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Sample records for urban vegetable farming

  1. Technical inefficiency in dry season vegetable farming among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stochastic production frontier function is applied to estimate output-oriented technical inefficiency of urban women cultivating waterleaf. By means of MLE, asymptotically consistent and efficient maximum likelihood (ML) estimates are obtained together with inefficiency determinants. Empirical result reveals the mean level of ...

  2. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  3. The impact of the expansion of urban vegetable farming on malaria transmission in major cities of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindé Gazard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban agricultural practices are expanding in several cities of the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the impact of such practices on transmission of the malaria parasite in major cities of Benin. Method A cross sectional entomological study was carried out from January to December 2009 in two vegetable farming sites in southern Benin (Houeyiho and Acron and one in the northern area (Azèrèkè. The study was based on sampling of mosquitoes by Human Landing Catches (HLC in households close to the vegetable farms and in others located far from the farms. Results During the year of study, 71,678 female mosquitoes were caught by HLC of which 25% (17,920/71,678 were Anopheles species. In the areas surveyed, the main malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum was transmitted in the south by Anopheles gambiae s.s. Transmission was high during the two rainy seasons (April to July and October to November but declined in the two dry seasons (December to March and August to September. In the north, transmission occurred from June to October during the rainy season and was vehicled by two members of the An. gambiae complex: Anopheles gambiae s.s. (98% and Anopheles arabiensis (2%. At Houeyiho, Acron and Azèrèkè, the Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIRs and the Human Biting Rates (HBRs were significantly higher during the dry season in Households Close to Vegetable Farms (HCVF than in those located far from the vegetable areas (HFVF (p 0.05. The knock-down resistance (kdr mutation was the main resistance mechanism detected at high frequency (0.86 to 0.91 in An. gambiae s.l. at all sites. The ace-1R mutation was also found but at a very low frequency ( Conclusion These findings showed that communities living close to vegetable farms are permanently exposed to malaria throughout the year, whereas the risk in those living far from such agricultural practices is limited and only critical during the rainy seasons. Measures must be

  4. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on Vegetables Grown in Long-term Wastewater Irrigated Urban Farming Sites in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lente, I.; Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment was done of heavy-metal contamination and its related health risks in urban vegetable farming in Accra. Samples of irrigation water (n = 120), soil (n = 144) and five different kinds of vegetable (n = 240) were collected and analyzed for copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel an...

  5. A case study of air quality above an urban roof top vegetable farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zheming; Whitlow, Thomas H.; Landers, Andrew; Flanner, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The effect of elevation and rooftop configuration on local air quality was investigated at the Brooklyn Grange rooftop farm during a short-term observational campaign. Using multiple particle counters and sonic anemometers deployed along vertical gradients, we found that PM_2_._5 concentration decayed with height above the street. Samples adjacent to the street had the highest average PM_2_._5 concentration and frequent stochastic spikes above background. Rooftop observations 26 m above ground showed 7–33% reductions in average PM_2_._5 concentration compared with the curbside and had far fewer spikes. A relationship between the vertical extinction rate of PM_2_._5 and atmospheric stability was found whereby less unstable atmosphere and greater wind shear led to greater PM_2_._5 extinction due to damped vertical motion of air. - Highlights: • PM_2_._5 concentrations on a rooftop farm were 7–33% lower than at ground level. • Rooftop plantings will remove less pollution due to the less steep concentration gradient. • Vegetables are exposed to less vehicular pollution on roofs than that at ground level. - PM_2_._5 concentrations on a rooftop farm were 7–33% below those at ground level, and the vertical extinction rate of PM_2_._5 varied with the atmospheric stability, and a perimeter wall was the dominant factor governing rooftop boundary layer thickness.

  6. Safe Re-use Practices in Wastewater-Irrigated Urban Vegetable Farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Abaidoo, R.C; Beernaerts, I.

    2012-01-01

    of stakeholders at different levels along the food chain. This paper presents an overview of safe re-use practices including farm-based water treatment methods, water application techniques, post-harvest handling practices, and washing methods. The overview is based on a comprehensive analysis of the literature......Irrigation using untreated wastewater poses health risks to farmers and consumers of crop products, especially vegetables. With hardly any wastewater treatment in Ghana, a multiple-barrier approach was adopted and safe re-use practices were developed through action research involving a number...... and our own specific studies, which used data from a broad range of research methods and approaches. Identifying, testing, and assessment of safe practices were done with the active participation of key actors using observations, extensive microbiological laboratory assessments, and field...

  7. A case study of air quality above an urban roof top vegetable farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Whitlow, Thomas H; Landers, Andrew; Flanner, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The effect of elevation and rooftop configuration on local air quality was investigated at the Brooklyn Grange rooftop farm during a short-term observational campaign. Using multiple particle counters and sonic anemometers deployed along vertical gradients, we found that PM2.5 concentration decayed with height above the street. Samples adjacent to the street had the highest average PM2.5 concentration and frequent stochastic spikes above background. Rooftop observations 26 m above ground showed 7-33% reductions in average PM2.5 concentration compared with the curbside and had far fewer spikes. A relationship between the vertical extinction rate of PM2.5 and atmospheric stability was found whereby less unstable atmosphere and greater wind shear led to greater PM2.5 extinction due to damped vertical motion of air. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  9. Air Inflated Greenhouse as Urban Farming Facilities: Architectural Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Syed Zainol; Nasihien, Ronny D; Budiyanto, Hery

    2017-01-01

    Urban Farming utilizing land intensification, in order to meet the needs of fresh vegetables and fruits everyday for the community residential / housing in urban areas. Air Inflated Greenhouse as urban farming facilities, can be built and transferred to a residential location / specific housing is easy, safe, fast and lightweight (0,55mm PVC tarpaulin) so that urban farming products closer to consumers in urban settlements, the price impact getting cheaper, but quality. Long-term goal is to d...

  10. Development of vegetable farming: a cause of the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae in urban areas of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadouleton, Anges William M; Asidi, Alex; Djouaka, Rousseau F; Braïma, James; Agossou, Christian D; Akogbeto, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Background A fast development of urban agriculture has recently taken place in many areas in the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the rapid expansion of urban agriculture especially, its contribution to the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of sociological data by interviewing vegetable farmers regarding various agricultural practices and the types of pesticides used. Bioassay tests were performed to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various agricultural insecticides and biochemical analysis were done to characterize molecular status of population of An. gambiae. Results This research showed that: (1) The rapid development of urban agriculture is related to unemployment observed in cities, rural exodus and the search for a balanced diet by urban populations; (2) Urban agriculture increases the farmers' household income and their living standard; (3) At a molecular level, PCR revealed the presence of three sub-species of An. gambiae (An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles melas and Anopheles arabiensis) and two molecular forms (M and S). The kdr west mutation recorded in samples from the three sites and more specifically on the M forms seems to be one of the major resistance mechanisms found in An. gambiae from agricultural areas. Insecticide susceptibility tests conducted during this research revealed a clear pattern of resistance to permethrin (76% mortality rate at Parakou; 23.5% at Porto-Novo and 17% at Cotonou). Conclusion This study confirmed an increase activity of the vegetable farming in urban areas of Benin. This has led to the use of insecticide in an improper manner to control vegetable pests, thus exerting a huge selection pressure on mosquito larval population, which resulted to the emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. PMID:19442297

  11. Farming of Vegetables in Space-Limited Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Vegetables that contain most of the essential components of human nutrition are perishable and cannot be stocked. To secure vegetable supply in space limited cities such as Singapore, there are different farming methods to produce vegetables. These include low-cost urban community gardening and innovative rooftop and vertical farms integrated with various technologies such as hydroponics, aquaponics and aeroponics. However, for large-scale vegetable production in space-limited Singapore, we need to develop farming systems that not only increase productivity many-fold per unit of land but also produce all types of vegetable, all year-round for today and the future. This could be resolved through integrated vertical aeroponic farming system. Manipulation of root-zone (RZ) environments such as cooling the RZ, modifying mineral nutrients and introducing elevated RZ CO2 using aeroponics can further boost crop productivity beyond what can be achieved from more efficient use of land area. We could also adopt energy saving light emitting diodes (LEDs) for vertical aeroponic farming system to promote uniform growth and to improve the utilisation of limited space via shortening the growth cycle, thus improving vegetable production in a cost-effective manner.

  12. Reuse of wastewater in urban farming and urban planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    status of wastewater reuse in urban farming in Katsina, an important urban area in the semi arid ... officially registered with the Katsina Urban Planning Authority. ..... crop production in the water-short Guanajuato river basin. Mexico. Res. Rep.

  13. Urban farming model in South Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, E.

    2018-01-01

    The development of infrastructure rapidly, large of population and large of urbanization. Meanwhile, agricultural land is decreasing and agricultural production continues to decline. The productive crops is needed for consumption and it is also to improve the environment from oxygen provisioning, antidote to air pollution and to improve soil conditions. The use of yard land for horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants), spices, medicines, herbs etc. can benefit for the owners of the yard particularly and the general public. The purpose of this research is to identify the model of home yard utilization, mosque yard, office, school, urban park and main road and sub main road, which can improve environmental quality in Pesanggrahan district. The method of analysis used descriptive analysis method by observation. Then analyzed the percentage of the use of yard with productive crops as urban farming. The results showed that the most productive crops were planted in Kelurahan Pesanggrahan 67% which compared with in Kelurahan Ulujami 47%, and in Kelurahan Petukangan Utara 27%. The most types of productive crops were grown as fruit trees and vegetable crops.

  14. Urban farming activity towards sustainable wellbeing of urban dwellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N.; Mohamad, M.; Latip, R. A.; Ariffin, M. H.

    2018-02-01

    In Malaysia, urban farming is viewed as a catalyst towards achieving the well-being of urban dwellers and natural environment. Urban farming is a strategy for Malaysia’s food and economic security, and as one of the foci in the agriculture transformation whereby urban dwellers are encouraged to participate in this activity. Previous study proved that urban farming can help to address social problems of food security, urban poverty and high living cost, also provides leisure and recreation among urban dwellers. Thus, this study investigates the best urban farming practices suitable for urban setting, environment and culture of urban dwellers. Data collection was done via questionnaire survey to urban farmers of a selected community garden in Subang Jaya, Selangor. Meanwhile, on-site observations were carried out on gardening activities and the gardens’ physical attributes. The study sample encompasses of 131 urban farmers of 22 community gardens in Subang Jaya. It was found that most of the community gardens practiced crops planting on the ground or soil base planting and dwellers in the lower income group with monthly low household income constitutes the majority (83.2%) of the respondents. Social and health benefits are the highest motivating factors for urban farmers. This study provides unprecedented insights on urban farming practices and motivations in a Malaysian setting.

  15. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  16. Production and marketing challenges of vegetable farming: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and marketing challenges of vegetable farming: a case study of Kumasi metropolis of Ashanti region, Ghana. ... Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geohelminths are soil-transmitted parasitic nematodes which present a potential public health hazard in Nigeria. The present study examined soil samples for the incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena Community. Two hundred (200) soil samples were collected from five vegetable and fruits ...

  18. Foodborne pathogens and their risk exposure factors associated with farm vegetables in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Reij, Martine W.; Middendorp, van Gerrieke; Bouw, El; Plaats, van der Rozemarijn; Franz, Eelco; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Bagabe, Mark Cyubahiro; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Joosten, Han

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we tested farm vegetables and agricultural water for the presence of foodborne pathogens, and evaluated farming practices of vegetable farms in Rwanda. Farm vegetable samples were found to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at considerably high rate (overall 15/99 = 15%).

  19. Validation of good agricultural practices (GAP) on Minnesota vegetable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Karin E; Umber, Jamie; Hultberg, Annalisa; Tong, Cindy; Schermann, Michele; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Bender, Jeff B

    2015-02-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Agriculture jointly published the "Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables," which is used as a basis for Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) audits. To understand barriers to incorporation of GAP by Minnesota vegetable farmers, a mail survey completed in 2008 was validated with visits to a subset of the farms. This was done to determine the extent to which actual practices matched perceived practices. Two hundred forty-six producers completed the mail survey, and 27 participated in the on-farm survey. Over 75% of the on-farm survey respondents produced vegetables on 10 acres or less and had 10 or fewer employees. Of 14 questions, excellent agreement between on-farm interviews and mail survey responses was observed on two questions, four questions had poor or slight agreement, and eight questions had no agreement. Ninety-two percent of respondents by mail said "they took measures to keep animals and pests out of packing and storage buildings." However, with the on-site visit only 45% met this requirement. Similarly, 81% of respondents by mail said "measures were taken to reduce the risk of wild and/or domestic animals entering into fruit and vegetable growing areas." With direct observation, 70% of farms actually had taken measures to keep animals out of the growing areas. Additional, on-farm assessments were done regarding employee hygiene, training, presence of animals, water sources, and composting practices. This validation study demonstrated the challenge of creating nonleading and concise questions that are not open to broad interpretation from the respondents. If mail surveys are used to assess GAP, they should include open-ended questions and ranking systems to better assess farm practices. To provide the most accurate survey data for educational purposes or GAP audits, on-farm visits are recommended.

  20. Urbanization, urban climate and influence of vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese

    and consequent problems. Through these papers, the project contributes to: 1) the science of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) by introducing methods that improve LULC classification accuracies, and an improved method of spatial thermal climate analyses, 2) better understanding of urban......, contributes to the research gaps by considering examples from two cities in Ethiopia, namely Addis Ababa and Adama. The major sources of data used in this study were remotely sensed multi-temporal digital imagery from Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors, ground surveying of LULC, measurements of air temperature...... and humidity, and questionnaire surveying. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to analyze urbanization-induced dynamics of LULC and associated urban warming in five-year intervals between 1985 and 2010. LULC dynamics were analyzed applying post-classification change analysis using the Landsat...

  1. Urban environment and vegetation: comfort and urban heat island mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Magliocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the outcomes of an experimental simulation on the microclimatic effects and on thermal comfort of vegetation in urban environment, conducted by means of a three-dimensional microclimate model, ENVI- met 3.1. The simulation considers a wide range of hypothetical cases of typical city areas with different characteristics related to: building density, building height, vegetation type and density. The results of the study show how different combinations of amount and type of vegetation, density and height of buildings affect the urban heat island phenomenon in Mediterranean climate.

  2. Cities Farming for the Future : Urban Agriculture for Green and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cities Farming for the Future : Urban Agriculture for Green and Productive Cities. Couverture du livre Cities Farming for the Future : Urban Agriculture for Green and Productive Cities. Directeur(s):. René van Veenhuizen. Maison(s) d'édition: IIRR, RUAF, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN : 1930261144. 474 pages. e-ISBN :.

  3. Long-term outcomes of an urban farming internship program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Falxa Sonti; Lindsay Campbell; Michelle Johnson; S. Daftary-Steel

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the internship, including farming...

  4. Foodborne pathogens and their risk exposure factors associated with farm vegetables in Rwanda.

    OpenAIRE

    Ssemanda JN; Reij MW; Middendorp G van; Bouw E; van der Plaats R; Franz E; Mambo Muvunyi C; Bagabe MC; Zwietering MH; Joosten H

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we tested farm vegetables and agricultural water for the presence of foodborne pathogens, and evaluated farming practices of vegetable farms in Rwanda. Farm vegetable samples were found to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at considerably high rate (overall 15/99 = 15%). Specifically, the prevalence of pathogens in farm vegetables varied from 1.0% (1/99) for Listeria monocytogenes, 3.0% (3/99) for thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp., 5.1% (5/99) for Salmonella spp. to 6.1...

  5. Exploring options for sustainable development of vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:land use system, modeling, farming system, future-oriented studies, vegetables,

    The sustainable development of vegetable farms in South Uruguay requires the development of farming systems that contribute

  6. Vermiculture improves urban farming in Argentina | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... AGROPOLIS is a component of the Global Initiative of the Support Group on Urban ... Worldwide, some 800 million people are involved in urban ... ​Around the world, food insecurity affects an estimated 850 million people.

  7. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO 2 , anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  8. Long-Term Outcomes of an Urban Farming Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonti, Nancy Falxa; Campbell, Lindsay K.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Daftary-Steel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the…

  9. Effects of organic farming duration on field boundary vegetation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sune; Axelsen, Jørgen A.; Tybirk, Knud

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether organic dairy farming has increased the biological diversity of field boundary vegetation when compared to conventional dairy farming, and if increasing organic farming duration affected diversity. The diversity of plant species in field boundaries...... was found to be higher under organic than under conventional farming. Analysis of community patterns revealed that ruderal species and species with affinity to nutrient rich conditions were most common in conventional field borders, whereas stress-tolerant species were more abundant around organic farming....... These differences occurred only 3-4 years after conversion to organic farming....

  10. an analysis of urban irrigation farming and its urban planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... nutrients and organic matter to soil (Liu et al. ... food security and nutrition, and creating employment for the jobless .... women in selling foodstuffs, fish, meat and vegetables .... other hand, about 65% make use of chemical fertiliser. (NPK ...

  11. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R.; Young, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Trace metal uptake was measured for tropical and temperate leafy vegetables grown on soil from an urban sewage disposal farm in the UK. Twenty-four leafy vegetables from East Africa and the UK were assessed and the five vegetable types that showed the greatest Cd concentrations were grown on eight soils differing in the severity of contamination, pH and other physico-chemical properties. The range of Cd concentrations in the edible shoots was greater for tropical vegetables than for temperate types. Metal uptake was modelled as a function of (i) total soil metal concentration, (ii) CaCl 2 -soluble metal, (iii) soil solution concentration and (iv) the activity of metal ions in soil pore water. Tropical vegetables were not satisfactorily modelled as a single generic 'green vegetable', suggesting that more sophisticated approaches to risk assessment may be required to assess hazard from peri-urban agriculture in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Cadmium uptake by tropical green vegetables varies greatly between types. → Modelling metal uptake works best for Ni, Cd and Zn but is poor for Cu, Ba and Pb. → Modelling with dilute CaCl 2 extraction is as good as metal ion activity in pore water. - Trace metal uptake by tropical leaf vegetables can be predicted from dilute CaCl 2 extraction of soil but model parameters are genotype-specific.

  12. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Trace metal uptake was measured for tropical and temperate leafy vegetables grown on soil from an urban sewage disposal farm in the UK. Twenty-four leafy vegetables from East Africa and the UK were assessed and the five vegetable types that showed the greatest Cd concentrations were grown on eight soils differing in the severity of contamination, pH and other physico-chemical properties. The range of Cd concentrations in the edible shoots was greater for tropical vegetables than for temperate types. Metal uptake was modelled as a function of (i) total soil metal concentration, (ii) CaCl{sub 2}-soluble metal, (iii) soil solution concentration and (iv) the activity of metal ions in soil pore water. Tropical vegetables were not satisfactorily modelled as a single generic 'green vegetable', suggesting that more sophisticated approaches to risk assessment may be required to assess hazard from peri-urban agriculture in developing countries. - Research highlights: Cadmium uptake by tropical green vegetables varies greatly between types. Modelling metal uptake works best for Ni, Cd and Zn but is poor for Cu, Ba and Pb. Modelling with dilute CaCl{sub 2} extraction is as good as metal ion activity in pore water. - Trace metal uptake by tropical leaf vegetables can be predicted from dilute CaCl{sub 2} extraction of soil but model parameters are genotype-specific.

  13. Contributions of Local Farming to Urban Sustainability in the Northeast United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Fernandez, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Food consumption is an important contributor to a city’s environmental impacts (carbon emissions, land occupation, water use, etc.) Urban farming (UF) has been advocated as a means to increase urban sustainability by reducing food-related transport and tapping into local resources. Taking Boston...... land occupation/capita/annum) under optimal production scenarios, informing future evidence-based urban design and policy crafting in the region. Notwithstanding UF’s marginal environmental gains, UF could help Boston meet national nutritional guidelines for vegetable intake, generate an estimated $160...... million U.S. in revenue to growers and act as a pedagogical and community building tool, though these benefits would hinge on large-scale UF proliferation, likely undergirded by environmental remediation of marginal lands in the city....

  14. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Buehler; Ranka Junge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF). In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustai...

  15. How the LHC is inspiring a Smart Urban Farm Startup

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Rassat, KT group

    2016-01-01

    Innovative ideas blossom at the KT Entrepreneurship meet-ups.   Industrial control systems can be used in smart urban farms, for example for aquaponics. (Image: Exodes Urbains) The CERN Knowledge Transfer (KT) entrepreneurship meet-ups (or EM-Us) are the ideal place to discuss entrepreneurship and innovation at CERN. The latest inspiring story comes from a former CERN robotics engineer, Axel Voitier, who worked in the Engineering department. Having worked nearly a decade on managing data coming from the industrial control systems on the LHC, now he will be focusing on the data to help manage “smart urban farms”. Indeed, Axel is currently setting up a company dedicated to this new type of farming, an internet-of-things approach where control systems are used to manage urban farms automatically. “Data is the new petrol,” says Axel, “but I am interested in having a direct impact on the final users. This is why the security aspect is vital, because ev...

  16. Modeling the effects of urban vegetation on air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Patrick J. McHale; Myriam Ibarra; Daniel Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Chris J. Luley

    1998-01-01

    Urban vegetation can directly and indirectly affect local and regional air quality by altering the urban atmospheric environment. Trees affect local air temperature by transpiring water through their leaves, by blocking solar radiation (tree shade), which reduces radiation absorption and heat storage by various anthropogenic surfaces (e.g., buildings, roads), and by...

  17. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  18. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location

  19. Indicator microorganisms in fresh vegetables from “farm to fork” in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Reij, Martine; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Joosten, Han; Zwietering, Marcel H.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial safety of ready-to-eat vegetables is currently a global concern. We studied indicator microorganisms in fresh vegetables from “farm to fork” in Rwanda, to identify possible trends in microbial counts along the supply chain in a developing country. A total of 453 samples were taken across

  20. JUSTIFICATION DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN DEHKAN FARMS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahira Ergasheva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article directions of development of vegetable production on the basis of an assessment of the growth dynamics of cultivated areas of vegetables in dehkan farms of the Republic of Tajikistan. In particular, factor analysis, index method, and found that the growth of the gross harvest of vegetables mainly driven by growth in acreage and yield growth, and therefore it is justified as the development direction of the necessity of transition to an additive method of management.

  1. EVALUATING THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF SMALLHOLDER VEGETABLE FARMS IN DIVERSE AGROECOLOGICAL REGIONS OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Bahadur Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the efficiency of vegetable farms is crucial to increase the vegetable outputs for meeting the demand for growing population. This study evaluated the technical efficiency and explored factors determining the efficiencies of smallholder vegetable farms in diversified agro-ecological regions using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA with cross-section data collected in 2013. The results revealed that average technical efficiency was found to be 0.77 and the variance parameters were highly significant indicating that the inefficiency existed in vegetable farms. The inefficiency gap could improve by operating the farms at the frontier level. The input variables consisting of land, labor, animal power, fertilizer, compost, pesticide, and capital were proved to be the important factors in determining the level of outputs. Meanwhile, the major sources of the inefficiencies identified were: age of farmer, training to the farmers, and infrastructure development. The efficiency in vegetable production can be improved by allocating input resources at the optimum levels, encouraging younger farmers in vegetable production, increasing training and extension activities, enhancing market access to the farmers, and developing infrastructures with regard to vegetable production.

  2. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-01-01

    Cities experiencing elevated temperature (i.e., urban “heat island” warming), CO2, and nitrogen deposition decades ahead of the projected average global change are regarded as the “harbingers” of the future global change. It is for this reason that cities have been regarded as ideal natural laboratories for global change studies and particularly valuable to elucidate the potential responses of other nonurban ecosystems to future climate and environmental changes. However, the impacts of urban...

  3. Extraction of urban vegetation with Pleiades multiangular images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Antoine; Nabucet, Jean; Corpetti, Thomas; Courty, Nicolas; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation is essential in urban environments since it provides significant services in terms of health, heat, property value, ecology ... As part of the European Union Biodiversity Strategy Plan for 2020, the protection and development of green-infrastructures is strengthened in urban areas. In order to evaluate and monitor the quality of the green infra-structures, this article investigates contributions of Pléiades multi-angular images to extract and characterize low and high urban vegetation. From such images one can extract both spectral and elevation information from optical images. Our method is composed of 3 main steps : (1) the computation of a normalized Digital Surface Model from the multi-angular images ; (2) Extraction of spectral and contextual features ; (3) a classification of vegetation classes (tree and grass) performed with a random forest classifier. Results performed in the city of Rennes in France show the ability of multi-angular images to extract DEM in urban area despite building height. It also highlights its importance and its complementarity with contextual information to extract urban vegetation.

  4. The Parasitic Contamination of Farm Vegetables in Asadabad City, West of Iran, in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is a basic component of a healthy diet. Thus, the consumption of vegetables can have an important role in public health. Objectives Because of this concern, a prevalence study of parasitic contamination was carried out on raw vegetables to estimate the human risk of parasitic infections in Asadabad city, west of Iran. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 383 samples of different vegetables were obtained randomly from 12 vegetable farms in and around Asadabad. These samples included 10 types of seasonal vegetables: coriander, radish, spring onion, leek, parsley, tarragon, savory, basil, mint, and cress. The samples were examined by two parasitological methods: sedimentation and floatation techniques. Results Parasitic contaminations were detected in 34 (8.4% vegetable samples, including five pathogenic and two non-pathogenic parasites. The parasites identified were Giardia intestinalis (1.6%, Entamoeba coli (2.6%, Toxocara spp. (0.8%, Fasciola spp. (0.5%, Taenia spp. (0.3%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.3%, and free-living larvae (2.3%. Among the infested samples, coriander was the most contaminated vegetable (15.8%. The relationship between contamination of vegetables and untreated water used on farms was significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions The results implicate the importance of consumption of vegetables in the spread of parasitic diseases in the studied region. Thus, some basic hygiene measures should be carried out to improve public health and reduce infectious disease rates.

  5. Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susca, T.; Gaffin, S.R.; Dell'Osso, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 deg. C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO 2 equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role. - Highlights: → The local morphology and the scarcity of vegetation in NYC core determines its UHI. → We introduce the evaluation of the effects of the surface albedo on climate change. → We use it to compare a black roof with a white and a green one. → Surface albedo has a crucial role in the evaluation of the environmental loads of the roofs. → Vegetation has positive effects on both the urban and the building scale. - Vegetation has positive effects both on an urban scale, mitigating the urban heat island effect; and on a building scale, where albedo, thermal insulation and biological activity of plants play a crucial role.

  6. Envisioning Urban Farming for Food Security during the Climate Change Era. Vertical Farm within Highly Urbanized Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Jarmusz, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Global climate change constitutes a serious threat to global security including food production in the following decades. This paper is focused on a new possibility and advisability of creating a systemic solution to resolve the problem of food security in highly-urbanized areas. The first part of the paper deal with historical development vertical farms ideas and defines the main environmental and spatial constrains also it indicates that vertical farms are going to be part of the future horticultural production. The second part presents results of the research program undertaken at West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin by authors. The program goes on to attempt to solve the problem through architectural design. This study highlights an integrating large-scale horticultural production directly into the cities, where the most of the food consumption takes place. In conclusions emphasizes, that the design will force architects, engineers and urban planners to completely revise and redefine contemporary design process and understanding of the idea-fix of sustainable design. To successfully migrate food production from extensive rural areas to dense environment of city centres, a new holistic approach, integrating knowledge and advances of multiple fields of science, have to develop.

