while the second one consisted in the adsorption of a urease-chitosan multilayer film onto an electrodeposited polyaniline film. The morphological features and growth of these assemblies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, respectively. This allowed us to demonstrate that the assemblies are successfully formed onto the electrodes of the sensors. The potentiometric responses of both assemblies were then measured as a function of urea concentration using a home-made portable potentiostat. The electrochemical response of resulting sensors was fast and sensitive for both types of assemblies, but the stability in time was much better for the films obtained from alternative adsorption of urease and chitosan onto a layer of urease adsorbed over electrodeposited polyaniline

  1. Conformational change results in loss of enzymatic activity of jack bean urease on its interaction with silver nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuvel, Shobana; Subramanian, Balakumar; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2015-10-01

    Urease is an enzyme produced by microbes such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. Plants also produce this enzyme. Urease action splits urea into ammonia and carbamate. This action is having important implications in agro-chemical, medicinal and environment. Therefore there is always a constant search for new and novel compounds which could inhibit this enzyme. Here we have studied the interaction of jack bean urease (JBU) with silver nanoparticle to analyze the influence of the resultant protein corona formation on the catalytic property of JBU. Several techniques like UV-Vis, gel shift assay and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize this interaction. Urease activity assay suggests that the protein corona formation inhibits the enzymatic action of JBU. The loss of enzymatic action could be either due to the nanoparticle blocking the active site of JBU or a conformational change in the protein. The CD spectra of JBU-AgNP complexes clearly revealed significant changes in the secondary structural composition of the JBU and this could be the reason for the loss of enzymatic activity of JBU. This study revealed an interesting observation, where the interaction of AgNP with JBU resulted destabilization of hexameric nature of JBU which is otherwise highly stable. The results of the present study could be useful in the development of nanoparticle based material for inhibiting the ureolytic activity of ureases in different fields.

  2. Ionic effect investigation of a potentiometric sensor for urea and surface morphology observation of entrapped urease/polypyrrole matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Mei-Jywan; Chang, Yu-Sung

    2009-04-15

    Potentio-dynamic polymerization of buffered urease and pyrrole monomer onto carbon papers was conducted to fabricate an immobilized urease electrode for measuring the urea concentration. To use carbon paper as the substrate for the electro-growth of polypyrrole matrix not only created sufficient adhesion of the conducting polymer layer but also provided superior entrapment of urease enzymes. The potentiometric response corresponding to ammonia, the product formed from the urease catalyzed urea reaction, was employed for the urea concentration measurement. Scanning electron microscopic photographs showed that the polypyrrole matrix deposited on the carbon papers appeared to be of a cylindrical nanotube shape. The charge density applied in the polymerization was found to affect the potentiometric response while the potential-scanning rate showed minor influence. The composite electrodes had high sensitivity in urea detection, showing a response linear to the logarithm of the urea concentration in the range of 10(-3) to 10 mM. The detection of urea solution prepared in water and buffer was also compared. Ionic effect on the sensing of urea solution was investigated. By comparing the data reported in literature, the urease/polypyrrole/carbon paper electrode developed in this work showed superior long-term stability and reusability. The detection of urea in serum was also well performed.

  3. Widely tunable THz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Eliet, S.; Guinet, M.; Cuisset, A.; Bocquet, R.; Yasui, T.; Rovera, D.

    2011-09-01

    The generation of cw-THz radiation by photomixing is particularly suited to the high resolution spectroscopy of gases; nevertheless, until recently, it has suffered from a lack of frequency metrology. Frequency combs are a powerful tool that can transfer microwave frequency standards to optical frequencies and a single comb has permitted accurate (10-8) THz frequency synthesis with a limited tuning range. A THz synthesizer composed of three extended cavity laser diodes phase locked to a frequency comb has been constructed and its utility for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy demonstrated. The third laser diode allows a larger tuning range of up to 300 MHz to be achieved without the need for large frequency excursions, while the frequency comb provides a versatile link to be established from any traceable microwave frequency standard. The use of a single frequency comb as a reference for all of the cw-lasers eliminates the dependency of synthesized frequency on the carrier envelope offset frequency. This greatly simplifies the frequency comb stabilization requirements and leads to a reduced instrument complexity.

  4. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, W.K.; McKinnon, A.D.; Miley, H.S.; Panisko, M.E.; Savard, R.M.

    1994-07-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a use r to specify physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the type and thickness of absorbers, the size and composition of the detector (Ge or NaI), and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function vs energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results will be presented

  5. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, W.K.; McKinnon, A.D.; Miley, H.S.; Panisko, M.E.; Savard, R.M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented

  6. A facile synthesis of new 5-aryl-thiophenes bearing sulfonamide moiety via Pd(0-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross coupling reactions and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide: As potent urease inhibitor, antibacterial agent and hemolytically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnaza Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a convenient approach for the synthesis of thiophene sulfonamide derivatives (3a–3k via Suzuki cross coupling reaction. This method of synthesis involved the reactions of various aryl boronic acids and esters with 5-bromthiophene-2-sulfonamide (2 under mild and suitable temperature conditions. The compounds synthesized in the present study were subjected to urease inhibition and hemolytic activities. The substitution pattern and the electronic effects of different functional groups (i.e., Cl, CH3, OCH3, F etc. available on the aromatic ring are found to have significant effect on the overall results. The compound 5-Phenylthiophene-2-sulfonamide 3a showed the highest urease inhibition activity with IC50 value ∼ 30.8 μg/mL compared with the thiourea (used as standard having IC50 value ∼ 43 μg/mL. Moreover, almost all of the compounds were examined for the hemolytic activity against triton X-100 with positive results obtained in most of the cases. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the derivatives of 5-arylthiophene-2-sulfonamide and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide were also investigated during the course of the study.

  7. Enzymatic properties and primary structures of two α-amylase isozymes from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Yuya; Satoh, Takuya; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Two α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) isozymes, HdAmy58 and HdAmy82, with approximate molecular masses of 58 kDa and 82 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the digestive fluid of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Optimal temperatures and pHs for HdAmy58 and HdAmy82 were at 30℃ and 6.7, and 30℃ and 6.1, respectively. Both enzymes similarly degraded starch, glycogen, and maltooligosaccharides larger than maltotriose producing maltose and maltotriose as the major degradation products. However, ...

  8. Effect of rare earth ion Ce3+ on the lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns of six mouse organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangyan, L.; Guojun, S.; Hengyi, L.; Yinhua, L.; Ting, W.; Yansheng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Effect of rare earth ion Ce 3+ on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns of six organs of mouse (heart, liver, kidney, muscle, stomach) were investigated by utilizing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. The results indicated: Ce 3+ not only can make some LDH bands disappear but also can induce some new bands. Under the action of Ce 3+ , the shades of some LDH bands were changed and the shade variations were different from organ to organ. In the muscle, it appeared the shade of LDH bands was related to the rare earth concentration in the feed. Rare earth can affect the muscle LDH patterns widely and apparently

  9. Different structure of the complexes of two cytochrome P-450 isozymes with acetanilide by 1H-NMR relaxation and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldman YaYu; Weiner, L M; Lyakhovich, V V

    1993-05-28

    The functional and spectral characteristics of the interaction of acetanilide with phenobarbital- and methylcholanthrene- induced rat liver microsomes, as well as with corresponding major isozymes (cytochromes P-450b and P-450c) have been compared. The magnitude of the reverse 1st type binding spectra proved to be negatively correlated with the acetanilide oxidation on isozymes under study. The data on paramagnetic relaxation of acetanilide protons in the presence of P-450 have shown the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex to be different for two isozymes, acetanilide molecule being closer to Fe ion in the active site in the case of P-450c, which is active towards acetanilide oxidation. For the P-450c-acetanilide complex the group oxidized (phenyl) is the closest to Fe ion.

  10. pH-dependent immobilization of urease on glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Seema; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho

    2015-05-01

    Urease is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. Although the enzyme serves a significant role in several detoxification and analytical processes, its usability is restricted due to high cost, availability in small amounts, instability, and a limited possibility of economic recovery from a reaction mixture. Hence, there is a need to develop an efficient, simple, and reliable immobilization strategy for the enzyme. In this study, the carboxyl terminated surface of glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles have been utilized as a solid support for the covalent attachment of urease. The immobilization has been carried out at different pH conditions so as to elucidate its effect on the immobilization efficiency and enzyme bioactivity. The binding of the enzyme has been quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed through techniques like ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, intrinsic steady state fluorescence, and circular dichorism. The bioactivity of the immobilized enzyme was investigated with respect to the native enzyme under different thermal conditions. Recyclability and shelf life studies of the immobilized enzyme have also been carried out. Results reveal that the immobilization is most effective at pH of 7.4 followed by that in an acidic medium and is least in alkaline environment. The immobilized enzyme also exhibits enhance activity in comparison to the native form at physiological temperature. The immobilized urease (on gold glutathione nanoconjugates surface) can be effectively employed for biosensor fabrication, immunoassays and as an in vivo diagnostic tool in the future. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, N; Luttik, M A H; Cueto Rojas, H F; Wahl, A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2015-07-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential platform for production of nitrogen-containing chemicals, uptake and assimilation of ammonium requires 1 ATP per incorporated NH3. Urea assimilation by this yeast is more energy efficient but still requires 0.5 ATP per NH3 produced. To decrease ATP costs for nitrogen assimilation, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding ATP-dependent urease (DUR1,2) was replaced by a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding ATP-independent urease (ure2), along with its accessory genes ureD, ureF and ureG. Since S. pombe ure2 is a Ni(2+)-dependent enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express native Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes, the S. pombe high-affinity nickel-transporter gene (nic1) was also expressed. Expression of the S. pombe genes into dur1,2Δ S. cerevisiae yielded an in vitro ATP-independent urease activity of 0.44±0.01 µmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) and restored growth on urea as sole nitrogen source. Functional expression of the Nic1 transporter was essential for growth on urea at low Ni(2+) concentrations. The maximum specific growth rates of the engineered strain on urea and ammonium were lower than those of a DUR1,2 reference strain. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures with urea as nitrogen source, the engineered strain exhibited an increased release of ammonia and reduced nitrogen content of the biomass. Our results indicate a new strategy for improving yeast-based production of nitrogen-containing chemicals and demonstrate that Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of Helicobacter pylori urease antigen in saliva in patients with different gastric H. pylori status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-07-01

    Finding a simple, accurate, and noninvasive diagnosis method is a substantial challenge for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of H. pylori urease antigen in saliva with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa. Saliva samples and gastric biopsies were taken from 153 consenting Moroccan patients. Saliva samples were analyzed using an immunochromatographic test for urease antigen H. pylori detection. Thereafter, the gastric biopsies were analyzed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect this bacterium. From a total of 153 recruited Moroccan patients, H. pylori was detected in 28 (18.30%), 87 (57.24%), and 69 (45.10%) cases by saliva test, histology, and PCR, respectively. A significant association was observed between the presence of H. pylori antigen in saliva and age. However, no association was found with sex, H. pylori virulence factors, gastric disease outcome, and density of the bacterium on the gastric mucosa. Considering that only 90 patients presented concordant results on H. pylori diagnosis (positive or negative) by both histology and PCR, the immunochromatographic test showed very low sensitivity (29.79%) and high specificity (90.70%). Of these two tests, the positive and negative predictive values were 77.78% and 54.17%, respectively. The accuracy of the test for salivary detection of urease antigen H. pylori was 58.89%. This study demonstrated a low detection rate of H. pylori antigens in saliva compared with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa, suggesting that saliva cannot be used as a suitable sample for the diagnosis of H. pylori in our study population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  13. Ureic nitrogen transformation in multi-layer soil columns treated with urease and nitrification inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Camilla; Garcia-Mina, Josè M; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2009-06-10

    The use of N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), as a urease inhibitor, is one of the most successful strategies utilized to increase the efficiency of urea-based fertilization. To date, NBPT has been added to the soil incorporated in fertilizers containing either urea or the inhibitor at a fixed percentage on the urea weight. The possibility of using NBPT physically separated from urea-based fertilizers could make its use more flexible. In particular, a granulated product containing NBPT could be utilized in soils treated with different urea-based fertilizers including livestock urine, the amount depending on soil characteristics and/or the urea source (e.g., mineral fertilizer, organo-mineral fertilizer, or animal slurry). In this study, a multilayer soil column device was used to investigate the influence of an experimental granular product (RV) containing NBPT and a garlic extract, combining the ability to protect NBPT by oxidation and nitrification inhibition activity, on (a) spatial variability of soil urease and nitrification activities and (b) timing of urea hydrolysis and mineral-N form accumulation (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+)) in soil treated with urea. The results clearly demonstrated that RV can, effectively, inhibit the soil urease activity along the soil column profile up to 8-10 cm soil layer depth and that the inhibition power of RV was dependent on time and soil depth. However, nitrification activity is not significantly influenced by RV addition. In addition, the soil N transformations were clearly affected by RV; in fact, RV retarded urea hydrolysis and reduced the accumulation of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N ions along the soil profile. The RV product was demonstrated to be an innovative additive able to modify some key ureic N trasformation processes correlated with the efficiency of the urea-based fertilization, in a soil column higher than 10 cm.

  14. Acetohydroxamic Acid - A Competitive Inhibitor of Urease from Soybean “Glycine max”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The acetohydroxamic acid (AHA, a potent inhibitor of urease, inhibits soybean urease competitively and reversibly. The I50 and Ki value for AHA were 900 microM and 0.053 mM, respectively at pH 7.0, 37 °C. The variation in pH over the pH 6 - 9 affected Ki and therefore binding of AHA in the active site. The affinity of AHA for the active site decreases with lowering of pH (below the pKa value of AHA i.e. 8.7. This behaviour is consistent with the deprotonated AHA acting as a nucleophile or the inhibitory species. The time-dependent inhibition studies were performed at two different concentrations of AHA and the biphasic kinetics was revealed with almost equal amplitudes (50% each for fast and slow phases. The values of rate constants were 0.1642 ± 0.0013 min -1 (fast phase; 0.0123±0.0012 min -1 (slow phase at 0.10 mM AHA and 0.2379±0.0017 min -1 (fast phase; 0.0153±0.0010 min -1 (slow phase at 0.15 mM AHA. These studies established the asymmetric nature of active sites, half being more reactive for AHA than the other half. The spectral studies showed a change in absorbance at the lambda wavelength max 414 nm, when urease was incubated with AHA, which was consistent with AHA binding to Ni2+ of active site.

  15. Resposta do arroz irrigado ao uso de inibidor de urease em plantio direto e convencional Response of rice to the use of urease inhibitor in no-tillage and conventional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Grohs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a volatilização de N-NH3 e a resposta do arroz irrigado ao uso de ureia com inibidor de urease em dois sistemas de cultivo, direto e convencional. Para tanto, desenvolveu-se um experimento em campo, no ano agrícola 2008/09, na UFSM em Santa Maria/RS. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema bifatorial (2x5, sendo o fator A constituído por ureia e ureia revestida com B e Cu (inibidor de urease e o fator B composto por diferentes intervalos de entrada de água (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dias após a aplicação das fontes de nitrogênio (N. Os resultados demonstram que o inibidor de urease retarda e diminui a conversão de N para NH3, reduzindo as perdas por volatilização, comparativamente à ureia sem inibidor. Entre os sistemas, as perdas são potencializadas no sistema plantio direto. O inibidor de urease não traz benefícios à produtividade em qualquer um dos sistemas de cultivo utilizados e o estresse causado na planta de arroz pelo atraso no início da irrigação é mais prejudicial do que as perdas causadas pela volatilização de N-NH3.The objective of this work was to measure the N-NH3 volatilization and the response of irrigated rice to the use of urea with urease inhibitor in two cropping systems, no-tillage and conventional. For this, an experiment in field was performed in the crop year 2008/09, at the UFSM in Santa Maria/RS. A random block in factorial scheme (2x5, with the factor A consisting of two nitrogen (N sources, urea and urea coated with B and Cu (urease inhibitor and the factor B consisting of different intervals of water intake (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 days after the application of N sources. The results demonstrated that the urease inhibitor slows and decreases the conversion of N to NH3, reducing the losses by volatilization, comparatively to urea without inhibitor. Between the systems, the losses were increased in the no-tillage system. The urease inhibitor does not add

  16. Design, synthesis, molecular docking, anti-Proteus mirabilis and urease inhibition of new fluoroquinolone carboxylic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammed A A; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din A A; Abdelhafez, El-Shimaa M N; Hassan, Heba A; Abd El-Baky, Rehab M

    2017-02-01

    New hydroxamic acid, hydrazide and amide derivatives of ciprofloxacin in addition to their analogues of levofloxacin were prepared and identified by different spectroscopic techniques. Some of the prepared compounds revealed good activity against the urease splitting bacteria, Proteus mirabilis. The urease inhibitory activity was investigated using indophenol method. Most of the tested compounds showed better activity than the reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). The ciprofloxacin hydrazide derivative 3a and levofloxacin hydroxamic acid 7 experienced the highest activity (IC 50 =1.22μM and 2.20μM, respectively). Molecular docking study revealed high spontaneous binding ability of the tested compounds to the active site of urease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Urease-positive thermophilic strains of Campylobacter isolated from seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, A; Matsuda, M; Miyajima, M; Moore, J E; Murphy, P G

    1999-07-01

    Three strains of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC), designated A1, A2 and A3, were identified by biochemical characterization after isolation from faeces of seagulls in Northern Ireland in 1996. The biochemical characteristics of the strains were identical to those of strains described previously. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after separate digestion with ApaI and SmaI demonstrated that the respective PFGE profiles were indistinguishable. The PFGE analysis also suggested that the genomes were approximately 1810 kb in length. This is the first example of the isolation of UPTC from flying homoiothermal animals, i.e. from seagulls (Larus spp.).

  18. Ophiamides A-B, new potent urease inhibitory sphingolipids from Heliotropium ophioglossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Sadiqa; Ansari, Nida Hassan; Fatima, Itrat; Malik, Abdul; Afza, Nighat; Iqbal, Lubna; Lateef, Mehreen

    2012-07-01

    Ophiamides A (1) and B (2), two new sphingolipids have been isolated from the n-hexane subfraction of the MeOH extract of the whole plant of Heliotropium ophioglossum along with glycerol monopalmitate (3) and β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D: -glucoside (4) reported for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques including MS and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Both the compounds 1 and 2 showed potent inhibitory activity against the enzyme urease.

  19. Soybean seed treatment with nickel improves biological nitrogen fixation and urease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José eLavres Junior

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is an essential micronutrient required for plants’ metabolism due to its role as a structural component of urease and hydrogenase, which in turn perform nitrogen (N metabolism in many legume species. Seed treatment with cobalt, molybdenum and Bradyrhizobium strains has been widely practiced to improve crops. Additionally, seed treatment together with Ni fertilization of soybean might improve the efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, boosting grain dry matter yield and N content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soybean seed treatment with Ni rates (0, 45, 90,135, 180, 360 and 540 mg kg-1 on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, directly by the 15N natural abundance method (δ15N‰ and by measurement of urease [E.C. 3.5.1.5] activity, as well as indirectly by nitrogenase (N-ase activity [E.C. 1.18.6.1]. Soybean plants (cultivar BMX Potência RR were grown in a sandy soil up to the R7 developmental stage (grain maturity, at which point the nutrient content in the leaves, chlorophyll content, urease and N-ase activities, Ni and N content in the grains, nodulation (at R1 - flowering stage, as well as the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (δ15N ‰, were evaluated. The proportion of N derived from N2 fixation varied from 77 to 99% using the natural 15N abundance method and non-nodulating Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris canariensis as references. A Ni rate of 45 mg kg-1 increased BNF by 12% compared to the control. The increased N uptake in the grains was closely correlated with chlorophyll content in the leaves, urease and N-ase activities, as well as with nodulation. Grain dry matter yield and aerial part dry matter yield increased, respectively, by 84% and 51% in relation to the control plants at 45 mg kg-1 Ni via seed treatment. Despite, Ni concentration was increased with Ni-seed treatment, Ni rates higher than 135 mg kg-1 promoted negative effects on plant growth and yield. In these

  20. Targeting the active site of the placental isozyme of alkaline phosphatase by phage-displayed scFv antibodies selected by a specific uncompetitive inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Mrinalini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, the tissue non-specific, intestinal and placental, have similar properties and a high degree of identity. The placental isozyme (PLAP is an oncofetal antigen expressed in several malignancies including choriocarcinoma, seminoma and ovarian carcinoma. We had earlier attempted to isolate PLAP-specific scFv from a synthetic human immunoglobulin library but were unable to do so, presumably because of the similarity between the isozymes. In this work, we have employed a PLAP-specific uncompetitive inhibitor, L-Phe-Gly-Gly, to select isozyme specific scFvs. An uncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme in the presence of substrate and stabilizes the enzyme-substrate complex. Several uncompetitive inhibitors have varying degrees of isozyme specificity for human alkaline phosphatase isozymes. A specific uncompetitive inhibitor would be able to unmask conformational differences between the otherwise very similar molecules. Also, such inhibitors would be directed to regions at/close to the active site of the enzyme. In this work, the library was first incubated with PLAP and the bound clones then eluted by incubation with L-Phe-Gly-Gly along with the substrate, para-nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP. The scFvs were then studied with regard to the biochemical modulation of their binding, isozyme specificity and effect on enzyme activity. Results Of 13 clones studied initially, the binding of 9 was inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly (with pNPP and 2 clones were inhibited by pNPP alone. Two clones had absolute and 2 clones had partial specificity to PLAP. Two clones were cross-reactive with only one other isozyme. Three scFv clones, having an accessible His6-tag, were purified and studied for their modulation of enzyme activity. All the three scFvs inhibited PLAP activity with the kinetics of competitive inhibition. Cell ELISA could demonstrate binding of the specific scFvs to the cell surface expressed PLAP

  1. The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Azzouni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the discovery of 5 alpha-reduction as an enzymatic step in steroid metabolism in 1951, and the discovery that dihydrotestosterone is more potent than testosterone in 1968, the significance of 5 alpha-reduced steroids in human diseases was not appreciated until the discovery of 5 alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency in 1974. Affected males are born with ambiguous external genitalia, despite normal internal genitalia. The prostate is hypoplastic, nonpalpable on rectal examination and approximately 1/10th the size of age-matched normal glands. Benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer does not develop in these patients. At puberty, the external genitalia virilize partially, however, secondary sexual hair remains sparse and male pattern baldness and acne develop rarely. Several compounds have been developed to inhibit the 5 alpha-reductase isozymes and they play an important role in the prevention and treatment of many common diseases. This review describes the basic biochemical properties, functions, tissue distribution, chromosomal location, and clinical significance of the 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family.

  2. Isozyme variation in four species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic studies of isozymes were done with four closely related species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidade in the Brazilian Amazon, using last-instar larvae collected in the field. Ten enzymes were studied, which yielded 11 loci. Diagnostic loci were not found between Simulium maroniense cytotype D and Simulium rorotaense. Simulium maroniense and S. rorotaense differed from Simulium trombetense by two diagnostic loci (Me and Xdh, and Simulium perflavum differed from the other three species by four diagnostic loci (Me, Xdh, Mdh, and Got. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.30 to 2.30, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 18.2 to 63.6% and the mean heterozygosity values observed ranged from 0.062 to 0.108. Genetic distances among the species ranged from 0.010 to 0.581. The lowest value was obtained between S. maroniense and S. rorotaense, and the highest between S. perflavum and S. trombetense. The genetic relationships among the four S. perflavum group species indicate that they are closely related. The high similarity at the isozyme level, allied to previous studies of morphology and polytene chromosomes, may suggest that the divergence time since the separation of S. maroniense and S. rorotaense is still too recent for diagnostic loci to have evolved.