  7. Heavy metals in vegetables sampled from farm and market sites in Accra metropolis, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordjour, Linda Addae

    2015-07-01

    This study reports for the first time in Ghana long-term monitoring of heavy metal contamination of vegetables. As reliable residue data analysis resulting from monitoring programs in foods is of great value to the general populace; this could address the possible risk of heavy metal exposure to human health. In this study, monitoring of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in consumable vegetables was assessed for a period of 2 years, 2013-2014. In all, a total of 479 vegetables (cabbage (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), green pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa)) were purchased from farm (production) and market sites within Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Samples were subjected to acid digestion and analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). All the vegetables studied contained at least two (2) or more metals; 18.99% of the samples had metal detections below the European Union (EU) guideline values, whereas 81% were above limits. Vegetables from Mallam Attah market and the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) sites registered the highest percentage exceedances (100%) with the largest violation occurring in lettuce (97.41%). Elevated concentrations of these metals were also observed in vegetables from markets compared to the farms except As, Cd, Co and Fe. Ni and Cr were undetected in vegetables from farms, however their maximum concentrations (1.236 and 2.459 mg/kg) were recorded in lettuce at market sites. Additionally, the significant metal increases in vegetables from the markets could be due to atmospheric depositions and mode of handling by both farmers and buyers. On the other hand, studies of the soils from the various farm sites had varying mean concentrations of heavy metals, Fe (189.703), Mn (142.246) and As (9.145 mg/kg). However, all the metal levels in the soil were below EU limits, except As (24.2 mg/kg) found at Dzorwulu site, which exceeded the 20.0 mg/kg limit for As in

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Urban Community Gardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Katherine; Packnett, Elizabeth; Miles, Richard A.; Kruger, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between household participation in a community garden and fruit and vegetable consumption among urban adults. Design: Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional random phone survey conducted in 2003. A quota sampling strategy was used to ensure that all census tracts within the city were represented. Setting:…

  9. Effect of vegetation on urban climate and healthy urban colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S.H.; Murthy, M.S.R.; Bhagya Lakshmi, O.; Shylaja, G. (Ecology and Environmental Biology Lab., Dept. of Botany, Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India))

    1991-01-01

    The role of plants in developing a healthy atmosphere is very desirable in the context of deteriorating environment resulting from increased urbanization, industrialization and improper environmental management. This investigation has attempted to screen plants for their ability to improve the design and development of healthy environments around buildings and urban centres of Hyderabad. Ability index values were computed on the basis of canopy area, physiological characters of trees growing in polluted environments, pollution stress and population load. Azadirachta indica, Pithecolobium dulce and Cassia fistula are suggested for plantations around buildings and urban centres for minimizing pollution. Certain susceptible trees like Pongamia glabra and Polyalthia longifolia have been suggested in the diagnosis and investigation of air quality through biological means. (orig.).

  10. Nutrient management on vegetable farms; what will be the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, R.; Groenwold, J.; Rovers, J.A.J.M.; Clevering, O.A.; Pijnenberg, H.; Hekkert, M.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Production of field vegetables is known for its high nitrogen input and consequently high nitrogen losses towards the environment. All over the world research tries to find opportunities to reduce these losses. In 2000 the Dutch government initiated and funded a research project (Telen met toekomst)

  11. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  12. A temperature and vegetation adjusted NTL urban index for urban area mapping and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiya; Li, Peijun

    2018-01-01

    Accurate and timely information regarding the extent and spatial distribution of urban areas on regional and global scales is crucially important for both scientific and policy-making communities. Stable nighttime light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) provides a unique proxy of human settlement and activity, which has been used in the mapping and analysis of urban areas and urbanization dynamics. However, blooming and saturation effects of DMSP/OLS NTL data are two unresolved problems in regional urban area mapping and analysis. This study proposed a new urban index termed the Temperature and Vegetation Adjusted NTL Urban Index (TVANUI). It is intended to reduce blooming and saturation effects and to enhance urban features by combining DMSP/OLS NTL data with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Terra satellite. The proposed index was evaluated in two study areas by comparison with established urban indices. The results demonstrated the proposed TVANUI was effective in enhancing the variation of DMSP/OLS light in urban areas and in reducing blooming and saturation effects, showing better performance than three established urban indices. The TVANUI also significantly outperformed the established urban indices in urban area mapping using both the global-fixed threshold and the local-optimal threshold methods. Thus, the proposed TVANUI provides a useful variable for urban area mapping and analysis on regional scale, as well as for urbanization dynamics using time-series DMSP/OLS and related satellite data.

  13. Systematic design and evaluation of crop rotations enhancing soil conservation, soil fertility and farm income: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid changes in the social and economic environment in which agriculture is developing, together with the deterioration of the natural resource base threatens sustainability of farm systems in many areas of the world. For vegetable farms in South Uruguay, survival in the long term depends upon the

  14. Spatial Modeling of Urban Vegetation and Land Surface Temperature: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudong Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The coupling relationship between urban vegetation and land surface temperature (LST has been heatedly debated in a variety of environmental studies. This paper studies the urban vegetation information and LST by utilizing a series of remote sensing imagery covering the period from 1990 to 2007. Their coupling relationship is analyzed, in order to provide the basis for ecological planning and environment protection. The results show that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, urban vegetation abundance (UVA and urban forest abundance (UFA are negatively correlated with LST, which means that both urban vegetation and urban forest are capable in decreasing LST. The apparent influence of urban vegetation and urban forest on LST varies with the spatial resolution of the imagery, and peaks at the resolutions ranging from 90 m to 120 m.

  15. Determination of pesticide residue levels in omani and UAE vegetable farm soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukder, F.A.; Dahmani, J.H.A.; Kaakeh, W.; Deadman, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    In the investigation of 40 different vegetable growing farms of Al-Batinah (Oman) and Al - Ain (UAE) regions different pesticide residues were found to be present on all soil samples which varied in their types and levels according to the region. In Omani soil samples, cypermethrin was the most frequent pesticide, followed by chlorpyrifos, malathion, phenthoate, triazophos and deltamethrin. In UAE farm soil samples, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and deltamethrin were detected in all the regions, while phenthoate was detected in the Eastern and Northern regions only. (author)

  16. Levels of cadmium, lead, cooper and zinc in vegetables cultivated in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares R, S.; Garcia C, D.; Lima C, L.; Saborit S, I.; Llizo C, A.; Perez A, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report levels of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils and vegetables grown in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city. We studied 17 farms dedicated to urban agriculture in an area of two kilometers around the landfill -Calle 100- during 2006 and 2007. For the study, samples of the soil and all the vegetables ready to harvest were taken from the farms. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of heavy metals in agricultural soils varied in the following ranges: Cd(0.24-2.1 mg/kg), Cu(38.4-81.3 mg/kg), Pb(18.1-138.5 mg/kg) and Zn(44.1-294.7 mg/kg). For Zn and Pb, some farm soils (35 and 52% respectively) exceeded the ranges in which these metals are found in Cuban agricultural soils. For Pb, 23% of the soils exceeded levels considered phyto toxic and limits in some international standards. The 12.5% of the samples of vegetables collected exceeded the maximum permissible levels of this pollutant in food for human consumption set by Cuban and international standards. The results indicate the need for strict crop monitoring in the area. (Author)

  17. Industrial related contamination of peri-urban fresh vegetables. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansa, D.

    2003-01-01

    Major industries as pollution sources include aluminium smelting and processing, petroleum refining and processing, steel works, manufacturing of dry cell batteries, cement. Vegetables considered are cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion and Sweet pepper . Areas used for cultivation are backyard gardens, along drains, walkways, and streets. Urban markets Vegetables are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. MAIN OBJECTIVES: Determine the extent to which toxic element levels in foods are affected by surrounding industrial activities, Assess the human exposure to such contaminated foodstuffs. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Monitor As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Se, Sn and Mo in vegetables grown in the Tema Municipal District, due to pollution from industrial activity, Assess human exposure to such contaminated foods through monitoring of the distribution and marketing channels. METHODS: Identify sampling areas within the Tema municipality including (a) Identification of the growers and their marketing outlets and (b) Identifying the sources of water used for cultivation by means of a questionnaire; Quantify the level of toxic elements in the soil and water bodies used for the cultivation of vegetables, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Analyse foods from the farms at the selected sampling areas using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis

  18. Quantifying interception associated with new urban vegetation canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Interception of precipitation by vegetation canopies has long been recognized as an important component of the hydrologic cycle, though most research has been in closed or sparse canopy forests. Much less work has been published on interception by urban vegetation, and especially associated with the low growing shrubs commonly installed in green infrastructure program. To inform urban watershed model with vegetation-specific interception data, a field experiment was designed to directly measure canopy throughfall associated with two shrub species commonly included in urban greening programs. Data was collected at a high (e.g. five second) sampling frequency. A non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test performed on data collected between August and October of 2012 demonstrated statistically significant (p= 0.0011) differences in recorded throughfall between two species (94% for Itea virginica, 86% for Cornus sericea). Additionally, the results suggested that the relationship of throughfall to rainfall intensity varied by species. For Itea, the ratio of throughfall to precipitation intensity was close to 1:1. However, for Cornus, the throughfall rate was on average slower (or 0.85 of the precipitation intensity). An improved and expanded set-up installed in 2013 added two additional species (Prunus laurocerasus and Hydrangea quercifolia). The 2013 results confirm interspecies differences in both throughfall amount, and in the relationship of throughfall rate to precipitation intensity. The results are discussed with respect to droplet splashing and enhanced evaporation within the canopy. Both years' findings suggest that the quantity of water intercepted by vegetation canopies exceeds the canopy storage capacity, as assumed in many conventional hydrologic models.

  19. Impact of vegetation growth on urban surface temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyadi, S N A; Mohd, W M N W; Misni, A

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that, the temperature distribution in the urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding suburban areas. The process of urbanization has created urban heat island (UHI). As a city expands, trees are cut down to accommodate commercial development, industrial areas, roads, and suburban growth. Trees or green areas normally play a vital role in mitigating the UHI effects especially in regulating high temperature in saturated urban areas. This study attempts to assess the effects of vegetation growth on land surface temperature (LST) distribution in urban areas. An area within the City of Shah Alam, Selangor has been selected as the study area. Land use/land cover and LST maps of two different dates are generated from Landsat 5 TM images of the year 1991 and 2009. Only five major land cover classes are considered in this study. Mono-window algorithm is used to generate the LST maps. Landsat 5 TM images are also used to generate the NDVI maps. Results from this study have shown that there are significant land use changes within the study area. Although the conversion of green areas into residential and commercial areas significantly increase the LST, matured trees will help to mitigate the effects of UHI

  20. Characterization of antibiotic resistant and pathogenic Escherichia coli in irrigation water and vegetables in household farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana; A T Silva, Isabel; Tacão, Marta; Patinha, Carla; Alves, Artur; Henriques, Isabel

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to characterize Escherichia coli present in irrigation water and vegetables from 16 household farms. Isolates were obtained from 50% of water (n=210 isolates) and 38% of vegetable samples (n=239). Phylogroups B1 (56% of isolates) and A (22%) were the most prevalent both in water and vegetables. Diarrheagenic strains were detected in vegetables. Irrespective of the source (i.e. water or vegetables), the most common antibiotic resistance was against streptomycin (89% resistant isolates) and tetracycline (24%). Common acquired genes (e.g. bla TEM , tetA, tetB) were found in isolates from both sources. Class I integrons were detected in water (arrays dfrA1-aadA1 and dfr16-blaP1b-aadA2-ereA) and vegetables (unknown arrays). intI2 was detected in water (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1). Plasmids were detected in 14 isolates (IncFIC, IncFIB, IncFrep, IncI1 in both samples; IncY in vegetables). Plasmids from seven isolates were transferrable by conjugation, conferring resistance to antibiotics to the recipient strain. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were isolated from water (12% of the unique isolates) and vegetables (21%). Predominant sequence types (STs) among MDR isolates were ST10, ST297 and ST2522. In some cases, the same STs and identical clones (as showed by rep-PCR typing) were detected in water and vegetables, suggesting cross-contamination. This study identified several risk factors in E. coli isolates from vegetables and irrigation water, raising health concerns. Also, results suggest that irrigation groundwater constitutes a source of E. coli that may enter the food chain through vegetables ingestion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Helmke, Katharina; Hölzel, Christina Susanne; Bauer, Johann

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P. putida. In P. aeruginosa, relatively low resistance rates were observed for the aminoglycosides amikacin, apramicin, gentamicin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (bacteria isolated from farm samples were higher than those of the retail markets whenever significant differences were observed. This suggests that expressing resistance is at the expense of bacterial viability, since vegetables purchased directly at the farm are probably fresher than at the supermarket, and they have not been exposed to stress factors. However, this should not keep the customer from buying directly at the farm, since the overall resistance rates were not higher than observed in bacteria from human or animal origin. Instead, peeling or washing vegetables before eating them raw is highly recommended, since it reduces not only the risk of contact with pathogens, but also that of ingesting and spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban agriculture: a global analysis of the space constraint to meet urban vegetable demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellozzo, F; Landry, J-S; Plouffe, D; Seufert, V; Ramankutty, N; Rowhani, P

    2014-01-01

    Urban agriculture (UA) has been drawing a lot of attention recently for several reasons: the majority of the world population has shifted from living in rural to urban areas; the environmental impact of agriculture is a matter of rising concern; and food insecurity, especially the accessibility of food, remains a major challenge. UA has often been proposed as a solution to some of these issues, for example by producing food in places where population density is highest, reducing transportation costs, connecting people directly to food systems and using urban areas efficiently. However, to date no study has examined how much food could actually be produced in urban areas at the global scale. Here we use a simple approach, based on different global-scale datasets, to assess to what extent UA is constrained by the existing amount of urban space. Our results suggest that UA would require roughly one third of the total global urban area to meet the global vegetable consumption of urban dwellers. This estimate does not consider how much urban area may actually be suitable and available for UA, which likely varies substantially around the world and according to the type of UA performed. Further, this global average value masks variations of more than two orders of magnitude among individual countries. The variations in the space required across countries derive mostly from variations in urban population density, and much less from variations in yields or per capita consumption. Overall, the space required is regrettably the highest where UA is most needed, i.e., in more food insecure countries. We also show that smaller urban clusters (i.e., <100 km 2 each) together represent about two thirds of the global urban extent; thus UA discourse and policies should not focus on large cities exclusively, but should also target smaller urban areas that offer the greatest potential in terms of physical space. (letters)

  3. Insectivorous bats respond to vegetation complexity in urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Ille, Christina; Bruckner, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Structural complexity is known to determine habitat quality for insectivorous bats, but how bats respond to habitat complexity in highly modified areas such as urban green spaces has been little explored. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether a recently developed measure of structural complexity is as effective as field-based surveys when applied to urban environments. We assessed whether image-derived structural complexity (MIG) was as/more effective than field-based descriptors in this environment and evaluated the response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity in urban green spaces. Bat activity and species richness were assessed with ultrasonic devices at 180 locations within green spaces in Vienna, Austria. Vegetation complexity was assessed using 17 field-based descriptors and by calculating the mean information gain (MIG) using digital images. Total bat activity and species richness decreased with increasing structural complexity of canopy cover, suggesting maneuverability and echolocation (sensorial) challenges for bat species using the canopy for flight and foraging. The negative response of functional groups to increased complexity was stronger for open-space foragers than for edge-space foragers. Nyctalus noctula , a species foraging in open space, showed a negative response to structural complexity, whereas Pipistrellus pygmaeus , an edge-space forager, was positively influenced by the number of trees. Our results show that MIG is a useful, time- and cost-effective tool to measure habitat complexity that complemented field-based descriptors. Response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity was group- and species-specific, which highlights the need for manifold management strategies (e.g., increasing or reinstating the extent of ground vegetation cover) to fulfill different species' requirements and to conserve insectivorous bats in urban green spaces.

  4. Altered vegetative assemblage trajectories within an urban brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J., E-mail: Gallagher@sebs.rutgers.edu [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko; Holzapfel, Claus [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 195 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Recognizing the growing importance of both structure (maintenance of biodiversity) and function (fostering natural cycles) of urban ecologies, we examine coarse scale (herbaceous, shrub and forest) beta guild trajectory in an urban brownfield. The distribution of the pioneer forest assemblage dominated by Betula populifolia Marsh. and Populus spp. could be correlated positively with total soil metal load (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, lead and vanadium),whereas herbaceous and shrub guilds were negatively correlated. Distinct assemblage development trajectories above and below a critical soil metal threshold are demonstrated. In addition, we postulate that the translocation of metals into the plant tissue of several dominant species may provide a positive feedback loop, maintaining relatively high concentrations of metals in the litter and soil. Therefore assembly theory, which allows for the development of alternate stable states, may provide a better model for the establishment of restoration objectives on degraded urban sites. - Highlights: > Forest distribution and total soil metal load yield strong positive correlations. > Shrub and herbaceous guild distribution and TML are negative and weaker. > Below a critical TML threshold transition between guilds exhibit a standard trajectory. > Above the critical TML threshold the shrub guild is virtually absent. > Metal cycling has the potential to lead to an alternative steady state. - High concentrationsof soil metals, impact the trajectory of vegetative assemblages in an urban brownfield leading to the speculation of an alternate stable state.

  5. Altered vegetative assemblage trajectories within an urban brownfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Frank J.; Pechmann, Ildiko; Holzapfel, Claus; Grabosky, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the growing importance of both structure (maintenance of biodiversity) and function (fostering natural cycles) of urban ecologies, we examine coarse scale (herbaceous, shrub and forest) beta guild trajectory in an urban brownfield. The distribution of the pioneer forest assemblage dominated by Betula populifolia Marsh. and Populus spp. could be correlated positively with total soil metal load (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, lead and vanadium),whereas herbaceous and shrub guilds were negatively correlated. Distinct assemblage development trajectories above and below a critical soil metal threshold are demonstrated. In addition, we postulate that the translocation of metals into the plant tissue of several dominant species may provide a positive feedback loop, maintaining relatively high concentrations of metals in the litter and soil. Therefore assembly theory, which allows for the development of alternate stable states, may provide a better model for the establishment of restoration objectives on degraded urban sites. - Highlights: → Forest distribution and total soil metal load yield strong positive correlations. → Shrub and herbaceous guild distribution and TML are negative and weaker. → Below a critical TML threshold transition between guilds exhibit a standard trajectory. → Above the critical TML threshold the shrub guild is virtually absent. → Metal cycling has the potential to lead to an alternative steady state. - High concentrationsof soil metals, impact the trajectory of vegetative assemblages in an urban brownfield leading to the speculation of an alternate stable state.

  6. An Examination of Tenure Security for Urban Crop Farming in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined issues surrounding tenure security of land for urban crop farming and identified constraints that must be dealt with in order to facilitate land accessibility and productivity of urban crop farmers in the Lagos metropolis. 475 respondents of seven communities were selected through simple random sampling ...

  7. Urban farming as a possible source of trace metals in human diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Olowoyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have greatly increased the concentrations of trace metals as pollutants in the urban environment. These pollutants (trace metals are more likely to have an adverse effect on peri-urban agriculture which is now becoming a permanent feature of the landscape of many urban cities in the world. This review reports on the concentrations of trace metals in crops, including leafy vegetables harvested from different urban areas, thus highlighting the presence of trace metals in leafy vegetables. Various pathways of uptake of trace metals by leafy vegetables, such as the foliar and roots, and possible health risks associated with urban faming are discussed and various morphological and physiological impacts of trace metals in leafy vegetables are described. Defensive mechanisms and positive aspects of trace metals in plants are also highlighted.

  8. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic

  9. Homogenization of vegetation structure across residential neighborhoods: effects of climate, urban morphology, and socio-economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is a key driver regulating vegetation structure across rural ecosystems. In urban ecosystems, multiple interactions between humans and the environment can have homogenizing influences, confounding the relationship between vegetation structure and climate. In fact, vegetat...

  10. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de, I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions w...

  11. Soil organic carbon and physical properties in vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Souza, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Alliaume, F.; Mancassola, V.

    2011-01-01

    The South of Uruguay is the area of the country most severely affected by soil erosion and where the most important vegetable production area is located. Soil degradation has been aggravated by a process of intensification and specialization of the vegetable production due to an unfavorable socio-economic context and lack of adequate planning of the production systems. The objectives of this work were the description of current soil quality (Typic Hapluderts, Paquic (vertic) Argiudolls, and Abruptic Argiudolls) in 16 vegetable farms in the region, and the evaluation of the impact of improved management techniques on soil quality. We evaluated soil organic carbon (SOC), soil structure stability and the evolution of SOC in time. We found a degradation of soil quality under vegetable cropping compared to the reference sites, given by an average loss of SOC of 31 to 44% and 0.4 mm in structure stability. A linear regression model was fitted to explain the change in SOC content observed in fields under vegetable cultivation during the period under study. The change in SOC content was explained by the organic matter inputs by green manures and chicken bed, the initial SOC content and length of the period in years. This model is a simple tool to estimate the effect of soil organic amendments on SOC balance in soils under vegetable cropping in this region

  12. Perceived personal safety in relation to urban woodland vegetation – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Märit; Fors, Hanna; Lindgren, Therese; Wiström, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Urban woodland vegetation provides people with many aesthetic, ecological and psychological benefits, but can also generate problems concerning people’s perception of safety. This paper reviews existing knowledge about perceived personal safety in relation to vegetation, particularly woodland vegetation, in urban green spaces such as parks and residential areas. Individual and social factors, but also vegetation character, maintenance and design, proved to be important for perceived personal ...

  13. Global Drivers and Tradeoffs of Three Urban Vegetation Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Cynnamon; Nitschke, Craig R.; Kendal, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Our world is increasingly urbanizing which is highlighting that sustainable cities are essential for maintaining human well-being. This research is one of the first attempts to globally synthesize the effects of urbanization on ecosystem services and how these relate to governance, social development and climate. Three urban vegetation ecosystem services (carbon storage, recreation potential and habitat potential) were quantified for a selection of a hundred cities. Estimates of ecosystem services were obtained from the analysis of satellite imagery and the use of well-known carbon and structural habitat models. We found relationships between ecosystem services, social development, climate and governance, however these varied according to the service studied. Recreation potential was positively related to democracy and negatively related to population. Carbon storage was weakly related to temperature and democracy, while habitat potential was negatively related to democracy. We found that cities under 1 million inhabitants tended to have higher levels of recreation potential than larger cities and that democratic countries have higher recreation potential, especially if located in a continental climate. Carbon storage was higher in full democracies, especially in a continental climate, while habitat potential tended to be higher in authoritarian and hybrid regimes. Similar to other regional or city studies we found that the combination of environment conditions, socioeconomics, demographics and politics determines the provision of ecosystem services. Results from this study showed the existence of environmental injustice in the developing world. PMID:25402184

  14. Global drivers and tradeoffs of three urban vegetation ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Cynnamon; Nitschke, Craig R; Kendal, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Our world is increasingly urbanizing which is highlighting that sustainable cities are essential for maintaining human well-being. This research is one of the first attempts to globally synthesize the effects of urbanization on ecosystem services and how these relate to governance, social development and climate. Three urban vegetation ecosystem services (carbon storage, recreation potential and habitat potential) were quantified for a selection of a hundred cities. Estimates of ecosystem services were obtained from the analysis of satellite imagery and the use of well-known carbon and structural habitat models. We found relationships between ecosystem services, social development, climate and governance, however these varied according to the service studied. Recreation potential was positively related to democracy and negatively related to population. Carbon storage was weakly related to temperature and democracy, while habitat potential was negatively related to democracy. We found that cities under 1 million inhabitants tended to have higher levels of recreation potential than larger cities and that democratic countries have higher recreation potential, especially if located in a continental climate. Carbon storage was higher in full democracies, especially in a continental climate, while habitat potential tended to be higher in authoritarian and hybrid regimes. Similar to other regional or city studies we found that the combination of environment conditions, socioeconomics, demographics and politics determines the provision of ecosystem services. Results from this study showed the existence of environmental injustice in the developing world.

  15. Business models in urban farming: A comparative analysis of case studies from Spain, Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pölling Bernd

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Urban Agriculture Europe” EU COST-Action (2012–2016 has shown that the complexity of urban agriculture (UA is hardly compressible into classic business management models and has proposed new management models, such as the Business Model Canvas (BMC. Business models of UA have to be different from rural ones. In particular, factors such as differentiation and diversification, but also low cost-oriented specialisation, are characteristic and necessary business models for UA to stay profitable in the long term under challenging city conditions. This paper aims to highlight how farm enterprises have to adjust to urban conditions by stepping into appropriate business models aiming to stay competitive and profitable, and how the BMC is useful to analyse their organisation and performance, both economically and socially. The paper offers an inter-regional analysis of UA enterprises located in Spain, Italy, and Germany, which are further subdivided into: local food, leisure, educational, social, therapeutic, agri-environmental, cultural heritage and experimental farms. The analysis demonstrates that UA is differentially adjusted to specific urban conditions and that the BMC is useful for analysing urban farming. Heterogeneous local food farms and the integration of local and organic food production in social farming business models are most frequent in our case studies.

  16. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in soil, water, and vegetables of farms in Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Afshin; Amini, Hassan; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Zandi, Shiva; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are ubiquitous elsewhere in nature and their measurement in environment is necessary to develop health management strategies. In this study, we aimed to find out concentrations and spatial patterns of heavy metals in main farms of Sanandaj in Kurdistan, Iran. Over May to October 2012, six farms were selected to analyze concentrations and spatial patterns of several heavy metals, namely aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in their soil, irrigation water, and edible vegetables. Overall, 36 samples of soil and water and 72 samples of vegetables including coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), radish (Raphanus sativus) root and radish leaf were collected. The concentrations of metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The spatial surfaces of heavy metals were created using geospatial information system. The order of metals in soil was Al > Zn > Ni > Cu > Cr > Pb > Co > As > Cd while in water it was Cr > Co > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Al = As = Cd. The order of heavy metals in vegetables was Al > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Co > As > Cd. Totally, the minimum concentrations of Al, Cu, Pb, and Zn were found in radish root while the maximum of Al, Co, Cr, and Ni were found in radish leaf. The minimum concentrations of Cd and Cr and maximum concentrations of Cu and Zn were also deciphered in dill. Noteworthy, coriander had the minimum concentrations of Co and Ni. The concentrations of Cr and Pb in vegetables were more than maximum allowable limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). In summary, albeit the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water samples were below FAO and the WHO standards, vegetables were contaminated by chromium and lead.

  17. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Conti, C.C.; Loureiro, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for 226 Ra, 0.55 for 228 Ra and 0.24 for 238 U (Bq kg -1 dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10 -4 to 10 -2 for 238 U and from 10 -2 to 10 -1 for 228 Ra

  18. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  19. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, D C; Ribeiro, F C A; Conti, C C; Loureiro, F A

    2009-02-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for (226)Ra, 0.55 for (228)Ra and 0.24 for (238)U (Bq kg(-1) dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10(-4) to 10(-2) for (238)U and from 10(-2) to 10(-1) for (228)Ra.

  20. PERFORMANCES COMPARISON BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL PIG FARMING SYSTEMS IN MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA PROVINCE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desni Triana Ruli Saragih

    2015-10-01

    were no differences in household members, experience, average pig owned, working hours, selling period, litter size and number of farrowing. There are nine point of pig farming improvement that should be done to sustain pig farming systems in Manokwari Papua. Education may be improved by provide informal and skillful education. Pig ownership should be increased. Working hours must be increased. Pig keeping in the pens should be done by farmers. Managing pigs with additional time is important so that pigs will be maintained well. Litter sizes both in urban and rural are low, therefore further improvements are needed. Recording pig productivities must be done by every farmer. (Key words: Arfak pig farmers, Pig performance, Rural pig farming, Urban pig farming

  1. Peri-urban Dry Season Vegetable Production in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kintomo, AA.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-urban dry season vegetable production in Ibadan is increasingly becoming important, due to its relatively recent importance as a means of producing food in the city. Information on : (1 management practices ; (2 cropping systems ; and (3 economies of production, was hardly available. A diagnostic study organised in the dry season of 1994/95 addresses these issues. Its results indicate that the major crops in the system are Corchorus, Amaranthus and Celosia and are grown in intercropping systems. Farmers in the systems were constrained by poor drainage systems, weeds, dearth of improved seeds and marketing, inefficient input delivery system, high cost of input, pests and diseases and unavailability of labour at critical times. However, net benefits amounts to approximately N235650/ha/season ($ 2772. Significant and sustainable increases in productivity of the system could be achieved with the use of integrated water, crop, soil and pest management systems together with efficient input delivery systems.

  2. Estimating urban vegetation fraction across 25 cities in pan-Pacific using Landsat time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuhao; Coops, Nicholas C.; Hermosilla, Txomin

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization globally is consistently reshaping the natural landscape to accommodate the growing human population. Urban vegetation plays a key role in moderating environmental impacts caused by urbanization and is critically important for local economic, social and cultural development. The differing patterns of human population growth, varying urban structures and development stages, results in highly varied spatial and temporal vegetation patterns particularly in the pan-Pacific region which has some of the fastest urbanization rates globally. Yet spatially-explicit temporal information on the amount and change of urban vegetation is rarely documented particularly in less developed nations. Remote sensing offers an exceptional data source and a unique perspective to map urban vegetation and change due to its consistency and ubiquitous nature. In this research, we assess the vegetation fractions of 25 cities across 12 pan-Pacific countries using annual gap-free Landsat surface reflectance products acquired from 1984 to 2012, using sub-pixel, spectral unmixing approaches. Vegetation change trends were then analyzed using Mann-Kendall statistics and Theil-Sen slope estimators. Unmixing results successfully mapped urban vegetation for pixels located in urban parks, forested mountainous regions, as well as agricultural land (correlation coefficient ranging from 0.66 to 0.77). The greatest vegetation loss from 1984 to 2012 was found in Shanghai, Tianjin, and Dalian in China. In contrast, cities including Vancouver (Canada) and Seattle (USA) showed stable vegetation trends through time. Using temporal trend analysis, our results suggest that it is possible to reduce noise and outliers caused by phenological changes particularly in cropland using dense new Landsat time series approaches. We conclude that simple yet effective approaches of unmixing Landsat time series data for assessing spatial and temporal changes of urban vegetation at regional scales can provide

  3. The vegetation of the farms Ingleside and Welgedacht of the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Brown

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is well known for its semi-arid lowland areas that have a distinct flora and species composition. Because ecosystems react differently to different management practices, it is important that a description and classification of the vegetation of an area be done. As part of a vegetation survey programme for the newly acquired farms incorporated into the Mountain Zebra National Park, the vegetation of the Ingleside and Welgedacht sections were surveyed following the Braun-Blanquet approach. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 10 shrub and grassland plant communities, which can be grouped into seven major groups, were identified. A classification and description of these communities, as well as a vegetation map are presented. The diagnostic species as well as the prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, herb and grass strata are outlined. The area generally comprises lowland communities and higher-lying communities. The lower-lying communities consist mainly of two communities and comprise the largest proportion of the area in hectares. In contrast, the higher-lying communities are more diverse with specific habitats. Using the Ecological Index Method the veld condition and grazing capacity were calculated for each community and the total study area. Large sections of the lowland areas are overgrazed due to previous farming grazing practices while the higher-lying areas that were less accessible to the animals are in a slightly better condition. Overall this has resulted in the area generally being degraded within a high grazing capacity of 30.1 ha/LSU.

  4. Urban Farm-Nonfarm Diversification, Household Income and Food Expenditure in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampaw Samuel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of farm-nonfarm diversification (FND on household income and food expenditure in urban Ghana using propensity score matching (PSM technique to account for potential selection bias. We find diversified households to be statistically different from undiversified households in terms of household characteristics. Age, gender, educational attainment of the household head, household size, ownership of livestock and agricultural land, and receipt of miscellaneous and rent incomes are positive and significant determinants of FND in urban Ghana. In addition, we find that participation in both farm and nonfarm activities positively and significantly impacts household income and food expenditure. In the light of growing urbanization, with its implications for unemployment, poverty and food insecurity, we recommend diversification among urban households as a means of smoothing income and consumption.

  5. Farms as a resilience factors to land degradation in peri-urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zappavigna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the analysis of the effects induced by urban pressures on the socio-economic and territorial characteristics of the rural peri-urban areas in order to identify planning and intervention strategies aimed at enhancing the quality of agriculture and landscape. A survey was conducted in the surroundings of Parma on farms located in the vicinity of urban areas. The structural, productive and social characteristics of the family-farm units were analyzed. The survey updated an identical survey, carried out in 1986, in which it was examined a sample of 208 farms. The units surveyed were evaluated in two aspects: the “vitality”, which takes into account the structural characteristics (size, production, labour force, etc., and the “stability”, in which a crucial role is played by the age of the conductor and the presence of a successor. It was found that only 28% of the original farm sample is still alive, one third has disappeared, 30% was absorbed by existing farms, 8% has been abandoned. The factors most favourable to the survival resulted those referred to the vitality, especially the physical and economic size of the farm, the presence of cattle, the percentage of land in property, the presence of young labour. Among the factors that predispose to the abandonment, the urbanization processes were found to be determinants, in terms of expansion of both the built-up area and of that planned as urbanisable. The research has highlighted the importance of the vitality of the farms together with a context that has maintained its original rural features. These combined aspects can better define what we call the resiliency of the landfarms system i.e. the capability of positively reacting to the variable modifications of the internal and external conditions.

  6. MOTIVATIONS FOR INVOLVEMENT IN URBAN CATFISH FARMING AND SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Monisola TUNDE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish farming is known as one of the ways of ensuring food security and alleviating poverty through income generation. It is very common in the urban areas of Nigeria because of great demand for fish. This study determines motivations for involvement in urban catfish farming and sustainable food security in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identifies fish farmers and their socio-demographic characteristics in the study area; it examines motives of fish farming; examines the contributions of fish farming to household food security; and assesses the challenges faced by fish farmers for increased production. Both primary and secondary sources of information were employed and a total of 120 fish farmers were sampled randomly with copies of structured questionnaire. Frequency counts, percentages, tabulations and matrix ranking were employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings revealed that catfish production has actually contributed immensely to sustainable food security by making fish available, accessible and stable within the study area. The main motive for involvement in fish farming by the farmers includes food security (with a mean value of 3.80. This was followed by income supplement (x = 3.50, source of employment (x = 3.42 and increase in price of meat (x = 3.37. It can therefore be concluded that catfish farming in the study area has not only improve practitioners’ food security but has also contributed immensely to their income. The paper recommends the need to include fish farming in urban planning and that it should be encouraged in both rural and urban areas so as to have sustainable food security in the country as a whole.

  7. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  8. The effects of habitat edges and trampling intensity on vegetation in urban forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamberg, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Although changes in urban forest vegetation have been documented in previous Finnish studies, the reasons for these changes have not been studied explicitly. Especially, the consequences of forest fragmentation, i.e. the fact that forest edges receive more solar radiation, wind and air-borne nutrients than interiors have been ignored. In order to limit the change in urban forest vegetation we need to know why it occurs. Therefore, the effects of edges and recreational use of urban forests on ...

  9. Response of vegetation phenology to urbanization in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuecao [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Zhou, Yuyu [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Asrar, Ghassem R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park MD 20740 USA; Mao, Jiafu [Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Li, Xiaoma [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Li, Wenyu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China

    2016-12-18

    The influence of urbanization on vegetation phenology is gaining considerable attention due to its implications for human health, cycling of carbon and other nutrients in Earth system. In this study, we examined the relationship between change in vegetation phenology and urban size, an indicator of urbanization, for the conterminous United States. We studied more than 4500 urban clusters of varying size to determine the impact of urbanization on plant phenology, with the aids of remotely sensed observations since 2003–2012. We found that phenology cycle (changes in vegetation greenness) in rural areas starts earlier (start of season, SOS) and ends later (end of season, EOS), resulting in a longer growing season length (GSL), when compared to the respective surrounding urban areas. The average difference of GSL between urban and rural areas over all vegetation types, considered in this study, is about 9 days. Also, the extended GSL in urban area is consistent among different climate zones in the United States, whereas their magnitudes are varying across regions. We found that a tenfold increase in urban size could result in an earlier SOS of about 1.3 days and a later EOS of around 2.4 days. As a result, the GSL could be extended by approximately 3.6 days with a range of 1.6–6.5 days for 25th ~ 75th quantiles, with a median value of about 2.1 days. For different vegetation types, the phenology response to urbanization, as defined by GSL, ranges from 1 to 4 days. The quantitative relationship between phenology and urbanization is of great use for developing improved models of vegetation phenology dynamics under future urbanization, and for developing change indicators to assess the impacts of urbanization on vegetation phenology.

  10. Atmospheric carbon exchange associated with vegetation and soils in urban and suburban land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowntree, R.A. [Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In studies of the global C cycle prior to the 1980s, urban ecosystems were largely ignored, in part because them were inadequate measures of phytomass and soil carbon for the various land uses associated with cities. In the last decade, progress has been made in gathering urban vegetation data and recently, estimates of urban land use carbon storage and fluxes have been attempted. Demographic trends in many countries suggest that urban areas are growing. Thus it is important to discover the appropriate concepts and methods for understanding greenhouse gas fluxes from urban-related vegetation and soils.

  11. Community perspectives on barriers and strategies for promoting locally grown produce from an urban agriculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Alice; Acosta, Angela; McDaniel, Abigail; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Although much is understood about barriers to healthy food consumption in low-income, urban communities, knowledge regarding the crucial next step of building feasible, community-supported approaches to address those barriers remains limited. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews (n = 20), focus groups (n = 2), and participant observations (n = 3) to identify strategies to promote locally grown produce from an urban food security project, Produce From the Park (PFP), an urban farm. Informants included community organization representatives and residents from low-income neighborhoods in a mid-Atlantic city. Informants identified structural and cultural barriers to purchasing healthy food, including price, location, food culture, and lack of interest. Participants proposed a number of strategies, such as distribution through mobile food carts and farm stands, marketing new foods through taste tests and cooking demonstrations, and youth mentorship. Informants also described their perceptions of the local urban farm and suggested ways to increase community buy-in. Strategies mentioned were inexpensive and incorporated cultural norms and local assets. These community perspectives can provide insights for those promoting healthy eating in urban African American communities through urban food security projects.

  12. Youth empowerment through urban agriculture: Red Hook Community Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian Marvy

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  13. City pig farm : A design-based-research on urban livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackauf, U.D.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last centuries, the global food system has managed to provide a growing global population with more and better food. Yet, the system is criticised for its negative effects, like increasing food miles, monocultures, a lack of transparency and poor animal welfare. The recent trend to farm

  14. Advances in greenhouse automation and controlled environment agriculture: A transition to plant factories and urban farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse cultivation has evolved from simple covered rows of open-fields crops to highly sophisticated controlled environment agriculture (CEA) facilities that projected the image of plant factories for urban farming. The advances and improvements in CEA have promoted the scientific solutions for ...

  15. Urban Farming as a Civic Virtue Development in the Environmental Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetiyo, Wibowo Heru; Budimansyah, Dasim; Roslidah, Navila

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe the impact of urban farming carried out by Bandung Berkebun community as an attempt to develop the civic virtue in the environmental field. Research method used is a case study with qualitative approach. The results show that this program has educational, economic, social, and ecological impact to the society. This…

  16. Assessing and monitoring of urban vegetation using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Savastru, R. S.; Savastru, D. M.

    2013-08-01

    During last years urban vegetation with significant health, biological and economical values had experienced dramatic changes due to urbanization and human activities in the metropolitan area of Bucharest in Romania. We investigated the utility of remote sensing approaches of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) applied to IKONOS and Landsat TM/ETM satellite data for estimating fractional cover of urban/periurban forest, parks, agricultural vegetation areas. Because of the spectral heterogeneity of same physical features of urban vegetation increases with the increase of image resolution, the traditional spectral information-based statistical method may not be useful to classify land cover dynamics from high resolution imageries like IKONOS. So we used hierarchy tree classification method in classification and MESMA for vegetation land cover dynamics assessment based on available IKONOS high-resolution imagery of Bucharest town. This study employs thirty two endmembers and six hundred and sixty spectral models to identify all Earth's features (vegetation, water, soil, impervious) and shade in the Bucharest area. The mean RMS error for the selected vegetation land cover classes range from 0.0027 to 0.018. The Pearson correlation between the fraction outputs from MESMA and reference data from all IKONOS images 1m panchromatic resolution data for urban/periurban vegetation were ranging in the domain 0.7048 - 0.8287. The framework in this study can be applied to other urban vegetation areas in Romania.

  17. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migose, S A; Bebe, B O; de Boer, I J M; Oosting, S J

    2018-03-28

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions with eight groups of stakeholders were held to collect narratives and data about market quality, production factors, farm performance and functions of dairy cattle. We applied thematic content analysis to qualitative information by clustering narratives according to predefined themes and used ANOVA to analyse farm data. In UL, markets were functional, with predominantly informal market chains, with a high milk price (US $ 45.1/100 kg). Inputs were available in UL markets, but prices were high for inputs such as concentrates, fodder, replacement stock and hired labour. Moreover, availability of grazing land and the high opportunity costs for family labour were limiting dairy activities. In UL, milk production per cow (6.9 kg/cow/day) and per farm (20.1 kg/farm/day) were relatively low, and we concluded that farm development was constrained by scarcity of inputs and production factors. In rural locations (MRL and ERL), markets were functional with relatively low prices (average US $ 32.8/100 kg) for milk in both formal and informal market chains. Here, concentrates were relatively cheap but also of low quality. Fodder, replacement stock and labour were more available in rural locations than in UL. In rural locations, milk production per cow (average 7.2 kg/cow/day) and per farm (average 18.5 kg/farm/day) were low, and we concluded that farm development was constrained by low quality of concentrates and low price of milk. In all locations, production for

  18. Assessment of Urban Vegetation using Remote Sensing Data: a Case Study in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Kim, J.; Yeom, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation in the city has various positive effects on the entire urban ecosystem: it reduces CO2 and air temperature, improves air quality, helps to maintain the water balance of natural ground, decreases surface overflow during floods, and provides food source as well as living space for diverse wildlife. Urban green areas also have a social and educational role, e.g. for recreational activity, positive experience in a natural environment, and perception of seasonal changes. In addition, citizens can find a balance between urban green and built up spaces. However, the very high intensity of land use in urban areas changes the local urban ecosystem to a large degree and leads to enormous stress for the urban vegetation. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing effects of urban vegetation on ecosystem function using remote sensing technology. We use multispectral RapidEye satellite and LiDAR data for the classification of urban vegetation types in metropolitan area Seoul and test different kinds of vegetation indices focusing on the red edge of RapidEye data to assess the stress degree of the vegetation.

  19. Present practice and future prospect of rooftop farming in Dhaka city: A step towards urban sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Safayet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh is one of the most populated megacity in the world and the population growth in this city is extremely high. To support growing food demand of increasing population, food supply should be secure and sustainable. On the other hand, with the pace of urbanization built-up areas are increasing; hence supply of roof space is also increasing. Rooftop farming can provide solution to increased food demand and also can promote a sustainable and livable city. Local fresh and safe food can be ensured through roof gardens in Dhaka city. The aim of the study is to explore the present practice and challenges of rooftop farming that was encountered by practitioners. Mirpur and Mohammadpur areas have been selected as study areas. Two practitioners are interviewed and 60 non-practitioners are surveyed. Results show that rooftop farming can support environment by improving air quality, reducing carbon in the atmosphere and can benefit society by reducing storm water management cost. One of the significant findings from the non-practitioner survey is that maximum people are willing to practice rooftop farming and want to provide at least 50% of roof space for rooftop farming. Finally some recommendations have been suggested to improve rooftop farming practice and encourage more people to practice rooftop farming in future.

  20. Cities Farming for the Future: Urban Agriculture for Green and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban agriculture is the growing of plants and the raising of animals for food and other uses, and related processing and marketing activities, within and around cities and towns. In the past few years, it has received increasing attention from development organizations and national and local authorities in developing ...

  1. Coupling Analysis of Heat Island Effects, Vegetation Coverage and Urban Flood in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, Q.; Fan, W.; Wang, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, satellite image, remote sensing technique and geographic information system technique are main technical bases. Spectral and other factors comprehensive analysis and visual interpretation are main methods. We use GF-1 and Landsat8 remote sensing satellite image of Wuhan as data source, and from which we extract vegetation distribution, urban heat island relative intensity distribution map and urban flood submergence range. Based on the extracted information, through spatial analysis and regression analysis, we find correlations among heat island effect, vegetation coverage and urban flood. The results show that there is a high degree of overlap between of urban heat island and urban flood. The area of urban heat island has buildings with little vegetation cover, which may be one of the reasons for the local heavy rainstorms. Furthermore, the urban heat island has a negative correlation with vegetation coverage, and the heat island effect can be alleviated by the vegetation to a certain extent. So it is easy to understand that the new industrial zones and commercial areas which under constructions distribute in the city, these land surfaces becoming bare or have low vegetation coverage, can form new heat islands easily.

  2. Measuring the pulse of urban green infrastructure: vegetation dynamics across residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation can be an important component of urban green infrastructure. Its structure is a complex result of the socio-ecological milieu and management decisions, and it can influence numerous ecohydrological processes such as stormwater interception and evapotranspiration. Despi...

  3. Influence of land urbanization on carbon sequestration of urban vegetation: A temporal cooperativity analysis in Guangzhou as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Dong, Yu-Xiang; Yang, Ren

    2018-04-13

    Land urbanization can affect carbon sequestration. In this study, the relationships between land urbanization and carbon sequestration of urban vegetation were studied for Guangzhou, China. The methodology was based on land use data from Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery, MODIS13Q1 data, and climate data, and the improved Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) model and linear system models were employed. Characteristics such as the amount of expansion, spatial agglomeration, spatial expansion intensity, and spatial growth of built-up land were analyzed, and the influence of land urbanization (built-up land expansion) on carbon sequestration of urban vegetation was elucidated by a temporal sequential cooperativity analysis. The main results were as follows. (1) Land urbanization had a clear influence on carbon sequestration of urban vegetation in Guangzhou, and the proportion and spatial agglomeration of built-up land showed significant negative correlations with this carbon sequestration; the correlation coefficients were -0.443 and -0.537, respectively, in 2014. (2) The spatial expansion intensity and spatial growth of built-up land showed small correlations with carbon sequestration, and the correlations from 2000 to 2005 were relatively larger than those at other times; this was because the built-up land expansion speed was the fastest during this period. (3) The temporal sequential cooperativity analysis revealed that carbon was lost as natural surfaces were transformed to artificial surfaces, and land urbanization effects on carbon sequestration showed no significant temporal lag. Carbon sequestration of urban vegetation in the city could be improved by adding urban green spaces; however, this would likely take some time as the system recovers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conservation planning under uncertainty in urban development and vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Yohay

    2018-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning is a framework for optimally locating and prioritizing areas for conservation. An often-noted shortcoming of most conservation planning studies is that they do not address future uncertainty. The selection of protected areas that are intended to ensure the long-term persistence of biodiversity is often based on a snapshot of the current situation, ignoring processes such as climate change. Scenarios, in the sense of being accounts of plausible futures, can be utilized to identify conservation area portfolios that are robust to future uncertainty. We compared three approaches for utilizing scenarios in conservation area selection: considering a full set of scenarios (all-scenarios portfolio), assuming the realization of specific scenarios, and a reference strategy based on the current situation (current distributions portfolio). Our objective was to compare the robustness of these approaches in terms of their relative performance across future scenarios. We focused on breeding bird species in Israel’s Mediterranean region. We simulated urban development and vegetation dynamics scenarios 60 years into the future using DINAMICA-EGO, a cellular-automata simulation model. For each scenario, we mapped the target species’ available habitat distribution, identified conservation priority areas using the site-selection software MARXAN, and constructed conservation area portfolios using the three aforementioned strategies. We then assessed portfolio performance based on the number of species for which representation targets were met in each scenario. The all-scenarios portfolio consistently outperformed the other portfolios, and was more robust to ‘errors’ (e.g., when an assumed specific scenario did not occur). On average, the all-scenarios portfolio achieved representation targets for five additional species compared with the current distributions portfolio (approximately 33 versus 28 species). Our findings highlight the importance

  5. Marketing channel choice and marketing timing of peri-urban vegetable growers in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Wijk, van M.S.; Luyen, C.H.; Hoi, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector in the peri-urban area of Hanoi. It supplies 62 to 80% of vegetable consumption, of which 28% comes from Dong Anh district, which borders Hanoi City. Growing vegetables is an important income source for the farmers in Dong Anh as it contributes about 30% to their

  6. Food Safety Is a Key Determinant of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Urban Beninese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Eunice S.; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Lachat, Carl K.; Dossa, Romain A.; Kolsteren, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in urban Beninese adolescents and elements to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable program. Design: Sixteen focus groups conducted with a key word guide. Setting and Participants: Two private and 2 public secondary schools in Cotonou, Benin. One hundred fifty-three…

  7. Increasing of Urban Radiation due to Climate Change and Reduction Strategy using Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Lee, D.; Heo, H. K.; Ahn, S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) which means urban air temperature is higher than suburban area is one of the most important environmental issues in Urban. High density of buildings and high ratio of impervious surfaces increases the radiation fluxes in urban canopy. Furthermore, climate change is expected to make UHI even more seriously in the future. Increased irradiation and air temperature cause high amount of short wave and long wave radiation, respectively. This increases net radiation negatively affects heat condition of pedestrian. UHI threatens citizen's health by increasing violence and heat related diseases. For this reason, understanding how much urban radiation will increase in the future, and exploring radiation reduction strategies is important for reducing UHI. In this research, we aim to reveal how the radiation flux in the urban canyon will change as the climate change and determine how much of urban vegetation will be needed to cover this degradation. The study area is a commercial district in Seoul where highly populated area. Due to the high density of buildings and lack of urban vegetation, this area has a poor thermal condition in summer. In this research, we simulate the radiation flux on the ground using multi-layer urban canopy model. Unlike conventionally used urban canopy model to simulate radiation transfer using vertically single layer, the multi-layer model we used here, enables to consider the vertical heterogeneous of buildings and urban vegetation. As a result, net radiation of urban ground will be increase 2.1 W/m² in the 2050s and 2.7 W/m² in the 2100s. And to prevent the increase of radiation, it is revealed that the urban vegetation should by increased by 10%. This research will be valuable in establishing greening planning as a strategy to reduce UHI effect.

  8. Closing the nutrient loops in (peri) urban farming systems through composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    waste management practices in developing countries and ensure sustainable crop production via the biotransformation of urban waste into a high-quality soil amendment. First, I aimed at determining the causes for the limited use of organic amendments in small-scale urban farming systems. I interviewed...... 220 urban farmers in Ethiopia and found that competition for agricultural waste between fuel, feed and soil amendment is a major cause for the limited use of organic amendments. I demonstrated that allocation of agricultural waste for soil amendment is linked with farmers’ livelihood strategies. I...... also studied variation in compost demand among different farmer groups, and the socio-economic variables which explained these variations. Gaseous losses of ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur during composting of nitrogen-rich urban waste. Several technologies could reduce these losses...

  9. ANALYSIS ON TEMPORAL-SPATIAL CHANGES OF VEGETATION CVERRGE IN FARMING-PASTORAL ECOTONE OF INNER MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chen Barag Banner is located in the typical farming-pastoral ecotone of Inner Mongolia, and it is also the core area of Hulunbuir steppe. Typical agricultural and pastoral staggered production mode so that the vegetation growth of the region not only determines the local ecological environment, and animal husbandry production, but also have a significant impact on the whole Hulunbuir ecological security and economic development. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the change of vegetation in this area. Based on 17 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images, the authors reconstructed the dynamic change characteristics of Fraction vegetation coverage(FVC)in Chen Barag Banner from 2000 to 2016. In this paper, first at all, Pixel Decomposition Models was introduced to inversion FVC, and the time series of vegetation coverage was reconstructed. Then we analyzed the temporal-spatial changes of FVC by employing transition matrix. Finally, through image analyzing and processing, the results showed that the vegetation coverage in the study area was influenced by effectors including climate, topography and human actives. In the past 17 years, the overall effect of vegetation coverage showed a downward trend of fluctuation. The average vegetation coverage decreased from 58.81 % in 2000 to 48.14 % in 2016, and the area of vegetation cover degradation accounts for 40.09 % of the total change area. Therefore, the overall degradation trend was obvious.

  10. Analysis on Temporal-Spatial Changes of Vegetation Cverrge in Farming-Pastoral Ecotone of Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Li, J.; Yang, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Chen Barag Banner is located in the typical farming-pastoral ecotone of Inner Mongolia, and it is also the core area of Hulunbuir steppe. Typical agricultural and pastoral staggered production mode so that the vegetation growth of the region not only determines the local ecological environment, and animal husbandry production, but also have a significant impact on the whole Hulunbuir ecological security and economic development. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the change of vegetation in this area. Based on 17 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images, the authors reconstructed the dynamic change characteristics of Fraction vegetation coverage (FVC) in Chen Barag Banner from 2000 to 2016. In this paper, first at all, Pixel Decomposition Models was introduced to inversion FVC, and the time series of vegetation coverage was reconstructed. Then we analyzed the temporal-spatial changes of FVC by employing transition matrix. Finally, through image analyzing and processing, the results showed that the vegetation coverage in the study area was influenced by effectors including climate, topography and human actives. In the past 17 years, the overall effect of vegetation coverage showed a downward trend of fluctuation. The average vegetation coverage decreased from 58.81 % in 2000 to 48.14 % in 2016, and the area of vegetation cover degradation accounts for 40.09 % of the total change area. Therefore, the overall degradation trend was obvious.