  3. Molecular diversity of tuliposide B-converting enzyme in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana): identification of the root-specific isozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Ueno, Ayaka; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2017-06-01

    6-Tuliposide B (PosB) is a glucose ester accumulated in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) as a major secondary metabolite. PosB serves as the precursor of the antimicrobial lactone tulipalin B (PaB), which is formed by PosB-converting enzyme (TCEB). The gene TgTCEB1, encoding a TCEB, is transcribed in tulip pollen but scarcely transcribed in other tissues (e.g. roots) even though those tissues show high TCEB activity. This led to the prediction of the presence of a TCEB isozyme with distinct tissue specificity. Herein, we describe the identification of the TgTCEB-R gene from roots via native enzyme purification; this gene is a paralog of TgTCEB1. Recombinant enzyme characterization verified that TgTCEB-R encodes a TCEB. Moreover, TgTCEB-R was localized in tulip plastids, as found for pollen TgTCEB1. TgTCEB-R is transcribed almost exclusively in roots, indicating a tissue preference for the transcription of TCEB isozyme genes.

  4. Production of Autoantibodies by Murine B-1a Cells Stimulated with Helicobacter pylori Urease through Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumiko; Watanabe, Eri; Nakagawa, Yohko; Yamanishi, Shingo; Norose, Yoshihiko; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several autoimmune diseases, in which autoantibody-producing B cells must be activated. Among these B cells, CD5-positive B-1a cells from BALB/c mice were confirmed to secrete autoantibodies when cocultured with purified H. pylori urease in the absence of T cells. To determine the mechanisms for autoantibody production, CD5-positive B-1a cells were sorted from murine spleen cells and stimulated with either purified H. pylori urease or H. pylori coated onto plates (referred to hereafter as plate-coated H. pylori), and autoantibody production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Complete urease was not secreted from H. pylori but was visually expressed over the bacterium-like endotoxin. Urease-positive plated-coated H. pylori stimulated B-1a cells to produce autoantibodies, although urease-deficient isotype-matched H. pylori did not. Autoantibody secretion by B-1a cells was inhibited when bacteria were pretreated with anti-H. pylori urease-specific antibody having neutralizing ability against urease enzymatic activity but not with anti-H. pylori urease-specific antibody without neutralizing capacity. The B-1a cells externally express various Toll-like receptors (TLRs): TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6. Among the TLRs, blocking of TLR2 on B-1a cells with a specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), T2.5, inhibited autoantibody secretion when B-1a cells were stimulated with plate-coated H. pylori or H. pylori urease. Moreover, B-1a cells from TLR2-knockout mice did not produce those autoantibodies. The present study provides evidence that functional urease expressed on the surface of H. pylori will directly stimulate B-1a cells via innate TLR2 to produce various autoantibodies and may induce autoimmune disorders. PMID:21947775

  5. Effect of paddy urease inhibitors on fate of 15N-urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Lu Wanfang

    1997-01-01

    Urea applied to the paddy field rapidly released ammonium (NH 4 + ) through hydrolysis. The released NH 4 + -N usually reached to a maximum value 2 days after the application. The maximum value was found to be lower and delay 1 day when a mixture of urea and urease inhibitors was applied. Based on 15 N tracing in the urea, it was found that the two urease inhibitors, phenylphosphordiamidate (PPD) and N-(N-butyl) thiophosphoric triamine (NBPT), could enhance the efficiency of urea utilization by rice plants due to more absorption and also stimulated rice growth. The grain yields were higher in the treatments applied with the mixture containing PPD or NBPT, especially at high N level, than that in the treatment applied with urea only. However, the urea inhibitor, hydroquinone (HQ), had far less effect than PPD and NBPT in the experiment. The application of rice straw was found to reduce the urea-N absorption by rice plants but increase its residue in the soil

  6. Estimating the effect of urease inhibitor on rice yield based on NDVI at key growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailou LIU,Yazhen LI,Huiwen HU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the urease inhibitor, N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT at a range of application rates on rice production was examined in a field experiment at Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province, China. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was measured at key growth stages in both early and late rice. The results showed that the grain yield increased significantly when urea was applied with NBPT, with the highest yield observed at 1.00% NBPT (wt/wt. NDVI differed with the growth stage of rice; it remained steady from the heading to the filling stage. Rice yield could be predicted from the NDVI taken at key rice growing stages, with R2 ranging from 0.34 to 0.69 in early rice and 0.49 to 0.70 in late rice. The validation test showed that RMSE (t·hm-2 values were 0.77 and 0.87 in early and late rice, respectively. Therefore, it was feasible to estimate rice yield for different amounts of urease inhibitor using NDVI.

  7. Urease inhibitor (NBPT and efficiency of single or split application of urea in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide, a urease inhibitor, has been reported as one of the most promising compounds to maximize urea nitrogen use in agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of irrigated wheat fertilized with urea or urea + NBPT as single or split application. The experiment was conducted from June to October 2006 in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The experimental design followed a 2×2 factorial scheme, in which urea or urea + NBPT were combined with two modes of application: full dose at sowing (60kg ha-1 or split (20kg ha-1 at sowing + 40kg ha-1 as topdressing at tillering, in randomized blocks with ten replications. The split application of nitrogen fertilization does not improve the yield wheat under used conditions. The use of urease inhibitor improves the grain yield of wheat crop when urea is applied in topdressing at tillering, but its use does not promote difference when urea is applied in the furrow at planting.

  8. Impact of urease inhibitors on utilization efficiency of N-urea in rice paddy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Lu Wanfang

    1998-01-01

    Urea applied to the paddy field rapidly released ammonium (NH 4 + ) through hydrolysis. The released NH 4 + -N was usually at peak two days after the application. The peak was found to be lower and delay one day when a mixture of urea and urease inhibitors was applied. Based on tracing of 15 N in the urea used, the two urease inhibitors, phenylphosphordiamidate (PPD) and N-(N-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), were found to enhance the efficiency of urea utilization by rice plants due to more absorption and also stimulate rice growth. The grain yields in the treatments applied with the mixture containing PPD or NBPT were higher, particularly at high N level, than that in the treatment applied with urea only. However, the urea inhibitor, hydroquinone (HQ), displayed far less effect than PPD and NBPT in the experiment. The application of rice straw was found to decrease the absorption of rice plants to N in urea but increase its residue in the soil

  9. Urease activity as an index for assessing the maturity of cow manure and wheat residue vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudkolai, Saber Tayebi; Nourbakhsh, Farshid

    2017-06-01

    The establishment of a reliable index is an essential need to assess the degree of stability and maturity of solid wastes vermicomposts. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vermicomposting process on some chemical (pH, EC, OC, TN, lignin and C:N ratio) and biochemical properties of the cow manure (CM) and wheat residue (WR). Results demonstrated that during vermicomposting process of CM and WR urease activity was highly correlated with the time of vermicomposting (r=-0.97 ∗∗ for CM and r=-0.99 ∗∗ for WR), and well able to show the stability of organic waste. The urease activity showed significant correlations with the C:N ratio during the vermicomposting of CM and WR (r=0.89 ∗ and r=0.93 ∗∗ respectively) therefore it can be considered as a reliable indicator for determining the maturity and stability of organic wastes during vermicomposting process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Associated Urease by Oregano and Cranberry Phytochemical Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. T.; Kwon, Y. I.; Labbe, R. G.; Shetty, K.

    2005-01-01

    Ulcer-associated dyspepsia is caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers. Antibiotic treatment does not always inhibit or kill H. pylori with potential for antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for using phenolic phytochemical extracts to inhibit H. pylori in a laboratory medium. Our approach involved the development of a specific phenolic profile with optimization of different ratios of extract mixtures from oregano and cranberry. Subsequently, antimicrobial activity and antimicrobial-linked urease inhibition ability were evaluated. The results indicated that the antimicrobial activity was greater in extract mixtures than in individual extracts of each species. The results also indicate that the synergistic contribution of oregano and cranberry phenolics may be more important for inhibition than any species-specific phenolic concentration. Further, based on plate assay, the likely mode of action may be through urease inhibition and disruption of energy production by inhibition of proline dehydrogenase at the plasma membrane. PMID:16332847

  11. Allicin from garlic inhibits the biofilm formation and urease activity of Proteus mirabilis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Omid, Mahsa; Arzanlou, Mohsen; Amani, Mojtaba; Shokri Al-Hashem, Seyyedeh Khadijeh; Amir Mozafari, Nour; Peeri Doghaheh, Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Several virulence factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis. This study determined the inhibitory effects of allicin on urease, hemolysin and biofilm of P. mirabilis ATCC 12453 and its antimicrobial activity against 20 clinical isolates of P. mirabilis. Allicin did not inhibit hemolysin, whereas it did inhibit relative urease activity in both pre-lysed (half-maximum inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 4.15 μg) and intact cells (IC50 = 21 μg) in a concentration-dependent manner. Allicin at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (2-32 μg mL(-1)) showed no significant effects on the growth of the bacteria (P > 0.05), but it reduced biofilm development in a concentration-dependent manner (P mirabilis isolates were determined to be 128 and 512 μg mL(-1), respectively. The results suggest that allicin could have clinical applications in controlling P. mirabilis infections. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and urease inhibiting activities of methanolic extracts from Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammed Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots extracts were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, urease inhibition potential and phytochemical analysis. Phytochemical screening of the roots and stem extract revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates/reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The methanolic extracts of the roots displayed highest antioxidant activity (93.518%) against DPPH while the crude methanolic extract of the stem showed highest antioxidant activity (66.163%) at 100 μg/mL concentration. The methanolic extracts of both stem and roots were moderately active or even found to be less active against the selected bacterial and fungal strains (Tables S2 and S3). The roots extract (methanol) showed significant urease enzyme inhibition activity (IC50 = 41.2 ± 0.66; 0.2 mg/mL) while the stem extract was found moderately active (IC50 = 401.1 ± 0.58; 0.2 mg/mL) against thiourea (IC50 = 21.011; 0.2 mg/mL).

  13. Synthesis, urease inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial studies of some 4-amino-5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones and their 3,6-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Rama, Nasim Hasan; Hussain, Muhammad Tahir; Zaib, Sumera; Aslam, Muhammad Adil M.; Iqbal, Jamshed; Jones, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    A new series of 4-amino-5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones, bearing various methoxybenzyl- and methoxyphenethyl groups, was synthesized by refluxing potassium hydrazinecarbodithioate salts in dilute aqueous solution of hydrazine hydrate. These salts were formed by the reaction of acid hydrazides and carbon disulfide in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution at 0-5 deg C. 4-Amino- 5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones were condensed with different substituted aromatic acids to yield 3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]1,3,4-thiadiazoles. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by infrared (IR), 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis and mass spectrometric (MS) studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their urease inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Some compounds showed excellent urease inhibition activity, more than the standard drug. Others exhibited potent antioxidant activity. All the compounds showed significant antibacterial activities as compared to the standard drug. (author)

  14. Purification and characterization of two DyP isozymes from Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1 specifically expressed in an air-membrane surface bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Takuya; Shoda, Makoto; Sugano, Yasushi

    2009-02-01

    DyP isozymes (DyP2 and DyP3) from the culture fluid of the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1 by air-membrane surface bioreactor were purified and characterized. The characteristics of DyP2 were almost the same as those of a recombinant DyP reported previously, but different from DyP3.

  15. Barley peroxidase isozymes. Expression and post-translational modification in mature seeds as identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per

    2007-01-01

    spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination...

  16. Association of Neuroantibodies(NAB) with Glutathione-S-Tranferase(GST) Isozyme Polymorphisms(SNP) in African-American Children with Heavy Metal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymorphisms in GST isozymes have implications in heavy metal accumulation, neurodegeneration, and immune-mediated disease. Blood cell DNA and sera from 131 African-American children were used to determine GST Pi [rs947895 (C>A), rs17593068 (G>T), rs6591256 (A>G), rs187...

  17. New Ideas for an Old Enzyme: A Short, Question-Based Laboratory Project for the Purification and Identification of an Unknown LDH Isozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Aaron B.

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme purification projects are an excellent way to introduce many aspects of protein biochemistry, but can be difficult to carry out under the constraints of a typical undergraduate laboratory course. We have designed a short laboratory project for the purification and identification of an "unknown" lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme that can…

  18. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 ± 1.8 to 28.1 ± 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 ± 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 ± 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity

  19. Enzyme and inhibition assay of urease by continuous monitoring of the ammonium formation based on capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jiqing; Sun, Shucheng; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2016-10-01

    We present here an easy-to-operate and efficient method for enzyme and inhibition assays of urease, which is a widely distributed and important enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and CO 2 . The assay was achieved by integrating CE technique and rapid on-line derivatization method, allowing us to continuously drive the sample to the capillary, thus to measure the amount of the product ammonia from the beginning to the end of the reaction. The method exhibits excellent repeatability with RSD as low as 2.5% for the initial reaction rate (n = 5), with the LOD of ammonia of 20 μM (S/N = 5). The enzyme activity as well as the inhibition of urease by Cu 2+ were investigated using the present method. The results show that Cu 2+ is a noncompetitive inhibitor on urease, in accordance with the result published in the literature. The enzyme activity and inhibition kinetic constants were obtained and were found to be consistent with the results of traditional off-line enzyme assays. Our study indicates that the present approach is a reliable and convenient method for analysis of the urease activity and inhibition kinetics by continuous on-line monitoring of the ammonium formation based on CE. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Silencing urease: a key evolutionary step that facilitated the adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the flea-borne transmission route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2014-12-30

    The arthropod-borne transmission route of Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is a recent evolutionary adaptation. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the closely related food-and water-borne enteric species from which Y. pestis diverged less than 6,400 y ago, exhibits significant oral toxicity to the flea vectors of plague, whereas Y. pestis does not. In this study, we identify the Yersinia urease enzyme as the responsible oral toxin. All Y. pestis strains, including those phylogenetically closest to the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor, contain a mutated ureD allele that eliminated urease activity. Restoration of a functional ureD was sufficient to make Y. pestis orally toxic to fleas. Conversely, deletion of the urease operon in Y. pseudotuberculosis rendered it nontoxic. Enzymatic activity was required for toxicity. Because urease-related mortality eliminates 30-40% of infective flea vectors, ureD mutation early in the evolution of Y. pestis was likely subject to strong positive selection because it significantly increased transmission potential.

  1. Meta-analysis of the effect of urease and nitrification inhibitors on crop productivity and nitrogen use efficience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abalos, D.; Jeffery, S.L.; Sanz-Cobena, A.; Guardia, G.; Vallejo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification and urease inhibitors are proposed as means to reduce nitrogen losses, thereby increasing crop nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, their effect on crop yield is variable. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate their effectiveness at increasing NUE and crop productivity. Commonly

  2. Edwardsiella ictaluri Encodes an Acid Activated Urease that is Required for Intracellular Replication in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic analysis indicated that Edwardsiella ictaluri encodes a putative ureasepathogenicity island containing 9 open reading frames, including urea and ammonium transporters. In vitro studies with the wild-type E. ictaluri and a ureG::kan urease mutant strain indicated that E. ictaluri is significa...

  3. GC-MS Analysis of Fixed Oil from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Seeds: Evaluation of Antimicrobial, Antileishmanial and Urease Inhibitory Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahnaz, A.; Khan, H.; Shah, A.; Khan, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, chemical composition of fixed oil (NnFO) obtained from Nelumbo nucifera seeds was determined by GC-MS analysis which revealed the presence of 39 compounds mainly comprised of 20.8 % keto fatty acids with high content of methyl ester of palmitic acid (13.59 %) and methyl ester of 9-oxo-nonanoic acid (11.89 %). The other major constituents identified were; fumaric acid-3-methylbut-3-enyl nonyl ester, 2-decenal and methyl ester of 9E-octadecenoic acid as 6.45 %, 5.09 %, 5.06 %, respectively. NnFO along with other fractions were tested for in vitro antimicrobial, antileishmanial and urease inhibitory assays. NnFO showed weak antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria while promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans (68 %), Candida glaberata (65 %) and Aspergillus flavus (64 %). NnFO showed strong antileishmanial activity with IC50 = 7.34 ±0.72 as compared to reference drug (5.1± 0.29) probably due to the presence of keto-ene derivatives. NnFO showed weak urease inhibitory activity while the ethyl acetate fraction (N3) strongly inhibited both J.B. urease (IC50= 21.45 %) and B.P. urease (IC50= 28.65%) respectively. In conclusion, N. nucifera seeds fixed oil possess promising therapeutic potential as a new antifungal and antileishmanial agent. (author)

  4. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  5. Carbon Nanotubes and Algal Polysaccharides To Enhance the Enzymatic Properties of Urease in Lipid Langmuir-Blodgett Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Raul T; Morais, Paulo V; Nordi, Cristina S F; Schöning, Michael J; Siqueira, José R; Caseli, Luciano

    2018-03-06

    Algal polysaccharides (extracellular polysaccharides) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were adsorbed on dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide Langmuir monolayers to serve as a matrix for the incorporation of urease. The physicochemical properties of the supramolecular system as a monolayer at the air-water interface were investigated by surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, interfacial shear rheology, vibrational spectroscopy, and Brewster angle microscopy. The floating monolayers were transferred to hydrophilic solid supports, quartz, mica, or capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) devices, through the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, forming mixed films, which were investigated by quartz crystal microbalance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. The enzyme activity was studied with UV-vis spectroscopy, and the feasibility of the thin film as a urea sensor was essayed in an EIS sensor device. The presence of CNT in the enzyme-lipid LB film not only tuned the catalytic activity of urease but also helped to conserve its enzyme activity. Viability as a urease sensor was demonstrated with capacitance-voltage and constant capacitance measurements, exhibiting regular and distinctive output signals over all concentrations used in this work. These results are related to the synergism between the compounds on the active layer, leading to a surface morphology that allowed fast analyte diffusion owing to an adequate molecular accommodation, which also preserved the urease activity. This work demonstrates the feasibility of employing LB films composed of lipids, CNT, algal polysaccharides, and enzymes as EIS devices for biosensing applications.

  6. Silencing urease: A key evolutionary step that facilitated the adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the flea-borne transmission route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The arthropod-borne transmission route of Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is a recent evolutionary adaptation. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the closely related food-and water-borne enteric species from which Y. pestis diverged less than 6,400 y ago, exhibits significant oral toxicity to the flea vectors of plague, whereas Y. pestis does not. In this study, we identify the Yersinia urease enzyme as the responsible oral toxin. All Y. pestis strains, including those phylogenetically closest to the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor, contain a mutated ureD allele that eliminated urease activity. Restoration of a functional ureD was sufficient to make Y. pestis orally toxic to fleas. Conversely, deletion of the urease operon in Y. pseudotuberculosis rendered it nontoxic. Enzymatic activity was required for toxicity. Because urease-related mortality eliminates 30–40% of infective flea vectors, ureD mutation early in the evolution of Y. pestis was likely subject to strong positive selection because it significantly increased transmission potential. PMID:25453069

  7. Dynamic HypA zinc site is essential for acid viability and proper urease maturation in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan C; Hu, Heidi Q; Merrell, D Scott; Maroney, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori requires urease activity in order to survive in the acid environment of the human stomach. Urease is regulated in part by nickelation, a process that requires the HypA protein, which is a putative nickel metallochaperone that is generally associated with hydrogenase maturation. However, in H. pylori, HypA plays a dual role. In addition to an N-terminal nickel binding site, HypA proteins also contain a structural zinc site that is coordinated by two rigorously conserved CXXC sequences, which in H. pylori are flanked by His residues. These structural Zn sites are known to be dynamic, converting from Zn(Cys)4 centers at pH 7.2 to Zn(Cys)2(His)2 centers at pH 6.3 in the presence of Ni(ii) ions. In this study, mutant strains of H. pylori that express zinc site variants of the HypA protein are used to show that the structural changes in the zinc site are important for the acid viability of the bacterium, and that a reduction in acid viability in these variants can be traced in large measure to deficient urease activity. This in turn leads to a model that connects the Zn(Cys)4 coordination to urease maturation.

  8. Resonance Raman study on the structure of the active sites of microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes LM2 and LM4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, P; Greinert, R; Stier, A; Taniguchi, H

    1989-12-08

    The isozymes 2 and 4 of rabbit microsomal cytochrome P-450 (LM2, LM4) have been studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Based on high quality spectra, a vibrational assignment of the porphyrin modes in the frequency range between 100-1700 cm-1 is presented for different ferric states of cytochrome P-450 LM2 and LM4. The resonance Raman spectra are interpreted in terms of the spin and ligation state of the heme iron and of heme-protein interactions. While in cytochrome P-450 LM2 the six-coordinated low-spin configuration is predominantly occupied, in the isozyme LM4 the five-coordinated high-spin form is the most stable state. The different stability of these two spin configurations in LM2 and LM4 can be attributed to the structures of the active sites. In the low-spin form of the isozymes LM4 the protein matrix forces the heme into a more rigid conformation than in LM2. These steric constraints are removed upon dissociation of the sixth ligand leading to a more flexible structure of the active site in the high-spin form of the isozyme LM4. The vibrational modes of the vinyl groups were found to be characteristic markers for the specific structures of the heme pockets in both isozymes. They also respond sensitively to type-I substrate binding. While in cytochrome P-450 LM4 the occupation of the substrate-binding pocket induces conformational changes of the vinyl groups, as reflected by frequency shifts of the vinyl modes, in the LM2 isozyme the ground-state conformation of these substituents remain unaffected, suggesting that the more flexible heme pocket can accommodate substrates without imposing steric constraints on the porphyrin. The resonance Raman technique makes structural changes visible which are induced by substrate binding in addition and independent of the changes associated with the shift of the spin state equilibrium: the high-spin states in the substrate-bound and substrate-free enzyme are structurally different. The formation of the inactive form

  9. Avaliação de fontes de urease na amonização de fenos de Brachiaria brizantha com dois teores de umidade Evaluation of urease sources in the ammoniation of Brachiaria brizantha hays with two moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liandra Maria Abaker Bertipaglia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da amonização com uréia (5,0% matéria seca do feno de Brachiaria brizantha, com dois teores de umidade (15 ou 30% de umidade, associado a três fontes de urease (feno de capim Brachiaria decumbens, capim-elefante [Pennisetum purpureum] e leucena [Leucaena leucocephala], foi avaliado. Foram determinados os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fração solúvel (A, frações de proteína verdadeira solúvel e insolúvel em borato fosfato (B1 e B2, fração de proteína potencialmente degradável (B3 e fração da proteína insolúvel em detergente ácido (C. Avaliaram-se os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HEM e lignina (LIG e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 10 tratamentos (dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, sem uréia e sem urease; dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, com uréia e sem urease; seis combinações de fontes de urease e conteúdo de umidade e três repetições. A amonização dos fenos com diferentes conteúdos de umidade, associados a fontes de urease, aumentou os teores de PB e da fração A, mas não afetou B1 e B2. Contudo, as frações B3 e C diminuíram em reposta à amonização. A aplicação de uréia nos fenos de 30% de umidade, associados ou não a fontes de urease, diminuiu os teores de FDN. A adição de fontes de urease não alterou os teores dos constituintes da parede celular, quando comparada aos tratamentos amonizados com uréia. Os tratamentos aplicados não proporcionaram efeitos consistentes sobre os teores de FDA e de CEL dos fenos e não afetaram os teores de LIG. A aplicação de uréia associada a 15 ou 30% de umidade foi favorável para aumentar o nitrogênio solúvel do feno de Brachiaria brizantha e diminuir o nitrogênio indisponível para o ruminante.The urea ammoniation (5.0% dry matter effects in Brachiaria brizanta hay baled with two

  10. Preparation, characterization and application of urease nanoparticles for construction of an improved potentiometric urea biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhar, Seema; Pundir, C S