  11. Impact of urban gardening in equatorial zone on soils and metal transfer to vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondo Aubin Jean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the impact of urban agriculture on physicochemical soil properties and the metal uptake by some leafy vegetables cultivated in urban soils of Libreville, Gabon. Cultivated and uncultivated top-soil and vegetable samples were collected on two urban garden sites, and analyzed. The results showed that there was strong acidification and a decrease of nutrient and metal concentrations in soils due of agricultural practices. The metal transfer to plants was important, with the exception of iron. The non-essential metal cadmium and lead were not detectable in plant tissues. Amaranth accumulated more metals than other vegetables. Amaranth and Roselle were vegetables that preferentially concentrated metals in their leaves and can therefore be used for metal supplementation in food chain.

  12. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chi; Ouyang Zhiyun; Wang Meie; Chen Weiping; Jiao Wentao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree–shrub–herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. - Highlights: ► Land use did not affect PAHs in soils except for areas adjacent to industrial sources. ► Tree–shrub–herb and woodland cover amass more PAHs in soils than grassland cover. ► Urban development and soil property factors had little effect on PAHs in soils. - Industrial emissions aside, vegetative cover is the dominant factor controlling accumulation of PAHs in urban green space soils.

  13. The dust retention capacities of urban vegetation-a case study of Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhiwei

    2013-09-01

    Urban vegetation increasingly plays an important role in the improvement of the urban atmospheric environment. This paper deals with the dust retention capacities of four urban tree species (Ficus virens var. sublanceolata, Ficus microcarpa, Bauhinia blakeana, and Mangifera indica Linn) in Guangzhou. The dust-retaining capacities of four tree species are studied under different pollution intensities and for different seasons. Remote sensing imagery was used to estimate the total aboveground urban vegetation biomass in different functional areas of urban Guangzhou, information that was then used to estimate the dust-retaining capacities of the different functional areas and the total removal of airborne particulates in urban Guangzhou by foliage. The results showed that urban vegetation can remove dust from the atmosphere thereby improving air quality. The major findings are that dust retention, or capture, vary between the four species of tree studied; it also varied between season and between types of urban functional area, namely industrial, commercial/road traffic, residential, and clean areas. Dust accumulation over time was also studied and reached a maximum, and saturation, after about 24 days. The overall aboveground biomass of urban vegetation in Guangzhou was estimated to be 52.0 × 10(5) t, its total leaf area 459.01 km(2), and the dust-retaining capacity was calculated at 8012.89 t per year. The present study demonstrated that the foliage of tree species used in urban greening make a substantial contribution to atmospheric dust removal and retention in urban Guangzhou.

  14. [Application of biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes in urban biodiversity conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Qiu, Ling; Chen, Cun-gen

    2010-09-01

    Based on the biotope classification system with vegetation structure as the framework, a modified biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes was developed, and applied to the study of the greenbelts in Helsingborg in southern Sweden. An evaluation of the vegetation cover continuity in the greenbelts was carried out by the comparisons of the vascular plant species richness in long- and short-continuity forests, based on the identification of woodland continuity by using ancient woodland indicator species (AWIS). In the test greenbelts, long-continuity woodlands had more AWIS. Among the forests where the dominant trees were more than 30-year-old, the long-continuity ones had a higher biodiversity of vascular plants, compared with the short-continuity ones with the similar vegetation structure. The modified biotope mapping model integrated with the continuity features of vegetation cover could be an important tool in investigating urban biodiversity, and provide corresponding strategies for future urban biodiversity conservation.

  15. Effects of urban sprawl on arthropod communities in peri-urban farmed landscape in Shenbei New District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhen-Xing; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qiu-Bing; Yu, Miao; Qian, Feng-Kui

    2018-01-08

    Peri-urban farmland provides a diversity of ecological services. However, it is experiencing increasing pressures from urban sprawl. While the effects of land use associated with farming on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention, most of this research has been conducted by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. The present study identifies the effects of urban sprawl and the role of non-cropped habitat in defining arthropod diversity in peri-urban farmed landscapes. Multi-scale arthropod data from 30 sampling plots were used with linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of distance from urban areas (0-13 km; 13-25 km and >25 km, zones I, II, and III, respectively) on arthropods. Results showed that urban sprawl, disturbed farm landscapes, and disturbance in non-cropped habitats had negative effects on arthropods, the latter requiring arthropods to re-establish annually from surrounding landscapes via dispersal. While arthropod species richness showed no obvious changes, arthropod abundance was lowest in zone II. Generally, patch density (PD), Shannon diversity index (SHDI), and aggregate index (AI) of non-cropped habitat were major drivers of changes in arthropod populations. This study contributes to identifying the effects of urban sprawl on arthropod diversity and documenting the multiple functions of farm landscapes in peri-urban regions.

  16. Assessing the drivers shaping global patterns of urban vegetation landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C; Nitschke, C; Kendal, D

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation is one of the main resources involve in ecosystem functioning and providing ecosystem services in urban areas. Little is known on the landscape structure patterns of vegetation existing in urban areas at the global scale and the drivers of these patterns. We studied the landscape structure of one hundred cities around the globe, and their relation to demography (population), socioeconomic factors (GDP, Gini Index), climate factors (temperature and rain) and topographic characteristics (altitude, variation in altitude). The data revealed that the best descriptors of landscape structure were amount, fragmentation and spatial distribution of vegetation. Populated cities tend to have less, more fragmented, less connected vegetation with a centre of the city with low vegetation cover. Results also provided insights on the influence of socioeconomics at a global scale, as landscape structure was more fragmented in areas that are economically unequal and coming from emergent economies. This study shows the effects of the social system and climate on urban landscape patterns that gives useful insights for the distribution in the provision of ecosystem services in urban areas and therefore the maintenance of human well-being. This information can support local and global policy and planning which is committing our cities to provide accessible and inclusive green space for all urban inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing sustainability of a low-input single-farm vegetable box-scheme using emergy and LCA methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    for minimizing resource use are fuels and electricity. Substitution of these would require the use of renewable energy. However, an increase in inputs from society may imply a lower net-yield to society from the farm and would thus be less desirable. The LCA data are currently being analysed and these results......Sustainable development implies necessarily making use of renewable resources to a larger extent. Thus a sustainability assessment has to identify hotspots for reducing use of non-renewable resources and potentials for substitution of these with renewable resources. LCA as well as emergy assessment......, the emergy method lacks some of the standardization and robustness of LCA. In this study we apply both methods to the same case study. The case considered is an organic stockless vegetable farm of 7 ha in UK which distributes its products in weekly boxes to 250 local consumers. The farm has systematically...

  18. Information-seeking behaviour and adoption of organic farming practices among vegetable farmers in South Western Nigeria / Sijuwade Adebukola Adebayo

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Sijuwade Adebukola

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed information-seeking behaviour and adoption of organic .farming practices among vegetable farmers in South-Western Nigeria. This is based on the fact that conventional intensive agricultural systems have side-effects which compromise food production in terms of quality and safety. As a result many are now stating that conventional agriculture represents an unsuitable long-term option. Specifically, the study identified the personal characteristics of the farmers, profile or...

  19. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Hongsibsong, Surat

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated organophosphorus (OP) residues in vegetables from 27 farms, 106 markets, and 1 supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake, Northern Thailand, between August and September 2013. Types of vegetables sampled were all vegetables cultivated or sold around the study site. The most common OP pesticides detected in farm samples were chlorpyrifos (50 %), malathion (31.8 %), monocrotophos (31.8 %), diazinon (13.6 %), omethoate (13.6 %), and dicrotophos (9.1 %). The most common OP pesticides detected in market samples were chlorpyrifos (33.9 %), diazinon (18.6 %), parathion-methyl (3.4 %), profenofos (3.4 %), primiphos-ethyl (3.4 %), and fenitrothion (1.7 %). The OP pesticides detected in supermarket samples were chlorpyrifos (33.3 %), and diazinon (66.7 %). Among the compounds detected, chlorpyrifos was detected in most of the vegetable samples from all sources. The highest chlorpyrifos level in farm samples were found in lemon balm (2.423 mg/kg) followed by Vietnamese coriander (0.835 mg/kg), and cowpea (0.027 mg/kg). The highest level in markets samples were found in garlic (7.785 mg/kg) followed by Chinese cabbage (2.864 mg/kg) and Vietnamese coriander (1.308 mg/kg). Residues from supermarket samples were found only in parsley (0.027 mg/kg). The findings showed that 16 samples (59.3 %) from farms and 14 samples (13.2 %) from markets contained OP residues at or above the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. It is concluded that awareness, safety education, and strict regulation of pesticide use are necessary.

  20. Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution - Deposition and dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhäll, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Urban vegetation affects air quality through influencing pollutant deposition and dispersion. Both processes are described by many existing models and experiments, on-site and in wind tunnels, focussing e.g. on urban street canyons and crossings or vegetation barriers adjacent to traffic sources. There is an urgent need for well-structured experimental data, including detailed empirical descriptions of parameters that are not the explicit focus of the study. This review revealed that design and choice of urban vegetation is crucial when using vegetation as an ecosystem service for air quality improvements. The reduced mixing in trafficked street canyons on adding large trees increases local air pollution levels, while low vegetation close to sources can improve air quality by increasing deposition. Filtration vegetation barriers have to be dense enough to offer large deposition surface area and porous enough to allow penetration, instead of deflection of the air stream above the barrier. The choice between tall or short and dense or sparse vegetation determines the effect on air pollution from different sources and different particle sizes.

  1. Modeling Linkages Between Effective Impervious Surface and Urban Vegetation Productivity in Semi-arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. A.; Tague, C.

    2010-12-01

    With a majority of the world's population now living in urban areas, the role of vegetation in urban ecosystems warrants increased attention. We address the question of how the fine scale (significantly impact the productivity of vegetation and uptake of C and N. To gain insight into how landscape features influence vegetation productivity, we use a coupled ecohydrogic model to estimate impacts of the amount and arrangement of impervious surfaces on vegetation water use. We use the model to explore how concepts from research in natural semi-arid ecosystems can be applied in the urban context. Ecological research in semi-arid ecosystems has shown that the arrangement of vegetated and bare surfaces plays a key role in regulating both runoff and ecosystem water use and productivity. Systems that include a mixture of bare and vegetated surfaces, for example, tend to show less runoff and more productivity than those with more homogeneous cover. In some instances, patchiness of bare and vegetated surfaces is more important than total vegetated area in determining rates of runoff and vegetation use of rainfall. In an urban context, impervious surfaces can be viewed as analogous to the bare surfaces present in undeveloped ecosystems. We consider not only the total impervious area (TIA), but also the effect of impervious area with a direct hydrologic connection to the stream network, effective impervious area (EIA). While increases in total impervious area (TIA) have been widely shown to impact catchment hydrology, the role of effective impervious area (EIA) has been less extensively studied. A consensus is emerging from the literature that EIA is as important or even more important than TIA as an indicator of catchment response to urbanization. Ecohydrologic models offer a tool to quantify the role of EIA on water availability and plant productivity and demonstrate the potential of urban areas to act as C or N sinks (and minimize the impacts such as increased storm runoff

  2. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  3. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  4. Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón

    2014-05-01

    Mulching is the most common technique used worldwide by vegetable growers in protected cultivation. For this purpose, several plastic materials have been used, with polyethylene (PE) being the most widespread. However, PE is produced from petroleum derivatives, it is not degradable, and thus pollutes the environment for periods much longer than the crop duration (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011), which are very important negative aspects especially for organic farmers. A large portion of plastic films is left on the field or burnt uncontrollably by the farmers, with the associated negative consequences to the environment (Moreno and Moreno, 2008). Therefore, the best solution is to find a material with a lifetime similar to the crop duration time that can be later incorporated by the agricultural system through a biodegradation process (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011). In this context, various biodegradable materials have been considered as alternatives in the last few years, including oxo-biodegradable films, biopolymer mulches, different types of papers, and crop residues (Kasirajan and Ngouajio, 2012). In this work we evaluate the evolution of different properties related to mulch degradation in both the buried and the superficial (exposed) part of mulch materials of different composition (standard black PE, papers and black biodegradable plastics) in summer vegetable crops under organic management in Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain). As results, it is remarkable the early deterioration suffered by the buried part of the papers, disappearing completely in the soil at the end of the crop cycles and therefore indicating the total incorporation of these materials to the soil once the crop has finished. In the case of the degradation of the exposed mulch, small differences between crops were observed. In general, all the materials were less degraded under the plants than when receiving directly the solar radiation. As conclusion, biodegradable mulches degrade

  5. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S. H.; Quak, M.; Nabarro, S. D. A.; Norford, L.

    2013-03-01

    Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. Negative daytime CO2 fluxes, for example have been observed during the growing season at suburban sites characterized by abundant vegetation and low population density. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the biogenic flux. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation captures 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. A net uptake of 1.4 ton km-2 day-1 (510 ton km-2 yr-1 ) was estimated from the difference between the daily CO2 uptake by photosynthesis (3.95 ton km-2 ) and release by respiration (2.55 ton km-2). The study shows the importance of urban vegetation at the local scale for climate change mitigation in the tropics.

  6. The Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Impact of Raindrops on Soils in Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.; Sjoblom, K.

    2014-12-01

    Raindrop impulses applied to soils can break up larger soil aggregates into smaller particles, dispersing them from their original position. The displaced particles can self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming a crust. Occurrence of this phenomenon reduces the infiltration rate and increases runoff, contributing to downstream flooding, soil erosion, and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Within this context, this presentation presents preliminary laboratory work conducted using a rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to develop recommendations regarding surface treatment in green infrastructure (GI) system designs, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  7. A method for exploring sustainable development options at farm scale: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology presented in this paper aims at analysing whether there is room for improvement of vegetable farmers¿ income in Canelón Grande (Uruguay), while reducing soil erosion and improving physical and biological soil fertility, and to gain insight in the influence of farmers¿ resource

  8. Influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover in urban river basin: case study in Campinas/SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Silva, Alessandra; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: In most Brazilian municipalities, urban development was not based on adequate planning; one of the consequences was the reduction of the original vegetation, limiting the forest formations to scarce and isolated fragments. In Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, the vegetation fragmentation was mainly related to the expeditions and to the cycles of sugar cane and coffee. In this way, the present study aims to identify, quantify and evaluate the remaining arboreal vegetation spatial distribution in the Anhumas River Basin - Campinas/SP, Brazil. This study was developed with the aid of GIS software and field visits in order to construct a diagnosis of these areas and subsidize future actions required and to discuss the influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover. The area was initially occupied by the Atlantic Forest (semi-deciduous forest) and drains one of the oldest urban occupation areas in the municipality; according to researchers, based on the water and geomorphological conditions of the basin, it can be subdivided into high, medium and low course. With a total area of 156,514 km2, only 16.74% are classified as green areas; where just 1.07% and 6.17% of total area represents forests and reforestation areas, respectively. The remaining green areas consists of: wetlands close to water bodies, but with no presence of trees and shrubs (area of 0.12% of the basin); urban green space, including parks and squares (2.19%); and natural field, constituted by natural non-arboreous vegetation (7.18%). In a scenario like this, a characteristic situation is the forest fragmentation; this process results in native vegetation remnants, isolated and more susceptible to external interference, coming from, for example, the proximity to agricultural areas or others land uses. The ecological knowledge of the remnants and their correct management can not only make it possible to diagnose current problems and to estimate future influences, but also to point out the

  9. UAV Remote Sensing for Urban Vegetation Mapping Using Random Forest and Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote sensing has great potential for vegetation mapping in complex urban landscapes due to the ultra-high resolution imagery acquired at low altitudes. Because of payload capacity restrictions, off-the-shelf digital cameras are widely used on medium and small sized UAVs. The limitation of low spectral resolution in digital cameras for vegetation mapping can be reduced by incorporating texture features and robust classifiers. Random Forest has been widely used in satellite remote sensing applications, but its usage in UAV image classification has not been well documented. The objectives of this paper were to propose a hybrid method using Random Forest and texture analysis to accurately differentiate land covers of urban vegetated areas, and analyze how classification accuracy changes with texture window size. Six least correlated second-order texture measures were calculated at nine different window sizes and added to original Red-Green-Blue (RGB images as ancillary data. A Random Forest classifier consisting of 200 decision trees was used for classification in the spectral-textural feature space. Results indicated the following: (1 Random Forest outperformed traditional Maximum Likelihood classifier and showed similar performance to object-based image analysis in urban vegetation classification; (2 the inclusion of texture features improved classification accuracy significantly; (3 classification accuracy followed an inverted U relationship with texture window size. The results demonstrate that UAV provides an efficient and ideal platform for urban vegetation mapping. The hybrid method proposed in this paper shows good performance in differentiating urban vegetation mapping. The drawbacks of off-the-shelf digital cameras can be reduced by adopting Random Forest and texture analysis at the same time.

  10. Influence of urban vegetation on air pollution and noise exposure - A case study in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Jenny; Broberg, Malin; Strandberg, Bo; Thorsson, Pontus; Pleijel, Håkan

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution levels (NO 2 , PAHs, O 3 ) were investigated, before (BLE) and after (ALE) leaf emergence, in the urban landscape of Gothenburg, Sweden. The aims were to study the 1) spatial and temporal variation in pollution levels between urban green areas, 2) effect of urban vegetation on air pollution levels at the same distance from a major emission source (traffic route), 3) improvement of urban air quality in urban parks compared to adjacent sites near traffic, 4) correlation between air pollution and noise in a park. O 3 varied little over the urban landscape. NO 2 varied strongly and was higher in situations strongly influenced by traffic. Four PAH variables were included: total PAH, total particle-bound PAH, the quantitatively important gaseous phenanthrene and the highly toxic particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene. The variation of PAHs was similar to NO 2 , but for certain PAHs the difference between highly and less polluted sites was larger than for NO 2 . At a vegetated site, NO 2 and particulate PAH levels were lower than at a non-vegetated site at a certain distance from a busy traffic route. This effect was significantly larger ALE compared to BLE for NO 2 , indicating green leaf area to be highly significant factor for air quality improvement. For particulate PAHs, the effect was similar BLE and ALE, indicating that tree bark and branches also could be an important factor in reducing air pollution. Parks represented considerably cleaner local environments (park effect), which is likely to be a consequence of both a dilution (distance effect) and deposition. Noise and air pollution (NO 2 and PAH) levels were strongly correlated. Comparison of noise levels BLE and ALE also showed that the presence of leaves significantly reduced noise levels. Our results are evidence that urban green spaces are beneficial for urban environmental quality, which is important to consider in urban planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Mbah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was assessed to determine the effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria during November 2014 to June 2015. Interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. Results indicate that majority (76.3% of the respondents were males, middle aged and married. Major causes of rural-urban youth migration indicated by the respondents include inadequate employment opportunities in rural areas (M=3.6, search for better education (M=3.5, inadequate social infrastructure such as schools (M=3.4, poor medical care services in rural areas (M=3.4, looking for money through labour (M=3.4, apprenticeship programme (M=3.2, etc. Findings of the study also indicate that reduction of agricultural labour force (M=3.5, low agricultural productivity (M=3.3, high cost of labour (M= 3.3, reduction on demand for locally grown foods (M=2.9, decrease in dependency ratio in the rural areas (M=2.7, reduction on number of mouths to feed (M=2.7, among others were major effects of rural-urban youth migration among farm families. The study recommends that Nigerian government should provide adequate physical and social infrastructure in rural areas in order to encourage youths to remain in agriculture, reduce rural-urban youth migration as well as sustain agriculture for enhanced food security.

  12. Dealing with Variations over Space and Time in Urban Vegetation-Air Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on role of urban vegetation ameliorate poor air quality frequently encountered in urban areas should aim to answer a pertinent question: what is the net impact of urban vegetation in improving public health directly or indirectly through removal of air pollutants? Answers to this question need to consider that role of urban vegetation in air quality improvement is not just dependent on physical and physiological processes mediated by plants, it is also highly dependent on atmospheric processes. The roles of these two components thus need to be separated. This uncertainty is further complicated by heterogeneity of air quality over spatial scales and fluctuations in air quality over time. Singapore is used to illustrate these complexities. Between seasons, the main external source of atmospheric pollutants is aerosols from biomass burning in plantations in surrounding SE Asian countries, and air quality is highly dependent on wind directions dictated by monsoon systems. When air quality does deteriorate from transboundary pollution, there are also spatial differences within the city, as air pollutant levels differ in different regions. Rainfall from monsoons and other rain-bearing weather systems over Singapore also dictate the relative amounts of wet and dry deposition and the persistence of particulate matter deposited on vegetation surfaces. For locally generated air pollutants, diurnal fluctuations of anthropogenic activities, such as vehicular emissions between peak and non-peak hours, should also lead to fluctuations over the day. Not only does air quality vary from region to region, air quality within a vertical transect in the urban canopy layer also differs due to urban morphology and urban elements. A pedestrian along a treed street may experience poorer air quality than one living on highrise building, despite proximity to vegetation. There are thus interactions between climate, weather and urban context, which lead to spatial heterogeneity over

  13. Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Buyantuev, Alexander; Miller, Greg; Pataki, Diane E; Gillespie, Thomas W; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities. (letter)

  14. Antibiotic resistance profile and RAPD analysis of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from vegetables farms and retail markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Yew Huat Tang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: C. jejuni contamination in vegetables at retail markets was due to cross contamination. Current finding proved that C. jejuni in small scale vegetables production was less expose towards antibiotic abuse.

  15. Data and methods comparing social structure and vegetation structure of urban neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Grove; Mary L. Cadenasso; William R., Jr. Burch; Steward T. Pickett; Kirsten Schwarz; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Matthew Wilson; Austin Troy; Christopher Boone

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and the adoption of geographic information systems (GIS) have greatly increased the availibility of high-resolution spatial and attribute data for examing the relationship between social and vegetation structure in urban areas. There are several motivations for understanding this relationship. First, the United States has experienced a...

  16. Validity of a Competing Food Choice Construct regarding Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Urban College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…

  17. Vegetation and other development options for mitigating urban air pollution impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Baldauf; David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    While air pollution control devices and programs are the primary method of reducing emissions, urban air pollution can be further mitigated through planning and design strategies, including vegetation preservation and planting, building design and development, installing roadside and near-source structures, and modifying surrounding terrain features.

  18. Floristic composition and species diversity of urban vegetation in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamokete N.V. Dingaan

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: The urban vegetation of Bloemfontein is species-rich and should be properly managed and conserved. In particular, the wetlands and rocky outcrops on hills and ridges, which are the most threatened habitats in the study area, need special management.

  19. Variation in vegetable production among urban farmers in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf, O.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture in Nigerian cities has contributed immensely to provision of fresh vegetables and the overall food security in the urban space. Though this vegetable production takes place throughout the year, resource utilization that contributes to productivity among the various groups of urban cultivators is improperly understood. This paper addresses this issue in Ilorin, focusing on seventy farmers drawn from the two major groups of cultivators; Fadama and Okiti. Data were gathered through the use of focus group discussion (FGD, non participant observation, and questionnaire survey. Tabulation, percentages and trend description were employed in data analysis. Multiple Regression Analysis isolated utilization of pump machine, harvest from vegetable plots, utilization of modern input and type of labour used as the determinants of efficiency with a total percentage contribution of 89.6 to land-use, the major resource. Among the major findings is that the operational scale of Fadama cultivators is larger with a corresponding increase in profit compared to Okiti cultivators. It is also discovered that although the two systems are faced with similar constraints of environmental and inaccessibility to input problems, there exist some fundamental differences based on scale and production efficiency. Some solutions proffered to the identified problem include the recognition and integration of urban farmers into urban land use structure so that they can form cooperatives through which they can access productive inputs.

  20. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  1. From Farms to Markets: Gram-Negative Bacteria Resistant to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Fruits and Vegetables in a Region of North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mesbah Zekar, Ferielle; Granier, Sophie A.; Marault, Muriel; Yaici, Lydia; Gassilloud, Benoit; Manceau, Charles; Touati, Abdelaziz; Millemann, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The role of food in human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing food safety issue. The contribution of fruits and vegetables eaten raw to this exposure is still unclear. The evaluation of contamination levels of fruits, vegetables and the agricultural environment by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Gram-negative bacteria was performed by analyzing 491 samples of fruits and vegetables collected from 5 markets and 7 farms in Bejaia area, north-eastern Mediterra...

  2. Vegetation, soil property and climatic controls over greenhouse gas fluxes in a blanket peatland hosting a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Ostle, Nick; Whitaker, Jeanette

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important carbon (C) stores, with boreal and subarctic peatlands containing 15-30 % of the world soil carbon stock (Limpens et al., 2008). Research has demonstrated that greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in peatlands are influenced by vegetation, soil property and climatic variables, including plant functional type (PFT), water table height and temperature. In this paper we present data from Black Law Wind Farm, Scotland, where we examined the effect of a predicted wind turbine-induced microclimatic gradient and PFT on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Moreover, we determined the role of vegetation, soil property and climatic variables as predictors of the variation in CO2 and CH4 emissions. We measured CO2 and CH4 at 48 plots within Black Law Wind Farm at monthly intervals from May 2011 to April 2012. Four sampling sites were located along a predicted wind turbine-induced microclimatic gradient. At each site four blocks were established, each with plots in areas dominated by mosses, sedges and shrubs. Plant biomass and PFT (vegetation factors); soil moisture, water table height, peat depth, C content, nitrogen (N) content and C:N (soil properties); and soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (climatic variables) were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models based on the microclimatic gradient site, PFT and season when measurements were made explained 58 %, 44 % and 49 % of the variation in ecosystem respiration, photosynthesis and CH4, respectively. Site, PFT, season and their interactions were all significant for respiration and photosynthesis (with the exception of the PFT*site interaction) but for CH4 only the main effects were significant. Parsimonious ANOVA models using the biotic, soil property and climatic explanatory data explained 62 %, 55 % and 49 % of the variation in respiration, photosynthesis and CH4, respectively. Published studies (Baidya Roy and Traiteur 2010; Zhou et al., 2012) and preliminary

  3. [Effects of climate and land use change on the changes of vegetation coverage in farming-pastoral ecotone of Northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Hui; Gao, Ji-Xi

    2008-09-01

    Based on the remote sensing images and the meteorological data in 1986 and 2000, and by using the model of extracting vegetation coverage, the spatiotemporal changes of vegetation coverage in the farming-pastoral ecotone of Northern China in 1986-2000 were studied, with the effects of climate and land use change on the changes analyzed. The results showed that in this ecotone, the area with lower vegetation coverage was increasing, while that with higher vegetation coverage was in adverse. The regions with increasing vegetation coverage were mainly in the east of northeast section, the west of north section, and the west of northwest section of the ecotone, while the vegetation coverage in the other sections was obviously degraded. The vegetation coverage were positively correlated with precipitation and aridity index, but negatively correlated with temperature. The change direction and extent of the vegetation coverage varied with land use types.

  4. Monitoring the Change in Urban Vegetation in 13 Chilean Cities Located in a Rainfall Gradient. What is the Contribution of the Widespread Creation of New Urban Parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barrera, Francisco; Henríquez, Cristian

    2017-10-01

    The well-being of people living in cities is strongly dependent on the existence of urban vegetation because of the ecosystem services or benefits it provides. This is why governments develop plans to create green spaces, plant trees, promote the maintenance of vegetation in private spaces and also monitor their status over time. In Latin America, and particularly in Chile, the increase of urban vegetation has been stimulated through different initiatives and regulations. However, development of monitoring programs at the national level is scarce, so it is yet unknown if these initiatives and regulations have had positive effects. In this article, we monitor the change in urban vegetation in 13 Chilean cities located in a latitudinal gradient of practically zero to almost 1800 mm of annual rainfall. We calculated the trends in NDVI (2000-2016) as an indicator of change in urban greenery using data from the MODIS Subsets platform. Likewise, to assess whether the initiatives have had an effect we quantified the number of urban parks existing at the beginning of the period and how many were created during the study period. For this, we analysed official databases and high spatial resolution satellite images. Armed with said data, we assessed whether these new parks had impacted the tendency toward change in urban greenery. The results indicate that, in general, Chilean cities vary greatly inter-annually in urban greenery and have lost urban vegetation in the last 16 years, with significant losses in four of those cities. Two cities located in desert ecosystems represent an exception and showed positive trends in their urban vegetation. The rainfall in cities has an impact on the amount of vegetation, but not on their tendency to change, i.e. there are cities with loss of vegetation at all levels of precipitation. The creation of parks has not been able to reverse negative trends, which indicates the prevalence of other drivers of change that are not sufficiently

  5. Urban agriculture: long-term strategy or impossible dream?: Lessons from Prospect Farm in Brooklyn, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, T

    2015-04-01

    Proponents of urban agriculture have identified its potential to improve health and the environment but in New York City and other densely developed and populated urban areas, it faces huge challenges because of the shortage of space, cost of land, and the lack of contemporary local food production. However, large portions of the city and metropolitan region do have open land and a history of agricultural production in the not-too-distant past. Local food movements and concerns about food security have sparked a growing interest in urban farming. Policies in other sectors to address diet-related illnesses, environmental quality and climate change may also provide opportunities to expand urban farming. Nevertheless, for any major advances in urban agriculture, significant changes in local and regional land use policies are needed. These do not appear to be forthcoming any time soon unless food movements amplify their voices in local and national food policy. Based on his experiences as founder of a small farm in Brooklyn, New York and his engagement with local food movements, the author analyzes obstacles and opportunities for expanding urban agriculture in New York. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Results of cultivation experiment at clean farm (vegetable plant). 1. Clean farm (yasai kojo) ni okeru saibai jikken kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaishi, T; Kawagishi, K; Matsuzaki, O; Nakahara, M [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1991-03-31

    This paper reports a summary of the facilities in an experimental plant constructed by the Kyushu Electric Power Company in 1988, and a result of experiments on cultivating salad and lettuce. The plant has environmentally controlled cultivating rooms of solar beam combined type and totally artificial light type, each having a floor area of 50 m {sup 2}, disposed with cultivating stages divided into three divisions of seedling culture, growth, and forced culture, nutritious liguid feeding devices of circulation type, and air conditioning equipment. The paper describes results of the tests aimed at realizing an increase in yield and profit, an optimum cultivating system, and economic facilities at the vegetable plant. Included in the tests are that (a) four kinds of salads and five kinds lettuce were selected for cultivation to decide most suitable kinds, based on literature survey and preliminary experiments; (b) varying the environmental conditions for the culture, such as temperature, radiating condition, concentration of the nutritious liquid, and concentration of carbon dioxide, conditions optimum or suitable for the plant growth were selected; (c) the plant was compared with glass green houses with respect to the required cultivating period of time, vitamin C content and color tones of the products; (d) the solar beam combined type room and the totally artificial light rooms were compared with respect to power consumption and heat capacity that passes through the cultivation room walls, and the latter was concluded being superior in economics and stability. 12 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. CONTRIBUTION OF URBAN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION TO FARMERS' LIVELIHOOD: A CASE OF THE KUMASI METROPOLIS OF ASHANTI REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Kodjo DARKEY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of urban poor is rapidly increasing as urban population grows. Urban vegetable production is therefore a response to the available market demand and the challenges of unemployment and food insecurity resulting from the urbanisation. The study examined the contribution of urban vegetable production to farmers’ livelihoods in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ashanti Region of Ghana. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Based on a simple random sampling technique, 300 urban vegetable farmers were selected and interviewed. Cronbach alpha coefficient values showed high reliability and consistency of the farmers’ livelihood subscales. The study that the contribution of urban vegetable production to farmers’ livelihoods differed significantly regarding different livelihood subscales (ANOVA. Post-hoc multiple comparisons test (Dunnett’s T3 result revealed that the contribution of urban vegetable production to farmers’ mean livelihoods was generally ‘low’. However, it contributed ‘moderately high’ to their natural and physical capitals. The strength of association between farmers’ mean livelihood subscales also showed that urban vegetable production impacted differently and significantly on their livelihoods. It is recommended that Farmer Based Organisations (FBOs should be formed to help empower and protect farmers’ from the exploitation of prospective buyers. It would also help address common challenges confronting members including high input cost, lack of credit facilities and inadequate marketing avenues.

  8. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: jwhunt@ucdavis.edu; Anderson, Brian [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, Bryn [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: bmphillips@ucdavis.edu; Tjeerdema, Ron [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: rstjeerdema@ucdavis.edu; Largay, Bryan [Largay Hydrologic Sciences, LLC, 160 Farmer Street Felton, CA 95018-9416 (United States)], E-mail: bryan.largay@sbcglobal.net; Beretti, Melanie [Resources Conservation District of Monterey County, 744-A La Guardia Street, Salinas, CA 93905 (United States)], E-mail: beretti.melanie@rcdmonterey.org; Bern, Amanda [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Coast Region, 895 Aerovista Place, Suite 101, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States)], E-mail: abern@waterboards.ca.gov

    2008-11-15

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems.

  9. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, John; Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Tjeerdema, Ron; Largay, Bryan; Beretti, Melanie; Bern, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems

  10. Chemical control of vegetation on urban sites: agronomic and ecotoxicological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanin, G.; Otto, S.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the chemical control of spontaneous vegetation on urban sites is tackled. A method is presented to identify the best herbicides under both the agronomic and ecotoxicological aspects. Selection of the herbicides from the agronomic point of view is on the basis of the qualitative characteristics of the vegetation (life-form types periodicity types botanical composition), surveyed at 5 different times on the year while selection from the environmental viewpoint is based on an evaluation integrated with a series of ecotoxicological indices. The best solution was tested in a pilot area and the contamination of the water compartment evaluated both on entering and leaving the water treatment works

  11. Social impacts of IPM-FFS on urban and peri-urban vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social relations, social empowerment and sharing of IPM information, and sustainability and institutionalization of IPM) for vegetable producers in an integrated pest management (IPM) project using farmer field schools (FFS) in Cotonou.

  12. Woody Vegetation Composition and Structure in Peri-urban Chongming Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Wang, Ruijing; Zhou, Qiaolan; Lin, Wenpeng; Gao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Chongming, the world's largest alluvial island, is located within the municipality of Shanghai, China. Recent projects have now linked peri-urban Chongming to Shanghai's urban core and as a result will soon undergo substantial changes from urbanization. We quantitatively analyzed the structure and composition of woody vegetation across subtropical, peri-urban Chongming as a basis for sustainable management of these rapidly urbanizing subtropical ecosystems elsewhere. We used 178 permanent, random plots to statistically and spatially analyze woody plant composition and tree structure across the 1,041 km2 of Chongming. A total of 2,251 woody plants were measured comprising 42 species in 37 genera. We statistically and geospatially analyzed field data according to land uses and modeled air pollution removal by trees. Average tree diameter at breast height, total height, and crown widths on transportation land uses were greater than other land uses. These same values were lowest on forest land use and greater tree cover was associated with areas of increased anthropogenic activity. Less than 20 % of the woody vegetation was exotic and a species richness index was significantly different between land uses due to legacy effects. Composition of agriculture and forest land uses were similar to residential and transportation. Tree cover across Chongming was also estimated to annually remove 1,400 tons of air pollutants. We propose that this integrated and quantitative method can be used in other subtropical, peri-urban areas in developing countries to establish baseline trends for future sustainability objectives and to monitor the effects of urbanization and climate change.

  13. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ M ), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  14. Vegetation indicators of transformation in the urban forest ecosystems of "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyvolova, Anna; Trifonova, Tatiana; Bykova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in the city are at the same time a component of its natural environment and part of urban developmental planning. It imposes upon urban forests a large functional load, both environmental (formation of environment, air purification, noise pollution reducing, etc.) and social (recreational, educational) which defines the special attitude to their management and study. It is not a simple task to preserve maximum accessibility to the forest ecosystems of the large metropolises with a minimum of change. The urban forest vegetates in naturally formed soil, it has all the elements of a morphological structure (canopy layers), represented by natural species of the zonal vegetation. Sometimes it is impossible for a specialist to distinguish between an urban forest and a rural one. However, the urban forests are changing, being under the threat of various negative influences of the city, of which pollution is arguably the most significant. This article presents some indicators of structural changes to the plant communities, which is a response of forest ecosystems to an anthropogenic impact. It is shown that the indicators of the transformation of natural ecosystems in the city can be a reduction of the projective cover of moss layer, until its complete absence (in the pine forest), increasing the role of Acer negundo (adventive species) in the undergrowth, high variability of floristic indicators of the ground herbaceous vegetation, and a change in the spatial arrangement of adventive species. The assessment of the impact of the urban environment on the state of vegetation in the "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Natural-Historical Park was conducted in two key areas least affected by anthropogenic impacts under different plant communities represented by complex pine and birch forests and in similar forest types in the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve. The selection of pine forests as a model is due to the fact that, according to some scientists, pine (Pinus

  15. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively.

  16. COMMUNICATION MODEL IN SOCIALIZING OF URBAN FARMING “KAMPUNG BERKEBUN” INNOVATION PROGRAM IN BANDUNG CITY (MODEL KOMUNIKASI DALAM MEMASYARAKATKAN PROGRAM INOVASI URBAN FARMING “KAMPUNG BERKEBUN” DI KOTA BANDUNG PROPINSI JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Sri Mulyani R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovation promoted by the government of the city of Bandung in 2014 that urban gardening activities by utilizing their yards, vacant land, alley, dak  and the other, better known as Urban Farming. This activity was intended for residents of the city of Bandung with the hope of meeting the food needs of the household and supporting urban green open space. The purpose of this study was to determine the model of communication used by the Department of Agriculture and Food Security in the dissemination of innovation Urban Farming "Kampung Berkebun" in Bandung. This was accomplished through qualitative description methods of data collection and analysis using some observations, personal interviews and textual analysis. The results showed that the program of promoting Urban Farming "Kampung Berkebun" consists of two activities, namely the first event, to be disseminated to the subdistrict and village heads as the city of Bandung which is held at the Department of Agriculture and Food Security in Bandung, and the second activity is to provide training to the residents in the village location. Bandung has 34 districts and 151 villages. Training was conducted at each site include a village with a maximum of 50 people of the village residents. Deployment of innovative communication model Urban Farming "Kampung Berkebun" in the form of a model that is both mechanistic and interactional namely communication model David K Berlo (1960 and Schramm communication model (1954.   Sebuah inovasi  dimasyarakatkan oleh pemerintahan Kota Bandung mulai tahun 2014 yaitu kegiatan berkebun diperkotaan dengan memanfaatkan lahan pekarangan, lahan tidur, gang, dak  dan yang lainnya   lebih dikenal dengan sebutan  Urban Farming. Kegiatan ini diperuntukan bagi   warga Kota Bandung dengan harapan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pangan dalam skala rumah tangga dan menunjang ruang terbuka hijau perkotaan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui model komunikasi yang

  17. Impact of Practice Change on Runoff Water Quality and Vegetable Yield—An On-Farm Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekhar Nachimuthu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural practices in farming systems in eastern Australia have been identified as a contributor to the poor runoff water quality entering the Great Barrier Reef (GBR. A field investigation was carried out to measure the off-farm water quality and productivity in a coastal farming system in northeastern Australia. Two vegetable crops (capsicum and zucchini were grown in summer 2010–2011 and winter 2011 respectively using four different management practices (Conventional—plastic mulch, bare inter-row conventional tillage and commercial fertilizer inputs; Improved—improved practice with plastic mulch, inter-row vegetative mulch, zonal tillage and reduced fertilizer rates; Trash mulch—improved practice with cane-trash or forage-sorghum mulch with reduced fertilizer rates, minimum or zero tillage; and Vegetable only—improved practice with Rhodes grass or forage-sorghum mulch, minimum or zero tillage, reduced fertilizer rates. Results suggest improved and trash mulch systems reduced sediment and nutrient loads by at least 50% compared to conventional systems. The residual nitrate nitrogen in soil accumulated at the end-of-break crop cycle was lost by deep drainage before the subsequent sugarcane crop could utilize it. These results suggest that future research into establishing the linkages between deep drainage, groundwater quality and lateral movement into adjacent streams is needed. The improvement in runoff water quality was accompanied by yield reductions of up to 55% in capsicum and 57% in zucchini under trash mulch systems, suggesting a commercially unacceptable trade-off between water quality and productivity for a practice change. The current study has shown that variations around improved practice (modified nutrient application strategies under plastic mulch, but with an inter-space mulch to minimize runoff and sediment loss may be the most practical solution to improve water quality and maintain productivity

  18. Utilization of inoculum of AM fungi produced on-farm for the production of Capsicum annuum: a summary of 7 years of field trials on a conventional vegetable farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilization of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum has been encouraged as a way for vegetable farmers to better utilize the AM symbiosis. On-farm systems can economically produce inoculum that has been shown to increase the yield of specific crops. We conducted seven years of field studies...

  19. On the relative importance of vegetation terms in computational fluid dynamics on flow and Dispersion in the urban environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of vegetation terms was analysed for flow and dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-trees. To this end, simulations with three k-e turbulence models and different approaches to model vegetation were performed. The different approaches resulted in rather slight

  20. Experimental examination of effectiveness of vegetation as bio-filter of particulate matters in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lixin; Liu, Chenming; Zou, Rui; Yang, Mao; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Studies focused on pollutants deposition on vegetation surfaces or aerodynamics of vegetation space conflict in whether vegetation planting can effectively reduce airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the conflict, we conducted experiments during 2013 and 2014 in Beijing, China to evaluate the importance of vegetation species, planting configurations and wind in influencing PM concentration at urban and street scales. Results showed that wind field prevailed over the purification function by vegetation at urban scale. All six examined planting configurations reduced total suspended particle along horizontal but not vertical direction. Shrubs and trees–grass configurations performed most effectively for horizontal PM2.5 reduction, but adversely for vertical attenuation. Trapping capacity of PMs was species-specific, but species selection criteria could hardly be generalized for practical use. Therefore, design of planting configuration is practically more effective than tree species selection in attenuating the ambient PM concentrations in urban settings. - Highlights: • Study of the relationship between vegetation and PM pollution is presented. • Type of vegetation is secondary to wind field effect in influencing urban-scale PM pollution. • Planting spaces aiding ventilation are crucial in roadside PM pollution control. • Species differences are obvious but difficult to apply in practice. - Wind field triumphs surface deposition by vegetation in attenuating PM pollution, indicating consideration of ventilation as the criteria for spatial planting configuration and species selection.

  1. an ecological study on rodents of natural vegetation and farm lands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    habitat association of rodents was conducted in Siltie natural vegetation and nearby farmlands ... In each habitat type, one representative grid was selected for live trapping. In addition, rodents were also snap- trapped from these habitats. A total of 562 captures was made .... into seeds, leaves, roots, earthworms and arthro-.

  2. Regenerating degraded soils and increasing water use efficiency on vegetable farms in Uruguay through ecological intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alliaume, F.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigated alternative soil management strategies for vegetable crop systems and their hypothesized effects on increasing systems resilience by sequestering soil carbon, increasing the efficiency of water use, and reducing erosion. The goal was to contribute knowledge on and tools

  3. The influence of vegetation, mesoclimate and meteorology on urban atmospheric microclimates across a coastal to desert climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Steven M; Shiflett, Sheri A; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-09-15

    Many cities are increasing vegetation in part due to the potential for microclimate cooling. However, the magnitude of vegetation cooling and sensitivity to mesoclimate and meteorology are uncertain. To improve understanding of the variation in vegetation's influence on urban microclimates we asked: how do meso- and regional-scale drivers influence the magnitude and timing of vegetation-based moderation on summertime air temperature (T a ), relative humidity (RH) and heat index (HI) across dryland cities? To answer this question we deployed a network of 180 temperature sensors in summer 2015 over 30 high- and 30 low-vegetated plots in three cities across a coastal to inland to desert climate gradient in southern California, USA. In a followup study, we deployed a network of temperature and humidity sensors in the inland city. We found negative T a and HI and positive RH correlations with vegetation intensity. Furthermore, vegetation effects were highest in evening hours, increasing across the climate gradient, with reductions in T a and increases in RH in low-vegetated plots. Vegetation increased temporal variability of T a , which corresponds with increased nighttime cooling. Increasing mean T a was associated with higher spatial variation in T a in coastal cities and lower variation in inland and desert cities, suggesting a climate dependent switch in vegetation sensitivity. These results show that urban vegetation increases spatiotemporal patterns of microclimate with greater cooling in warmer environments and during nighttime hours. Understanding urban microclimate variation will help city planners identify potential risk reductions associated with vegetation and develop effective strategies ameliorating urban microclimate. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas; Lazarus, William

    2011-01-01

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L -1 of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L -1 and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L -1 depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L -1 and from 0.14 to 0.33 L -1 , respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L -1 for soybean and 0.44 L -1 for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L -1 . (author)

  5. Opportunities and limiting factors of intensive vegetable farming in malaria endemic Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Olivier; Dao, Daouda; Koudou, Benjamin G; Essé, Clémence; Cissé, Guéladio; Yao, Tano; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Tschannen, Andreas B; Bordmann, Gérard; Lehmann, Bernard; Nsabimana, Christian; Keiser, Jennifer; Killeen, Gerry F; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    Poverty reduction policies guide development strategies. In economies that depend heavily on agriculture, in the face of rapid population growth, innovative approaches are required to satisfy food needs, increase household welfare and alleviate poverty. Irrigated agriculture is an important strategy to enhance crop production, but it must be well tailored to specific socio-ecological settings, as otherwise, it might increase the burden of water-related parasitic diseases and delay economic advance. The purpose of this study is to assess and quantify the effect of ill health, particularly malaria, on the performance of farm activity, with an emphasis on drip-irrigated vegetable farming in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Vegetable yields and revenues were monitored among 12 farmers and linked with longitudinal medical and entomological surveys. Over the course of 10 months, farmers were classified as sick, on average, for 14-15 days, with malaria accounting for 8-9 days (58%), confirming that malaria is the most important disease in this setting. There was a large heterogeneity among farmers, with malaria-related work losses ranging between 0 and 26 days. Work absenteeism correlated with overall yields and revenues. During a single cabbage production cycle, those farmers who were prescribed sick because of malaria for more than 2 days (mean: 4.2 days) had 47% lower yields and 53% lower revenues than farmers who missed a maximum of 2 days (mean: 0.3 days). This is consequential in an intensive cropping system, where substitutes for qualified workers are not readily available. We conclude that mitigating the burden of malaria is an important step towards reducing the vulnerability of people engaged in intensive agricultural production. This calls for targeted interventions to facilitate agriculture-based rural development that might spur social and economic development and reduce inequities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Borlaug 411, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States); Lazarus, William [Department of Applied Economics, 231 Classroom Office Building, 1994 Buford Avenue, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L{sup -1} of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L{sup -1} and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L{sup -1} depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L{sup -1} and from 0.14 to 0.33 L{sup -1}, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L{sup -1} for soybean and 0.44 L{sup -1} for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. © 2014 The

  8. Landscape morphology metrics for urban areas: analysis of the role of vegetation in the management of the quality of urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Marques de Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study has the objective to demonstrate the applicability of landscape metric analysis undertaken in fragments of urban land use. More specifically, it focuses in low vegetation cover, arboreal and shrubbery vegetation and their distribution on land use. Differences of vegetation cover in dense urban areas are explained. It also discusses briefly the state-of-the-art Landscape Ecology and landscape metrics. It develops, as an example, a case study in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this study, it selects the use of the area’s metrics, the relation between area, perimeter, core, and circumscribed circle. From this analysis, this paper proposes the definition of priority areas for conservation, urban parks, free spaces of common land, linear parks and green corridors. It is demonstrated that, in order to design urban landscape, studies of two-dimension landscape representations are still interesting, but should consider the systemic relation between different factors related to shape and land use.

  9. Landscape, vegetation characteristics, and group identity in an urban and suburban watershed: why the 60s matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Boone; Mary L. Cadenasso; J. Morgan Grove; Kirsten Schwarz; Geoffrey L. Buckley

    2010-01-01

    As highly managed ecosystems, urban areas should reflect the social characteristics of their managers, who are primarily residents. Since landscape features develop over time, we hypothesize that present-day vegetation should also reflect social characteristics of past residents. Using an urban-to-suburban watershed in the Baltimore Metropolitan Region, this paper...

  10. Impacts of Vegetation and Urban planning on micro climate in Hashtgerd new Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; langer, Ines; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the microclimate results shows, that with vegetation the microclimate in street canopies will be change: • 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K • relative humidity increase by about 10 % • soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K • wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which

  11. Modeling Hydrologic Processes after Vegetation Restoration in an Urban Watershed with HEC-HMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, K.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The San Diego River Watershed in California (USA) is highly urbanized, where stream channel geomorphology are directly affected by anthropogenic disturbances. Flooding and water quality concerns have led to an increased interest in improving the condition of urban waterways. Alvarado Creek, a 1200-meter section of a tributary to the San Diego River will be used as a case study to understand the degree to which restoration efforts reduce the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities on hydrologic processes and water quality in urban stream ecosystems. In 2016, non-native vegetation (i.e. Washingtonia spp. (fan palm), Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island palm)) and approximately 7257 kilograms of refuse were removed from the study reach. This research develops the United States Army Corp of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydraulic Modeling System (USACE HEC-HMS) using field-based data to model and predict the short- and long-term impacts of restoration on geomorphic and hydrologic processes. Observations include cross-sectional area, grain-size distributions, water quality, and continuous measurements of streamflow, temperature, and precipitation. Baseline and design storms are simulated before and after restoration. The model will be calibrated and validated using field observations. The design storms represent statistical likelihoods of storms occurrences, and the pre- and post-restoration hydrologic responses will be compared to evaluate the impact of vegetation and waste removal on runoff processes. Ultimately model parameters will be transferred to other urban creeks in San Diego that may potentially undergo restoration. Modeling will be used to learn about the response trajectory of rainfall-runoff processes following restoration efforts in urban streams and guide future management and restoration activities.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetation in urban areas of Quezon City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ian A; Gabiana, Christella C; Dumo, Joan Ruby E; Salmo, Severino G; Guzman, Maria Aileen Leah G; Valera, Nestor S; Espiritu, Emilyn Q

    2017-04-01

    Limited data have been published on the chemistry of urban soils and vegetation in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to quantify the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in soils and vegetation in the urban landscape of Quezon City, Philippines, and to elucidate the relationships between soil properties and the concentration of heavy metals pertaining to different land uses [i.e., protected forest (LM), park and wildlife area (PA), landfill (PL), urban poor residential and industrial areas (RA), and commercial areas (CA)]. Soil (0-15 cm) and senescent plant leaves were collected and were analyzed for soil properties and heavy metal concentrations. Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in urban soils were higher in areas where anthropogenic activities or disturbance (PL, RA, and CA) were dominant as compared to the less disturbed areas (LM and PA). Organic matter and available phosphorous were strongly correlated with heavy metal concentrations, suggesting that heavy metal concentrations were primarily controlled by these soil properties. The average foliar heavy metal concentrations varied, ranging from 0 to 0.4 mg/kg for Cd, 0-10 mg/kg for Cr, 2-22 mg/kg for Cu, 0-5 mg/kg for Pb, and 11-250 mg/kg for Zn. The concentrations of Cd and Cr exceeded the critical threshold concentrations in some plants. Leaves of plants growing in PL (i.e., landfill) showed the highest levels of heavy metal contamination. Our results revealed that anthropogenic activities and disturbance caused by the rapid urbanization of the city are major contributors to the heavy metal accumulation and persistence in the soils in these areas.

  13. The Farm Wife Mystery School: Women's Use of Social Media in the Contemporary North American Urban Homestead Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Within the larger North American food security movement, self-professed "urban homesteaders" have been tearing up their backyard lawns to plant vegetable gardens and install chicken coops in search of greater self-sufficiency and independence from industrial agriculture and the corporate food chain. Participants are most often white,…

  14. Numerical simulation of cooling effect of vegetation enhancement in a subtropical urban park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, An-Shik; Juan, Yu-Hsuan; Wen, Chih-Yung; Chang, Chao-Jui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cooling efficacy from vegetation implanted in a urban public park is studied. • Three cases showing various types of greening in the park renewal were conducted. • On-site measurements were also conducted to validate the CFD simulation results. • The increase of GCR are linear with PET comfort area percentage. • Results can be used as a guideline for the green sustainability. - Abstract: Vegetation covers in urban parks are very useful for providing a cool microclimate which mitigates urban heat islands (UHIs). The objectives of this investigation are to therefore conduct on-site measurements and computational fluid dynamic simulations to evaluate the cooling efficacy from vegetation planted in a public park in Taipei, which is a subtropical city in Taiwan. The thermo-flow characteristics are predicted and compared with the measured air velocity and temperature data by using ultrasonic anemometers and an infrared camera to validate the computer modeling, including the sophisticated configurations of trees. Computations are also conducted to resolve the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) profiles for assessing the thermal comfort state at the pedestrian level of the outdoor environment. To investigate the impacts of park renewal on the urban microclimate, three pavilions and supplementary green areas are added to the simulation, and the results reveal that there is a better cooling effect in the park with a higher green coverage ratio (GCR). Moreover, the simulations find that the increased tree coverage ratio can more than compensate for loss of coverage of grasses, resulting in an overall decrease in average temperature. The relationship between thermal comfortable area and green coverage ratio tends to be nonlinear in nature. However, it would be more convenient for applications to adopt the linear regression analysis for determining the correlation between the GCR and PET for the percentage of areas that are comfortable (C

  15. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  16. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-23

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  17. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  18. Natural woodland vegetation and plant species richness of the urban open spaces in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Grobler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that approximately 60 % of the world’s population will be living in urban areas by 2025. In Gauteng, the most densely populated province in South Africa, the natural open spaces are continually under threat from development. Vegetation is the most physical representation of the environment on which all animals are ultimately dependent. In order to evaluate an areas potential for development or conservation it is necessary to make a thorough inventory of the plant communities and their associated habitats. A survey of the natural woodlands was undertaken as part of a project describing the vegetation of the natural open spaces within the Gauteng region. Relevés were compiled in 73 stratified random sample plots in selected open spaces within the study area. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, indicated six woodland communities that can be grouped into two major woodland communities. A classification and description of these communities as well as their species richness are presented. The results indicate that there are still patches of well-preserved natural vegetation within the study area and contribute to the limited knowledge that presently exists for the vegetation of the area.