    2018-02-15

    The nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates of commercial urease from jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) were prepared by desolvation and glutaraldehyde crosslinking and functionalized by cysteamine dihydrochloride. These enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The TEM images of urease NPs showed their size in the range, 18-100nm with an average of 51.2nm. The ENPs were more active and stable with a longer shelf life than native enzyme molecules. The ENPs were immobilized onto chitosan (CHIT) activated nitrocellulose (NC) membrane via glutaraldehyde coupling with 32.22% retention of initial activity of free ureaseNPs with a conjugation yield of 1.63mg/cm 2 . This NC membrane was mounted at the lower/sensitive end of the ammonium ion selective electrode (AISE) with O-ring and then electrode was connected to a digital pH meter to construct a potentiometric urea biosensor. The biosensor exhibited optimum response within 10s at pH 5.5and 40°C. The biosensor was employed for measurement of potentiometric determination of urea in sera of apparently healthy and persons suffering from kidney disorders. The biosensor displayed a low detection limit of 1µM/L with a wide working range of 2-80µM/L (0.002-0.08mM) and sensitivity of 23mV/decade. The analytical recovery of added urea in serum was 106.33%. The within and between-batch coefficient of variations (CVs) of present biosensor were 0.18% and 0.32% respectively. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between sera urea values obtained by reference method (Enzymic colorimetric kit method) and the present biosensor. The biosensor had negligible interference from Na + ,K + ,NH +4 and Ca 2+ but Mg 2+ ,Cu 2+ and ascorbic acid but had slight interference, which was overcome by specific ion selective electrode. The ENPs bound NC membrane was used maximally 8-9 times per day over a period of 180 days, when stored in 0.01M sodium

  11. Synthesis, structures and Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitory activity of copper(II) complexes with tridentate aroylhydrazone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin; Wang, Cunfang; Yan, Kai; Zhao, Kedong; Sheng, Guihua; Zhu, Hailiang; Zhao, Xinlu; Qu, Dan; Niu, Fang; You, Zhonglu

    2016-06-01

    A series of new copper(II) complexes were prepared. They are [CuL(1)(NCS)] (1), [CuClL(1)]·CH3OH (2), [CuClL(2)]·CH3OH (3), [CuL(3)(NCS)]·CH3OH (4), [CuL(4)(NCS)]·0.4H2O (5), and [CuL(5)(bipy)] (6), where L(1), L(2), L(3) and L(4) are the deprotonated form of N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide, 4-bromo-N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide, N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide and 2-chloro-N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide, respectively, L(5) is the dianionic form of N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide, and bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine. The complexes were characterized by infrared and UV-Vis spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Cu atoms in complexes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are coordinated by the NOO donor set of the aroylhydrazone ligands, and one Cl or thiocyanate N atom, forming square planar coordination. The Cu atom in complex 6 is in a square pyramidal coordination, with the NOO donor set of L(1), and one N atom of bipy defining the basal plane, and with the other N atom of bipy occupying the apical position. Complexes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 show effective urease inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 5.14, 0.20, 4.06, 5.52 and 0.26μM, respectively. Complex 6 has very weak activity against urease, with IC50 value over 100μM. Molecular docking study of the complexes with the Helicobacter pylori urease was performed. The relationship between structures and urease inhibitory activities indicated that copper complexes with square planar coordination are better models for urease inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in the isozymic pattern of phosphoenolpyruvate : An early step in photoperiodic control of crassulacean acid metabolism level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Arrabaça, M C; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O

    1979-01-01

    Two major isofunctional forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) have been separated from the leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tom Thumb by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and diethylaminoethyl cellulose techniques: one of the forms prevails under long-day treatment (low crassulacean acid metabolism level), the other develops under short-day treatment (high Crassulacean acid metabolism level). Molecular weights are significantly different: 175·10(3) and 186·10(3), respectively. These results indicate that two populations of phosphoenolyruvate carboxylase are present in the plant, one of which is responsible for Crassulacean acid metabolism activity under the control of photoperiod.The Crassulacean acid metabolism appears to depend on the same endogenous clock that governs other photoperiodically controlled events (e.g. flowering). The metabolic and energetic significance of this feature is discussed. It is suggested that modification in isozymic composition could be an early step in the response to photoperiodism at the metabolic level.

  13. Utilization of C-14 settled urease for diagnosing Campylobacter Pylori in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chausson, Y.; Coelho, L.G.V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method for diagnosing the Campylobacter Pylori in the stomach is described, using C-14 settled urease. Campylobacter Pylori is now being considered the most probable causative agent of antral chronic gastritis, pepitic ulcer and non-ulcerous dyspepsia. The technique is based on ingestion of the tracer, its recovery by exhalation in etanol hyamine solution, followed by counting and dates evaluation. The test was applied to forty two voluntary male and female patients, after their written acquiescence. Their ages varied from 19 to 62 years old. Thirty of the results were positive and twelve negative. All of them were comproved by microbiological (cultura) and hystologycal studies of gastric biopsy gotten by gastroscopy. They were performed at the Gastroentherology Departament of the 'Hospital das Clinicas' that belongs to the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Repetitivity of the breath test was confirmed by repetition of the results in five positive patients and five negative ones. (author) [pt

  14. Detection of helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps using rapid urease test and ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Kaviani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal polyposis is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. Recently concerns regarding gastroesophageal reflux or helicobacter pylori as a possible pathologic cause of nasal polyps have been increasing. The present study was planned to investigate the presence of helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was undertaken enrolling 37 patients with nasal polyps who had undergone nasal endoscopic sinus surgery and 38 control subjects. Biopsy specimens of nasal polyps and inferior turbinates were assessed by rapid urease test. Blood samples of both study and control subjects were evaluated for anti H.pylori IgG by ELISA. H. pylori status was regarded positive, if both tests were positive. Results: Seropositivity was more common in the patients with nasal polyps (66.2% than control subjects (36.8% (P

  15. Phytochemical Constituents, ChEs and Urease Inhibitions, Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Tevfik; Yenigun, Semiha; Altun, Muhammed; Demirtas, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Due to the common ethnopharmacological used or scientifically examined biochemical properties, Elaeagnaceae family, Elaeagnus umbellate (Thunb.) (EU, Guz yemisi) was worth investigating. In this investigation, we revealed antioxidant, antiproliferative and enzyme inhibition activities of the water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of EU as well as the contents of their phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, lycopene and β- carotene. The antioxidant activity was screened by total antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, reducing power, 2-deoxyribose degradation assay, H2O2 scavenging and metal chelating activities of the samples were tested in vitro. Additionally, the scavenging activities of the extracts were determined against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazloine-6-sulfonicacid (ABTS˙+), superoxide anion and peroxide radicals. The samples were determined for their inhibitory activities against urease, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). In vitro, antiproliferative activities of six different extracts were tested using the xCELLigence system against HeLa and HT29 cell lines. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were found higher than standard antioxidants. The water extracts of fruit and leaf showed the best antioxidant activity. In inhibition assays of urease, AChE and BuChE, all extracts exhibited remarkable inhibition potential. Ethyl acetate extracts, especially, showed better inhibition capacity. It was found that the antioxidant activities of the extracts presented consistently with their chemical contents. The antiproliferative activities of leaf extracts were more effective than the fruit extracts. The chromatographic methods were applied to the different solvents to analyses phenolic secondery metabolites. It was found that fumaric acid, 4- hydroxybenzoic acid, rutin and quercetin-3-

  16. Insecticidal effect of Canavalia ensiformis major urease on nymphs of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus and characterization of digestive peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defferrari, Marina S; Demartini, Diogo R; Marcelino, Thiago B; Pinto, Paulo M; Carlini, Celia R

    2011-06-01

    Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) ureases are entomotoxic upon the release of internal peptides by insect's digestive enzymes. Here we studied the digestive peptidases of Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and its susceptibility to jackbean urease (JBU). O. fasciatus nymphs fed urease showed a mortality rate higher than 80% after two weeks. Homogenates of midguts dissected from fourth instars were used to perform proteolytic activity assays. The homogenates hydrolyzed JBU in vitro, yielding a fragment similar in size to known entomotoxic peptides. The major proteolytic activity at pH 4.0 upon protein substrates was blocked by specific inhibitors of aspartic and cysteine peptidases, but not significantly affected by inhibitors of metallopeptidases or serine peptidases. The optimal activity upon N-Cbz-Phe-Arg-MCA was at pH 5.0, with complete blockage by E-64 in all pH tested. Optimal activity upon Abz-AIAFFSRQ-EDDnp (a substrate for aspartic peptidases) was detected at pH 5.0, with partial inhibition by Pepstatin A in the pH range 2-8. Fluorogenic substrates corresponding to the N- and C-terminal regions flanking a known entomotoxic peptide within urease sequence were also tested. While the midgut homogenate did not hydrolyze the N-terminal peptide, it cleaved the C-terminal peptide maximally at pH 4.0-5.0, and this activity was inhibited by E-64 (10 μM). The midgut homogenate was submitted to ion-exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. A 22 kDa active fraction was obtained, resolved in SDS-PAGE (12%), the corresponding band was in-gel digested by trypsin, the peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry, retrieving a cathepsin L protein. The purified cathepsin L was shown to have at least two possible cleavage sites within the urease sequence, and might be able to release a known insecticidal peptide in a single or cascade event. The results suggest that susceptibility of O. fasciatus nymphs to jackbean urease is, like in other insect models, due mostly

  17. Development and Characterization of a Camelid Single Domain Antibody-Urease Conjugate That Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baomin; Wong, Wah Yau; Uger, Marni D; Wisniewski, Pawel; Chao, Heman

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). In this study, we describe the development and characterization of V21-DOS47, an immunoconjugate that targets VEGFR2. V21-DOS47 is composed of a camelid single domain anti-VEGFR2 antibody (V21) and the enzyme urease. The conjugate specifically binds to VEGFR2 and urease converts endogenous urea into ammonia, which is toxic to tumor cells. Previously, we developed a similar antibody-urease conjugate, L-DOS47, which is currently in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. Although V21-DOS47 was designed from parameters learned from the generation of L-DOS47, additional optimization was required to produce V21-DOS47. In this study, we describe the expression and purification of two versions of the V21 antibody: V21H1 and V21H4. Each was conjugated to urease using a different chemical cross-linker. The conjugates were characterized by a panel of analytical techniques, including SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, Western blotting, and LC-MS E peptide mapping. Binding characteristics were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry assays. To improve the stability of the conjugates at physiologic pH, the pIs of the V21 antibodies were adjusted by adding several amino acid residues to the C-terminus. For V21H4, a terminal cysteine was also added for use in the conjugation chemistry. The modified V21 antibodies were expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) pT7 system. V21H1 was conjugated to urease using the heterobifunctional cross-linker succinimidyl-[( N -maleimidopropionamido)-diethyleneglycol] ester (SM(PEG) 2 ), which targets lysine resides in the antibody. V21H4 was conjugated to urease using the homobifunctional cross-linker, 1,8-bis(maleimido)diethylene glycol

  18. Development and Characterization of a Camelid Single Domain Antibody–Urease Conjugate That Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baomin Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs. In this study, we describe the development and characterization of V21-DOS47, an immunoconjugate that targets VEGFR2. V21-DOS47 is composed of a camelid single domain anti-VEGFR2 antibody (V21 and the enzyme urease. The conjugate specifically binds to VEGFR2 and urease converts endogenous urea into ammonia, which is toxic to tumor cells. Previously, we developed a similar antibody–urease conjugate, L-DOS47, which is currently in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. Although V21-DOS47 was designed from parameters learned from the generation of L-DOS47, additional optimization was required to produce V21-DOS47. In this study, we describe the expression and purification of two versions of the V21 antibody: V21H1 and V21H4. Each was conjugated to urease using a different chemical cross-linker. The conjugates were characterized by a panel of analytical techniques, including SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, Western blotting, and LC-MSE peptide mapping. Binding characteristics were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry assays. To improve the stability of the conjugates at physiologic pH, the pIs of the V21 antibodies were adjusted by adding several amino acid residues to the C-terminus. For V21H4, a terminal cysteine was also added for use in the conjugation chemistry. The modified V21 antibodies were expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3 pT7 system. V21H1 was conjugated to urease using the heterobifunctional cross-linker succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido-diethyleneglycol] ester (SM(PEG2, which targets lysine resides in the antibody. V21H4 was conjugated to urease using the homobifunctional cross-linker, 1,8-bis

  19. Urease activity in dental plaque and saliva of children during a three-year study period and its relationship with other caries risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou-Bermudez, E; Elias-Boneta, A; Billings, R J; Burne, R A; Garcia-Rivas, V; Brignoni-Nazario, V; Suarez-Perez, E

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial urease activity in dental plaque and in saliva generates ammonia, which can increase the plaque pH and can protect acid-sensitive oral bacteria. Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that reduced ability to generate ammonia from urea in dental plaque can be an important caries risk factor. In spite of this proposed important clinical role, there is currently no information available regarding important clinical aspects of oral ureolysis in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and pattern of urease activity in the dental plaque and in the saliva of children during a three-year period, and to examine the relationship of urease with some important caries risk factors. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measures over a three-year period on a panel of 80 children, aged 3-6 years at recruitment. The dynamics of change in urease activity were described and associated with clinical, biological, and behavioural caries risk factors. Urease activity in plaque showed a trend to remain stable during the study period and was negatively associated with sugar consumption (P<0.05). Urease activity in unstimulated saliva increased with age, and it was positively associated with the levels of mutans streptococci in saliva and with the educational level of the parents (P<0.05). The results of this study reveal interesting and complex interactions between oral urease activity and some important caries risk factors. Urease activity in saliva could be an indicator of mutans infection in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Klebsiella aerogenes UreF: Identification of the UreG Binding Site and Role in Enhancing the Fidelity of Urease Activation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Jodi L.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The Ni-containing active site of Klebsiella aerogenes urease is assembled through the concerted action of the UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG accessory proteins. UreE functions as a metallochaperone that delivers Ni to a complex of UreD—UreF—UreG bound to urease apoprotein, with UreG serving as a GTPase during enzyme activation. The present study focuses on the role of UreF, previously proposed to act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) of UreG. Sixteen conserved UreF surface residues that may play roles in protein:protein interactions were independently changed to Ala. When produced in the context of the entire urease gene cluster, cell-free extracts of nine site-directed mutants had less than 10% of the wild-type urease activity. Enrichment of the variant forms of UreF, as the UreE-F fusion proteins, uniformly resulted in co-purification of UreD and urease apoprotein; whereas UreG bound to only a subset of the species. Notably, reduced interaction with UreG correlated with the low activity mutants. The affected residues in UreF map to a distinct surface on the crystal structure, defining the UreG binding site. In contrast to the hypothesis that UreF is a GAP, the UreD—UreF—UreG—urease apoprotein complex containing K165A UreF exhibited significantly greater levels of GTPase activity than that containing the wild-type protein. Additional studies demonstrated the UreG GTPase activity was largely uncoupled from urease activation for the complex containing this UreF variant. Further experiments with these complexes provided evidence that UreF gates the GTPase activity of UreG to enhance the fidelity of urease metallocenter assembly, especially in the presence of the non-cognate metal Zn. PMID:22369361

  1. Fully automated parallel oligonucleotide synthesizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebl, M.; Burger, Ch.; Ellman, B.; Heiner, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Jones, A.; Nibbe, M.; Thompson, J.; Mudra, Petr; Pokorný, Vít; Poncar, Pavel; Ženíšek, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2001), s. 1299-1314 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : automated oligonucleotide synthesizer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  2. Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking of Protocatechuic Acid from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as a Potent Urease Inhibitor by an ESI-MS Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif T. S. Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on enzyme inhibition remain a crucial area in drug discovery since these studies have led to the discoveries of new lead compounds useful in the treatment of several diseases. In this study, protocatechuic acid (PCA, an active compound from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been evaluated for its inhibitory properties against jack bean urease (JBU as well as its possible toxic effect on human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1. Anti-urease activity was evaluated by an Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS based method, while cytotoxicity was assayed by the MTT method. PCA exerted notable anti-JBU activity compared with that of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA, with IC50 values of 1.7 and 3.2 µM, respectively. PCA did not show any significant cytotoxic effect on (GES-1 cells at concentrations ranging from 1.12 to 3.12 µM. Molecular docking study revealed high spontaneous binding ability of PCA to the active site of urease. Additionally, the anti-urease activity was found to be related to the presence of hydroxyl moieties of PCA. This study presents PCA as a natural urease inhibitor, which could be used safely in the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  3. Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking of Protocatechuic Acid from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as a Potent Urease Inhibitor by an ESI-MS Based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Švajdlenka, Emil

    2017-10-11

    Studies on enzyme inhibition remain a crucial area in drug discovery since these studies have led to the discoveries of new lead compounds useful in the treatment of several diseases. In this study, protocatechuic acid (PCA), an active compound from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been evaluated for its inhibitory properties against jack bean urease (JBU) as well as its possible toxic effect on human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1). Anti-urease activity was evaluated by an Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) based method, while cytotoxicity was assayed by the MTT method. PCA exerted notable anti-JBU activity compared with that of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), with IC 50 values of 1.7 and 3.2 µM, respectively. PCA did not show any significant cytotoxic effect on (GES-1) cells at concentrations ranging from 1.12 to 3.12 µM. Molecular docking study revealed high spontaneous binding ability of PCA to the active site of urease. Additionally, the anti-urease activity was found to be related to the presence of hydroxyl moieties of PCA. This study presents PCA as a natural urease inhibitor, which could be used safely in the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  4. Urease activity in dental plaque and saliva of children during a three-year study period and its relationship with other caries risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou-Bermudez, E; Elias-Boneta, A; Billings, RJ; Burne, RA; Garcia-Rivas, V; Brignoni-Nazario, V; Suarez-Perez, E

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial urease activity in dental plaque and in saliva generates ammonia, which can increase the plaque pH and can protect acid-sensitive oral bacteria. Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that reduced ability to generate ammonia from urea in dental plaque can be an important caries risk factor. In spite of this proposed important clinical role, there is currently no information available regarding important clinical aspects of oral ureolysis in children. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and pattern of urease activity in the dental plaque and in the saliva of children during a three-year period, and to examine the relationship of urease with some important caries risk factors. METHODS A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measures over a three-year period on a panel of 80 children, ages three to six years at recruitment. The dynamics of change in urease activity were described and associated with clinical, biological, and behavioral caries risk factors. RESULTS Urease activity in plaque showed a trend to remain stable during the study period and was negatively associated with sugar consumption (PUrease activity in unstimulated saliva increased with age, and it was positively associated with the levels of mutans streptococci in saliva and with the educational level of the parents (Purease activity and some important caries risk factors. Urease activity in saliva could be an indicator of mutans infection in children. PMID:21616477

  5. Molecular landscape of the interaction between the urease accessory proteins UreE and UreG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merloni, Anna; Dobrovolska, Olena; Zambelli, Barbara; Agostini, Federico; Bazzani, Micaela; Musiani, Francesco; Ciurli, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Urease, the most efficient enzyme so far discovered, depends on the presence of nickel ions in the catalytic site for its activity. The transformation of inactive apo-urease into active holo-urease requires the insertion of two Ni(II) ions in the substrate binding site, a process that involves the interaction of four accessory proteins named UreD, UreF, UreG and UreE. This study, carried out using calorimetric and NMR-based structural analysis, is focused on the interaction between UreE and UreG from Sporosarcina pasteurii, a highly ureolytic bacterium. Isothermal calorimetric protein-protein titrations revealed the occurrence of a binding event between SpUreE and SpUreG, entailing two independent steps with positive cooperativity (Kd1=42±9μM; Kd2=1.7±0.3μM). This was interpreted as indicating the formation of the (UreE)2(UreG)2 hetero-oligomer upon binding of two UreG monomers onto the pre-formed UreE dimer. The molecular details of this interaction were elucidated using high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The occurrence of SpUreE chemical shift perturbations upon addition of SpUreG was investigated and analyzed to establish the protein-protein interaction site. The latter appears to involve the Ni(II) binding site as well as mobile portions on the C-terminal and the N-terminal domains. Docking calculations based on the information obtained from NMR provided a structural basis for the protein-protein contact site. The high sequence and structural similarity within these protein classes suggests a generality of the interaction mode among homologous proteins. The implications of these results on the molecular details of the urease activation process are considered and analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 {plus minus} 1.8 to 28.1 {plus minus} 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 {plus minus} 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 {plus minus} 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity.

  7. Exogenous application of urea and a urease inhibitor improves drought stress tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Wei; Zheng, Pufan; Tian, Li; Gao, Mei; Zhang, Lixin; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    Drought is believed to cause many metabolic changes which affect plant growth and development. However, it might be mitigated by various inorganic substances, such as nitrogen. Thus, the study was carried out to investigate the effect of foliar-applied urea with or without urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on a maize cultivar under drought stress simulated by 15% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000. Foliar-applied urea resulted in a significant increase in plant dry weight, relative water content, and photosynthetic pigments under water stress condition. Furthermore, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and hydrogen peroxidase (CAT), were enhanced with all spraying treatments under drought stress, which led to decreases in accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar accumulated remarkably with urea-applied under drought stress condition. Moreover, a further enhancement in above metabolites was observed by spraying a mixture of urea and urease inhibitor as compared to urea sprayed only. Taken together, our findings show that foliar application of urea and a urease inhibitor could significantly enhance drought tolerance of maize through protecting photosynthetic apparatus, activating antioxidant defense system and improving osmoregulation.

  8. Biosensors Based on Urease Adsorbed on Nickel, Platinum, and Gold Conductometric Transducers Modified with Silicalite and Nanozeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Melnyk, Volodymir G.; Semenycheva, Lyudmila M.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Soldatkin, Alexei P.

    This work describes urease-based conductometric biosensors that were created using nontypical method of urease immobilization via adsorption on micro- and nanoporous particles: silicalite and nanocrystalline zeolites Beta (BEA) and L. Conductometric transducers with nickel, gold, and platinum interdigitated electrodes were used. Active regions of the nickel transducers were modified with microparticles using two procedures—spin coating and drop coating. Gold and platinum transducers were modified with silicalite using drop coating since it was more effective. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate effectiveness of these procedures. The procedure of spin coating produced more uniform layers of particles (and biosensors had good reproducibility of preparation), but it was more complicated, drop coating was easier and led to formation of a bulk of particles; thus, biosensors had bigger sensitivity but worse reproducibility of preparation. Urease was immobilized onto transducers modified with particles by physical adsorption. Analytical characteristics of the obtained biosensors for determination of urea (calibration curves, sensitivity, limit of detection, linear concentration range, noise of responses, reproducibility of signal during a day, and operational stability during 3 days) were compared. Biosensors with all three particles deposited by spin coating showed similar characteristics; however, silicalite was a bit more effective. Biosensors based on nickel transducers modified by drop coating had better characteristics in comparison with modification by spin coating (except reproducibility of preparation). Transducers with gold electrodes showed best characteristics while creating biosensors, platinum electrodes were slightly inferior to them, and nickel electrodes were the worst.

  9. Activity and lifetime of urease immobilized using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly on silicon microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Scott R; Elmore, Bill B; Palmer, James D

    2005-01-01

    Urease has been immobilized and layered onto the walls of manufactured silicon microchannels. Enzyme immobilization was performed using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly. Alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, with enzyme layers "encased" between them, were deposited onto the walls of the silicon microchannels. The polycations used were polyethylenimine (PEI), polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA), and polyallylamine (PAH). The polyanions used were polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyvinylsulfate (PVS). The activity of the immobilized enzyme was tested by pumping a 1 g/L urea solution through the microchannels at various flow rates. Effluent concentration was measured using an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer by monitoring the absorbance of a pH sensitive dye. The architecture of PEI/PSS/PEI/urease/PEI with single and multiple layers of enzyme demonstrated superior performance over the PDDA and PAH architectures. The precursor layer of PEI/PSS demonstrably improved the performance of the reactor. Conversion rates of 70% were achieved at a residence time of 26 s, on d 1 of operation, and >50% at 51 s, on d 15 with a six-layer PEI/urease architecture.