  19. Heavy metal status of soil and vegetables grown on peri-urban area of Lahore district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Khan, Shahid Javid, Atif Muhmood, Tahir Mjeed, Abid Niaz and Abdul Majeed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of wastewater for growing vegetables has become a common practice around big cities. Wastewater contains organic material and inorganic elements essential for plant growth but also contain heavy metals which may be lethal for animals and humans if their concentration increases than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and their translocation in to the edible parts of the vegetables. For this purpose, during year 2009-10, 25 sewage water, 76 soil, 40 leaf and 30 vegetable samples (tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower were taken from peri-urban area of Lahore district. These samples were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd and Ni contents. The analysis showed that in wastewater concentration of Cu (100 %, Mn (72 %, Ni (32 % and Cd (44% were higher than the safe limits while Zn, Fe and Pb concentration was below permissible limits. In soil DTPA extractable concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cd was in safe limit and ranged between 1.30-8.02, 1.06 -5.42, 8.60-35.03, 8.7-30.07, 2.11-30.86, 0.28-1.76 and 0.05-0.52 mg kg-1 respectively. In vegetable, 100 % leaf and fruit samples were contaminated and accumulation of heavy metals was higher than the WHO/FAO recommended permissible limits.

  20. The Role of Vegetation in Mitigating Urban Land Surface Temperatures: A Case Study of Munich, Germany during the Warm Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadroddin Alavipanah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Heat Island (UHI is the phenomenon of altered increased temperatures in urban areas compared to their rural surroundings. UHIs grow and intensify under extreme hot periods, such as during heat waves, which can affect human health and also increase the demand for energy for cooling. This study applies remote sensing and land use/land cover (LULC data to assess the cooling effect of varying urban vegetation cover, especially during extreme warm periods, in the city of Munich, Germany. To compute the relationship between Land Surface Temperature (LST and Land Use Land Cover (LULC, MODIS eight-day interval LST data for the months of June, July and August from 2002 to 2012 and the Corine Land Cover (CLC database were used. Due to similarities in the behavior of surface temperature of different CLCs, some classes were reclassified and combined to form two major, rather simplified, homogenized classes: one of built-up area and one of urban vegetation. The homogenized map was merged with the MODIS eight-day interval LST data to compute the relationship between them. The results revealed that (i the cooling effect accrued from urban vegetation tended to be non-linear; and (ii a remarkable and stronger cooling effect in terms of LST was identified in regions where the proportion of vegetation cover was between seventy and almost eighty percent per square kilometer. The results also demonstrated that LST within urban vegetation was affected by the temperature of the surrounding built-up and that during the well-known European 2003 heat wave, suburb areas were cooler from the core of the urbanized region. This study concluded that the optimum green space for obtaining the lowest temperature is a non-linear trend. This could support urban planning strategies to facilitate appropriate applications to mitigate heat-stress in urban area.

  1. Using on-farm sedimentation ponds to improve microbial quality of irrigation water in urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    water without disturbing sediments reduced helminth eggs in irrigation water by about 70%. Helminth eggs reduced from about 5 to less than 1 egg per litre in three days in both dry and wet seasons while thermotolerant coliforms took six days in the dry season to reduce from about 8 to 4 log units per...

  2. Effect of greenhouse vegetable farming duration on Zinc accumulation in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Peiying; Cui, Shuang; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has rapidly expanded, and reqiures more attention due to its heavy metal contamination. In this study, different cultivation greenhouses of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 13 years were selected to investigate the effects of GVP duration on Zn accumulation. The results revealed high Zn (total Zn and available Zn) accumulation in GVP surface layers (0-20 cm), and Zn contents in 0-20 cm soil layers were positively correlated with GVP duration (P<0.01). Zn accumulation was mainly attributed to manure fertilizer application due to higher concentrations of Zn in manures. For greenhouse sustainability, reduction of manure application and reasonable use of passivation materials may alleviate metal phytoavailability and the health risk.

  3. VEGETATION BEHAVIOR AND ITS HABITAT REGION AGAINST FLOOD FLOW IN URBAN STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IL-KI CHOI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic effects on the vegetation behavior and on its habitat region against flood flow in the urban streams were analysed in this paper. Vegetation behavior was classified into stable, recovered, damaged and swept away stages. Criteria between recovered and damaged status were determined by the bending angle of the aquatic plants. Aquatic plants whose bending angle is lower than 30~50 degree is recovered, but they were damaged and cannot be recovered when the bending angle is higher than 30~50 degree. Phragmites japonica was inhabited in the hydraulic condition of high Froude number which shows that it was inhabited in the upstream reaches. Phragmites communis was inhabited in the relatively low Froude number compared with Phragmites japonica. This shows that it was inhabited in the downstream reaches. Persicaria blumei was found in the relatively wide range of flow velocity and flow depth, which shows that it was inhabited in the middle and downstream reaches. Criterion on the vegetation behavior of Persicaria thunbergii was not clear, which implies that it may be affected by the flow turbulence rather than flow velocity and flow depth.

  4. "To subsidise my income" : urban farming in an East-African town

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa has gained momentum in recent years in terms of research and policy, as well as in practical terms. The paradox of accelerated urbanization and the increase in urban agriculture in developing countries is widely recognized. More than ever before, urban

  5. Vegetation role in controlling the ecoenvironmental conditions for sustainable urban environments: a comparison of Beijing and Islamabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid; Cao, Chunxiang; Waqar, Mirza Muhammad; Wei, Chen; Acharya, Bipin Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in urbanization due to population growth leads to the degradation of vegetation in major cities. This study investigated the spatial patterns of the ecoenvironmental conditions of inhabitants of two distinct Asian capital cities, Beijing of China and Islamabad of Pakistan, by utilizing Earth observation data products. The significance of urban vegetation for the cooling effect was studied in local climate zones, i.e., urban, suburban, and rural areas within 1-km2 quantiles. Landsat-8 (OLI) and Gaofen-1 satellite imagery were used to assess vegetation cover and land surface temperature, while population datasets were used to evaluate environmental impact. Comparatively, a higher cooling effect of vegetation presence was observed in rural and suburban zones of Beijing as compared to Islamabad, while the urban zone of Islamabad was found comparatively cooler than Beijing's urban zone. The urban thermal field variance index calculated from satellite imagery was ranked into the ecological evaluation index. The worst ecoenvironmental conditions were found in urban zones of both cities where the fraction of vegetation is very low. Meanwhile, this condition is more serious in Beijing, as more than 90% of the total population is living under the worst ecoenvironment conditions, while only 7% of the population is enjoying comfortable conditions. Ecoenvironmental conditions of Islamabad are comparatively better than Beijing where ˜61% of the total population live under the worst ecoenvironmental conditions, and ˜24% are living under good conditions. Thus, Islamabad at this early growth stage can learn from Beijing's ecoenvironmental conditions to improve the quality of living by controlling the associated factors in the future.

  6. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  7. Analysis of changes in farm pond network connectivity in the peri-urban landscape of the Taoyuan area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Li; Lee, Ying-Chieh; Budd, William W; Yang, Min-Chia

    2012-04-01

    The farm pond system for irrigation is the most prominent feature in the Taoyuan area, Taiwan, giving the region a unique landscape and hydrological character. Although this area had more than 3,290 ponds in the 1970s, fewer than 1,800 now remain. This study analyzes changes in irrigation farm ponds and the canal network landscape in the Taoyuan area. The spatial and temporal changes to ponds and the canal network on the Taoyuan plain were examined graphically for each spatial unit (2,765 m × 2,525 m) using aerial photographs for 1979 and 2005. Landscape metrics were calculated to analyze landscape change associated with increased urbanization. Landscape indices of connectivity and circuitry were utilized to describe changes in the configuration of ponds and canal networks. The total length of canals and total number of ponds in the study area decreased significantly during 1979-2005. The average values of connectivity indices (γ- and α-index) also decreased during 1979-2005, reflecting degradation of canal networks due to urban sprawl. A multivariate technique was applied to portion the study area into three zones according to changes to land cover, ponds, and canal networks. The effects of urban sprawl on the spatial pattern of ponds and canal networks are discussed.

  8. USE OF THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DATA FOR VEGETATION INVENTORY ON URBAN A REAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubalska Joanna Lucyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology of the implementation of an inventory of vegetation in an urban area using photogrammetric data in the form of color NIR "true - orthophotomap" (true - ortho and the digital surface model (DSM created with data from airborne laser scanning, or alternatively, with an automatic correlation of images. The vegetation inventory was conducted by classification on the basis of the characteristics contained in pixels of georeferenced true - ortho while taking into account the elevation data in the form of gridded DSM. To carry out the classification Erdas Imagine software was used. The correct classification process was preceded by the creation of the input data for this task. This data was obtained from the processing of digital aerial photos taken by a Vexcel UltraCam camera with the ground resolution GSD = 10cm and point clouds acquired from ALS. This processing included the generation of digital terrain model in the SCOP++ environment and the digital surface model in an Opals and Inpho environment.T he Comparison of DSM created from two different sources of data showed the overall consistency and uniformity and the ability to use both models to generate a true - ortho product from digital aerial photographs. The work was performed on an INPHO photogrammetric workstation. "True - ortho" was generated from both the black and white NIR images and colour images. The classification carried out with the Erdas Imagine software proved that this software is suitable for classification based on the features extracted from the pixels with the simultaneous analysis of elevation data. Simultaneous use of data both from airborne laser scanning and colour infrared images made it possible to make an exact classification of vegetation on very difficult terrain, like built up urban areas. The results of the classification accuracy were evaluated by the visual verification in Google Street View application. At a time when airborne

  9. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  10. Impact of vegetable crop agriculture on anopheline agressivity and malaria transmission in urban and less urbanized settings of the South region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono, Patrick Ntonga; Mbida, Jean Arthur Mbida; Tonga, Calvin; Belong, Philippe; Ngo Hondt, Odette Etoile; Magne, Gaëlle Tamdem; Peka, Marie Florence; Lehman, Leopold Gustave

    2015-05-28

    The use of inland valley swamps for vegetable crop agriculture contributes to food security in urban and less urbanized settings in Africa. The impact of this agriculture on aggressive mosquitoes' diversity and malaria transmission in central Africa is poorly documented. This study is aimed at assessing the impact of vegetable crop agriculture on these entomological parameters in urban and less urbanized settings of the forest area, south of Cameroon. The human bait technique was used for the capture of aggressive mosquitoes from January to December 2012. For three consecutive days each month, captures were performed on volunteers in hydro-agricultural and river bank sites of Akonolinga and Yaoundé. Physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding sites were recorded. Molecular alongside morpho-taxonomic techniques were used for the identification of mosquito species; ELISA test was used to reveal Plasmodium falciparum infected mosquitoes through the detection of CSP. Mosquito diversity, aggressivity and malaria transmission in sites and settings were determined and compared. Biting rates were higher in hydro-agricultural sites of less urbanized and urban settings (31.8 b/p/n and 28.6 b/p/n respectively) than in river banks sites (6.83 b/p/n and 3.64 b/p/n respectively; p agricultural sites 2 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 in the less urbanized setting, meanwhile in river bank sites, 3 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 species in the less urbanized setting. An. nili s.s. was found in river banks only. An. hancocki was not found to insure Plasmodium falciparum Welch transmission. EIR in hydro-agricultural sites varied from 1.86 ib/p/n (urban area) to 2.13 ib/p/n (less urbanized area) with higher rates in April/May and August. Overall, EIR was higher in less urbanized areas (p agriculture (p = 0.2). These results highlight the need for specific preventive measures that take into account the ecological peculiarities

  11. Statistical analysis of vegetation and stormwater runoff in an urban watershed during summer and winter storms in Portland, Oregon, U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry; Megan Y. Mao

    2016-01-01

    Past research has examined the effect of urban trees, and other vegetation, on stormwater runoff using hydrological models or small-scale experiments. However, there has been no statistical analysis of the influence of vegetation on runoff in an intact urban watershed, and it is not clear how results from small-scale studies scale up to the city level. Researchers...

  12. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R.; Craigon, J.; Young, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal ‘hazard quotient’ (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 ‘site-vegetable’ combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed. - Highlights: ► Solubility of toxic metals in soils used for urban agriculture is highly variable. ► Washing leafy vegetables prior to cooking reduces consumption of Cr, Pb, As and Ni. ► Lead (Pb) presents the greatest hazard in produce from agriculture in Kampala City. ► Agriculture in East African cities can be practiced safely with the right choices. ► Soil screening to predict hazard to consumers may be useful in site surveys. - Peri-urban agriculture requires careful consideration of vegetable choice and site characteristics.

  13. Monitoring and Modeling the Fate and Transport of Nitrate in the Vadose Zone beneath a Suwannee River Basin Vegetable Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M. A.; Graham, W. D.; Graetz, D.

    2002-05-01

    The Suwannee River basin has received much attention in recent years due to increased nitrogen levels in the groundwater-fed rivers of the basin that could seriously affect the welfare of this ecosystem. Nitrogen levels have increased from 0.1mg/l NO3-N to more than 5 mg/L NO3-N in many springs in the Suwannee Basin over the past 40 years. Nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River itself have been increasing at the rate of .02 mg/L per year over the past 20 years. Suwannee River nitrate loads increase from 2300 kg/day to 6000 kg/day over a 33 mile stretch of the river between Dowling Park and Branford, Florida. Within this stretch of river, 89% of the nitrate loading appeared to come from the lower two-thirds, where agriculture is the dominant land use. The objective of this research is to monitor and model the impacts of alternative nutrient and water management practices on soil water quality, groundwater quality and crop yield at a commercial vegetable farm in the Suwannee River Basin. Groundwater monitoring wells, suction lysimeters, soil cores and TDR probes are used to monitor water and nitrogen transport at the site. Periodic plant biomass sampling is conducted to determine nitrogen uptake by the plants and to estimate crop yield. Field data show that two-thirds of the nitrogen applied to the spring 2001 potato crop leached to groundwater due to excessive irrigation and poor nitrogen uptake efficiency by the potatoes. The DSSAT35-Potato Crop model and the LEACHM vadose-zone model were calibrated for the spring 2001 potato crop and used to predict nitrogen leaching and crop yield for alternative management practices. Simulation results show that by reducing the duration of irrigation, reducing the fertilizer application rate, and improving the timing of fertilizer applications, nitrogen leaching can be reduced by approximately 50% while maintaining acceptable crop yields. Results of this project will ultimately be used to develop best management practices

  14. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALTER, RICHARD H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…

  15. Focusing on the big picture: urban vegetation and eco-hydrological services in U.S. cities (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees and vegetation can be key components of urban green infrastructure and green spaces such as parks and residential yards. Large trees, characterized by broad canopies, and high leaf and stem volumes, can intercept a substantial amount of stormwater while promoting evapotrans...

  16. Rural and Urban Differences in the Associations between Characteristics of the Community Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between measures of the household and retail food environments and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in both urban and rural environmental contexts. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Data for FV intake and other characteristics were collected via survey instrument and geocoded to the objective food…

  17. Cohabitation with farm animals in urban households with and without occupational farm work: associations between participation in educational activities and good hygiene practices in at-risk households cohabiting with farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphou, Phoupasong; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate patterns of cohabitation with farm animals in urban households in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic, with regard to animal-to-human disease transmission. We also investigated the association between participation in hygiene-related educational activities and good hygiene practices in households with or without cohabitation with animals. A survey regarding cohabitation with animals, socioeconomic characteristics and participation in educational activities was conducted among 1,497 households randomly sampled from urban districts of Vientiane in 2001. Rates of satisfactory performance of recommended good hygiene practices according to a program commencing in 1996 were compared among households cohabiting with animals with or without participation in educational activities (reference group). Even among households not engaged in agriculture as a major source of income, 54.4, 34.9, 7.9, 3.1 and 35.7% cohabited with chickens, ducks, cattle, buffaloes and dogs, respectively. The percentage of households fulfilling the recommendations for good hygiene practices was 56.7%. The rates of satisfactory hygiene practices among households participating in health education and cohabitating with chickens, ducks or cattle were greater than those in the reference group (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.2, 2.3; OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.3, 3.0; OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.0, 4.9) regardless of socioeconomic factors. Households cohabiting with animals showed poorer rates of satisfactory hygiene practices than those without animals. Cohabitation with farm animals is common in urban Vientiane regardless of household involvement in agriculture. Further effort is required to improve hygiene conditions, despite some positive effects of health education even in households cohabiting with animals.

  18. Comparing Different Approaches for Mapping Urban Vegetation Cover from Landsat ETM+ Data: A Case Study on Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Canters

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban growth and its related environmental problems call for sustainable urban management policies to safeguard the quality of urban environments. Vegetation plays an important part in this as it provides ecological, social, health and economic benefits to a city’s inhabitants. Remotely sensed data are of great value to monitor urban green and despite the clear advantages of contemporary high resolution images, the benefits of medium resolution data should not be discarded. The objective of this research was to estimate fractional vegetation cover from a Landsat ETM+ image with sub-pixel classification, and to compare accuracies obtained with multiple stepwise regression analysis, linear spectral unmixing and multi-layer perceptrons (MLP at the level of meaningful urban spatial entities. Despite the small, but nevertheless statistically significant differences at pixel level between the alternative approaches, the spatial pattern of vegetation cover and estimation errors is clearly distinctive at neighbourhood level. At this spatially aggregated level, a simple regression model appears to attain sufficient accuracy. For mapping at a spatially more detailed level, the MLP seems to be the most appropriate choice. Brightness normalisation only appeared to affect the linear models, especially the linear spectral unmixing.

  19. Variations in fresh fruit and vegetable quality by store type, urban-rural setting and neighbourhood deprivation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Steven; Smith, Dianna M; Taylor, Mathew; Dawson, John; Marshall, David; Sparks, Leigh; Anderson, Annie S

    2009-11-01

    Neighbourhood differences in access to fresh fruit and vegetables may explain social inequalities in diet. Investigations have focused on variations in cost and availability as barriers to the purchase and consumption of fresh produce; investigations of quality have been neglected. Here we investigate whether produce quality systematically varies by food store type, rural-urban location and neighbourhood deprivation in a selection of communities across Scotland. Cross-sectional survey of twelve fresh fruit and vegetable items in 288 food stores in ten communities across Scotland. Communities were selected to reflect a range of urban-rural settings and a food retail census was conducted in each location. The quality of twelve fruit and vegetable items within each food store was evaluated. Data from the Scottish Executive were used to characterise each small area by deprivation and urban-rural classification. Scotland. Quality of fruit and vegetables within the surveyed stores was high. Medium-sized stores, stores in small town and rural areas, and stores in more affluent areas tended to have the highest-quality fresh fruit and vegetables. Stores where food is secondary, stores in urban settings and stores in more deprived areas tended have the lowest-quality fresh produce. Although differences in quality were not always statistically significant, patterns were consistent for the majority of fruit and vegetable items. The study provides evidence that variations in food quality may plausibly be a micro-environmental mediating variable in food purchase and consumption and help partially explain neighbourhood differences in food consumption patterns.

  20. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  1. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  2. Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Effects of Raindrop Impact on Runoff and Infiltration from Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rain drop impact causes soil crust formation which, in turn, reduces infiltration rates and increases runoff, contributing to soil erosion, downstream flooding and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. This impulse breaks larger soil aggregates into smaller particles and disperses soil from its original position. The displaced soil particles self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming the crust. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Very little research has sought to quantify the effect that canopies and mulch can have on this phenomenon. This presentation presents preliminary findings from ongoing study conducted using rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to discuss green infrastructure facility maintenance and design strategies, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  3. Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Pölling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost specialization, differentiation, and diversification are common business models of urban farms in developed countries. Similarities and differences between them as well as detailed insights into specific farm characteristics are widely absent in scientific discourses. This paper compares farm structures, success factors, obstacles, clients’ expectations, and policy wishes between specialized, differentiated, and diversified farms as well as diversifiers into agriculture. A standardized questionnaire was used for 21 personal in-depth farm interviews located in metropolitan areas of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Being located in a metropolitan area is the most often named Unique Selling Proposition (USP. This is also mentioned as most important success factor followed by sociability and personal contact to clients, which both underpin the importance of direct producer-consumer linkages in urban settings. Additionally, it is assumed that a single food criterion is not sufficient to be successful, but several have to be merged to meet clients’ expectations. In terms of marketing, differentiated and diversified farmers prefer a multi-channel approach, while specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture focus mainly on one specific channel. While both specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture cultivate smaller areas of farmland, the latter one offers the greatest number of jobs including those outside agricultural production. The findings obtained are expected to support farms and agricultural advisory services in individual decision making of future business development strategies and increase knowledge of urban farming’s main business models.

  4. Soil quality is key for planning and managing urban allotments intended for the sustainable production of home-consumption vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzel, F; Calderisi, M; Scatena, M; Pini, R

    2016-09-01

    The growing importance of urban allotments in planning and managing urban areas is due to the combined positive effects on ecosystem services, the economy and human well-being, especially of groups of the urban population that can be vulnerable (e.g. the elderly, immigrants, low-income families). Some studies have highlighted the potential risk of contamination by metals of vegetables grown in urban areas and the lack of appropriate site-specific risk assessments. However, surveys are still lacking on the possibilities of using urban soil as a good substrate to produce vegetables for home consumption. We assessed the soil quality in two areas in Pisa (Italy), one intended for urban horticulture and the other already cultivated for that purpose. We analysed the soils for the main chemical and physical characteristics (texture, bulk density, water stability index, pH, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorous) and elements (Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, K, Al and Mn). Our results showed that both areas had physical and chemical heterogeneity due to the effects of urbanization and to the different cultivation techniques employed. The metal content was lower than the guidelines limits, and the soil conditions (pH = 8) greatly reduced the metal mobility. Copper concentration in some of the cultivated area samples was higher than the limits, representing a possible stress factor for the microbial biodiversity and fauna. Our findings demonstrate that site-specific surveys are necessary before planning urban cultivation areas, and educating urban gardeners regarding sustainable cultivation techniques is a priority for a safe environment.

  5. From Farms to Markets: Gram-Negative Bacteria Resistant to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Fruits and Vegetables in a Region of North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah Zekar, Ferielle; Granier, Sophie A.; Marault, Muriel; Yaici, Lydia; Gassilloud, Benoit; Manceau, Charles; Touati, Abdelaziz; Millemann, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The role of food in human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing food safety issue. The contribution of fruits and vegetables eaten raw to this exposure is still unclear. The evaluation of contamination levels of fruits, vegetables and the agricultural environment by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Gram-negative bacteria was performed by analyzing 491 samples of fruits and vegetables collected from 5 markets and 7 farms in Bejaia area, north-eastern Mediterranean coast of Algeria. Ninety soil samples and 45 irrigation water samples were also sampled in farms in order to assess them as potential inoculum sources. All samples were investigated at the same time on ceftazidime-containing selective media for 3GC-resistant Gram-negative bacteria detection and on Hektoen media, for Salmonella spp. presence. The bacteria isolated (n = 30) from fruits and vegetables, soil and irrigation water collected in the farms were almost all non-fermenting bacterial species (Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum) except one strain of Enterobacter cloacae and two strains of Citrobacter murliniae, isolated on one cucumber and two tomato samples in the same farm. Greater diversity in bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance profiles was observed at markets: Enterobacteriaceae (n = 41) were as strongly represented as non-fermenting bacteria (n = 37). Among Enterobacteriaceae, E. cloacae (n = 21), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13) were the most common isolates. Most of the K. pneumoniae isolates were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers (n = 11). No Salmonella spp. was recovered in any sample. This study showed that fruits and vegetables including those which may be eaten up raw constitute a reservoir of 3GC-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and multi-drug resistant-bacteria in general that can be transferred to humans through food. The general public should be informed of this hazard for health in order to encourage

  6. From Farms to Markets: Gram-Negative Bacteria Resistant to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Fruits and Vegetables in a Region of North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferielle Mesbah Zekar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of food in human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing food safety issue. The contribution of fruits and vegetables eaten raw to this exposure is still unclear. The evaluation of contamination levels of fruits, vegetables and the agricultural environment by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC-resistant Gram-negative bacteria was performed by analyzing 491 samples of fruits and vegetables collected from 5 markets and 7 farms in Bejaia area, north-eastern Mediterranean coast of Algeria. Ninety soil samples and 45 irrigation water samples were also sampled in farms in order to assess them as potential inoculum sources. All samples were investigated at the same time on ceftazidime-containing selective media for 3GC-resistant Gram-negative bacteria detection and on Hektoen media, for Salmonella spp. presence. The bacteria isolated (n = 30 from fruits and vegetables, soil and irrigation water collected in the farms were almost all non-fermenting bacterial species (Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum except one strain of Enterobacter cloacae and two strains of Citrobacter murliniae, isolated on one cucumber and two tomato samples in the same farm. Greater diversity in bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance profiles was observed at markets: Enterobacteriaceae (n = 41 were as strongly represented as non-fermenting bacteria (n = 37. Among Enterobacteriaceae, E. cloacae (n = 21, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13 were the most common isolates. Most of the K. pneumoniae isolates were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers (n = 11. No Salmonella spp. was recovered in any sample. This study showed that fruits and vegetables including those which may be eaten up raw constitute a reservoir of 3GC-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and multi-drug resistant-bacteria in general that can be transferred to humans through food. The general public should be informed of this hazard for health in order

  7. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulo, G; Black, C R; Craigon, J; Young, S D

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal 'hazard quotient' (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 'site-vegetable' combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On Food, Farming and Land Management: Towards a Research Agenda to Reconnect Urban and Rural Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Justin; Rickinson, Mark; Sanders, Dawn; Teamey, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Science education has a key role to play in helping people to develop their understanding of the local and global dimensions of food, farming and land management. Based on a review of the literature on what is known about young people's (3-19) views towards and learning about these topics, a research agenda is outlined for consideration by the…

  9. Vegetation Management and Host Density Influence Bee-Parasite Interactions in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hamutahl; Quistberg, Robyn D; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-12-08