  10. Cascading reaction of arginase and urease on a graphene-based FET for ultrasensitive, real-time detection of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Teresa; Bliem, Christina; Piccinini, Esteban; Azzaroni, Omar; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2018-09-15

    Herein, a biosensor based on a reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (rGO-FET) functionalized with the cascading enzymes arginase and urease was developed for the detection of L-arginine. Arginase and urease were immobilized on the rGO-FET sensing surface via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly using polyethylenimine (PEI) as cationic building block. The signal transduction mechanism is based on the ability of the cascading enzymes to selectively perform chemical transformations and prompt local pH changes, that are sensitively detected by the rGO-FET. In the presence of L-arginine, the transistors modified with (PEI/urease(arginase)) multilayers showed a shift in the Dirac point due to the change in the local pH close to the graphene surface, produced by the catalyzed urea hydrolysis. The transistors were able to monitor L-arginine in the 10-1000 μM linear range with a LOD of 10 μM, displaying a fast response and a good long-term stability. The sensor showed stereospecificity and high selectivity in the presence of non-target amino acids. Taking into account the label-free, real-time measurement capabilities and the easily quantifiable, electronic output signal, this biosensor offers advantages over state-of-the-art L-arginine detection methods. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of exogenous urea on photosynthetic pigments, (14)CO 2 uptake, and urease activity in Elodea densa-environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Nekrasova, Galina; Prasad, M N V

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of exogenous urea in increased concentration gradient (0, 100, 500 and 1,000 mg L(-1)) on photosynthetic pigments (measured spectrophotometrically), uptake of (14)CO2 (using radioisotope), and urease activity (by measuring ammonia with Nessler's reagent) in leaves of Elodea densa Planch. We have observed that low concentration of urea (100 mg L(-1)) stimulates the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and intensifies photosynthesis in E. densa, whereas high concentration (1,000 mg L(-1)) suppresses these processes. Urease activity increased by approximately 2.7 and 8 fold when exogenous urea concentrations were 100 and 500 mg L(-1), respectively. However, exogenous urea in high concentration (1,000 mg L(-1)) decreased urease activity by 1.5 fold compared to the control. The necessity of mitigating urea and other nitrogen-containing compounds (NH3 from urea) in water bodies has been discussed with emphasis on the potential for phytoremediation of urea using common water weed viz. E. densa.

  12. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  13. Changes in Protein Content and Urease Activity Due to Soaking Treatment of gamma irradiated Soybean Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The total protein measurement revealed that both soaking time and radiation affected protein content of soybean seeds. Amount of protein content increased gradually with time up to 6 h. The amount recorded 388, 396 and 465 mg/g.d.wt in control, 10, 25, 50 Gy, respectively. Then the amount decreased at and 24 h whereas, protein content of cotyledonary leaves (120 h) increased by 25 and 50 Gy reaching 7305 and 80.6 mg/g.d.wt as compared to 68.5 mg/g.d wt in case on control. On comparison with control samples, 10 Gy appeared to have no effect on protein content while 25 and 50 Gy increased protein in a dose dependant matter. Maximum increase in urease activity was recorded at 6 h of soaking (1110, 1162 and 1200 unit/g f.wt in control, 10, 25 and 50 Gy respectively) Moreover, the 25 and 50 Gy increased urease activity at all time intervals. After sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied, bands could be segregated into high molecular weight bands they are represented from band No 1 with 200 KDa to band No 8 with 100 kDa. On the other hand low molecular weight are presented from band No 9 with 75 kDa to band No 14 with 10 kDa. Characteristic bands No 4 and 10 were common in all samples and several other bands were characteristic to the time or gamma-radiation applied. Calculated similarity index (SI) showed similarity between control and 25 Gy treated samples (except at 6 h). In contrast, the similarity index between control and 50 Gy decreased from zero up to 6 h then increased to 1 at 120 h (the same trend was also observed between 25 and 50 Gy). From similarity index study it could be concluded that at cotyledonary stage(120 h) there were no differences between different samples, thus indicating a recovery from the effect of gamma irradiation

  14. Phospholipase C δ-type consists of three isozymes: bovine PLCδ2 is a homologue of human/mouse PLCδ4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irino, Yasuhiro; Cho, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Nakahara, Masamichi; Furutani, Masahiro; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2004-01-01

    To date, 12 phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes have been identified in mammals, and they are divided into five classes, β-, γ-, δ-, ε-, and ζ-type. PLCδ-type is reported to be composed of four isozymes, PLCδ1-δ4. Here we report that a screening for mouse PLCδ2 from a BAC library with primers that amplify a specific region of bovine PLCδ2 resulted in isolation of one clone containing the mouse PLCδ4 gene. Furthermore, a database search revealed that there is only one gene corresponding to PLCδ2 and PLCδ4 in the mouse and human genomes, indicating that bovine PLCδ2 is a homologue of human and mouse PLCδ4. However, PLCδ2 Western blot analysis with a widely used commercial anti-PLCδ2 antibody showed an expression pattern distinct from that of PLCδ4 in wild-type mice. In addition, an 80-kDa band, which was recognized by antibody against PLCδ2, was smaller than an 85-kDa band detected by anti-PLCδ4 antibody, and the 80-kDa band was detectable in lysates of brain, testis, and spleen from PLCδ4-deficient mice. We also found that immunoprecipitates from brain lysates with this PLCδ2 antibody contained no PLC activity. From these data, we conclude that bovine PLCδ2 is a homologue of human and mouse PLCδ4, and that three isozymes (δ1, δ3, and δ4) exist in the PLCδ family

  15. Editing of the urease gene by CRISPR-Cas in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hopes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRISPR-Cas is a recent and powerful addition to the molecular toolbox which allows programmable genome editing. It has been used to modify genes in a wide variety of organisms, but only two alga to date. Here we present a methodology to edit the genome of Thalassiosira pseudonana, a model centric diatom with both ecological significance and high biotechnological potential, using CRISPR-Cas. Results A single construct was assembled using Golden Gate cloning. Two sgRNAs were used to introduce a precise 37 nt deletion early in the coding region of the urease gene. A high percentage of bi-allelic mutations (≤61.5% were observed in clones with the CRISPR-Cas construct. Growth of bi-allelic mutants in urea led to a significant reduction in growth rate and cell size compared to growth in nitrate. Conclusions CRISPR-Cas can precisely and efficiently edit the genome of T. pseudonana. The use of Golden Gate cloning to assemble CRISPR-Cas constructs gives additional flexibility to the CRISPR-Cas method and facilitates modifications to target alternative genes or species.

  16. Mutational and Computational Evidence That a Nickel-Transfer Tunnel in UreD Is Used for Activation of Klebsiella aerogenes Urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Mark A; Wang, Beibei; Feig, Michael; Hausinger, Robert P

    2015-10-20

    Nickel-containing urease from Klebsiella aerogenes requires four accessory proteins for proper active site metalation. The metallochaperone UreE delivers nickel to UreG, a GTPase that forms a UreD/UreF/UreG complex, which binds to urease apoprotein via UreD. Prior in silico analysis of the homologous, structurally characterized UreH/UreF/UreG complex from Helicobacter pylori identified a water tunnel originating at a likely nickel-binding motif in UreG, passing through UreF, and exiting UreH, suggestive of a role for the channel in providing the metal to urease apoprotein for its activation; however, no experimental support was reported for the significance of this tunnel. Here, specific variants were designed to disrupt a comparable 34.6 Å predicted internal tunnel, alternative channels, and surface sites for UreD. Cells producing a set of tunnel-disrupting variants of UreD exhibited greatly reduced urease specific activities, whereas other mutants had no appreciable effect on activity. Affinity pull-down studies of cell-free extracts from tunnel-disrupting mutant cultures showed no loss of UreD interactions with urease or UreF/UreG. The nickel contents of urease samples enriched from activity-deficient cultures were decreased, while zinc and iron incorporation increased. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed size restrictions in the internal channels of the UreD variants. These findings support the role of a molecular tunnel in UreD as a direct facilitator of nickel transfer into urease, illustrating a new paradigm in active site metallocenter assembly.

  17. Negative Effect of Proton-pump Inhibitors (PPIs) on Helicobacter pylori Growth, Morphology, and Urease Test and Recovery after PPI Removal--An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniee, Parastoo; Shahreza, Somayeh; Siavoshi, Farideh

    2016-04-01

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) consumption does lead to false-negative results of Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests such as biopsy culture and rapid urease test (RUT). Helicobacter pylori isolates from 112 dyspeptic patients with (56.5%) or without (43.5%) PPI consumption were recruited for examining the negative effects of omeprazole (OMP), lansoprazole (LPZ), and pantoprazole (PAN) on H. pylori viability, morphology, and urease, in vitro. The effect of a sublethal concentration of OMP on bacterial features and their recovery after removal of OMP was also assessed. Of 112 culture-positive gastric biopsies, 87.5% were RUT positive and 12.5% RUT negative. There was a significant correlation between negative RUT results and PPI consumption (p urease of 90.3% of isolates between 0 and 40 minutes and 54.4% between 20 and 40 minutes, respectively. PAN did not inhibit H. pylori growth and urease. Three 3-day (9 days) consecutive subcultures of H. pylori on brucella blood agar (BBA) supplemented with OMP resulted in reduced bacterial viability (1+), compared with control (4+), change of spiral morphology to coccoid, and reduction in pink color intensity in urea agar. Bacterial growth (1+), morphology, and urease test did not improve after the first 3-day and second 3-day (6 days) subcultures on BBA. However, relative recovery occurred after the third 3-day (9 days) subculture and complete recovery was observed after the fourth 3-day (12 days) subculture, as confluent growth (4+), 100% spiral cells, and strong urease test. Proton-pump Inhibitors exert transient negative effects on H. pylori viability, morphology, and urease test. Accordingly, cessation of PPI consumption at least 12 days before endoscopy could help avoiding false-negative results of H. pylori diagnostic tests. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Limited effectiveness of over-the-counter plant preparations used for the treatment of urinary tract infections as inhibitors of the urease activity from Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, C E

    2017-05-01

    Urease is a key virulence factor for the Gram-positive urinary tract pathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus and a potential target for antimicrobial therapy. The enzyme from S. saprophyticus is unusual in that it does not contain cysteine at the active site. The aims of this study were to test 14 over-the-counter plant preparations as inhibitors of this urease and to determine whether they can prevent the increase in pH that normally occurs in bacterial cultures containing urea. Urease activity was measured colorimetrically by the formation of ammonium ions. The green tea and Uva-Ursi preparations reduced urease activity in a soluble extract of S. saprophyticus by more than 75%. Two herbal mixtures were weakly inhibitory and reduced activity by about 25%, but the other products had little or no effect. The green tea and Uva-Ursi extracts also inhibited urease activity in whole cells by more than 75%. One of the herbal products (WishGarden UTI) showed some inhibition of urease activity but the other (UTI Clear) did not. The green tea and Uva-Ursi preparations prevented the increase in pH that normally occurs when S. saprophyticus is grown in an artificial urine medium, but this was due primarily to bacterial death. The WishGarden UTI preparation could partially delay the pH increase while allowing some cells to remain viable. These results indicate that only a few of the commercially available over-the-counter plant preparations commonly used for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) can inhibit the urease activity from S. saprophyticus. While over-the-counter plant preparations may be considered an alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of UTIs, they should be used with caution and a product should be matched to the properties of the virulence factors of the bacterial pathogen involved. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Mechanisms of inhibition by fluoride of urease activities of cell suspensions and biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces naeslundii and of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Silva, E; Castro, A C D; Marquis, R E

    2005-12-01

    Fluoride is known to be a potent inhibitor of bacterial ureases and can also act in the form of hydrofluoric acid as a transmembrane proton conductor to acidify the cytoplasm of intact cells with possible indirect, acid inhibition of urease. Our research objectives were to assess the inhibitory potencies of fluoride for three urease-positive bacteria commonly found in the mouth and to determine the relative importance of direct and indirect inhibition of ureases for overall inhibition of intact cells or biofilms. The experimental design involved intact bacteria in suspensions, mono-organism biofilms, cell extracts, and dental plaque. Standard enzymatic assays for ammonia production from urea were used. We found that ureolysis by cells in suspensions or mono-organism biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus salivarius or Actinomyces naeslundii was inhibited by fluoride at plaque levels of 0.1-0.5 mm in a pH-dependent manner. The results of experiments with the organic weak acids indomethacin and capric acid, which do not directly inhibit urease enzyme, indicated that weak-acid effects leading to cytoplasmic acidification are also involved in fluoride inhibition. However, direct fluoride inhibition of urease appeared to be the major mechanism for reduction in ureolytic activity in acid environments. Results of experiments with freshly harvested supragingival dental plaque indicated responses to fluoride similar to those of S. salivarius with pH-dependent fluoride inhibition and both direct and indirect inhibition of urease. Fluoride can act to diminish alkali production from urea by oral bacteria through direct and indirect mechanisms.

  20. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, 45071 Toledo (Spain)], E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.es; Wheelock, Craig E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  1. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C.; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure

  2. Characterization of Arabidopsis FPS isozymes and FPS gene expression analysis provide insight into the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Verónica; Manzano, David; Fernández, Francisco J; Closa, Marta; Andrade, Paola; Caudepón, Daniel; Bortolotti, Cristina; Vega, M Cristina; Arró, Montserrat; Ferrer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase (FPS), the prenyl diphoshate synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of FPP from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In this study, we provide evidence that the two Arabidopsis short FPS isozymes FPS1S and FPS2 localize to the cytosol. Both enzymes were expressed in E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Despite FPS1S and FPS2 share more than 90% amino acid sequence identity, FPS2 was found to be more efficient as a catalyst, more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of NaCl, and more resistant to thermal inactivation than FPS1S. Homology modelling for FPS1S and FPS2 and analysis of the amino acid differences between the two enzymes revealed an increase in surface polarity and a greater capacity to form surface salt bridges of FPS2 compared to FPS1S. These factors most likely account for the enhanced thermostability of FPS2. Expression analysis of FPS::GUS genes in seeds showed that FPS1 and FPS2 display complementary patterns of expression particularly at late stages of seed development, which suggests that Arabidopsis seeds have two spatially segregated sources of FPP. Functional complementation studies of the Arabidopsis fps2 knockout mutant seed phenotypes demonstrated that under normal conditions FPS1S and FPS2 are functionally interchangeable. A putative role for FPS2 in maintaining seed germination capacity under adverse environmental conditions is discussed.

  3. Identification of Morphological Character and Esterase Isozyme Pattern in Second-Generation Black Rice Plant Irradiated to Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanti, R. S.; Putri, T. A. N.; Zulfa, F.; Sutarno; Suranto

    2017-04-01

    Black rice is one of the functional foods due to its high anthocyanin content. Black rice grain was irradiated by gamma rays with a dose of 200 Gy and 300 Gy. The main purpose of this irradiation is to induce mutation to the black rice plant in order to achieve the improved organism. This study was undertaken to elucidate the morphological character and esterase isozyme pattern of black rice plant after irradiated by gamma rays. There were morphological differences on leaves, stems and grains between irradiated and non irradiated black rice plant. Gamma radiation dose of 200 Gy showed the significant influence of the length of the stem, number of internodes, and length of leaves. The radiation dose of 300 Gy showed the significant influence of the decrease value of diameter of 3rd internodes, number of branches and width of leaves. Flowering time is getting faster as increasing radiation dose. At the age of 74 days after planting there are 9.15% plants of 200 Gy radiation dose that have flowered faster than normal plants. This value increased into 11.45% at the dose of radiation 300 Gy. There were differences in the esterase banding pattern between radiation dose of 200 Gy and 300 Gy than the control plants, indicated that randomly mutation has occurred.

  4. Characterization of Arabidopsis FPS isozymes and FPS gene expression analysis provide insight into the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors in seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Keim

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate (FPP synthase (FPS, the prenyl diphoshate synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of FPP from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP. In this study, we provide evidence that the two Arabidopsis short FPS isozymes FPS1S and FPS2 localize to the cytosol. Both enzymes were expressed in E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Despite FPS1S and FPS2 share more than 90% amino acid sequence identity, FPS2 was found to be more efficient as a catalyst, more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of NaCl, and more resistant to thermal inactivation than FPS1S. Homology modelling for FPS1S and FPS2 and analysis of the amino acid differences between the two enzymes revealed an increase in surface polarity and a greater capacity to form surface salt bridges of FPS2 compared to FPS1S. These factors most likely account for the enhanced thermostability of FPS2. Expression analysis of FPS::GUS genes in seeds showed that FPS1 and FPS2 display complementary patterns of expression particularly at late stages of seed development, which suggests that Arabidopsis seeds have two spatially segregated sources of FPP. Functional complementation studies of the Arabidopsis fps2 knockout mutant seed phenotypes demonstrated that under normal conditions FPS1S and FPS2 are functionally interchangeable. A putative role for FPS2 in maintaining seed germination capacity under adverse environmental conditions is discussed.

  5. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  6. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  7. [The isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase and insulin activity in the light of phylogenetic theory of pathology. Oleic fatty acid and realization of biologic functions of trophology and locomotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The formation of function of isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturases occured at the different stages of phylogeny under realization of biologic function of trophology (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1) and biologic function of locomotion, insulin system (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2) billions years later. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1 transforms in C 18:1 oleic fatty acid only exogenous C 16:0 palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms only endogenic palmitinic saturated fatty acid, synthesized form glucose. The biologic role of insulin is in energy support of biologic function of locomotion. Insulin through expressing stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms energetically non-optimal palmitinic variation of metabolism of substrates into highly effective oleic variation for cells' groundwork of energy (saturated fatty acid and mono fatty acid). The surplus of palmitinic saturated fatty acid in food is enabled in pathogenesis of resistance to insulin and derangement of synthesis of hormone by beta-cells of islets. The resistance to insulin and diabetes mellitus are primarily the derangement of metabolism of saturated fatty acids with mono fatty acids, energy problems of organism and only afterwards the derangement of metabolism of carbohydrates. It is desirable to restrict food intake of exogenous palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The reasons are low expression of independent of insulin stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2, marked lipotoxicity of polar form of palmitinic saturated fatty acid and synthesis of non-optimal palmitinic triglycerides instead of physiologic and more energetically more effective oleic triglycerides.

  8. Agronomic performance of rice to the use of urease inhibitor in two cropping systems Desempenho agronômico do arroz irrigado ao uso de inibidor de urease em dois sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchesan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of urea coated with urease inhibitor may become a useful tool for increasing the efficiency of nitrogen top-dressing in rice crop, thereby reducing nutrient losses through volatilization of NH3 (ammonia. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the volatilization of NH3 and the response of rice to the use of urea coated with urease inhibitor in two cropping systems, no-tillage and conventional. For this purpose, field experiments were developed in the agricultural years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, in UFSM in Santa Maria-RS. The design was randomized blocks in bifactorial scheme (2x5 with two sources, urea and urea + NBPT and five intervals of water intake (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 days after application of nitrogen sources. The results of two seasons show that the urease inhibitor present in urea slows and decrease the conversion of N to NH3, reducing the losses by volatilization, compared to urea without inhibitor. Among the systems, the losses are magnified in the no-tillage cropping system. The behavior of the response variable in relation to productivity is variable in two cropping systems used in this study and the stress caused to the rice plant by the late start of the irrigation is more damaging than the losses caused by the volatilization of NH3.A utilização de uréia recoberta com inibidor de urease pode tornar-se uma ferramenta útil para aumentar a eficiência da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura na cultura do arroz irrigado, diminuindo assim perdas do nutriente por volatilização de NH3 (amônia. Com isso, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a volatilização de NH3 e a resposta do arroz irrigado ao uso de uréia recoberta com inibidor de urease em dois sistemas de cultivo, direto e convencional. Para tanto, conduziram-se experimentos em campo, nos anos agrícolas 2007/2008 e 2008/2009, na UFSM em Santa Maria-RS. O delineamento utilizado foi o delineamento experimental blocos completos casualizados em esquema bifatorial (2x5

  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif T. S. Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA, have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL−1, respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL−1. This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  10. Analysis of a Soluble (UreD:UreF:UreG)2 Accessory Protein Complex and its Interactions with Klebsiella aerogenes Urease by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Mark A.; Han, Linjie; Zhong, Yueyang; Boer, Jodi L.; Ruotolo, Brandon T.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Maturation of the nickel-containing urease of Klebsiella aerogenes is facilitated by the UreD, UreF, and UreG accessory proteins along with the UreE metallo-chaperone. A fusion of the maltose binding protein and UreD (MBP-UreD) was co-isolated with UreF and UreG in a soluble complex possessing a (MBP-UreD:UreF:UreG)2 quaternary structure. Within this complex a UreF:UreF interaction was identified by chemical cross-linking of the amino termini of its two UreF protomers, as shown by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. A pre-activation complex was formed by the interaction of (MBP-UreD:UreF:UreG)2 and urease. Mass spectrometry of intact protein species revealed a pathway for synthesis of the urease pre-activation complex in which individual hetero-trimer units of the (MBP-UreD:UreF:UreG)2 complex bind to urease. Together, these data provide important new insights into the structures of protein complexes associated with urease activation. PMID:23797863

  11. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Švajdlenka, Emil; Berchová-Bímová, Kateřina

    2017-04-30

    For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA), have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC 50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL -1 , respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC 50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL -1 . This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  12. A newly constructed primer pair for the PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the flagellin (flaA) gene from isolatesof urease-negative Campylobacter lari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Taeko; Murayama, Ohoshi; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, Johne; Matsuda, Motoo

    2005-08-01

    A newly constructed primer pair (lari-Af/lari-Ar) designed to generate a product of the flagellin (flaA) gene for urease-negative Campylobacter lari produced a PCR amplicon of about 1700 bp for 16 isolates from 7 seagulls, 5 humans, 3 food animals and one mussel in Japan and Northern Ireland. Nucleotide sequencing and alignments of the flaA amplicons from these isolates demonstrated that the deduced amino acid sequences of the possible open reading frame were 564-572 amino acid residues in length with calculated molecular weights of 58,804 to 59,463. The deduced amino acid sequence similarity analysis strongly suggested that the ORF of the flaA from the 16 isolates showed 70-75% sequence similarities to those of Campylobacter jejuni isolates. The approximate Mr of the flagellin purified from some of the isolates of urease-negative C. lari was estimated to range from 59.6 to 61.8 kDa. Thus, flagellin from the isolates of urease-negative C. lari was shown for the first time to have a molecular size similar to those of C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates, but to be different from the shorter flaA and smaller flagellin of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) isolates. Flagellins from C. lari spp., consisting of the two representative taxa of urease-negative C. lari and UPTC, thus show genotypic and phenotypic diversity.

  13. Unprecedented loss of ammonia assimilation capability in a urease-encoding bacterial mutualist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernegreen Jennifer J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blochmannia are obligately intracellular bacterial mutualists of ants of the tribe Camponotini. Blochmannia perform key nutritional functions for the host, including synthesis of several essential amino acids. We used Illumina technology to sequence the genome of Blochmannia associated with Camponotus vafer. Results Although Blochmannia vafer retains many nutritional functions, it is missing glutamine synthetase (glnA, a component of the nitrogen recycling pathway encoded by the previously sequenced B. floridanus and B. pennsylvanicus. With the exception of Ureaplasma, B. vafer is the only sequenced bacterium to date that encodes urease but lacks the ability to assimilate ammonia into glutamine or glutamate. Loss of glnA occurred in a deletion hotspot near the putative replication origin. Overall, compared to the likely gene set of their common ancestor, 31 genes are missing or eroded in B. vafer, compared to 28 in B. floridanus and four in B. pennsylvanicus. Three genes (queA, visC and yggS show convergent loss or erosion, suggesting relaxed selection for their functions. Eight B. vafer genes contain frameshifts in homopolymeric tracts that may be corrected by transcriptional slippage. Two of these encode DNA replication proteins: dnaX, which we infer is also frameshifted in B. floridanus, and dnaG. Conclusions Comparing the B. vafer genome with B. pennsylvanicus and B. floridanus refines the core genes shared within the mutualist group, thereby clarifying functions required across ant host species. This third genome also allows us to track gene loss and erosion in a phylogenetic context to more fully understand processes of genome reduction.

  14. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A Molecular Sensor To Characterize Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Cleavage by Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1/Site 1 Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Joel; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Burri, Dominique J.; Khatib, Abdel-Majid; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arenaviruses are emerging viruses including several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has greatly accelerated the discovery of novel arenavirus species. However, for many of these viruses, only genetic information is available, and their zoonotic disease potential remains unknown. During the arenavirus life cycle, processing of the viral envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P) is crucial for productive infection. The ability of newly emerging arenaviruses to hijack human SKI-1/S1P appears, therefore, to be a requirement for efficient zoonotic transmission and human disease potential. Here we implement a newly developed cell-based molecular sensor for SKI-1/S1P to characterize the processing of arenavirus GPC-derived target sequences by human SKI-1/S1P in a quantitative manner. We show that only nine amino acids flanking the putative cleavage site are necessary and sufficient to accurately recapitulate the efficiency and subcellular location of arenavirus GPC processing. In a proof of concept, our sensor correctly predicts efficient processing of the GPC of the newly emergent pathogenic Lujo virus by human SKI-1/S1P and defines the exact cleavage site. Lastly, we employed our sensor to show efficient GPC processing of a panel of pathogenic and nonpathogenic New World arenaviruses, suggesting that GPC cleavage represents no barrier for zoonotic transmission of these pathogens. Our SKI-1/S1P sensor thus represents a rapid and robust test system for assessment of the processing of putative cleavage sites derived from the GPCs of newly discovered arenavirus by the SKI-1/S1P of humans or any other species, based solely on sequence information. IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses are important emerging human pathogens that can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality in humans. A crucial step in productive arenavirus

  16. Influence of Enzyme Quantity and Distribution on the Self-Propulsion of Non-Janus Urease-Powered Micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Tania; Feiner-Gracia, Natalia; Arqué, Xavier; Miguel-López, Albert; Jannasch, Anita; Stumpp, Tom; Schäffer, Erik; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Sánchez, Samuel

    2018-05-29

    The use of enzyme catalysis to power micro- and nanomachines offers unique features such as biocompatibility, versatility, and fuel bioavailability. Yet, the key parameters underlying the motion behavior of enzyme-powered motors are not completely understood. Here, we investigate the role of enzyme distribution and quantity on the generation of active motion. Two different micromotor architectures based on either polystyrene (PS) or polystyrene coated with a rough silicon dioxide shell (PS@SiO 2 ) were explored. A directional propulsion with higher speed was observed for PS@SiO 2 motors when compared to their PS counterparts. We made use of stochastically optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to precisely detect single urease molecules conjugated to the micromotors surface with a high spatial resolution. An asymmetric distribution of enzymes around the micromotor surface was observed for both PS and PS@SiO 2 architectures, indicating that the enzyme distribution was not the only parameter affecting the motion behavior. We quantified the number of enzymes present on the micromotor surface and observed a 10-fold increase in the number of urease molecules for PS@SiO 2 motors compared to PS-based micromotors. To further investigate the number of enzymes required to generate a self-propulsion, PS@SiO 2 particles were functionalized with varying amounts of urease molecules and the resulting speed and propulsive force were measured by optical tracking and optical tweezers, respectively. Surprisingly, both speed and force depended in a nonlinear fashion on the enzyme coverage. To break symmetry for active propulsion, we found that a certain threshold number of enzymes molecules per micromotor was necessary, indicating that activity may be due to a critical phenomenon. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the design features of micro/nanomotors to ensure an efficient development.

  17. Mechanism of Folding and Activation of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Cendron, Laura; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan

    2016-01-29

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P) is implicated in lipid homeostasis, the unfolded protein response, and lysosome biogenesis. The protease is further hijacked by highly pathogenic emerging viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P requires removal of an N-terminal prodomain, by a multistep process, generating the mature enzyme. Here, we uncover a modular structure of the human SKI-1/S1P prodomain and define its function in folding and activation. We provide evidence that the N-terminal AB fragment of the prodomain represents an autonomous structural and functional unit that is necessary and sufficient for folding and partial activation. In contrast, the C-terminal BC fragment lacks a defined structure but is crucial for autoprocessing and full catalytic activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence of the AB domain is highly conserved, whereas the BC fragment shows considerable variation and seems even absent in some species. Notably, SKI-1/S1P of arthropods, like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, contains a shorter prodomain comprised of full-length AB and truncated BC regions. Swapping the prodomain fragments between fly and human resulted in a fully mature and active SKI-1/S1P chimera. Our study suggests that primordial SKI-1/S1P likely contained a simpler prodomain consisting of the highly conserved AB fragment that represents an independent folding unit. The BC region appears as a later evolutionary acquisition, possibly allowing more subtle fine-tuning of the maturation process. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Molecular Characterization of the Processing of Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Precursors by Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1/Site-1 Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Pasqual, Giulia; Rochat, Cylia; Seidah, Nabil G.

    2012-01-01

    A crucial step in the life cycle of arenaviruses is the biosynthesis of the mature fusion-active viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) that is essential for virus-host cell attachment and entry. The maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) critically depends on proteolytic processing by the cellular proprotein convertase (PC) subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P). Here we undertook a molecular characterization of the SKI-1/S1P processing of the GPCs of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the pathogenic Lassa virus (LASV). Previous studies showed that the GPC of LASV undergoes processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/cis-Golgi compartment, whereas the LCMV GPC is cleaved in a late Golgi compartment. Herein we confirm these findings and provide evidence that the SKI-1/S1P recognition site RRLL, present in the SKI-1/S1P prodomain and LASV GPC, but not in the LCMV GPC, is crucial for the processing of the LASV GPC in the ER/cis-Golgi compartment. Our structure-function analysis revealed that the cleavage of arenavirus GPCs, but not cellular substrates, critically depends on the autoprocessing of SKI-1/S1P, suggesting differences in the processing of cellular and viral substrates. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the transmembrane and intracellular domains of SKI-1/S1P are dispensable for arenavirus GPC processing. The expression of a soluble form of the protease in SKI-I/S1P-deficient cells resulted in the efficient processing of arenavirus GPCs and rescued productive virus infection. However, exogenous soluble SKI-1/S1P was unable to process LCMV and LASV GPCs displayed at the surface of SKI-I/S1P-deficient cells, indicating that GPC processing occurs in an intracellular compartment. In sum, our study reveals important differences in the SKI-1/S1P processing of viral and cellular substrates. PMID:22357276

  19. Mechanism of Folding and Activation of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Cendron, Laura; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P) is implicated in lipid homeostasis, the unfolded protein response, and lysosome biogenesis. The protease is further hijacked by highly pathogenic emerging viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P requires removal of an N-terminal prodomain, by a multistep process, generating the mature enzyme. Here, we uncover a modular structure of the human SKI-1/S1P prodomain and define its function in folding and activation. We provide evidence that the N-terminal AB fragment of the prodomain represents an autonomous structural and functional unit that is necessary and sufficient for folding and partial activation. In contrast, the C-terminal BC fragment lacks a defined structure but is crucial for autoprocessing and full catalytic activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence of the AB domain is highly conserved, whereas the BC fragment shows considerable variation and seems even absent in some species. Notably, SKI-1/S1P of arthropods, like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, contains a shorter prodomain comprised of full-length AB and truncated BC regions. Swapping the prodomain fragments between fly and human resulted in a fully mature and active SKI-1/S1P chimera. Our study suggests that primordial SKI-1/S1P likely contained a simpler prodomain consisting of the highly conserved AB fragment that represents an independent folding unit. The BC region appears as a later evolutionary acquisition, possibly allowing more subtle fine-tuning of the maturation process. PMID:26645686

  20. Dextromethorphan and debrisoquine metabolism and polymorphism of the gene for cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D50 in Thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corado, Carley R; McKemie, Daniel S; Knych, Heather K

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize polymorphisms of the gene for cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D50 (CYP2D50) and the disposition of 2 CYP2D50 probe drugs, dextromethorphan and debrisoquine, in horses. ANIMALS 23 healthy horses (22 Thoroughbreds and 1 Standardbred). PROCEDURES Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2D50 were identified. Disposition of dextromethorphan (2 mg/kg) and debrisoquine (0.2 mg/kg) were determined after oral (dextromethorphan) or nasogastric (debrisoquine) administration to the horses. Metabolic ratios of plasma dextromethorphan and total dextrorphan (dextrorphan plus dextrorphan-O-β-glucuronide) and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine concentrations were calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity for the parent drug divided by that for the corresponding metabolite. Pharmacokinetic data were used to categorize horses into the phenotypic drug-metabolism categories poor, extensive, and ultrarapid. Disposition patterns were compared among categories, and relationships between SNPs and metabolism categories were explored. RESULTS Gene sequencing identified 51 SNPs, including 27 nonsynonymous SNPs. Debrisoquine was minimally detected after oral administration. Disposition of dextromethorphan varied markedly among horses. Metabolic ratios for dextromethorphan ranged from 0.03 to 0.46 (mean, 0.12). On the basis of these data, 1 horse was characterized as a poor metabolizer, 18 were characterized as extensive metabolizers, and 3 were characterized as ultrarapid metabolizers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that CYP2D50 is polymorphic and that the disposition of the probe drug varies markedly in horses. The polymorphisms may be related to rates of drug metabolism. Additional research involving more horses of various breeds is needed to fully explore the functional implication of polymorphisms in CYP2D50.

  1. Nickel Ligation of the N-Terminal Amine of HypA Is Required for Urease Maturation in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Heidi Q; Johnson, Ryan C; Merrell, D Scott; Maroney, Michael J

    2017-02-28

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori requires nickel for colonization of the acidic environment of the stomach. HypA, a Ni metallochaperone that is typically associated with hydrogenase maturation, is also required for urease maturation and acid survival of H. pylori. There are two proposed Ni site structures for HypA; one is a paramagnetic six-coordinate site characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in unmodified HypA, while another is a diamagnetic four-coordinate planar site characterized by solution nuclear magnetic resonance in an N-terminally modified HypA construct. To determine the role of the N-terminal amine in Ni binding of HypA, an N-terminal extension variant, L2*-HypA, in which a leucine residue was inserted into the second position of the amino acid sequence in the proposed Ni-binding motif, was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Structural characterization of the Ni site using XAS showed a coordination change from six-coordinate in wild-type HypA (WT-HypA) to five-coordinate pyramidal in L2*-HypA, which was accompanied by the loss of two N/O donor protein ligands and the addition of an exogenous bromide ligand from the buffer. The magnetic properties of the Ni sites in WT-HypA compared to those of the Ni sites in L2*-HypA confirmed that a spin-state change from high to low spin accompanied this change in structure. The L2*-HypA H. pylori strain was shown to be acid sensitive and deficient in urease activity in vivo. In vitro characterization showed that L2*-HypA did not disrupt the HypA-UreE interaction that is essential for urease maturation but was at least 20-fold weaker in Ni binding than WT-HypA. Characterization of the L2*-HypA variant clearly demonstrates that the N-terminal amine of HypA is involved in proper Ni coordination and is necessary for urease activity and acid survival.

  2. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia Salameh; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa

    2007-01-01

    An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gel films. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of any chemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitored at 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel film format enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea op...

  3. Development of a large-scale HPLC-based purification for the urease from Staphylococcus leei and determination of subunit structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ming; Rosario, Wildys; Watler, Elsie; Calhoun, David H

    2004-03-01

    Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species, related to but distinct from the genetic homology group containing Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saphrophyticus, were isolated from biopsy material obtained from a cluster of patients in Korea suffering from gastritis. The prototype isolate, Staphylococcus leei, has high urease activity that is similar with respect to a low K(m) value and acid resistance of the urease found in the stomach adapted pathogen, Helicobacter pylori. S. leei is remarkably resistant to lysis and only a small fraction of the cells are broken using sonication, a French press, Niro homogenizer, or a Gaulin mill. In the present report, we describe an efficient cell lysis procedure for S. leei using three passes through a Dynomill with 0.5mm glass beads that results in lysis of more than 95% of the cells. We also developed an efficient and large-scale purification procedure for the S. leei urease using a BioCAD HPLC Workstation using Q-Sepharose, Poros HP2, Sephacryl S-300, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The urease of S. leei was purified 98-fold to a specific activity of 731U/mg. The urease protein is composed of three subunits, alpha (65kDa), beta (21kDa), and gamma (12kDa), and in situ enzyme assay and molecular sieve chromatography indicate that multiple high molecular weight forms are present, including an apparent pentamer of 1:1:1 alphabetagamma-heterotrimers of 480kDa. This purification procedure was used to purify 16mg of enzyme from 120-liters of cell culture. This improved lysis and purification procedure will make it possible to obtain sufficient quantities of urease for use as an antigen in ELISA assays to carry out studies to determine the incidence and demographic prevalence of gastritis due to S. leei.

  4. Biochemical and genetic analyses of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum provide new insights into clinical identification and urease-based evolution of metabolism-related traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerapong Krajaejun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The oomycete microorganism, Pythium insidiosum, causes the life-threatening infectious condition, pythiosis, in humans and animals worldwide. Affected individuals typically endure surgical removal of the infected organ(s. Detection of P. insidiosum by the established microbiological, immunological, or molecular methods is not feasible in non-reference laboratories, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Biochemical assays have been used to characterize P. insidiosum, some of which could aid in the clinical identification of this organism. Although hydrolysis of maltose and sucrose has been proposed as the key biochemical feature useful in discriminating P. insidiosum from other oomycetes and fungi, this technique requires a more rigorous evaluation involving a wider selection of P. insidiosum strains. Here, we evaluated 10 routinely available biochemical assays for characterization of 26 P. insidiosum strains, isolated from different hosts and geographic origins. Initial assessment revealed diverse biochemical characteristics across the P. insidiosum strains tested. Failure to hydrolyze sugars is observed, especially in slow-growing strains. Because hydrolysis of maltose and sucrose varied among different strains, use of the biochemical assays for identification of P. insidiosum should be cautioned. The ability of P. insidiosum to hydrolyze urea is our focus, because this metabolic process relies on the enzyme urease, an important virulence factor of other pathogens. The ability to hydrolyze urea varied among P. insidiosum strains and was not associated with growth rates. Genome analyses demonstrated that urease- and urease accessory protein-encoding genes are present in both urea-hydrolyzing and non-urea-hydrolyzing strains of P. insidiosum. Urease genes are phylogenetically conserved in P. insidiosum and related oomycetes, while the presence of urease accessory protein-encoding genes is markedly diverse in these organisms. In summary, we dissected

  5. Characteristic LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns in six flatfish species in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway and their utility for the detection of natural species hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2014-11-19

    Abstract: LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns among 621 specimens of six different flatfish species collected in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, were characterized by using the isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel (IFPAG) technique. The LDH locus appears to be a reliable tool for species identification in the Trondheimsfjord flatfishes. Hence, these patterns were used to detect and identify potential hybrids, together with morphological traits. Among all the specimens collected during this study no hybrids were detected. From the actual numbers analysed, the natural hybridization rate between European plaice and European flounder in the Trondheimsfjord can be roughly estimated to be less than 1%. This is substantially lower than corresponding values reported from Baltic and Danish waters.

  6. Characteristic LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns in six flatfish species in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway and their utility for the detection of natural species hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song; Mork, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: LDH isozyme electrophoretic patterns among 621 specimens of six different flatfish species collected in the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, were characterized by using the isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel (IFPAG) technique. The LDH locus appears to be a reliable tool for species identification in the Trondheimsfjord flatfishes. Hence, these patterns were used to detect and identify potential hybrids, together with morphological traits. Among all the specimens collected during this study no hybrids were detected. From the actual numbers analysed, the natural hybridization rate between European plaice and European flounder in the Trondheimsfjord can be roughly estimated to be less than 1%. This is substantially lower than corresponding values reported from Baltic and Danish waters.

  7. A Study of Selected Isozymes in Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum cardenasii and Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids in Capsicum Species

    OpenAIRE

    ONUS, Ahmet Naci

    2014-01-01

    Selected isozymes were investigated in plants of Capsicum baccatum L. ( Solanaceae) accessions SA219 (P.G.Smith), Hawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum cardenasii Heiser and Smith accession SA268 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum eximium A.T.Hunz accession Hawkes 3860 (J.G.Hawkes) and two interspecific F1 hybrids, C. baccatum SA219 x C. eximium Hawkes 3860 and C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x C. cardenasii SA 268. The standard technique of horizontal gel electrophoresis was employed. The gel was cut into severa...

  8. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Timothy; Lapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram K.

    carbonate to generate composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. GG is an inexpensive, biotechnologically produced anionic polysaccharide, from which hydrogels for cartilage regeneration have been formed by crosslinking with divalent ions[3]. Methods: GG hydrogels were loaded with the enzyme urease...... by incubation in 5% (w/v) urease solution and mineralized for 5 days in five different media denoted as UA, UB, UC, UD and UE, which contained urea (0.17 M) and different concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 (270:0, 202.5:67.5, 135:135, 67.5:202.5 and 0:250, respectively (mmol dm-3)). Discs were autoclaved...

  9. Emended description of Campylobacter sputorum and revision of its infrasubspecific (biovar) divisions, including C-sputorum biovar paraureolyticus, a urease-producing variant from cattle and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, S.L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.

    1998-01-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of 15 bovine and human strains assigned to the catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacter (CNUPC) group identified these bacteria as a novel, ureolytic biovar of Campylobacter sputorum for which we propose the name C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus: suitable...... should be revised to include by. sputorum for catalase-negative strains; by. fecalis for catalase-positive strains; and by. paraureolyticus for urease-positive strains. Strains classified previously as by. bubulus should be reclassified as by. sputorum. The species description of C. sputorum is revised...

  10. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  11. Optical fusions and proportional syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Vanel, Michel

    2002-06-01

    A tragic error is being made in the literature concerning matters of color when dealing with optical fusions. They are still considered to be of additive nature, whereas experience shows us somewhat different results. The goal of this presentation is to show that fusions are, in fact, of 'proportional' nature, tending to be additive or subtractive, depending on each individual case. Using the pointillist paintings done in the manner of Seurat, or the spinning discs experiment could highlight this intermediate sector of the proportional. So, let us try to examine more closely what occurs in fact, by reviewing additive, subtractive and proportional syntheses.

  12. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-04-02

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10(-4) to 3.16 × 10(-2) M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R² = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications.

  13. Effect of propolis in gastric disorders: inhibition studies on the growth of Helicobacter pylori and production of its urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Nimet; Karaoglu, Sengul Alpay; Tarakci, Cemre; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in alternative approaches to inhibit Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and thus treat many stomach diseases. Propolis is a pharmaceutical mixture containing many natural bioactive substances. The aim of this study was to use propolis samples to treat H. pylori. The anti-H. pylori and anti-urease activities of 15 different ethanolic propolis extracts (EPEs) were tested. The total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents of the EPE were also measured. The agar-well diffusion assay was carried out on H. pylori strain J99 and the inhibition zones were measured and compared with standards. All propolis extracts showed high inhibition of H. pylori J99, with inhibition diameters ranging from 31.0 to 47.0 mm. Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitory activity was measured using the phenol-hypochlorite assay; all EPEs showed significant inhibition against the enzyme, with inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ; mg/mL) ranging from 0.260 to 1.525 mg/mL. The degree of inhibition was related to the phenolic content of the EPE. In conclusion, propolis extract was found to be a good inhibitor that can be used in H. pylori treatment to improve human health.

  14. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294 and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R2 = 0.982, n = 6. The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.

  15. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia Salameh; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa

    2007-10-11

    An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R² = 0.982, n = 6). The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.

  16. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jhe Ma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10−4 to 3.16 × 10−2 M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R2 = 0.995. This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications.

  17. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10−4 to 3.16 × 10−2 M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R2 = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications. PMID:27049390

  18. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  19. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H

    2015-12-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staszak, J.; Grulke, N.E.; Marrett, M.J.; Prus-Glowacki, W.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of canopy ozone (O 3 ) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O 3 tolerance were analyzed in ∼20-, ∼80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O 3 exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O 3 exposure, and to higher O 3 exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine

  1. The effect of temperature on the fatty acids and isozymes of a psychrotrophic and two mesophilic species of Xenorhabdus, a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H. [Wisconsin Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Gordon, R. [Prince Edward Island Univ., Dept. of Biology, Charlottetown, PE (Canada); Gow, J. A. [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s NF (Canada)

    2001-05-01

    Generation times relative to temperature were determined for four strains of Xenorhabdus bacteria that represented three geographically distinct species in order to study the capacity of these bacteria to adapt to changes in temperature, as shown by changes in fatty acid composition. Species of the genus Xenorhabdus are carried in the gut of non-feeding infective juvenile nematodes where they release antibacterial and antifungal compounds, to create a non-competitive environment for nematode and bacterial growth. One of the species investigated was psychotropic (i.e. thriving at low temperatures), the other two mesophilic (i.e. growing at moderate temperatures). Results showed that as temperatures declined, proportions of two of the major fatty acids increased significantly in all strains, while the proportion of the prevalent fatty acid (palmitic acid) decreased. Certain other fatty acids decreased with declining temperatures in all strains. The synthesis of isozymes in response to changing temperatures was also investigated. Results showed a broad capacity for physiological temperature adaptation among strains of different climatic origin. It is suggested that these results support the proposition that entomopathogenic bacteria associated with nematodes adjust to temperature changes physiologically by altering the synthesis of isozymes. 36 refs.,6 tabs.

  2. Isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszak, J. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Grulke, N.E. [USDA Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)], E-mail: ngrulke@fs.fed.us; Marrett, M.J. [5184 Tower Road, Riverside, CA 92506 (United States); Prus-Glowacki, W. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    Effects of canopy ozone (O{sub 3}) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance were analyzed in {approx}20-, {approx}80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O{sub 3} exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O{sub 3} exposure, and to higher O{sub 3} exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine.

  3. Replacement of C305 in heart/muscle-type isozyme of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase I with aspartic acid and other amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Taisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Takenori; Otsuki, Kaoru; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Terada, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    2010-04-01

    Liver- and heart/muscle-type isozymes of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L- and M-CPTI, respectively) show a certain similarity in their amino acid sequences, and mutation studies on the conserved amino acids between these two isozymes often show essentially the same effects on their enzymatic properties. Earlier mutation studies on C305 in human M-CPTI and its counterpart residue, C304, in human L-CPTI showed distinct effects of the mutations, especially in the aspect of enzyme stability; however, simple comparison of these effects on the conserved Cys residue between L- and M-CPTI was difficult, because these studies were carried out using different expression systems and distinct amino acids as replacements. In the present study, we carried out mutation studies on the C305 in human M-CPTI using COS cells for the expression system. Our results showed that C305 was replaceable with aspartic acid but that substitution with other amino acids caused both loss of function and reduced expression.