    Apocephalus borealis phorid flies, a parasitoid of bumble bees and yellow jacket wasps in North America, was recently reported as a novel parasitoid of the honey bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Little is known about the ecology of this interaction, including phorid fecundity on bee hosts, whether phorid-bee parasitism is density dependent, and which local habitat and landscape features may correlate with changes in parasitism rates for either bumble or honey bees. We examined the impact of local and landscape drivers and host abundance on phorid parasitism of A. mellifera and the bumble bee Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We worked in 19 urban gardens along the North-Central Coast of California, where phorid parasitism of honey bees was first reported in 2012. We collected and incubated bees for phorid emergence, and surveyed local vegetation, ground cover, and floral characteristics as well as land cover types surrounding gardens. We found that phorid parasitism was higher on bumble bees than on honey bees, and phorids produced nearly twice as many pupae on individual bumble bee hosts than on honey bee hosts. Parasitism of both bumble and honey bees increased with abundance of honey bees in a site. Differences in landscape surroundings did not correlate with parasitism, but local factors related to bee resource provisioning (e.g., tree and shrub abundance) positively correlated with increased parasitism. This research thus helps to document and describe conditions that may have facilitated phorid fly host shift to honey bees and further elucidate how resource provisioning in urban gardens influences bee-parasite interactions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Changing man-land interrelations in China's farming area under urbanization and its implications for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hualou; Ge, Dazhuan; Zhang, Yingnan; Tu, Shuangshuang; Qu, Yi; Ma, Li

    2018-03-01

    The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (HHH) is typical of China's farming area, and was predicted as one of the fastest growing areas of urbanization in the world. Since the turn of the new millennium, construction land and farmland transitions in this region driven by rapid urbanization have resulted in dramatic loss of farmland, which triggered a serious threat to regional even national food security. In this paper, the coupling relationships between per capita construction land transition (PCCT) and per capita farmland transition (PCFT) in the HHH and their implications for regional food security are analyzed. During 2000-2015, the farmland decreased by 8.59%, 72.25% of which were occupied by construction land. There are two major coupling types between PCCT and PCFT, one is the double increasing of per capita construction land area (PCCA) and per capita farmland area (PCFA); another is the increasing of PCCA and the decreasing of PCFA. The fluctuant increasing of PCCT and decreasing of PCFT coexisted and presented symmetrical coupling characteristics in space. Physical, location, transportation and socio-economic factors play significantly different roles in driving PCCT and PCFT. The implications for ensuring food security involve promoting the reclamation and redevelopment of inefficient and unused urban-rural construction land, reducing inefficient occupation of farmland resources, developing appropriate scale management of agriculture, and establishing a better social security system to smoothly settle down the floating rural population in the city. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection and characterization of Brucella spp. in bovine milk in small-scale urban and peri-urban farming in Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Rajala, Elisabeth; Hoffman, Tove; Fretin, David; Godfroid, Jacques; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Lundkvist, Åke; Magnusson, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses globally, and Central Asia remains a Brucella hotspot. The World Health Organization classifies brucellosis as a neglected zoonotic disease that is rarely in the spotlight for research and mainly affects poor, marginalized people. Urban and peri-urban farming is a common practice in many low-income countries, and it increases the incomes of families that are often restrained by limited economic resources. However, there is a concern that the growing number of people and livestock living close together in these areas will increase the transmission of zoonotic pathogens such as Brucella. This study investigates the presence of Brucella DNA in bovine milk in the urban and peri-urban area of Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Brucella DNA was detected in 10.3% of 564 cow milk samples by IS711-based real-time PCR. This finding is concerning because consumption of unpasteurized dairy products is common in the region. Furthermore, Brucella DNA was detected in the milk of all seropositive cows, but 8.3% of the seronegative cows also showed the presence of Brucella DNA. In addition, sequence analysis of the rpoB gene suggests that one cow was infected with B. abortus and another cow was most likely infected with B. melitensis. The discrepancies between the serology and real-time PCR results highlight the need to further investigate whether there is a need for implementing complementary diagnostic strategies to detect false serological negative individuals in Brucella surveillance, control, and eradication programmes. Furthermore, vaccination of cattle with S19 in addition to vaccination of small ruminants with Rev 1 might be needed in order to control Brucella infections in the livestock population but further research focusing on the isolation of Brucella is required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the Brucella spp. circulating among the livestock in this region. PMID:28296882

  12. Detection and characterization of Brucella spp. in bovine milk in small-scale urban and peri-urban farming in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Rajala, Elisabeth; Hoffman, Tove; Fretin, David; Godfroid, Jacques; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Lundkvist, Åke; Magnusson, Ulf

    2017-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses globally, and Central Asia remains a Brucella hotspot. The World Health Organization classifies brucellosis as a neglected zoonotic disease that is rarely in the spotlight for research and mainly affects poor, marginalized people. Urban and peri-urban farming is a common practice in many low-income countries, and it increases the incomes of families that are often restrained by limited economic resources. However, there is a concern that the growing number of people and livestock living close together in these areas will increase the transmission of zoonotic pathogens such as Brucella. This study investigates the presence of Brucella DNA in bovine milk in the urban and peri-urban area of Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Brucella DNA was detected in 10.3% of 564 cow milk samples by IS711-based real-time PCR. This finding is concerning because consumption of unpasteurized dairy products is common in the region. Furthermore, Brucella DNA was detected in the milk of all seropositive cows, but 8.3% of the seronegative cows also showed the presence of Brucella DNA. In addition, sequence analysis of the rpoB gene suggests that one cow was infected with B. abortus and another cow was most likely infected with B. melitensis. The discrepancies between the serology and real-time PCR results highlight the need to further investigate whether there is a need for implementing complementary diagnostic strategies to detect false serological negative individuals in Brucella surveillance, control, and eradication programmes. Furthermore, vaccination of cattle with S19 in addition to vaccination of small ruminants with Rev 1 might be needed in order to control Brucella infections in the livestock population but further research focusing on the isolation of Brucella is required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the Brucella spp. circulating among the livestock in this region.

  13. Detection and characterization of Brucella spp. in bovine milk in small-scale urban and peri-urban farming in Tajikistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lindahl-Rajala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses globally, and Central Asia remains a Brucella hotspot. The World Health Organization classifies brucellosis as a neglected zoonotic disease that is rarely in the spotlight for research and mainly affects poor, marginalized people. Urban and peri-urban farming is a common practice in many low-income countries, and it increases the incomes of families that are often restrained by limited economic resources. However, there is a concern that the growing number of people and livestock living close together in these areas will increase the transmission of zoonotic pathogens such as Brucella. This study investigates the presence of Brucella DNA in bovine milk in the urban and peri-urban area of Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Brucella DNA was detected in 10.3% of 564 cow milk samples by IS711-based real-time PCR. This finding is concerning because consumption of unpasteurized dairy products is common in the region. Furthermore, Brucella DNA was detected in the milk of all seropositive cows, but 8.3% of the seronegative cows also showed the presence of Brucella DNA. In addition, sequence analysis of the rpoB gene suggests that one cow was infected with B. abortus and another cow was most likely infected with B. melitensis. The discrepancies between the serology and real-time PCR results highlight the need to further investigate whether there is a need for implementing complementary diagnostic strategies to detect false serological negative individuals in Brucella surveillance, control, and eradication programmes. Furthermore, vaccination of cattle with S19 in addition to vaccination of small ruminants with Rev 1 might be needed in order to control Brucella infections in the livestock population but further research focusing on the isolation of Brucella is required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the Brucella spp. circulating among the livestock in this region.

  14. Effects of Bank Vegetation and Incision on Erosion Rates in an Urban Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Arnold

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Changing land-use associated with urbanization has resulted in shifts in riparian assemblages, stream hydraulics, and sediment dynamics leading to the degradation of waterways. To combat degradation, restoration and management of riparian zones is becoming increasingly common. However, the relationship between flora, especially the influence of invasive species, on sediment dynamics is poorly understood. Bank erosion and turbidity were monitored in the Tookany Creek and its tributary Mill Run in the greater Philadelphia, PA region. To evaluate the influence of the invasive species Reynoutria japonica (Japanese knotweed on erosion, reaches were chosen based on their riparian vegetation and degree of incision. Bank pins and turbidity loggers were used to estimate sediment erosion. Erosion calculations based on bank pins suggest greater erosion in reaches dominated by knotweed than those dominated by trees. For a 9.5-month monitoring period, there was 29 cm more erosion on banks that were also incised, and 9 cm more erosion in banks with little incision. Turbidity responses to storm events were also higher (77 vs. 54 NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit in reaches with knotweed, although this increase was found when the reach dominated by knotweed was also incised. Thus, this study linked knotweed to increased erosion using multiple methods.

  15. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  16. Strategies to meet the requirements of the Nitrates Directive on arable and field vegetable farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive fertilisation practices in the Netherlands make it cumbersome to comply with the EU Nitrate Directive. Over the years, government has adopted increasingly strict environmental legislation, including the farm gate balance system MINAS (MINeral Accounting System) and a compulsory manure

  17. Fostering Multi-Functional Urban Agriculture: Experiences from the Champions in a Revitalized Farm Pond Community in Taoyuan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Jiun Chou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture (UA with its multi-functional roles has recently become a globally important topic, as it is considered as an approach to address the emerging challenges to societies seeking greater sustainability. In Taiwan, the Hakka community of Gaoyuan in Taoyuan City, where a traditional farm pond was recently transformed into a public, multi-functional UA resource, is widely regarded as the first successful bottom-up, community-led, farm-pond-based UA in Taiwan, yet its actual performance is rarely explored in any depth. Little work has been done to provide details on the socio-ecological benefits of UA in the community redevelopment process. Through in-depth interviews, fieldwork, and participant observation, this specific qualitative study aims to explore the community champions’ experiences in the transformation leading to a revitalized community. First, by linking nearby nature to people, a green network of diverse spaces, low-impact landscaping, and an agricultural-community-like pondscape, the specific landscape character that makes UA in Gaoyuan distinctive is formed. Second, through active engagement, participation, and the agency of local people, the UA implementation process features cooperative working, mutual learning, and experience-sharing. Third, UA plays a crucial role in building social cohesion that promotes people’s participation in community affairs, and strengthens the community’s social network, which involves agricultural life, crop production, the ecological environment, and community care. It is revealed that the farm-pond-based UA with its multi-functional roles acts as a catalyst for the Gaoyuan community’s progress toward sustainability. The desired end-state of the agricultural landscape, as a synthesis of natural features and human interventions, is a more sustainable, characteristic, well-maintained and united place to fulfill people’s needs and enhance people’s overall health and well-being.

  18. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawadogo, G.J.; Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Yameogo, N.; Manirarora, J.N.; Toukour, M.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  19. Assessment of farmers’ knowledge on fertilizer usage for peri-urban vegetable production in the Sunyani Municipality, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Dadzie, Frederick Asankom; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2015-01-01

    How to optimize fertilizer application (i.e. by choosing the best fertilizer types, dosage, time of application, and application methods) to sustain and increase crop production and quality in intensively cropped weathered soils in Ghana is understudied. The purpose of the study was to assess...... services, the media, and at the point of sales are recommended to improve sustainable use of fertilizers for peri-urban vegetable production....

  20. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in vegetables, soil and water of the farm environment in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Leila; Jouini, Ahlem; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2015-06-16

    One-hundred-nine samples of 18 different farms (49 of food-vegetables, 41 of soil and 19 of irrigation water) and 45 vegetable food samples of 13 markets were collected in Tunisia. These samples were inoculated in MacConkey agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 μg/ml). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-Eb) were detected in 10 of the 109 farm samples (vegetables, 8.2%; soil, 7.3%; water, 15.8%), and in 4 of 45 vegetables of markets (8.9%), recovering 15 ESBL-Eb. Isolates and ESBL genes detected were: Escherichia coli (n=8: 5 blaCTX-M-1, 2 blaCTX-M-15 and one blaCTX-M-14), Citrobacter freundii (n=4: 3 blaCTX-M-15 and one blaSHV-12), Enterobacter hormaechei (n=2: 2 blaCTX-M-15) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1, blaCTX-M-15). The ISEcp1 sequence was found upstream of blaCTX-M genes in 13 of 14 strains (in three cases truncated by IS5), and orf477 or IS903 downstream. Class 1 integrons were detected in five strains and contained two gene cassette arrangements (dfrA17-aadA5 and aadA1). Most isolates tested showed a multiresistant phenotype. All blaCTX-M-15-positive strains carried the aac(6')-1b-cr gene, that affects to amikacin-tobramycin-kanamycin-ciprofloxacin. Five ESBL-Eb strains carried genes of the qnr family. The 8 ESBL-positive E. coli isolates were typed as: ST58/B1 (n=3) and ST117/D, ST131/B2, ST10/A, ST23/A, and the new ST3496/D (one strain, each). From 1-2 plasmids were detected in all ESBL-positive E. coli isolates (63-179 kb). The ESBL genes were transferred by conjugation in 4 blaCTX-M-1-positive E. coli strains, and transconjugants acquired a 97 kb IncI1 plasmid. ESBL-Eb isolates are frequently disseminated in vegetable farms and potentially could be transmitted to humans through the food chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of sampling strategies for object-based classification of urban vegetation from Very High Resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Simon; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Lachiche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation monitoring is becoming a major issue in the urban environment due to the services they procure and necessitates an accurate and up to date mapping. Very High Resolution satellite images enable a detailed mapping of the urban tree and herbaceous vegetation. Several supervised classifications with statistical learning techniques have provided good results for the detection of urban vegetation but necessitate a large amount of training data. In this context, this study proposes to investigate the performances of different sampling strategies in order to reduce the number of examples needed. Two windows based active learning algorithms from state-of-art are compared to a classical stratified random sampling and a third combining active learning and stratified strategies is proposed. The efficiency of these strategies is evaluated on two medium size French cities, Strasbourg and Rennes, associated to different datasets. Results demonstrate that classical stratified random sampling can in some cases be just as effective as active learning methods and that it should be used more frequently to evaluate new active learning methods. Moreover, the active learning strategies proposed in this work enables to reduce the computational runtime by selecting multiple windows at each iteration without increasing the number of windows needed.

  2. CASE STUDY: Rosario, Argentina — A city hooked on urban farming

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-17

    Dec 17, 2010 ... The Plan proved a blessing for urban farmers, Lattuca explains, as it helped them ... from permanently settling on property intended for future construction, ... “If you paid a company to do this, it would cost a lot,” says Bracalenti.

  3. Adoption of Organic Farming as an Opportunity for Syrian Farmers of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Structural Equation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwa Issa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exporting organic fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV to the European Union could represent a great opportunity for Syrian farmers and exporters. Yet, the organic sector in Syria is comparatively young and only a very small area of FFV is organically managed. To date, little is known about Syrian farmers’ attitudes towards organic FFV production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the intentions and attitudes of Syrian farmers of FFV towards organic farming and how likely they are to convert their farms to organic production within the next five years. Using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure, 266 conventional farmers of FFV in 75 villages located in different districts of Syria’s coastal region were selected for this survey. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews by a project partner in Syria (Citrus Fruit Board in Tartous from December 2012 until mid-May 2013. We used the Theory of Planned Behaviour as theoretical framework and Partial Least Squares Path Modelling as the main tool for data analysis. The results show that most farmers used at least one of the practices that are also part of certified organic production (throughout this article, the term organic agriculture, farming, and/or production always refer to certified organic agricultural production, and hold strong positive attitudes and intentions to adopt organic production within the next five years.

  4. Levels of cadmium, lead, cooper and zinc in vegetables cultivated in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city, Cuba; Niveles de cadmio, plomo, cobre y zinc en hortalizas cultivadas en una zona altamente urbanizada de la ciudad de la Habana, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares R, S.; Garcia C, D.; Lima C, L.; Saborit S, I.; Llizo C, A.; Perez A, P., E-mail: susana@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, Laboratorio de Analisis Ambiental, Av. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Plaza, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report levels of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils and vegetables grown in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city. We studied 17 farms dedicated to urban agriculture in an area of two kilometers around the landfill -Calle 100- during 2006 and 2007. For the study, samples of the soil and all the vegetables ready to harvest were taken from the farms. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of heavy metals in agricultural soils varied in the following ranges: Cd(0.24-2.1 mg/kg), Cu(38.4-81.3 mg/kg), Pb(18.1-138.5 mg/kg) and Zn(44.1-294.7 mg/kg). For Zn and Pb, some farm soils (35 and 52% respectively) exceeded the ranges in which these metals are found in Cuban agricultural soils. For Pb, 23% of the soils exceeded levels considered phyto toxic and limits in some international standards. The 12.5% of the samples of vegetables collected exceeded the maximum permissible levels of this pollutant in food for human consumption set by Cuban and international standards. The results indicate the need for strict crop monitoring in the area. (Author)

  5. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  6. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Urban Parks Are Similar to Those in Natural Forests but Shaped by Vegetation and Park Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Nan; Liu, Xinxin; Kotze, D Johan; Jumpponen, Ari; Francini, Gaia; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important mutualists for the growth and health of most boreal trees. Forest age and its host species composition can impact the composition of ECM fungal communities. Although plentiful empirical data exist for forested environments, the effects of established vegetation and its successional trajectories on ECM fungi in urban greenspaces remain poorly understood. We analyzed ECM fungi in 5 control forests and 41 urban parks of two plant functional groups (conifer and broadleaf trees) and in three age categories (10, ∼50, and >100 years old) in southern Finland. Our results show that although ECM fungal richness was marginally greater in forests than in urban parks, urban parks still hosted rich and diverse ECM fungal communities. ECM fungal community composition differed between the two habitats but was driven by taxon rank order reordering, as key ECM fungal taxa remained largely the same. In parks, the ECM communities differed between conifer and broadleaf trees. The successional trajectories of ECM fungi, as inferred in relation to the time since park construction, differed among the conifers and broadleaf trees: the ECM fungal communities changed over time under the conifers, whereas communities under broadleaf trees provided no evidence for such age-related effects. Our data show that plant-ECM fungus interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar in richness to those in natural forests. This suggests that the presence of host trees, rather than soil characteristics or even disturbance regime of the system, determine ECM fungal community structure and diversity. IMPORTANCE In urban environments, soil and trees improve environmental quality and provide essential ecosystem services. ECM fungi enhance plant growth and performance, increasing plant nutrient acquisition and protecting plants against toxic compounds. Recent evidence indicates that soil-inhabiting fungal communities

  7. Greenlandic sheep farming controlled by vegetation response today and at the end of the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Bjørnsson, Anders Boding; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2015-01-01

    and fields based on all existing sheep farms in a detailed study area. Time-integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI) from MODIS and observed temperatures (2000–2012) have been combined with a downscaled regional climate model (HIRHAM5) in order to establish a spatio-temporal model for future TI-NDVI, thus forecasting...

  8. Vegetable farmers' perception of wastewater use in Ojoo Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, as in many other countries, wastewater use in agricultural production by farming households is on the rise and there is a need to draw the attention of key players and urban authorities in fostering appropriate planning initiatives. For this reason, the perception and knowledge of vegetable farmers becomes ...

  9. Effect of size and vegetation cover in urban parks in the richness and diversity of bird life in Bogota, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berget, Carolina

    2006-01-01

    In one section of Bogota city some characteristics of urban recreational areas (size, distance to the east hills, coverage and diversity of vegetation) and their effects over the bird fauna diversity were studied between April and June of 2004. The samplings were made in 18 recreational areas of different sizes (100 m2 1 300000 m2), and at different distances (1.40 km -7.0 km) from two native vegetation patches to the east hills in Bogota, which were thought to be habitat sources. Lineal regression analysis showed that bird fauna diversity is affected by the size of the recreational area and, to a lesser extent, the vegetation cover, but not by other variables. These recreational areas are not considered fragments but human made islands and, therefore, they do not contain many relict forest bird species. I concluded that the east hills are not source habitat of bird species for the urban recreational areas studied. These habitats are suitable for the establishment of species associated to open areas

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON SANTA EULÁLIA SMALL FARM, SÃO LUÍS-MA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Alcântara Rufino

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The small farm Santa Eulália occupies a privileged area in the landscape compositionof the city of São Luis, being situated in one of the vectors of urban expansion, the edges ofthe avenue Euclides Figueiredo, on the northwest of the island of Maranhão, next to thecenter. In the decade of 1980, the small farm was inserted in area of permanent environmentprotection and in the beginning of the decade of 1990, Santa Eulália received great landscapealteration for interest in creating the housing development Santa Eulália for an estimatedpopulation of 35 thousand inhabitants. The intervention was made aiming to organize thegrowth of the city, however the execution of the work generated a great controversy, as muchpolitical as environmental, but also social, with the argument that the area destined to theimplantation of the housing development would be of permanent preservation and placed onthe side of a garbage deposit that served as a deposit of solid residues for all the cities of theisland. After the deforestation of 107.32 hectares and the implantation of the primaryinfrastructure in the place that involved services of embankment, drainage and pavement, thework was seized by the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable NaturalResources (IBAMA, but the main environmental impacts had already occurred or wasoccurring. Due to the land filling, embankment, previous cut of palm trees and mangrove,some foci of erosion with the creation of several gullies had originated and had a consequentsanding of creeks due to the material carried by the rain, besides that, the exposed soil is poorand with lateritic concretions . These factors made it difficult to attempt the forest resetting ofthe area in study. Therefore, the recovery of all the area becomes necessary in order to leaveit with a profile similar to the original, mainly in the areas considered untouchable for theBrazilian environmental legislation.

  11. Limited effect of urban tree vegetation on NO2 and O3 concentrations near a traffic route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundström, Maria; Pleijel, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of NO 2 and O 3 were measured inside and outside a dense broad-leaved forest canopy adjacent to a busy traffic route in the City of Gothenburg, Sweden, with duplicate passive diffusion samplers during six one-week periods starting well before leaf senescence and ending when leaves were largely senescent. Concentrations of NO 2 were lower inside the forest canopy during all periods (representing a significant effect, p = 0.016), on average by 7% or 2.7 μg m −3 . O 3 showed a more variable response with an average non-significant effect of 2% lower in the forest stand. There was no systematic trend of the difference in concentrations inside and outside the forest stand of the pollutants with the progression of autumn leaf senescence. Our study indicates that the effect of urban vegetation on air pollution concentrations is small, although it seems to exist for NO 2 in a traffic polluted environment. - Highlights: • NO 2 was reduced by 7% inside an urban forest stand compared to outside. • The magnitude of the effect was not related to autumn senescence. • For O 3 the effect was smaller and non-significant. - Urban vegetation had limited effect on local air pollution

  12. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and appraisal of health risk in Koka and Wonji farms, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliku, Temesgen; Leta, Seyoum

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural crops has grown a major concern globally as a result of a significant health impact on human. The quantification of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni) in the soil and vegetables at two sites (Koka and Wonji Gefersa) was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in vegetable fields' soil samples obtained from Koka were higher for Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The overall results of soil samples ranged 0.52-0.93, 13.6-27.3, 10.0-21.8, 44.4-88.5, 11.9-30.3, and 14.7-34.5 mg kg -1 for Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals were maximum for Cd (0.41 ± 0.03 mg kg -1 ), Pb (0.54 ± 0.11 mg kg -1 ), Zn (14.4 ± 0.72 mg kg -1 ), Cu (2.84 ± 0.27 mg kg -1 ), and Ni (1.09 ± 0.11 mg kg -1 ) in Cabbage and for Cr (2.63 ± 0.11 mg kg -1 ) in green pepper. The result indicated that Cd has high transfer factor value and Pb was the lowest. The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb. Among different vegetables, cabbage showed the highest value of metal pollution index and bean had the lowest value. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the consumption of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  13. Monitoring Urbanization-Related Land Cover Change on the U.S. Great Plains and Impacts on Remotely Sensed Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Jackson, T.; Henebry, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is currently in an era of rapid urban growth with >50% of global population living in urban areas. Urbanization occurs alongside urban population growth, as cities expand to meet the demands of increasing population. Consequently, there is a need for remote sensing research to detect, monitor, and measure urbanization and its impacts on the biosphere. Here we used MODIS and Landsat data products to (1) detect urbanization-related land cover changes, (2) investigate urbanization-related impacts on land surface phenology (LSP) across rural to urban gradients and (3) explore fractional vegetation and impervious surface area regionally across the US Great Plains and within 14 cities in this region. We used the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) and Land Cover Type (LCT) products from 2001, 2006, and 2011 for 30m classification of the peri-urban environment. We investigated the impacts of urbanization-related land cover change on urban LSP at 30m resolution using the NDVI product from Web Enabled Landsat Data (http://weld.cr.usgs.gov) with accumulated growing degree-days calculated from first-order weather stations. We fitted convex quadratic LSP models to a decade (2003-2012) of observations to yield these phenometrics: modeled peak NDVI, time (thermal and calendar) to modeled peak, duration of season (DOS), and model fit. We compared our results to NDVI from MODIS NBAR (500m) and we explored the utility of 4 μm radiance (MODIS band 23) at 1 km resolution to characterize fractional vegetation dynamics in and around urbanized areas. Across all 14 cities we found increases in urbanized area (>25 %ISA) exceeding 10% from 2001-2011. Using LSP phenometrics, we were able to detect changes from cropland to suburban LCTs. In general we found negative relationships between DOS and distance from city center. We found a distinct seasonal cycle of MIR radiance over cropland LCTs due to the spectral contrast between bare soils and green vegetation.

  14. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  15. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  16. Exploring options for sustainable farming systems development for vegetable family farmers in Uruguay using a modeling toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Aguerre, V.; Abbas, A.; Albin, A.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and environmental sustainability of family-based vegetable production systems in south Uruguay are seriously compromised after two decades of net decreasing prices and strategies based on specialization and intensification. This paper presents a model-based exploration of alternative

  17. Changes in soil quality and plant available water capacity following systems re-design on commercial vegetable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alliaume, F.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Garcia, M.; Giller, K.E.; Dogliotti Moro, S.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of ecological functions due to soil degradation impacts viability of crop production systems world-wide, particularly in vegetable cropping systems commonly located in the most productive areas and characterized by intensive soil cultivation. This paper reports soil degradation caused by

  18. Adapting Extension Food Safety Programming for Vegetable Growers to Accommodate Differences in Ethnicity, Farming Scale, and Other Individual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Terence R.; Kneen, Harold; Barrett, Eric; Kleinschmidt, Andy; Doohan, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Differences in vegetable production methods utilized by American growers create distinct challenges for Extension personnel providing food safety training to producer groups. A program employing computers and projectors will not be accepted by an Amish group that does not accept modern technology. We have developed an outreach program that covers…

  19. State farm-to-school laws influence the availability of fruits and vegetables in school lunches at US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa; Turner, Lindsey; Schneider, Linda; Chriqui, Jamie; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-05-01

    State laws and farm-to-school programs (FTSPs) have the potential to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) availability in school meals. This study examined whether FV were more available in public elementary school lunches in states with a law requiring/encouraging FTSPs or with a locally grown-related law, and whether the relationship between state laws and FV availability could be explained by schools opting for FTSPs. A pooled, cross-sectional analysis linked a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools with state laws. A series of multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for school-level demographics were performed according to mediation analysis procedures for dichotomous outcomes. Roughly 50% of schools reported FV availability in school lunches on most days of the week. Schools with the highest FV availability (70.6%) were in states with laws and schools with FTSPs. State laws requiring/encouraging FTSPs were significantly associated with increased FV availability in schools and a significant percentage (13%) of this relationship was mediated by schools having FTSPs. Because state farm-to-school laws are associated with significantly higher FV availability in schools-through FTSPs, as well as independently-enacting more state legislation may facilitate increased FTSP participation by schools and increased FV availability in school meals. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  20. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of Eddy-Covariance Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Above an Urban Wetland, Partitioned by Vegetation Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K. V.; Duman, T.