  4. Molecular diversity of tuliposide B-converting enzyme in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana): identification of the third isozyme with a distinct expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Kuchida, Ryo; Kitaoka, Naoki; Kato, Yasuo

    2018-02-23

    6-Tuliposide B (PosB), a major secondary metabolite that accumulates in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), is converted to the antibacterial lactone, tulipalin B (PaB), by PosB-converting enzyme (TCEB). TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R, which encode TCEB, are specifically expressed in tulip pollen and roots, respectively, but are hardly expressed in other tissues (e.g. leaves) despite the presence of substantial PosB-converting activity, suggesting the existence of another TCEB isozyme. Here, we describe the identification of TgTCEB-L ("L" for leaf), a paralog of TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R, from leaves via native enzyme purification. The enzymatic characters of TgTCEB-L, including catalytic activity and subcellular localization, were substantially the same as those of TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R. However, TgTCEB-L did not exhibit tissue-specific expression. Identification of TgTCEB-L explains the PosB-converting activity detected in tissues where TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R transcripts could not be detected, indicating that tulip subtilizes the three TgTCEB isozymes depending on the tissue.

  5. Enzymatic, urease-mediated mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel with calcium carbonate, magnesium-enriched calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate for bone regeneration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Samal, Sangram Keshari

    2017-01-01

    enzymatically with CaCO3 , Mg-enriched CaCO3 and magnesium carbonate to generate composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. Hydrogels loaded with the enzyme urease were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing urea and different ratios of calcium and magnesium ions. Increasing...

  6. Application of radiation grafted media for lectin affinity separation and urease immobilization: a novel approach to tumor therapy and renal disease diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Schulte, D.; Daschek, W.

    1995-01-01

    Carriers modified by synergistic radiation grafting are used as affinity media for the separation of a lectin from a mistletoe extract. The grafted supports show distinctly superior properties when compared to conventional affinity media. The application of these carriers as urease immobilization support incorporated in a conductimetric bioreactor for urea analysis as potential diagnostic device in renal diseases is also described. (Author)

  7. Nitrogen Control in Pseudomonas aeruginosa : A Role for Glutamine in the Regulation of the Synthesis of NADP-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase, Urease and Histidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Herst, Patricia M.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Drift, Chris van der

    1981-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa the formation of urease, histidase and some other enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation is repressed by ammonia in the growth medium. The key metabolite in this process appears to be glutamine or a product derived from it, since ammonia and glutamate did not repress

  8. Relationship between ureB Sequence Diversity, Urease Activity and Genotypic Variations of Different Helicobacter pylori Strains in Patients with Gastric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehnoei, Hossein; Ahmadzadeh, Alireza; Farzi, Nastaran; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh; Azimzadeh, Pendram; Molaei, Mahsa; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Association of the severity of Helicobacter pylori induced diseases with virulence entity of the colonized strains was proven in some studies. Urease has been demonstrated as a potent virulence factor for H. pylori. The main aim of this study was investigation of the relationships of ureB sequence diversity, urease activity and virulence genotypes of different H. pylori strains with histopathological changes of gastric tissue in infected patients suffering from different gastric disorders. Analysis of the virulence genotypes in the isolated strains indicated significant associations between the presence of severe active gastritis and cagA+ (P = 0.039) or cagA/iceA1 genotypes (P = 0.026), and intestinal metaplasia and vacA m1 (P = 0.008) or vacA s1/m2 (P = 0.001) genotypes. Our results showed a 2.4-fold increased risk of peptic ulcer (95% CI: 0.483-11.93), compared with gastritis, in the infected patients who had dupA positive strains; however this association was not statistically significant. The results of urease activity showed a significant mean difference between the isolated strains from patients with PUD and NUD (P = 0.034). This activity was relatively higher among patients with intestinal metaplasia. Also a significant association was found between the lack of cagA and increased urease activity among the isolated strains (P = 0.036). While the greatest sequence variation of ureB was detected in a strain from a patient with intestinal metaplasia, the sole determined amino acid change in UreB sequence (Ala201Thr, 30%), showed no influence on urease activity. In conclusion, the supposed role of H. pylori urease to form peptic ulcer and advancing of intestinal metaplasia was postulated in this study. Higher urease activity in the colonizing H. pylori strains that present specific virulence factors was indicated as a risk factor for promotion of histopathological changes of gastric tissue that advance gastric malignancy.

  9. Combining Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors with Incorporation Reduces Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Increases Corn Yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Craig F; Yang, Xueming; Reynolds, W Dan; Calder, Wayne; Oloya, Tom O; Woodley, Alex L

    2017-09-01

    Less than 50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer is typically recovered by corn ( L.) due to climatic constraints, soil degradation, overapplication, and losses to air and water. Two application methods, two N sources, and two inhibitors were evaluated to reduce N losses and enhance crop uptake. The treatments included broadcast urea (BrUrea), BrUrea with a urease inhibitor (BrUrea+UI), BrUrea with a urease and a nitrification inhibitor (BrUrea+UI+NI), injection of urea ammonium nitrate (InjUAN), and injected with one or both inhibitors (InjUAN+UI, InjUAN+UI+NI), and a control. The BrUrea treatment lost 50% (64.4 kg N ha) of the applied N due to ammonia volatilization, but losses were reduced by 64% with BrUrea+UI+NI (23.0 kg N ha) and by 60% with InjUAN (26.1 kg N ha). Ammonia losses were lower and crop yields were greater in 2014 than 2013 as a result of the more favorable weather when N was applied in 2014. When ammonia volatilization was reduced by adding a urease inhibitor, NO emissions were increased by 30 to 31% with BrUrea+UI and InjUAN+UI compared with BrUrea and InjUAN, respectively. Pollution swapping was avoided when both inhibitors were used (BrUrea+UI+NI, InjUAN+UI+NI) as both ammonia volatilization and NO emissions were reduced, and corn grain yields increased by 5% with BrUrea+UI+NI and by 7% with InjUAN+UI+NI compared with BrUrea and InjUAN, respectively. The combination of two N management strategies (InjUAN+UI+NI) increased yields by 19% (12.9 t ha) compared with BrUrea (10.8 t ha). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Cytoplasmic Histidine Kinase (HP0244)-Regulated Assembly of Urease with UreI, a Channel for Urea and Its Metabolites, CO2, NH3, and NH4+, Is Necessary for Acid Survival of Helicobacter pylori▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, David R.; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Wen, Yi; Singh, Siddarth; Feng, Jing; Sachs, George

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the normal human stomach by maintaining both periplasmic and cytoplasmic pH close to neutral in the presence of gastric acidity. Urease activity, urea flux through the pH-gated urea channel, UreI, and periplasmic α-carbonic anhydrase are essential for colonization. Exposure to pH 4.5 for up to 180 min activates total bacterial urease threefold. Within 30 min at pH 4.5, the urease structural subunits, UreA and UreB, and the Ni2+ insertion protein, UreE, are recrui...

  11. The effect of urea with urease inhibitors and urea on yield and nitrate content in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Drápal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-year field trial was established on two localities – Žabčice and Valečov in 2010–2012. Seven variants of nitrogen fertilization in four replications have been involved in this experiment – 100% of urea (U, 80% of urea, 60% of urea, 100% of UreaStabil (US, 80% of UreaStabil and 60% of UreaStabil, whilst 100% corresponded to 90 kg N.ha−1 after subtracting the content of Nmin in the soil, and the control variant without fertilization by mineral nitrogen. The two varieties with different lengths of vegetation periods have been chosen for the experiment – the early variety Karin and the mid-early variety Red Anna. In all cases, samples for the yield and qualitative analyses have been taken according to the phenological phase – the beginning of physiological maturity. The obtained results show that the highest average yield has been achieved in the variant of 100% of urea – 40.95 t. ha−1, the yield of this variant was statistically significantly higher than the yield of the other variants of fertilization (P < 0.05. Variants treated by urea without the urease inhibitor reached an average yield of 37.62 t.ha−1. However, this yield was not statistically significantly higher when comparing to the urea with the urease inhibitor (P > 0.05. In regard to localities, a relatively high average yield (44.58 t.ha−1 has been achieved on a characteristically potato-growing locality Valečov. This yield was statistically significantly higher than the one attained on the Žabčice locality (P < 0.05. In respect to varieties, the mid-early variety Red Anna attained a higher average yield (39.65 t. ha−1. Likewise, this yield was statistically significantly higher than the one of the early variety Karin (P < 0.05. The best year was 2012, in which the average yield of 38.73 t.ha−1 was achieved. This yield was statistically significantly higher than the yield of the year 2010 (P < 0.05. As far as nitrates are concerned, the

  12. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Norsworthy, Allison N; Sun, Tung-Tien; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-04-19

    The catheter-associated uropathogenProteus mirabilisfrequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found thatP. mirabilisrapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an intracellular niche. Instead, it forms extracellular clusters in the bladder lumen, which form foci of mineral deposition consistent with development of urinary stones. These clusters elicit a robust neutrophil response, and we present evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap generation during experimental urinary tract infection. We identified two virulence factors required for cluster development: urease, which is required for urolithiasis, and mannose-resistantProteus-like fimbriae. The extracellular cluster formation byP. mirabilisstands in direct contrast to uropathogenicEscherichia coli, which readily formed intracellular bacterial communities but not luminal clusters or urinary stones. We propose that extracellular clusters are a key mechanism ofP. mirabilissurvival and virulence in the bladder.

  13. 5-Bromo-2-aryl benzimidazole derivatives as non-cytotoxic potential dual inhibitors of α-glucosidase and urease enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Tanzila; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Rasool, Najma; Salar, Uzma; Hussain, Shafqat; Asghar, Humna; Ashraf, Mohammed; Wadood, Abdul; Riaz, Muhammad; Perveen, Shahnaz; Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani

    2017-06-01

    On the basis of previous report on promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 5-bromo-2-aryl benzimidazole derivatives, these derivatives were further screened for urease inhibitory and cytotoxicity activity in order to get more potent and non-cytotoxic potential dual inhibitor for the patients suffering from diabetes as well as peptic ulcer. In this study, all compounds showed varying degree of potency in the range of (IC 50 =8.15±0.03-354.67±0.19μM) as compared to standard thiourea (IC 50 =21.25±0.15μM). It is worth mentioning that derivatives 7 (IC 50 =12.07±0.05μM), 8 (IC 50 =10.57±0.12μM), 11 (IC 50 =13.76±0.02μM), 14 (IC 50 =15.70±0.12μM) and 22 (IC 50 =8.15±0.03μM) were found to be more potent inhibitors than standard. All compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxicity towards 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line and found to be completely non-toxic. Previously benzimidazole 1-25 were also showed α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. In silico studies were performed on the lead molecules i.e.2, 7, 8, 11, 14, and 22, in order to rationalize the binding interaction of compounds with the active site of urease enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbonic Anhydrase and Urease Inhibitory Potential of Various Plant Phenolics Using in vitro and in silico Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Raza, Muslim; Saleem, Muhammad; Ozgen, Ufuk; Karaoglan, Esen Sezen; Renda, Gulin; Palaska, Erhan; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2017-06-01

    Plant phenolics are known to display many pharmacological activities. In the current study, eight phenolic compounds, e.g., luteolin 5-O-β-glucoside (1), methyl rosmarinate (2), apigenin (3), vicenin 2 (4), lithospermic acid (5), soyasaponin II (6), rubiadin 3-O-β-primeveroside (7), and 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (8), isolated from various plant species were tested at 0.2 mm against carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) and urease using microtiter assays. Urease inhibition rate for compounds 1 - 8 ranged between 5.0 - 41.7%, while only compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed a considerable inhibition over 50% against CA-II with the IC 50 values of 73.5 ± 1.05, 39.5 ± 1.14, and 104.5 ± 2.50 μm, respectively, where IC 50 of the reference (acetazolamide) was 21.0 ± 0.12 μm. In silico experiments were also performed through two docking softwares (Autodock Vina and i-GEMDOCK) in order to find out interactions between the compounds and CA-II. Actually, compounds 6 (30.0%) and 7 (42.0%) possessed a better binding capability toward the active site of CA-II. According to our results obtained in this study, among the phenolic compounds screened, particularly 1, 2, and 4 appear to be the promising inhibitors of CA-II and may be further investigated as possible leads for diuretic, anti-glaucoma, and antiepileptic agents. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Metabolic activity, urease production, antibiotic resistance and virulence in dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the metabolic activity in single and dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus isolates was investigated. Our results demonstrated that there was less metabolic activity in dual species biofilms compared to S. aureus biofilms. However, this was not observed if S. aureus and S. epidermidis were obtained from the same sample. The largest effect on metabolic activity was observed in biofilms of S. aureus Mu50 and S. epidermidis ET-024. A transcriptomic analysis of these dual species biofilms showed that urease genes and genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism were downregulated in comparison to monospecies biofilms. These results were subsequently confirmed by phenotypic assays. As metabolic activity is related to acid production, the pH in dual species biofilms was slightly higher compared to S. aureus Mu50 biofilms. Our results showed that S. epidermidis ET-024 in dual species biofilms inhibits metabolic activity of S. aureus Mu50, leading to less acid production. As a consequence, less urease activity is required to compensate for low pH. Importantly, this effect was biofilm-specific. Also S. aureus Mu50 genes encoding virulence-associated proteins (Spa, SplF and Dps) were upregulated in dual species biofilms compared to monospecies biofilms and using Caenorhabditis elegans infection assays, we demonstrated that more nematodes survived when co-infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and S. aureus mutants lacking functional spa, splF or dps genes, compared to nematodes infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and wild- type S. aureus. Finally, S. epidermidis ET-024 genes encoding resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin and tobramycin were upregulated in dual species biofilms and increased resistance was subsequently confirmed. Our data indicate that both species in dual species biofilms of S. epidermidis and S. aureus influence each other’s behavior, but additional studies are required necessary to elucidate the exact

  16. Role of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factors vacuolating cytotoxin, CagA, and urease in a mouse model of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiara, P; Marchetti, M; Blaser, M J; Tummuru, M K; Cover, T L; Segal, E D; Tompkins, L S; Rappuoli, R

    1995-10-01

    The pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors has been studied with a mouse model of gastric disease. BALB/c mice were treated orally with different amounts of sonic extracts of cytotoxic H. pylori strains (NCTC 11637, 60190, 84-183, and 87A300 [CagA+/Tox+]). The pathological effects on histological sections of gastric mucosae were assessed and were compared with the effects of treatments with extracts from noncytotoxic strains (G21 and G50 [CagA-/Tox-]) and from strains that express either CagA alone (D931 [CagA+/Tox-]) or the cytotoxin alone (G104 [CagA-/Tox+]). The treatment with extracts from cytotoxic strains induced various epithelial lesions (vacuolation, erosions, and ulcerations), recruitment of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, and a marked reduction of the mucin layer. Extracts of noncytotoxic strains induced mucin depletion but no other significant pathology. Crude extracts of strain D931, expressing CagA alone, caused only mild infiltration of inflammatory cells, whereas extracts of strain G104, expressing cytotoxin alone, induced extensive epithelial damage but little inflammatory reaction. Loss of the mucin layer was not associated with a cytotoxic phenotype, since this loss was observed in mice treated with crude extracts of all strains. The pathogenic roles of CagA, cytotoxin, and urease were further assessed by using extracts of mutant strains of H. pylori defective in the expression of each of these virulence factors. The results obtained suggest that (i) urease activity does not play a significant role in inducing the observed gastric damage, (ii) cytotoxin has an important role in the induction of gastric epithelial cell lesions but not in eliciting inflammation, and (iii) other components present in strains which carry the cagA gene, but distinct from CagA itself, are involved in eliciting the inflammatory response.

  17. Kinetic studies of the inhibition of a human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isozyme by bile acids and anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, Y; Amano, T; Deyashiki, Y; Hara, A; Tsukada, F

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the steady-state kinetics for a cytosolic 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isozyme of human liver and its inhibition by several bile acids and anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin, flufemanic acid and naproxen. Initial velocity and product inhibition studies performed in the NADP(+)-linked (S)-1-indanol oxidation at pH 7.4 were consistent with a sequential ordered mechanism in which NADP+ binds first and leaves last. The bile acids and drugs, competitive inhibitors with respect to the alcohol substrate, exhibited uncompetitive inhibition with respect to the coenzyme, with Ki values less than 1 microM, whereas indomethacin exhibited noncompetitive inhibition (Ki < 24 microM). The kinetics of the inhibition by a mixture of the two inhibitors suggests that bile acids and drugs, except indomethacin, bind to overlapping sites at the active center of the enzyme-coenzyme binary complex.

  18. Insights into the "pair of sugar tongs" surface binding site in barley alpha-amylase isozymes and crystallization of appropriate sugar tongs mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranier, S.; Deville, K.; Robert, X.

    2005-01-01

    of an additional surface binding site called a "pair of sugar tongs" due to the sugar capturing by Tyr380 which is situated in domain C of AMYL For the first time, a biological role for the domain C was suggested as well as a hypothetical explanation of enzymatic differences between the two barley a......-amylase isozymes. However, no sugar was bound at the "sugar tongs" site in the AMY2/acarbose complex. Comparative studies of this domain on the basis of sequence, secondary structure and spatial organization allow to propose factors needed for such a site. One of the most obvious is the replacement of Ser378(AMY1......, surface plasmon resonance sugar binding experiments have proven unambiguously that this residue cannot totally explain the lack of the "pair of sugar tongs" and other tracks must be studied as, for example, the differences in orientation of Asp381 and the critical role of His395, both good candidates...

  19. The taxonomic status of genetically divergent populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on the distribution of mitochondrial and isozyme variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Mutebi, John-Paul; Piñango, Hermes; Norris, Douglas; Alexander, Bruce; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2003-09-01

    The sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) reputedly is a complex of cryptic species; however, there is currently no consensus as to the number of species in the complex or their geographic distributions. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of 31 populations from throughout the species range, using seven isozyme loci and genes in the mitochondrial genome. Analyses of these two independent sets of markers were largely concordant and revealed four distinct clades that support the existence of four species. The four clades have distinct geographic ranges: (1) Brazil (Species A = Lu. longipalpis sensu stricto), (2) Laran (Species B = Lu. pseudolongipalpis), (3) cis-Andean (Species C), and (4) trans-Andean (Species D). The cis-Andean clade may be subdivided further into two groups, one in Colombia and one in northwestern Venezuela, but their taxonomic status remains unresolved. Knowledge that Lu. longipalpis is a complex of species may ultimately shed light on anomalies in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World.

  20. Ontogenetic changes and developmental adjustments in lactate dehydrogenase isozymes of an obligate air-breathing fish Channa punctatus during deprivation of air access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Riaz; Hasnain, Absar-Ul

    2005-02-01

    In air-breathing snakehead Channa punctatus, Ldh-B is expressed at all ontogenetic and developmental stages, while Ldh-A is expressed temporally in pre-hatchlings 12-13 days ahead of bimodal respiration marked by air-breathing. Remarkable differences are observed in the LDH isozyme expression among various ontogenetic and developmental stages upon denying air access. When denied air access, water-breathing larvae show two distinct characteristics: (i) they survive longer than transitory air-breathers due to independence from air-breathing and (ii) there is more transient induction of Ldh-B than Ldh-A. Transition to bimodal breathing, which occurred post-hatching in 15-day old larvae, is coincidental with inducibility of Ldh-A and concomitant down-regulation of Ldh-B. Heart tissue from air-breathing adults denied air access shows a preferential expression of LDH-A subunit and slight down-regulation of LDH-B. Heterotetramers of A and B subunits participate in adjusting LDH levels among those stages which either precede air-breathing switchover, or are subsequent to this transition. The contribution of heterotetramers depends on the stage-specific levels of LDH homotetramers A(4) or B(4). Scaling of muscle mass during growth, tolerance to extended deprivation of air access and induction of Ldh-A are correlated. Response to restoring air contact indicated that advanced air-breathing stages of C. punctatus possess an inherent capacity to sense surface air. In kinetic properties, LDH isozymes of C. punctatus are teleost-like but species specificity is displayed in oxidative potential by cardiac muscle and in L-lactate reduction by skeletal muscle.

  1. A cheap, simple high throughput method for screening native Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors using a recombinant Escherichia coli, its validation and demonstration of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract effectivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Natalie; Peretz, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most frequent and persistent bacterial infection worldwide, and a risk factor for active gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Although combined antibiotics treatment is effective cases of antibiotic resistance are reported at an alarming rate. The H. pylori urease enzyme is essential for the bacteria establishment in the gastric mucosa, resulting urease inhibitors being sought after as effective and specific anti- H. pylori treatment. To-date, screening assays are based mostly on the analog plant urease enzyme but difference in properties of the plant and bacterial enzymes hamper these efforts. We have developed a screening assay based on recombinant Escherichia coli expressing native H. pylori urease, and validated this assay using thiourea and a methanolic extract of Pistacia atlantica. The assay demonstrated the thiourea and the extract to be potent urease inhibitors, with the extract having strong bacteriostatic activity against clinical isolates of H. pylori, including such with antibiotic resistance. The extract was also found to be neutral toward common probiotic bacteria, supporting its specificity and compatibility with digestive system desired microflora and suggesting it could be a good source for anti-H. pylori compounds. The assay has proven to be cheap, simple and native alternative to the plant enzyme based assay and could allow for high throughput screening for new urease inhibitors and could expedite screening and development of novel, better H. pylori remedies helping us to combat this infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...

  3. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  4. A sensitive impedance biosensor based on immunomagnetic separation and urease catalysis for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes using an immobilization-free interdigitated array microelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Lin, Jianhan; Gan, Chengqi; Wang, Yuhe; Wang, Dan; Xiong, Yonghua; Lai, Weihua; Li, Yuntao; Wang, Maohua

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we described a novel impedance biosensor combining immunomagnetic separation with urease catalysis for sensitive detection of foodborne bacteria using Listeria monocytogenes as model and an immobilization-free microelectrode as detector. The monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were immobilized on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with the diameter of 180 nm by biotin-streptavidin system for specifically and efficiently separating Listeria cells from sample background. The polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) and the urease were modified onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the diameter of 20 nm and the modified AuNPs were used to react with Listera to form the MNP-MAb-Listeria-PAb-AuNP-urease sandwich complexes. The urease in the complexes could catalyze the hydrolysis of the urea into ammonium carbonate and this led to an increase in the ionic strength of the media, which could be detected by the microelectrode. The magnetic separation efficiencies for L. monocytogenes at the concentrations ranging from 3.0×10(1) to 3.0×10(4) CFU/mL were over 95% for the pure cultures and over 85% for the spiked lettuce samples. The lower detection limit of this biosensor for L. monocytogenes was found to be 300 CFU/mL in both the pure cultures and the spiked lettuce samples. The microelectrode was demonstrated to be reusable for over 50 times with thorough cleaning by deionized water. This biosensor showed its potential to provide a simple, low-cost and sensitive method for rapid screening of foodborne pathogens and could be extended for detection of other biological or chemical targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of urease inhibition on the abatement of ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions in a non-irrigated Mediterranean barley field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Misselbrook, Thomas; Vallejo, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Urea is considered the cheapest and most commonly used form of inorganic N fertilizer worldwide. However, its use is associated with emissions of ammonia (NH(3)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO), which have both economic and environmental impact. Urease activity inhibitors have been proposed as a means to reduce NH(3) emissions, although limited information exists about their effect on N(2)O and NO emissions. In this context, a field experiment was carried out with a barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.) under Mediterranean conditions to test the effectiveness of the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on reducing these gaseous N losses from surface applied urea. Crop yield, soil mineral N concentrations, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), denitrification potential, NH(3), N(2)O and NO fluxes were measured during the growing season. The inclusion of the inhibitor reduced NH(3) emissions in the 30 d following urea application by 58% and net N(2)O and NO emissions in the 95 d following urea application by 86% and 88%, respectively. NBPT addition also increased grain yield by 5% and N uptake by 6%, although neither increase was statistically significant. Under the experimental conditions presented here, these results demonstrate the potential of the urease inhibitor NBPT in abating NH(3), N(2)O and NO emissions from arable soils fertilized with urea, slowing urea hydrolysis and releasing lower concentrations of NH(4)(+) to the upper soil layer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An in vitro study of enhanced H+ diffusion by urease action on urea. Implications for Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M A; Vadgama, P M

    1993-10-01

    The in vitro effect of urea and hydrolysis of urea by urease on mucus H+ permeability is reported here. The effective DHCl values indicate a strong pH dependence for H+ diffusion in both water and mucus layers, with no apparent trend at concentrations between 1 and 50 mM urea. However, the estimated DHCl at near-neutral and alkaline pH are 4- to 10-fold lower through mucus than through aqueous films. Moreover, the pKa values of HCO3- and NH3 (generated by urease action on urea) had a profound effect on measured DHCl. These in vitro studies suggest that a high local concentration of NH3 and HCO3- within the mucus layer, generated by the action of Helicobacter pylori urease on endogenous intragastric urea, could greatly accelerate proton flux to the surface epithelium by operation of a buffer shuttle. This results in enhanced H+ permeability, particularly at pKa values of HCO3- and NH3, and in extreme circumstances it may result in gastric ulcer formation.

  7. Increasing biopsy number and sampling from gastric body improve the sensitivity of rapid urease test in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Tsai, Kuang-Chau

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of rapid urease test (RUT) for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection decreased during peptic ulcer bleeding. We designed this study and tried to find a better method to improve the detection rate of H. pylori infection at the same session of endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer bleeding. We prospectively enrolled 116 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. These patients received intravenous proton pump inhibitor and then received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 h after arrival. We took one piece of biopsy from gastric antrum (Group 1), four pieces from gastric antrum (Group 2), and one piece from the gastric body (Group 3) for three separate RUTs, respectively. (13)C-urease breath test was used as gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There were 74 patients (64 %) with positive (13)C-urease breath test. Among these 74 patients, 45 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 61 %) in Group 1; 55 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 74 %) in Group 2; 54 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 73 %) in Group 3. There were significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.02) and between Group 1 and Group 3 (p = 0.022). The sensitivity of RUT was 61 % during peptic ulcer bleeding. The sensitivity of RUT can be increased significantly by increased biopsy number from gastric antrum or biopsy from gastric body.

  8. Prospective study to evaluate the number and the location of biopsies in rapid urease test for diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Abou Rached

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori can cause a wide variety of illnesses such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. The diagnosis and eradication of H. pylori are crucial. The diagnosis of H. pylori is usually based on the rapid urease test (RUT and gastric antral biopsy for histology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the numbers of needed biopsies and their location (antrum/fundus to obtain optimal result for the diagnosis of H. pylori. Three hundred fifty consecutive patients were recruited, 210 fulfill the inclusion criteria and had nine gastric biopsies for the detection of H. pylori infection: two antral for the first RUT (RUT1, one antral and one fundic for the second (RUT2, one antral for the third (RUT3 and two antral with two fundic for histology (HES, Giemsa, PAS. The reading of the 3 types of RUT was performed at 1 hour, 3 hours and 24 hours and biopsies were read by two experienced pathologists not informed about the result of RUT. Results of RUT were considered positive if H. pylori was found on histology of at least one biopsy. The RUT1 at 1h, 3h and 24h has a sensitivity of 72%, 82% and 89% and a specificity of 100%, 99% and 87% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV was 100%, 99% and 85% respectively and the negative predictive value (NPV of 81%, 87% and 90%. The RUT2 at 1h, 3h and 24h, respectively, had a sensitivity of 86%, 87% and 91% and a specificity of 99%, 97% and 90%. The PPV was 99%, 96% and 88% and NPV of 89%, 90%, 94%. The RUT3 at 1h, 3h and 24h, respectively, had a sensitivity of 70%, 74% and 84% and a specificity of 99%, 99% and 94%. The PPV was 99%, 99% and 92% and NPV of 79%, 81% and 87%. The best sensitivity and specificity were obtained for RUT1 read at 3h, for RUT2 read 1h and 3h, and the RUT3 read at 24h.This study demonstrates that the best sensitivity and specificity of rapid test for urease is obtained when fundic plus antral biopsy

  9. How Helicobacter pylori urease may affect external pH and influence growth and motility in the mucus environment: evidence from in-vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Ramon L; Worku, Mulugeta L; Karim, Q Najma; Dhir, Nirmal K; Baron, J Hugh

    2003-04-01

    Survival of Helicobacter pylori is dependent upon urease in the cytoplasm and at the bacterial surface. We have sought to clarify how alkaline ammonium salts, released from urea by this enzyme, might alter mucus pH and so affect growth and motility of the bacterium in the gastric mucus environment. Experiments were conducted in vitro to determine how the growth and motility of H. pylori are affected by changes in external pH, and how the bacterium, by hydrolysing urea, alters the pH of the bicarbonate buffer that occurs at the gastric mucosal surface. These data were fitted into experimental models that describe how pH varies within the mucus layer in the acid-secreting stomach. H. pylori was motile between pH 5 and 8, with optimal motility at pH 5. It grew between pH 6 and 8, with optimal growth at pH 6. The bacterium had urease activity between pH 2.7 and 7.4, as evidenced by pH rises in bicarbonate-buffered solutions of urea. Changes in buffer pH were dependent upon initial pH and urea concentration, with the greatest rate of pH change occurring at pH 3. Modelling experiments utilizing these data indicated that (1) in the absence of urease, H. pylori growth and motility in the mucus layer would be restricted severely by low mucus pH in the acid-secreting stomach, and (2) urease will sometimes inhibit H. pylori growth and motility in the mucus layer by elevating the pH of the mucus environment above pH 8. Urease is essential to the growth and motility of H. pylori in the mucus layer in the acid-secreting stomach, but, paradoxically, sometimes it might suppress colonization by raising the mucus pH above 8. This latter effect may protect the bacteria from the adverse consequences of overpopulation.

  10. Method to synthesize metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2016-12-13

    Metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials can be synthesized from metal alkoxide precursors by solution precipitation or solvothermal processing. The synthesis routes are more scalable, less complex and easier to implement than other synthesis routes.

  11. nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor m

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (M=Co, Cu) nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor method ... The structural characterization was carried out using an X-ray Diffractometer (Rikagu Miniflex, Japan) ..... His current area of interest includes magnetic nanomaterials.

  12. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and luminescence behaviour of terephthalate bridged heptacoordinated dinuclear lead(II) complexes containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base. SUBHASIS ROYa, SOMNATH CHOUBEYa, SUMITAVA KHANa, KISHALAY BHARa,. PARTHA MITRAb and BARINDRA ...

  13. Synthese en chemotherapeutisch onderzoek van sulfanilamidopyrimidinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevenstuk, Anton Bernard

    1942-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of substitution in the pyrimidine nucleous on the activity of the three isomeric sulfanilamidopyrimidines (2, 5 and 6), a number of substituted sulfanilamidopyrimidines were synthesized and tested on chemotherapeutic activity. ... Zie: Summary

  14. Periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a community-based study using serology and rapid urease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Krishnavilasom J; Nandakumar, Krishnankutty; Shenoy, Kottacherry T; Janam, Presanthila

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and their associations within a predefined Indian population. A community-based cross-sectional study of 500 selected individuals using a questionnaire, oral examination, rapid urease testing of dental plaque, and serological examination for immunoglobulin G antibody to H. pylori was carried out. Periodontal disease and H. pylori infection were prevalent in more than 50% of the population. Age, smoking, and diabetic status of the individuals were risk factors for periodontal disease after multivariate analysis, and a lack of proper sewage and waste disposal facilities were found to increase the risk of H. pylori infection. Although there was no association between periodontal disease and H. pylori seropositivity in the community, a highly-significant association was found between periodontal disease and colonization of H. pylori in dental plaque. Because periodontal disease is associated with the increased colonization of H. pylori, new treatment modalities, such as plaque control measures, should be employed for the complete management of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Iridium oxide pH sensor for biomedical applications. Case urea-urease in real urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Alfonso, Elisabet; Abad, Llibertat; Casañ-Pastor, Nieves; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Javier; Baldrich, Eva

    2013-01-15

    This work demonstrates the implementation of iridium oxide films (IROF) grown on silicon-based thin-film platinum microelectrodes, their utilization as a pH sensor, and their successful formatting into a urea pH sensor. In this context, Pt electrodes were fabricated on Silicon by using standard photolithography and lift-off procedures and IROF thin films were growth by a dynamic oxidation electrodeposition method (AEIROF). The AEIROF pH sensor reported showed a super-Nerstian (72.9±0.9mV/pH) response between pH 3 and 11, with residual standard deviation of both repeatability and reproducibility below 5%, and resolution of 0.03 pH units. For their application as urea pH sensors, AEIROF electrodes were reversibly modified with urease-coated magnetic microparticles (MP) using a magnet. The urea pH sensor provided fast detection of urea between 78μM and 20mM in saline solution, in sample volumes of just 50μL. The applicability to urea determination in real urine samples is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transformation and characterization of an arsenic gene operon from urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Kuribayashi, T; Yamamoto, S; Millar, B C; Moore, J E

    2016-01-01

    An arsenate susceptibility test was performed with transformed and cultured Escherichia coli DH5α cells, which carried recombinant DNA of full-length arsenic (ars) operon, namely a putative membrane permease, ArsP; a transcriptional repressor, ArsR; an arsenate reductase, ArsC; and an arsenical-resistance membrane transporter, Acr3, from the Japanese urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter lari (UPTC) CF89-12. The E. coli DH5α transformant showed reduced susceptibility to arsenate (~1536 μg/mL), compared to the control. Thus, these ars four-genes from the UPTC CF89-12 strain cells could confer a reduced susceptibility to arsenate in the transformed and E. coli DH5α cells. E. coli transformants with truncated ars operons, acr3 (acr3) and arsC-acr3 (∆arsC-acr3), of the ars operon, showed an MIC value of 384 μg/mL (~384 μg/mL), similar to the E. coli cells which carried the pGEM-T vector (control). Reverse transcription PCR confirmed in vivo transcription of recombinant full-length ars operon and deletion variants (∆acr3 and ∆arsC-acr3) in the transformed E. coli cells.

  17. Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sik Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.

  18. CAMAC programmable-control frequency synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumaguzin, T.Kh.; Vyazovkin, D.E.; Nazirov, Eh.P.; Tuktarov, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesizer allows to set frequency with 0.015% accuracy and to scan it with variable step. Frequency controlled divider with further summing-up of divided frequency with fundamental one is used in synthesizer, and it has allowed to use digit of the input code and to obtain 3-4 MHz frequency range. Variation of operation flowsheet in the other frequency range is possible. K-155 and K-531 series microcircuits were used during development

  19. Operational Design that Synthesizes Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Feb - May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPERATIONAL DESIGN THAT SYNTHESIZES ART AND SCIENCE 5a...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Design That Synthesizes Art And Science 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...proponents of EBO view warfare as only a science and not a combination of art and science . 9 Another main point of contention centered on the term

  20. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.......We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level....

  1. Vibrio parahaemolyticus produtores de urease isolados a partir de ostras (Crassostrea rizophorae coletadas in natura em restaurantes e mexilhões (Perna perna de banco natural Vibrio parahaemolyticus urease positive isolated from in natura oysters (Crassostrea rizophorae collected at restaurants and mussels (Perna perna harvested from natural habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de Vibrio parahaemolyticus foi avaliada em 50 amostras de moluscos bivalves marinhos compostas por 40 amostras de ostras coletadas em 15 restaurantes do Rio de Janeiro e 10 amostras de mexilhões capturados de banco natural em Ponta de Itaipú - Niterói. Foram empregadas a técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP para a enumeração de V. parahaemolyticus utilizando Caldo Glicosado Salgado com Teepol (GSTB e Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA com 3% de cloreto de sódio (NaCl. Paralelamente foi realizada técnica de enriquecimento em APA com 1 e 3% de NaCl. Decorrido o período de incubação de ambas as técnicas, foi realizado plaqueamento em ágar TCBS (Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose. Todas as cepas de V. parahaemolyticus isoladas através das duas técnicas foram testadas para o fenômeno de Kanagawa e, quanto à produção de urease. Do total de 141 cepas de V. parahaemolyticus isoladas, 62% revelaram-se urease positivas e, dentre estas, os sorotipos predominantes foram O10:K?, O11:K? e O3:K57 dentre o total de 24 sorotipos urease positivos identificados. Embora todas as cepas de V. parahaemolyticus tenham sido Kanagawa negativas, os resultados apontam elevada incidência desta espécie em ostras comercializadas em restaurantes.The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were detected in 50 marine bivalve mollusks composed by 40 oysters samples collected at 15 restaurants in Rio de Janeiro City and 10 wild mussels' samples harvested in Ponta de Itaipu-Niterói. The Most Probable Number (MPN technique was employed for the enumeration of V. parahaemolyticus, using glucose salt teepol broth (GSTB and alcaline peptone water (APW with 3% NaCl. At the same time, the samples were submitted on direct plating with APW added 1 and 3% NaCl. Both techniques were followed by plating onto TCBS agar. All the V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated were tested for Kanagawa phenomenon and they were also tested for the presence of urease. A total of 141 V

  2. Three-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]-pyrimidine dione derivatives facilitated by sulfonic acid nanoporous silica (SBA-Pr-SO3H and their docking and urease inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward and efficient method for the synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives from the reaction of barbituric acid, malononitrile and various aromatic aldehydes using SBA-Pr-SO3H as a nanocatalyst is reported.ResultsReactions proceed with high efficiency under solvent free conditions. Urease inhibitory activity of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives were tested against Jack bean urease using phenol red method. Three compounds of 4a, 4d and 4l were not active in urease inhibition test, but compound 4a displayed slight urease activation properties. Compounds 4b, 4k, 4f, 4e, 4j, 4g and 4c with hydrophobic substitutes on phenyl ring, showed good inhibitory activity (19.45-279.14 muM.DiscussionThe compounds with electron donating group and higher hydrophobic interaction with active site of enzyme prevents hydrolysis of substrate. Electron withdrawing groups such as nitro at different position and meta-methoxy reduced urease inhibitory activity. Substitution of both hydrogen of barbituric acid with methyl group will convert inhibitor to activator.

  3. Three-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]-pyrimidine dione derivatives facilitated by sulfonic acid nanoporous silica (SBA-Pr-SO3H and their docking and urease inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziarani Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A straightforward and efficient method for the synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives from the reaction of barbituric acid, malononitrile and various aromatic aldehydes using SBA-Pr-SO3H as a nanocatalyst is reported. Results Reactions proceed with high efficiency under solvent free conditions. Urease inhibitory activity of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives were tested against Jack bean urease using phenol red method. Three compounds of 4a, 4d and 4l were not active in urease inhibition test, but compound 4a displayed slight urease activation properties. Compounds 4b, 4k, 4f, 4e, 4j, 4g and 4c with hydrophobic substitutes on phenyl ring, showed good inhibitory activity (19.45-279.14 μM. Discussion The compounds with electron donating group and higher hydrophobic interaction with active site of enzyme prevents hydrolysis of substrate. Electron withdrawing groups such as nitro at different position and meta-methoxy reduced urease inhibitory activity. Substitution of both hydrogen of barbituric acid with methyl group will convert inhibitor to activator.

  4. Algal polysaccharides as matrices for the immobilization of urease in lipid ultrathin films studied with tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy: Physical-chemical properties and implications in the enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Audrey Kalinouski; Nordi, Cristina S F; Caseli, Luciano

    2015-11-01

    Currently, many biological substances extracted from algae have received special attention because of their intrinsic characteristics, which can be applied to different areas of biotechnology. Therefore, in the current study, exopolysaccharides (EPS) from the microalgae Cryptomonas tetrapirenoidosa were employed as an aqueous subphase of a monolayer formed by the lipid dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB). The primary objective of this approach was to evaluate whether EPS could serve as a matrix for the immobilization of the enzyme urease to produce biosensors for urea. After DODAB was spread on the EPS solutions, urease was injected into the aqueous subphase, and the surface was submitted to compression using lateral barriers. The monolayers were subsequently characterized by surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). The results indicated that EPS enhanced the adsorption of the enzyme on the lipid monolayer. The mixed films were later transferred to solid supports using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and were characterized by transfer ratio, PM-IRRAS, quartz crystal microbalance, and atomic force microscopy. The immobilization of the enzyme on solid supports was fundamental for providing an ideal geometrical accommodation of urease because the interaction of EPS with urease in solution causes a decrease of the relative activity of urease. Therefore, these LB films are promising for the fabrication of future urea biosensors, the architecture of which can be manipulated and enhanced at the molecular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cloning of soluble alkaline phosphatase cDNA and molecular basis of the polymorphic nature in alkaline phosphatase isozymes of Bombyx mori midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M; Kanamori, Y; Takao, M; Eguchi, M

    1999-02-01

    A cDNA coding for soluble type alkaline phosphatase (sALP) of Bombyx mori was isolated. Deduced amino acid sequence showed high identities to various ALPs and partial similarities to ATPase of Manduca sexta. Using this cDNA sequence as a probe, the molecular basis of electrophoretic polymorphism in sALP and membrane-bound type ALP (mALP) was studied. As for mALP, the result suggested that post-translational modification was important for the proteins to express activity and to represent their extensive polymorphic nature, whereas the magnitude of activities was mainly regulated by transcription. On the other hand, sALP zymogram showed poor polymorphism, but one exception was the null mutant, in which the sALP gene was largely lost. Interestingly, the sALP gene was shown to be transcribed into two mRNAs of different sizes, 2.0 and 2.4 Kb. In addition to the null mutant of sALP, we found a null mutant for mALP. Both of these mutants seem phenotypically silent, suggesting that the functional differentiation between these isozymes is not perfect, so that they can still work mutually and complement each other as an indispensable enzyme for B. mori.

  6. Synthesizing Modular Invariants for Synchronous Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loic Garoche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore different techniques to synthesize modular invariants for synchronous code encoded as Horn clauses. Modular invariants are a set of formulas that characterizes the validity of predicates. They are very useful for different aspects of analysis, synthesis, testing and program transformation. We describe two techniques to generate modular invariants for code written in the synchronous dataflow language Lustre. The first technique directly encodes the synchronous code in a modular fashion. While in the second technique, we synthesize modular invariants starting from a monolithic invariant. Both techniques, take advantage of analysis techniques based on property-directed reachability. We also describe a technique to minimize the synthesized invariants.

  7. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection; Culture, microscopy of biopsy smears, and the rapid urease test compared with the sup 14 C-urea breath test. Diagnostikk av Helicobacter pylori-infeksjon; Urease hurtigtest, mikroskopi av utstryk, og dyrking av ventrikkelbiopsi sammenlignet med sup 14 C-urea-pusteproeven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nysaeter, G; Berstad, K; Weberg, R; Berstad, A; Hardardottir, H [Haukeland Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    1992-08-01

    By employing the {sup 14}C-urea breath test as the reference methods the authors determined the specificity and sensitivity of three bioptic methods for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in 103 subjects. All biopsy specimens were obtained from the gastric antrum. For culture the specificity was 100%. Its applicability was reduced, however, by a low sensitivity (73.8%) and a delay of several days before the final result was available. Microscopy of Loeffler-stained biopsy smears yielded a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 92.9%, but the method was regarded time-consuming. The rapid urease test yielded a specificity of 98.4% and a sensitivity of 85.7%. Being quick, simple and inexpensive, the rapid urease test is well suited for routine use in gastroscopy. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Molecular identification and characterisation of catalase and catalase-like protein genes in urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Kuribayashi, T; Moore, J E; Millar, B C; Yamamoto, S; Matsuda, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter are important bacterial pathogens of foodborne diseases worldwide. These organisms' physiology requires a microaerophilic atmosphere. To date, little is known about the protective catalase mechanism in urease-positive thermophilic campylobacters (UPTC); hence, it was the aim of this study to identify and characterise catalase and catalase-like protein genes in these organisms. Catalase (katA) and catalase (Kat)-like protein genes from the Japanese UPTC CF89-12 strain were molecularly analysed and compared with C. lari RM2100 and other C. lari and thermophilic Campylobacter reference isolates. A possible open reading frame of 1,422 base pairs, predicted to encode a peptide of 474 amino acid residues, with calculated molecular weight of 52.7 kilo Daltons for katA, was identified within UPTC CF89-12. A probable ribosome binding site, two putative promoters and a putative ρ-independent transcription terminator were also identified within katA. A similar katA cluster also existed in the C. lari RM2100 strain, except that this strain carries no DcuB genes. However, the Kat-like protein gene or any other homologue(s) were never identified in the C. lari RM2100 strain, or in C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis. This study demonstrates the presence of catalase/catalase-like protein genes in UPTC organisms. These findings are significant in that they suggest that UPTC organisms have the protective genetic capability of helping protect the organisms from toxic oxygen stress, which may help them to survive in physiologically harsh environments, both within human and animal hosts, as well as in the natural environment.

  9. Inhibition of Urease Enzyme Production and some Other Virulence Factors Expression in Proteus mirabilis by N-Acetyl Cysteine and Dipropyl Disulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baky, Rehab Mahmoud; Ali, Mohamed Abdullah; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din Ali A; AbdelAziz, Neveen

    2017-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the important pathogens that colonize the urinary tract and catheters resulting in various complications, such as blockage of the catheters and the formation of infective stones. In this study we evaluated the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and dipropyl disulphide on some virulence factors expressed by a Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from a catheterized patient. Antibacterial activity of both compounds was determined by broth microdilution method. Their effect on different types of motility was determined by LB medium with variable agar content and sub-MIC of each drug. Their effect on adherence and mature biofilms was tested by tissue culture plate assay. Inhibitory effect on urease production was determined and supported by molecular docking studies. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of NAC and dipropyl disulphide was 25 mM and 100 mM, respectively. Both compounds decreased the swarming ability and biofilm formation of the tested isolate in a dose-dependent manner. NAC had higher urease inhibitory activity (IC50 249 ±0.05 mM) than that shown by dipropyl disulphide (IC 50 10±0.2 mM). Results were supported by molecular docking studies which showed that NAC and dipropyl disulphide interacted with urease enzyme with binding free energy of -4.8 and -8.528 kcal/mol, respectively. Docking studies showed that both compounds interacted with Ni ion and several amino acids (His-138, Gly-279, Cysteine-321, Met-366 and His-322) which are essential for the enzyme activity. NAC and dipropyl disulphide could be used in the control of P. mirabilis urinary tract infections.

  10. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404

  11. Effect of enzyme location on activity and stability of trypsin and urease immobilized on porous membranes by using layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Guedidi, Sadika; Yürekli, Yılmaz; Deratani, André; Déjardin, Philippe; Innocent, Christophe; Altınkaya, Sacide; Roudesli, Sadok; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of polyelectrolyte is one of the simplest ways to immobilize enzyme on membrane. In this paper, the immobilization of trypsin (TRY) and urease (URE) on polyacrylonitrile based membranes using the LbL assembly technique was presented. The studied systems consisted in bilayered assemblies with the enzyme layer as the outer layer and trilayered assemblies with the enzyme layer as the inner sandwiched layer. The membrane pore size was chosen so that the smal...

  12. Nickel Ligation of the N-Terminal Amine of HypA Is Required for Urease Maturation in Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Heidi Q. [Department; Johnson, Ryan C. [Microbiology; Merrell, D. Scott [Microbiology; Maroney, Michael J. [Department

    2017-02-17

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori requires nickel for colonization of the acidic environment of the stomach. HypA, a Ni metallochaperone that is typically associated with hydrogenase maturation, is also required for urease maturation and acid survival of H. pylori. There are two proposed Ni site structures for HypA; one is a paramagnetic six-coordinate site characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in unmodified HypA, while another is a diamagnetic four-coordinate planar site characterized by solution nuclear magnetic resonance in an N-terminally modified HypA construct. To determine the role of the N-terminal amine in Ni binding of HypA, an N-terminal extension variant, L2*-HypA, in which a leucine residue was inserted into the second position of the amino acid sequence in the proposed Ni-binding motif, was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Structural characterization of the Ni site using XAS showed a coordination change from six-coordinate in wild-type HypA (WT-HypA) to five-coordinate pyramidal in L2*-HypA, which was accompanied by the loss of two N/O donor protein ligands and the addition of an exogenous bromide ligand from the buffer. The magnetic properties of the Ni sites in WT-HypA compared to those of the Ni sites in L2*-HypA confirmed that a spin-state change from high to low spin accompanied this change in structure. The L2*-HypA H. pylori strain was shown to be acid sensitive and deficient in urease activity in vivo. In vitro characterization showed that L2*-HypA did not disrupt the HypA–UreE interaction that is essential for urease maturation but was at least 20-fold weaker in Ni binding than WT-HypA. Characterization of the L2*-HypA variant clearly demonstrates that the N-terminal amine of HypA is involved in proper Ni coordination and is necessary for urease activity and acid survival.

  13. Syntheses of copper complexes of nicotinohydroxamic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotinohydroxamic acid (NHA) and isonicotinohydroxamic acid (INHA) were synthesized, characterized by electronic and spectral studies,magnetic measurements and their pKa determined spectrophotometrically as 8.68 ± 0.02 in aqueous medium of 0.1mol dm-3 I=ionic strength. The composition of the complexes was ...

  14. SYNTHESES AND PROPERTIES OF SOME ORGANOSILANE POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xinghua; Robert West

    1984-01-01

    Some organosilane polymers with high molecular weights have been synthesized by cocondensation of organosilicon dihalide monomers with sodium metal in toluene. These polymers are both soluble in common solvents and meltable at lower temperatures, and can be molded, cast into films or drawn into fibers. Exposure of the solid polymers to ultraviolet light leads to degradation or crosslinking.

  15. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The C. halicacabum leaf extract synthesized AgNPs efficiency were tested against different bacterial pathogens MTCC-426 Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-2453 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MTCC-96 Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-441 Bacillus subtilis andMTCC-735 Salmonella paratyphi, and fungal pathogens Alternaria solani ...

  16. Synthesizing chaotic maps with prescribed invariant densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Alan; Shorten, Robert; Heffernan, Daniel M.

    2004-01-01

    The Inverse Frobenius-Perron Problem (IFPP) concerns the creation of discrete chaotic mappings with arbitrary invariant densities. In this Letter, we present a new and elegant solution to the IFPP, based on positive matrix theory. Our method allows chaotic maps with arbitrary piecewise-constant invariant densities, and with arbitrary mixing properties, to be synthesized

  17. Cytotoxicity of Nanoliposomal Cisplatin Coated with Synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of pegylated nanoliposomal cisplatin on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780CP. Methods: Synthesized methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) propionaldehyde was characterized by 1Hnuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and used ...

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  19. Caracterização de acessos de pimenta-do-reino com base em sistemas enzimáticos Characterization of black pepper accessions using isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José MD Gaia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito acessos de pimenta-do-reino, incluindo algumas espécies silvestres foram submetidos à análise eletroforética de isoenzimas em gel de poliacrilamida, visando distinguir diferenças fenotípicas que auxiliem na discriminação e seleção dos acessos. Foram utilizados os sistemas enzimáticos SKDH, GOT, ACP, ACO, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH e G6PDH. O polimorfismo de isoenzimas foi avaliado pelo número de alozimas com diferentes mobilidades por sistema enzimático, pelas freqüências de alozimas dentro de cada sistema enzimático em relação ao total de bandas do sistema e pela análise da similaridade genética, com base na ausência e presença de bandas. Todos os sistemas enzimáticos utilizados tiveram boa resolução e definição de bandas, com ênfase para SKDH, 6PGDH, PGI e ACP. Em sua totalidade, os sistemas apresentaram polimorfismo capaz de caracterizar e identificar acessos ou grupos de pequeno número de acessos, sendo que o sistema GOT foi o que apresentou maior variabilidade de alozimas e de perfis; e o que apresentou menor variabilidade foi o sistema FUM, com três alozimas e quatro perfis. Cinqüenta e sete por cento das alozimas podem ser usadas para caracterizar e identificar clones ou grupos de clones. Cerca de 64% dos acessos analisados podem ser identificados por um a seis fenótipos individuais de sistemas enzimáticos. A análise da similaridade indicou os grupos G1, G2 e G3 como os mais divergentes da coleção, os quais são indicados para cruzamentos intraespecíficos e interespecíficos visando a obtenção de clones superiores.Seventy and eight accessions of black pepper, including some wild species, were analyzed through isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, aiming to distinguish phenotypic differences to discriminate and select accessions. The enzymatic systems SKDH, GOT, ACO, ACP, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH and G6PDH were studied. The polymorphism of isozymes was evaluated based on number of alozymes with

  20. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone, indapamide, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II, when several water molecules make the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperini, Claudia; Cecchi, Alessandro; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2009-02-01

    Thiazide and high ceiling diuretics were recently shown to inhibit all mammalian isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) with a very different profile as compared to classical inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, and ethoxzolamide. Some of these structurally related compounds have a very different behavior against the widespread isozyme CA II, with chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide being efficient inhibitors against CA II (K(I)s of 65-138 nM), whereas indapamide is a much weaker one (K(I) of 2520 nM). Furthermore, some of these diuretics are quite efficient (low nanomolar) inhibitors of other isoforms, for example, chlorthalidone against hCA VB, VII, IX, and XIII; indapamide against CA VII, IX, XII, and XIII, trichloromethiazide against CA VII and IX, and furosemide against CA I and XIV. Examining the four X-ray crystal structures of their CA II adducts, we observed several (2-3) active site water molecules interacting with the chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide scaffolds which may be responsible for this important difference of activity. Indeed, indapamide bound to CA II has no interactions with active site water molecules. Chlorthalidone bound within the CA II active site is in an enolic (lactimic) tautomeric form, with the enolic OH also participating in two strong hydrogen bonds with Asn67 and a water molecule. The newly evidenced binding modes of these diuretics may be exploited for designing better CA II inhibitors as well as compounds with selectivity/affinity for various isoforms with medicinal chemistry applications.

  1. Differential Recognition of Old World and New World Arenavirus Envelope Glycoproteins by Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/Site 1 Protease (S1P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Ramos da Palma, Joel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Cendron, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses that includes several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans that represent serious public health problems. A crucial step of the arenavirus life cycle is maturation of the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P). Comparison of the currently known sequences of arenavirus GPCs revealed the presence of a highly conserved aromatic residue at position P7 relative to the SKI-1/S1P cleavage side in Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses but not in New World viruses of clades A and B or cellular substrates of SKI-1/S1P. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis, we found that residueY285 of SKI-1/S1P, distal from the catalytic triad, is implicated in the molecular recognition of the aromatic “signature residue” at P7 in the GPC of Old World Lassa virus. Using a quantitative biochemical approach, we show that Y285 of SKI-1/S1P is crucial for the efficient processing of peptides derived from Old World and clade C New World arenavirus GPCs but not of those from clade A and B New World arenavirus GPCs. The data suggest that during coevolution with their mammalian hosts, GPCs of Old World and clade C New World viruses expanded the molecular contacts with SKI-1/S1P beyond the classical four-amino-acid recognition sequences and currently occupy an extended binding pocket. PMID:23536681

  2. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  3. 3D-QSAR Studies on Barbituric Acid Derivatives as Urease Inhibitors and the Effect of Charges on the Quality of a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ul-Haq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urease enzyme (EC 3.5.1.5 has been determined as a virulence factor in pathogenic microorganisms that are accountable for the development of different diseases in humans and animals. In continuance of our earlier study on the helicobacter pylori urease inhibition by barbituric acid derivatives, 3D-QSAR (three dimensional quantitative structural activity relationship advance studies were performed by Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA methods. Different partial charges were calculated to examine their consequences on the predictive ability of the developed models. The finest developed model for CoMFA and CoMSIA were achieved by using MMFF94 charges. The developed CoMFA model gives significant results with cross-validation (q2 value of 0.597 and correlation coefficients (r2 of 0.897. Moreover, five different fields i.e., steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic, H-bond acceptor and H-bond donors were used to produce a CoMSIA model, with q2 and r2 of 0.602 and 0.98, respectively. The generated models were further validated by using an external test set. Both models display good predictive power with r2pred ≥ 0.8. The analysis of obtained CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps provided detailed insight for the promising modification of the barbituric acid derivatives with an enhanced biological activity.

  4. Construction of a simple optical sensor based on air stable lipid film with incorporated urease for the rapid detection of urea in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi; Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Methenitis, Constantinos

    2010-08-18

    This work describes the construction of a simple optical sensor for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of urea in milk using air stable lipid films with incorporated urease. The lipid film is stabilized on a glass filter by polymerization using UV (ultra-violet) radiation prior its use. Methacrylic acid was the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the crosslinker and 2,2'-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) was the initiator. Urease is incorporated within this mixture prior to the polymerization. The presence of the enzyme in these films quenched this fluorescence and the colour became similar to that of the filters without the lipid films. A drop of aqueous solution of urea provided a "switching on" of the fluorescence which allows the rapid detection of this compound at the levels of 10(-8) M concentrations. The investigation of the effect of potent interferences included a wide range of compounds usually found in foods and also of proteins and lipids. These lipid membranes were used for the rapid detection of urea in milk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D-QSAR Studies on Barbituric Acid Derivatives as Urease Inhibitors and the Effect of Charges on the Quality of a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Ashraf, Sajda; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Barakat, Assem

    2016-04-30

    Urease enzyme (EC 3.5.1.5) has been determined as a virulence factor in pathogenic microorganisms that are accountable for the development of different diseases in humans and animals. In continuance of our earlier study on the helicobacter pylori urease inhibition by barbituric acid derivatives, 3D-QSAR (three dimensional quantitative structural activity relationship) advance studies were performed by Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) methods. Different partial charges were calculated to examine their consequences on the predictive ability of the developed models. The finest developed model for CoMFA and CoMSIA were achieved by using MMFF94 charges. The developed CoMFA model gives significant results with cross-validation (q²) value of 0.597 and correlation coefficients (r²) of 0.897. Moreover, five different fields i.e., steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic, H-bond acceptor and H-bond donors were used to produce a CoMSIA model, with q² and r² of 0.602 and 0.98, respectively. The generated models were further validated by using an external test set. Both models display good predictive power with r²pred ≥ 0.8. The analysis of obtained CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps provided detailed insight for the promising modification of the barbituric acid derivatives with an enhanced biological activity.

  6. Promotion of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and increase of bone-bonding ability in vivo using urease-treated titanium coated with calcium phosphate and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhong-Ming; Qi, Yi-Ying; Du, Shao-Hua; Feng, Gang; Unuma, Hidero; Yan, Wei-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Because of its excellent biocompatibility and low allergenicity, titanium has been widely used for bone replacement and tissue engineering. To produce a desirable composite with enhanced bone response and mechanical strength, in this study bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) and gelatin composites were coated onto titanium (Ti) via a novel urease technique. The cellular responses to the CaP/gelatin/Ti (CaP/gel/Ti) and bone bonding ability were evaluated with proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti in vitro. The results showed that the optical density values, alkaline phosphatase expression and genes expression of MSCs on CaP/gel/Ti were similar to those on CaP/Ti, yet significantly higher than those on pure Ti (p layer. An interfacial layer, containing Ti, Ca and P, was found to form at the interface between bone and the implant on all three groups by EDS analysis. However, the content of Ca, P in the surface of CaP/gel/Ti implants was more than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti modified by the urease method was not only beneficial for MSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, but also favorable for bone bonding ability on Ti implants in vivo, suggesting that Ti functionalized with CaP and gelatin might have a great potential in clinical joint replacement or dental implants.

  7. A dip-and-read test strip for the determination of mercury(II) ion in aqueous samples based on urease activity inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Qing; Jiang, Guibin

    2002-11-01

    A sensitive dip-and-read test strip for the determination of mercury in aqueous samples based on the inhibition of urease reaction by the ion has been developed. The strip has a circular sensing zone that containing two layers: the top layer is a cellulose acetate membrane where urease is immobilized on it; the bottom layer is a pH indicator wafer that is impregnated with urea. The principle of the measurement is based on the disappearance of a yellow spot on the pH indicator wafer. The elapsing time until the disappearance of the spot which depends on the concentration of mercury(II) ion is measured with a stopwatch. Under the experimental conditions, as low as 0.2 ng/ml mercury can be observed with the detection range from 0.2 to 200 ng/ml in water. Organomercury compounds give essentially the same response as inorganic mercury. Heavy-metal ions such as Ag(I), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) as well as other sample matrixes basically do not interfere with the mercury measurement.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structures, and urease inhibition of an acetohydroxamate-coordinated oxovanadium(V) complex derived from N'-(3-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-methoxybenzohydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dan; Niu, Fang; Zhao, Xinlu; Yan, Ke-Xiang; Ye, Yu-Ting; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Mei; You, Zhonglu

    2015-05-01

    A new benzohydrazone compound N'-(3-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-methoxybenzohydrazide (H₂L) was prepared. Reaction of H₂L and acetohydroxamic acid (HAHA) with VO(acac)₂ in methanol gave the complex [VOL(AHA)]. Both H₂L and the oxovanadium complex were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. H₂L was also characterized by high-resolution mass spectrum. Thermal analysis of the oxovanadium complex was carried out. The benzohydrazone ligand, in its dianionic form, coordinates to V atom through the phenolate oxygen, imino nitrogen and enolate oxygen. The acetohydroxamic acid coordinates to V atom through the carbonyl oxygen and deprotonated hydroxyl oxygen. The V atom is in octahedral coordination. H₂L, HAHA and the oxovanadium complex were tested for their urease inhibitory activities. The percent inhibition at concentration of 100 μmol·L(-1) on Helicobacter pylori urease is 78% for the oxovanadium complex. The IC₅₀ value for the complex is 36.5 μmol·L(-1). Molecular docking study was performed to study the inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among medical workers in Moscow and Kazan according to ¹³С-urease breath test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Bordin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: The relevance of the problem is related to the lack of data on Helicobacter pylori (HP prevalence in Russia, which is associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and also, on the other hand, to the non-adherence of the doctors to the existing expert guidelines on diagnosis of this infection and HP eradication therapy.Aim: To assess the prevalence of HP among medical workers and their willingness to undergo eradication therapy.Materials and methods: A total of 315 medical workers (61 men and 254 women aged 18 to 76 years were examined, among them 221 in Moscow and 94 in Kazan. To assess the HP contamination rate, all participants performed a ¹³С-urease breath test with the “HELICARB” test kit according to the “four-point” technique. All participants were asked to complete the questionnaires to access the impact of social and occupational factors on the prevalence of HP.Results: HP was identified in 54.9% of the examined subjects, including 45.9% of men and 57.1% of women. The prevalence of HP in Moscow was substantially lower (49.8% than in Kazan (67%. The proportion of HP-positive subjects increased with age from 41.8% in those below 25 years of age to 76.9% in those above their 60s. 60.2% of married participants and 49% of the singles were HP-positive. Among doctors, HP prevalence rate was the largest in the endoscopy specialists (61.5% and internists (60.9%. Only 61.4% of HP-positive medical workers expressed their willingness to undergo eradication therapy.Conclusion: The study showed a high prevalence of HР in medical workers increasing with age. It is presumably related to hygiene habits and conditions during childhood of each generation; however, one cannot exclude their potential contamination during their occupational activities.

  10. HPLC-DAD analysis, antioxidant potential and anti-urease activity of Asparagus gracilis collected from District Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Sattar, Saadia; Ahmad, Bushra; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-09-23

    Asparagus gracilis subspecie of Asparagus capitatus Baker, is described as food and medicine for various ailments. In this study we investigated, its phenolic constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against various free radicals and anti-urease potential. Asparagus gracilis aerial parts collected from District Islamabad, Pakistan were extracted with crude methanol which was further fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated for extract and all the derived fractions. Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential. Antiurease activity of methanol extract and its derived fractions was also investigated. HPLC-DAD analysis of crude methanol extract was performed by using different phenolic standards. Ethyl acetate fraction expressed maximum content of flavonoids (240.6 ± 6.1 mg RE/g dry sample), phenolics (615 ± 13 mg GAE/g dry sample) and best antioxidant potential among different fractions of crude methanol extract. Hydrogen peroxide assay and hydroxyl, supeoxide, nitric oxide free radicals antioxidant assays as well as beta carotene assay showed significant correlation with flavonoid content while hydrogen peroxide, ABTS and lipid peroxidation assay displayed significant correlation with phenolic content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of important phenolics i.e. catechin (4.04 ± 0.02 μg/mg sample), caffeic acid (0.89 ± 0.003 μg/mg sample), rutin (24.58 ± 0.1 μg/mg sample), myricetin (1.13 ± 0.07 μg/mg sample) and quercetin (14.91 ± 0.09 μg/mg sample). Ethyl acetate fraction expressed lowest IC50 in antiurease activity. Correlation analysis of antiurease activity expressed significant correlation with flavonoids (P < 0.004) and phenolics (P < 0.02) proposing multipotent activity of

  11. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes.

  12. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Ren [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.

  13. SYNTHESES AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THE CYANIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-28

    (Received October 28, 2015; revised June 25, 2016) ... suggest that the Ni(II) ion is four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in ... However, there have been many studies on octahedral [M(CN)6]n- but little ... were synthesized and investigated by vibrational spectral (FT-IR and ..... Karaağaç, D.; Kürkçüoğlu, G.S. Bull.

  14. Molecular trees: from syntheses towards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardoin, N.; Astruc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular trees, also called dendrimers, arborols, cauliflowers, cascades or hyperbranched molecules, have been synthesized since their first observation in 1978 by divergent, convergent or combined methods, with various functions on the branches. The potential applications of these nanoscopic molecules are in the fields of biology (gene therapy, virus mimicking an vectorization) and molecular materials sciences (new polymers, adhesion, liquid crystals, etc). (authors). 236 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs., 8 schemes

  15. Novel stereocontrolled syntheses of tashiromine and epitashiromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loránd Kiss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel stereocontrolled approach has been developed for the syntheses of tashiromine and epitashiromine alkaloids from cyclooctene β-amino acids. The synthetic concept is based on the azetidinone opening of a bicyclic β-lactam, followed by oxidative ring opening through ring C–C double bond and reductive ring-closure reactions of the cis- or trans-cyclooctene β-amino acids.

  16. Spurious in PLL-DDS frequency synthesizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Věnceslav František; Štursa, Jarmil

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2002), s. 48-51 ISSN 1335-8243. [Digital Signal Processing and Multimedia Communications DSP-MCOM 2001 /5./. Košice, 27.11.2001-29.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : frequency synthesizers * phase locked loops * direct digital synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Cross-resistance patterns to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) conferred by different combinations of ALS isozymes with a Pro-197-Thr mutation or a novel Trp-574-Leu mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Yongzhi; Jiao, Hongtao; Mei, Yu; Li, Xuefeng; Zheng, Mingqi

    2017-03-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the common target of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and target-site ALS mutations are the main mechanism of resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In this study, ALS1 and ALS2 genes with full lengths of 2004bp and 1998bp respectively were cloned in individual plants of susceptible (S) or resistant (R) flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) populations. Two ALS mutations of Pro-197-Thr and/or Trp-574-Leu were identified in plants of three R biotypes (HB24, HB30 and HB42). In order to investigate the function of ALS isozymes in ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance, pHB24 (a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2), pHB42 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2) and pHB30 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS2) subpopulations individually homozygous for different ALS mutations were generated. Individuals of pHB30 had mutations in each isozyme of ALS and had higher resistance than pHB24 and pHB42 populations containing mutations in only one ALS isozyme. Moreover, the pHB24 had resistance to SU, TP and SCT herbicides, whereas pHB24 and pHB42 had resistance to these classes of herbicides as well as IMI and PTB herbicides. The sensitivity of isolated ALS enzyme to inhibition by herbicides in these populations correlated with whole plant resistance levels. Therefore, reduced ALS sensitivity resulting from the mutations in ALS was responsible for resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in flixweed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunologic properties and therapeutic efficacy of a multivalent epitope-based vaccine against four Helicobacter pylori adhesins (urease, Lpp20, HpaA, and CagL) in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Le; Yin, Runting; Xu, Guangxian; Gong, Xiaojuan; Chang, Zisong; Hong, Dantong; Liu, Hongpeng; Ding, Shuqin; Han, Xuebo; Li, Yuan; Tang, Feng; Liu, Kunmei

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic vaccination is a desirable alternative for controlling Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and adhesins, which are on the surface of H. pylori, play a pivotal role in binding to human gastric mucosa. In the present study, we constructed a multivalent epitope-based vaccine named CFAdE with seven carefully selected antigenic fragments from four H. pylori adhesins (urease, Lpp20, HpaA and CagL). The specificity, immunogenicity and ability to produce neutralizing antibodies of CFAdE were evaluated in BALB/c mice. After that, its therapeutic efficacy and protective immune mechanisms were explored in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. The results indicated that CFAdE could induce comparatively high levels of specific antibodies against urease, Lpp20, HpaA and CagL. Additionally, oral therapeutic immunization with CFAdE plus polysaccharide adjuvant (PA) significantly decreased H. pylori colonization compared with oral immunization with urease plus PA, and the protection was correlated with IgG and sIgA antibody and antigen-specific CD4 + T cells. This study indicated that the multivalent epitope-based vaccine, which targeted multiple adhesins in adherence of H. pylori to the gastric mucosa, is more effective than the univalent vaccine targeting urease only. This multivalent epitope-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic candidate vaccine against H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Urease activity and its relation to soil organic matter, microbial biomass nitrogen and urea-nitrogen assimilation by maize in a Brazilian oxisol under no-tillage and tillage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Vasconcellos, C.A.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Guedes, G.A.A.; Fernandes, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationship between urease activity (UA) and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass N (Nbiom) content, and urea-N fertilizer assimilation by maize in a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplustox) cultivated for 9 years under no-tillage (NT), tillage with a disc plough (DP), and tillage

  20. ANALISYS OF FRACTIONAL-N FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Shakhtarin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern information and control systems cannot be imagined without synchronization subsystems. These are the basic elements that provide tracking of the frequency and phase of reference and information signals, the evaluation of information parameters, and the synthesis of reference and clock signals. Frequency synthesizers (FS are widely used due to the high speed of frequency setting, a wide range of frequency grids and minimal phase noise in the operating frequency range. Since with the mass appearance of specialized microprocessors and with the improvement of automatic design systems, the feasibility and repeatability of products has become simpler, digital FS are increasingly being used. The most widely used are FS with a frequency divider on digital elements, which serves to convert the signal of a reference oscillator and a controlled generator. For FS using a divisor with an integer division factor in the feedback loop, there are a number of limitations, such as the lower frequency of the FS and the frequency step of the FS. To solve this problem, divisors with fractional-variable division factors in the feedback loop are used, which allow to obtain the required range and the grid frequency step of the FS. The methods of improving the quality of spectral and dynamic characteristics of digital synthesizers in a given band of frequency detuning are analyzed. The principles of the FS operation with a divisor with a fractionalvariable fission coefficient are described, and structural schemes are given. The results of imitation simulation in the Simulink system of the software package MATLAB of frequency synthesizers with a divisor with a fractional-variable fission factor implemented in various ways are presented, and a comparative analysis of the spectral characteristics of the obtained models is carried out.