    2017-12-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are an urban brackish marsh with a long history of human activity causing disturbances and alterations. Carbon emissions were measured from two sites in the Meadowlands, a natural site and a restored site, using eddy-covariance (EC) from 2014 to 2016. At each site, the EC towers were placed at the interface of two vegetation covers, allowing capturing this aspect of the wetland's heterogeneity. Using footprint modeling and light response curves we were able to partition measured fluxes between vegetation cover types and compare CO2 fluxes from patches of invasive versus native wetland vegetation communities. We show that further separating the data into seasonal and diurnal fluxes reveals patterns in CO2 fluxes that allow determining the nature of each vegetation cover as a source or sink for CO2. Our results also show that CO2 emissions from the restored wetland are significantly higher than the natural wetland. Areas of invasive Phragmites australis at the natural site had the lowest CO2 release rates during winter. These were consistently lower in magnitude than summer daytime uptake, therefore making this part of the wetland a CO2 sink. Areas planted with native Spartina alterniflora at the restored site had the largest uptake during daytime, therefore seemingly justifying restoration activities. However, they also had the highest emission rates during summer nighttime, and therefore the daily summer net uptake was not the highest compared with other vegetation covers. Furthermore, emissions from the restored site during winter were larger compared to the natural site, indicating that restoration activities might have led to a significant increase of carbon release from the wetland. Thus, during the study period the restored wetland acted as a carbon source.

  1. Are Remotely Sensed Trends in the Built Environment and Urban Vegetation Predictive of Changes in Metropolitan Housing Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the midst of a global urbanization trend, residential neighborhoods are undergoing a variety of changes, including neighborhood turnover, the re-location of employment centers, and, recently, the increasing social and economic isolation of the suburbs. In the U.S., where residential lawns account for more area than any other irrigated crop (Polsky et al. 2014, in PNAS), coeval changes in residential populations, the built environment, and vegetation have serious implications for urban sustainability. To date, detailed studies of dynamic neighborhood changes have been hampered by the lack of fine time-series data on neighborhood composition. Most notably, the U.S. Census is conducted only once every decade leading to the likely inaccurate assumption of linear change between Census years. To the extent that human activities alter the built environment and urban ecology, can remotely sensed biophysical changes serve as a good proxy for neighborhood socio-economic changes? In this study, I apply time series data on spectral reflectance, spectral indices, and land-cover abundances from 15-to-25 years of Landsat data to fine-scale data on residential property transactions in two metropolitan areas with different regional economic and environmental contexts: Detroit and Los Angeles. The real estate record provides parcel-level, monthly data on sale prices and tax foreclosures; taken together, these provide a good description of the housing market and an acceptable proxy for neighborhood stability. By comparing lagged features from the remote sensing (RS) archive at different time scales in a non-parametric statistical learning algorithm, I identify which RS features best predict changes in the housing market and compare these associations between the two metropolitan areas and across multiple spatial and temporal scales along an urban to peri-urban gradient.

  2. Increasing Community Access to Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: A Case Study of the Farm Fresh Market Pilot Program in Cobb County, Georgia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Rebecca C; Coleman, Anne-Marie; Hermstad, April K; Honeycutt, Sally; Munoz, Jennifer; Loh, Lorna; Brown, Agnes F; Shipley, Rebecca; Kegler, Michelle C

    2016-03-10

    Ecological models of health suggest that to effectively prevent chronic disease, community food environments must support healthy eating behaviors. However, disparities in access to healthy foods persist in the United States. The Farm Fresh Market (FFM) was a fruit and vegetable market that sold low-cost fresh produce in Cobb County, Georgia in 2014. This case study describes the development of the FFM through a community engagement process and presents evaluation results from the project's pilot implementation. Community engagement strategies included forming a community advisory board, conducting a needs assessment, and contracting with a community-based organization to implement the FFM. In the pilot year, the FFM served an average of 28.7 customers and generated an average of $140.20 in produce sales per market day. Most returning customers lived in the local community and reported a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Most returning customers strongly agreed that the FFM made it easier (69.0%) and less expensive (79.0%) for them to buy fresh fruits and vegetables, reported that they ate more vegetables (65.0%) and fruit (55.0%) as a result of the FFM, and reported that they were very satisfied with the FFM overall (92.0%). Results from this community case study underscore the importance of engaging communities in the development of community food environment interventions. Results also suggest that the FFM initiative was a feasible and acceptable way to respond to the community-identified public health priority of increasing access to healthy foods.

  3. Object-Based Point Cloud Analysis of Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data for Urban Vegetation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS is a remote sensing technique well-suited for 3D vegetation mapping and structure characterization because the emitted laser pulses are able to penetrate small gaps in the vegetation canopy. The backscattered echoes from the foliage, woody vegetation, the terrain, and other objects are detected, leading to a cloud of points. Higher echo densities (> 20 echoes/m2 and additional classification variables from full-waveform (FWF ALS data, namely echo amplitude, echo width and information on multiple echoes from one shot, offer new possibilities in classifying the ALS point cloud. Currently FWF sensor information is hardly used for classification purposes. This contribution presents an object-based point cloud analysis (OBPA approach, combining segmentation and classification of the 3D FWF ALS points designed to detect tall vegetation in urban environments. The definition tall vegetation includes trees and shrubs, but excludes grassland and herbage. In the applied procedure FWF ALS echoes are segmented by a seeded region growing procedure. All echoes sorted descending by their surface roughness are used as seed points. Segments are grown based on echo width homogeneity. Next, segment statistics (mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation are calculated by aggregating echo features such as amplitude and surface roughness. For classification a rule base is derived automatically from a training area using a statistical classification tree. To demonstrate our method we present data of three sites with around 500,000 echoes each. The accuracy of the classified vegetation segments is evaluated for two independent validation sites. In a point-wise error assessment, where the classification is compared with manually classified 3D points, completeness and correctness better than 90% are reached for the validation sites. In comparison to many other algorithms the proposed 3D point classification works on the original

  4. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartjes, Frank A.; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  5. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  6. Resolving uncertainties in the urban air quality, climate, and vegetation nexus through citizen science, satellite imagery, and atmospheric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerette, D.; Wang, J.; Chandler, M.; Ripplinger, J.; Koutzoukis, S.; Ge, C.; Castro Garcia, L.; Kucera, D.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Large uncertainties remain in identifying the distribution of urban air quality and temperature risks across neighborhood to regional scales. Nevertheless, many cities are actively expanding vegetation with an expectation to moderate both climate and air quality risks. We address these uncertainties through an integrated analysis of satellite data, atmospheric modeling, and in-situ environmental sensor networks maintained by citizen scientists. During the summer of 2017 we deployed neighborhood-scale networks of air temperature and ozone sensors through three campaigns across urbanized southern California. During each five-week campaign we deployed six sensor nodes that included an EPA federal equivalent method ozone sensor and a suite of meteorological sensors. Each node was further embedded in a network of 100 air temperature sensors that combined a randomized design developed by the research team and a design co-created by citizen scientists. Between 20 and 60 citizen scientists were recruited for each campaign, with local partners supporting outreach and training to ensure consistent deployment and data gathering. We observed substantial variation in both temperature and ozone concentrations at scales less than 4km, whole city, and the broader southern California region. At the whole city scale the average spatial variation with our ozone sensor network just for city of Long Beach was 26% of the mean, while corresponding variation in air temperature was only 7% of the mean. These findings contrast with atmospheric model estimates of variation at the regional scale of 11% and 1%. Our results show the magnitude of fine-scale variation underestimated by current models and may also suggest scaling functions that can connect neighborhood and regional variation in both ozone and temperature risks in southern California. By engaging citizen science with high quality sensors, satellite data, and real-time forecasting, our results help identify magnitudes of climate and

  7. Soil metal concentrations and vegetative assemblage structure in an urban brownfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Frank J.; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D.; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic sources of toxic elements have had serious ecological and human health impacts. Analysis of the soil samples from a brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, NJ, USA, showed that arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium exist at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Accumulation and translocation features were characterized for the dominant plant species of four vegetative assemblages. The trees Betula populifolia and Populus deltoides were found to be accumulating Zn in leaf tissue at extremely high levels. B. populifolia, P. deltoides and Rhus copallinum accumulated Cr primarily in the root tissue. A comparison of soil metal maps and vegetative assemblage maps indicates that areas of increasing total soil metal load were dominated by successional northern hardwoods while semi-emergent marshes consisting mostly of endemic species were restricted primarily to areas of low soil metal load. - The study yields insight into the impact of metal contaminates soils on vegetative assemblage structure and development

  8. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  9. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  10. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Vegetation on the Avifauna in Two Urban Parks in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitsa Petrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is related to the investigation of the impact that vegetation caused on the avifauna of the parks “Lauta” and “Tsar Simeon Garden” located in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. As a result of the study, we found that the biodiversity of the vegetation in park “Tsar Simeon Garden” is highly significant in comparison with the same in park “Lauta”. In the park “Tsar Simeon Garden” introduced plant species dominate over indigenous species, as compared with the park “Lauta”. The differences in the vegetation are caused by different management approaches carried out in the both parks. The degree of similarity between trees and bushes in both parks is low. The vegetation also had a significant influence on the avifauna living within the parks. The avian biodiversity in park “Lauta” is two times higher in comparison with the avian biodiversity in park “Tsar Simeon Garden”. The degree of similarity in the avifauna between both parks is significant, due the fact that all of the species, except one documented in “Tsar Simeon Garden” being documented in park “Lauta” as well. Eighteen new species of birds were recorded and described for the first time in the city of Plovdiv. The conservation status of the avifauna in park “Lauta” is quite significant in comparison with the same in park “Tsar Simeon Garden”.

  12. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in an Urban Supermarket by Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J.; Stites, Shana D.; Wallace, Samantha L.; Braitman, Leonard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictors of fresh fruit and vegetable purchases in a low-income population and identify subgroups in which interventions to increase such purchases might prove useful. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 209 shopping transactions from 30 households. Individual and household characteristics obtained from primary…

  13. Availability of, access to and consumption of fruits and vegetables in a peri-urban area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria; Laurie, Sunette

    2013-07-01

    Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables were assessed in peri-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Caregivers of 400 randomly selected grade 6 and 7 learners were interviewed using a questionnaire that included unquantified food frequency questions. Using a repeated 24-h dietary recall, dietary intake was quantified for learners, caregivers and 2- to 5-year-old children in the household. Usual household fruit and vegetable consumption was expressed over three Living Standard Measure (LSM) categories. Average per capita intake of fruit and/or vegetables was 99 g for 2- to 5-year-old children and 124 g for caregivers. For consumers, fruits and/or vegetables contributed towards total dietary intake of fibre (16-21%), calcium (13-21%), vitamin A (27-31%) and vitamin C (47-62%). For households not consuming fruits (n = 297) and vegetables (n = 178) daily, cost was the major constraint (≥75%). Of all households, 52% had fruit trees and 25% had a vegetable garden. Animals destroying vegetables was the major constraint to 59% of vegetable growers. Household consumption of fruits and vegetables increased over the LSM categories. Caregivers in the higher LSM group more likely used printed material for information on healthy eating, had fruit trees, were confident about vegetable gardening and sold some of their produce. To enable peri-urban populations of low socio-economic status to consume more frequently a bigger variety of fruits and vegetables, the cost of purchasing these food items needs to be addressed by government and business sector. Households should further receive support to overcome constraints which hamper the success of home gardens. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of different vegetation on temperature in an urban building environment. Micro-scale numerical experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Guenter [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimatologie

    2012-08-15

    A three-dimensional micro-scale model is used to study the effects of various greenery on temperature in a built-up environment. Green design elements like roofs and facades, lawns in courtyards and single trees are studied individually as well as in various combinations. Measures for comparison are temperatures at 2 m height and mean temperatures for the urban atmosphere up to the building height. Different types of greenery can reduce local temperatures up to 15 K during specific daytime hours. However, this extraordinary effect is restricted to a short time and especially to the direct surroundings, while an impact over larger distances is small. Roof and facade greenery have hardly any influence on temperature at the 2 m level but reduce daytime heating of the urban atmosphere to a minor degree, while the relevance of trees is more or less limited to the shadow effect. A significant decrease in urban temperatures can be achieved only with a large number of very different individual green elements. The largest effect on the urban atmosphere was simulated for a change in albedo resulting in a temperature decrease of some degrees around noon. (orig.)

  15. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities ...

  16. Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in the Soils of Vegetable-Growing Land along Urban-Rural Gradient of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shi-Bo; Hu, Hao; Sun, Wan-Chun; Pan, Jian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has experienced rapid urbanization in recent years. The acceleration of urbanization has created wealth and opportunity as well as intensified ecological and environmental problems, especially soil pollution. Our study concentrated on the variation of heavy metal content due to urbanization in the vegetable-growing soil. Laws and other causes of the spatial-temporal variation in heavy metal content of vegetable-growing soils were analyzed for the period of urbanization in Nanjing (the capital of Jiangsu province in China). The levels of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg in samples of vegetable-growing soil were detected. The transverse, vertical spatio-temporal variation of heavy metals in soil was analyzed on the base of field investigations and laboratory analysis. The results show that: (1) in soil used for vegetable production, the levels of heavy metals decreased gradually from urban to rural areas; the levels of the main heavy metals in urban areas are significantly higher than suburban and rural areas; (2) the means of the levels of heavy metals, calculated by subtracting the sublayer (15–30 cm) from the toplayer (0–15 cm), are all above zero and large in absolute value in urban areas, but in suburban and rural areas, the means are all above or below zero and small in absolute value. The causes of spatial and temporal variation were analyzed as follows: one cause was associated with mellowness of the soil and the length of time the soil had been used for vegetable production; the other cause was associated with population density and industrial intensity decreasing along the urban to rural gradient (i.e., urbanization levels can explain the distribution of heavy metals in soil to some extent). Land uses should be planned on the basis of heavy metal pollution in soil, especially in urban and suburban regions. Heavily polluted soils have to be expected from food production. Further investigation should be done to determine whether and what kind of agricultural

  17. Predicting Opportunities for Greening and Patterns of Vegetation on Private Urban Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Austin R.; Grove, J. Morgan; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines predictors of vegetative cover on private lands in Baltimore, Maryland. Using high-resolution spatial data, we generated two measures: “possible stewardship,” which is the proportion of private land that does not have built structures on it and hence has the possibility of supporting vegetation, and “realized stewardship,” which is the proportion of possible stewardship land upon which vegetation is growing. These measures were calculated at the parcel level and averaged by US Census block group. Realized stewardship was further defined by proportion of tree canopy and grass. Expenditures on yard supplies and services, available by block group, were used to help understand where vegetation condition appears to be the result of current activity, past legacies, or abandonment. PRIZM™ market segmentation data were tested as categorical predictors of possible and realized stewardship and yard expenditures. PRIZM™ segmentations are hierarchically clustered into 5, 15, and 62 categories, which correspond to population density, social stratification (income and education), and lifestyle clusters, respectively. We found that PRIZM 15 best predicted variation in possible stewardship and PRIZM 62 best predicted variation in realized stewardship. These results were further analyzed by regressing each dependent variable against a set of continuous variables reflective of each of the three PRIZM groupings. Housing age, vacancy, and population density were found to be critical determinants of both stewardship metrics. A number of lifestyle factors, such as average family size, marriage rates, and percentage of single-family detached homes, were strongly related to realized stewardship. The percentage of African Americans by block group was positively related to realized stewardship but negatively related to yard expenditures.

  18. The effects of eating marine- or vegetable-fed farmed trout on the human plasma proteome profiles of healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rentsch, Maria Louise; Lametsch, René; Bügel, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Most human intervention studies have examined the effects on a subset of risk factors, some of which may require long-term exposure. The plasma proteome may reflect the underlying changes in protein expression and activation, and this could be used to identify early risk markers. The aim of the p......Most human intervention studies have examined the effects on a subset of risk factors, some of which may require long-term exposure. The plasma proteome may reflect the underlying changes in protein expression and activation, and this could be used to identify early risk markers. The aim...... of the present study was to evaluate the impact of regular fish intake on the plasma proteome. We recruited thirty healthy men aged 40 to 70 years, who were randomly allocated to a daily meal of chicken or trout raised on vegetable or marine feeds. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 weeks...... of intervention, and after the removal of the twelve most abundant proteins, plasma proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots 4·3 visualised by silver staining were matched by two-dimensional imaging software. Within-subject changes in spots were compared...

  19. Quantifying Impacts of Land-Use/Cover Change on Urban Vegetation Gross Primary Production: A Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishi Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study quantified the impacts of land-use/cover change (LUCC on gross primary production (GPP during 2000–2013 in a typical densely urbanized Chinese city, Wuhan. GPP was estimated at 30-m spatial resolution using annual land cover maps, meteorological data of the baseline year, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, which was generated with the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM based on Landsat and MODIS images. The results showed that approximately 309.95 Gg C was lost over 13 years, which was mainly due to the conversion from cropland to built-up areas. The interannual variation of GPP was affected by the change of vegetation composition, especially the increasing relative fraction of forests. The loss of GPP due to the conversion from forest to cropland fluctuated through the study period, but showed a sharp decrease in 2007 and 2008. The gain of GPP due to the conversion from cropland to forest was low between 2001 and 2009, but increased dramatically between 2009 and 2013. The change rate map showed an increasing trend along the highways, and a decreasing trend around the metropolitan area and lakes. The results indicated that carbon consequences should be considered before land management policies are put forth.

  20. Comparative Assessment of Two Vegetation Fractional Cover Estimating Methods and Their Impacts on Modeling Urban Latent Heat Flux Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying vegetation fractional cover (VFC and assessing its role in heat fluxes modeling using medium resolution remotely sensed data has received less attention than it deserves in heterogeneous urban regions. This study examined two approaches (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI-derived and Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA-derived methods that are commonly used to map VFC based on Landsat imagery, in modeling surface heat fluxes in urban landscape. For this purpose, two different heat flux models, Two-source energy balance (TSEB model and Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA model, were adopted for model evaluation and analysis. A comparative analysis of the NDVI-derived and MESMA-derived VFCs showed that the latter achieved more accurate estimates in complex urban regions. When the two sources of VFCs were used as inputs to both TSEB and PCACA models, MESMA-derived urban VFC produced more accurate urban heat fluxes (Bowen ratio and latent heat flux relative to NDVI-derived urban VFC. Moreover, our study demonstrated that Landsat imagery-retrieved VFC exhibited greater uncertainty in obtaining urban heat fluxes for the TSEB model than for the PCACA model.

  1. Antimicrobials in small-scale urban pig farming in a lower middle-income country - arbitrary use and high resistance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, G; Boqvist, S; Albihn, A; Fernström, L-L; Andersson Djurfeldt, A; Sokerya, S; Sothyra, T; Magnusson, U

    2018-01-01

    Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production. Commensal Escherichia coli was isolated from three healthy pigs from each farm ( n  = 261) and susceptibility testing was performed against 14 antimicrobials, using broth microdilution. Univariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate potential associations between farm characteristics, management factors and resistance to different types of antimicrobials. We found a widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials, often based on the farmer's own judgment. Around 66% of the farmers reported frequently self-adjusting treatment duration and dosage, and 45% had not heard about the term 'antimicrobial resistance'. The antimicrobials most commonly mentioned or kept by the farmers were amoxicillin, tylosin, gentamicin and colistin. Around 37% used a feed concentrate that contained antimicrobials, while antimicrobials for humans were used as a last-line treatment by 10% of the farmers. Commensal E. coli exhibited high prevalence of resistance to several antimicrobials considered to be of critical importance for human medicine, including ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and colistin, and multidrug-resistance was found in 79% of the samples. Higher prevalence of resistance was observed on farms that administered prophylactic antimicrobials and on farms that treated the entire group or herd in the event of disease. The widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials in pig farming in Cambodia is highly worrisome

  2. Health risk assessment of heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in withdrawed parsley vegetable from some farms in Hamedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cheraghi

    2014-11-01

    Results: Average concentration of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in parsley vegetable is in the order of 1/14, 2/56, 16/65 and 25/23 mg/kg and average concentration of this metals in soil is in the order of 0/23, 23/51, 20/85 and 57/5 mg/kg. Results of this study showed that average concentration of Cadmium and Leadin parsley is above WHO/FAO whereas average concentration of Nickel and Zink in parsleywas assessed less than WHO/FAO. Also the average concentration of every four metals in soil of farms was less than WHO/FAO levels.On the other hand the amount of risk and health index (HRI in parsley for lead metal was above 1 and for cadmium, nickel and zinc metals was less than 1. Conclusion: According to the studing results, cultivated parsley in this area was polluted to the heavy metalsCadmium and Lead, and the results indicates the very easy transferring of this metals from soil to parsley that was not healthy for human daily consumption and risk and health index (HRI that was above 1 for lead metal shows the hygienic potential risk of this metal in relation to the polluted parsley consumption in human daily alimentary diet.

  3. Comparing three approaches of evapotranspiration estimation in mixed urban vegetation; field-based, remote sensing-based and observational-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Glenn, Edward P.; Beecham, Simon; Chavoshi Boroujeni, Sattar; Sutton, Paul; Alaghmand, Sina; Nagler, Pamela L.; Noori, Behnaz

    2016-01-01

    Despite being the driest inhabited continent, Australia has one of the highest per capita water consumptions in the world. In addition, instead of having fit-for-purpose water supplies (using different qualities of water for different applications), highly treated drinking water is used for nearly all of Australia’s urban water supply needs, including landscape irrigation. The water requirement of urban landscapes, and particularly urban parklands, is of growing concern. The estimation of ET and subsequently plant water requirements in urban vegetation needs to consider the heterogeneity of plants, soils, water and climate characteristics. Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET), which is the main component of a plant’s water requirement, in urban parks is highly desirable because this water maintains the health of green infrastructure and this in turn provides essential ecosystem services. This research contributes to a broader effort to establish sustainable irrigation practices within the Adelaide Parklands in Adelaide, South Australia.

  4. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on antimony phyto-uptake and compartmentation in vegetables cultivated in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Dumat, Camille; Maes, Arthur QuyManh; Sejalon-Delmas, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    1. Urban areas are often contaminated with various forms of persistent metal (loid) and emerging contaminants such as antimony (Sb). Thus, in the context of urban agriculture where sustainable practices such as biofertilizers application (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) could improve nutrient transfer from the soil to the vegetables, the effect of AMF on metal (loid) mobility and human bioaccessibility is still poorly known. 2. The role of AMF in Sb uptake by lettuce and carrot grown in artificial substrate spiked with different Sb chemical species was investigated. Plants were grown under hydroponic conditions and half of the treatments received a concentrated spore solution to obtain mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants. Three weeks before harvest, plants were exposed to 10 mg.L -1 of either Sb 2 O 3 or KSbO-tartrate (KSb). 3. The presence of AMF significantly increased its accumulation in carrots (all organs) with higher accumulation in roots. In lettuce, accumulation appeared to be dependent on the Sb chemical species. Moreover, it was observed for the first time that AMF changed the human bioaccessible fraction of Sb in edible organs. 4. The present results highlight a possible risk of Sb transfer from soil to edible plants cultivated in soil naturally containing AMF propagules, or when AMF are added as biofertilizers. After validating the influence of soil environment and AMF on Sb behavior in the field, these results should be considered in health risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On-Farm Study on Intercropping of Hybrid Maize with Different Short Duration Vegetables in the Charland of Tangail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Rahaman, MM Rahman, S Roy, M Ahmed, MS Bhuyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in charland at the Multi Location Testing (MLT site Bhuapur, Tangail during 2012-13 and 2013-14 under AEZ-8 to find out the suitable intercropping system of hybrid maize with different short duration vegetables with economic return. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with six dispersed (six farmers’ field replications. The hybrid maize (ver. BARI Hybrid maize-7, potato (Diamant, spinach (local, red amaranth (BARI Lalsak-1, Radish (BARI Mula-1 were used as the planting materials. Five treatment combinations viz. T1= Sole Maize, T2= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Potato (var. Diamant, T3= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Spinach (var. local, T4= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Red amaranth (var. BARI Lalshak-1 and T5= 100% Maize (Maize paired row + Radish (var. BARI Mula-1 were studied. Maize grain yield in intercropped combination varied from 5.59-7.62 t ha-1. But the highest grain yield (8.17 t ha-1 was obtained from sole maize. Maize equivalent yields in the intercrops situation ranged from 11.39-19.68 t ha-1 where highest maize equivalent yield 19.68 t ha-1 was recorded from the treatment T3 (100 % maize + spinach. The same combinations also gave highest gross return (Tk. 373930 ha-1 and gross margin (Tk. 258585 ha-1 as well as benefit cost ratio (3.24. Though highest grain yield was recorded from sole maize but equivalent yield and economic return was much lower than the treatment T3.

  6. Potential of simple filters to improve microbial quality of irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    . As part of a larger study on possible interventions for health risk reduction, the potential of simple interventions was explored. Column slow sand filters with three levels of sand depths (0.5 m, 0.75 m and 1 m) and fabric filters made of nylon, cotton and netting were assessed. More than 600 water...... samples were analyzed for helminth eggs and thermotolerant coliforms. Flow rates were also measured. From slow sand filters, 71-96% of helminths and 2 log units (from 7 to 5 log units) of thermotolerant coliforms were removed. Sand depths had no significant influence in the removal. Lower removal rates...... were achieved by fabric filters, with an average removal of 12-62% for helminth eggs and 1 log unit for thermotolerant coliforms. Nylon filters had higher removal rates especially for helminth eggs (58%). Average flow rates for sand filters were 3 m per day and fabric filters had steady flows of about...

  7. Getting farming on the agenda: Planning, policymaking, and governance practices of urban agriculture in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    How and why is urban agriculture taken up into local food policies and sustainability plans? This paper uses a case study of urban agriculture policymaking in New York City from 2007 to 2011 to examine the power-laden operation of urban environmental governance. It explores several 'faces of power,' including overt authority, institutionalized 'rules of...

  8. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the 3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, ppost-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Bisdom, E.B.A., Dekker, L., Schoute, J.F.Th. (1993) Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105-118. Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D. (2000) Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65. Doerr, S.H. (1998

  9. Monitoring natural vegetation in Southern Greenland using NOAA AVHRR and field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf

    1991-01-01

    vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI......vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI...

  10. The Urban Heat Island Effect and the Role of Vegetation to Address the Negative Impacts of Local Climate Changes in a Small Brazilian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence of urban-geographical variables on determining heat islands and proposes a model to estimate and spatialize the maximum intensity of urban heat islands (UHI. Simulations of the UHI based on the increase of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, using multiple linear regression, in Iporá (Brazil are also presented. The results showed that the UHI intensity of this small city tended to be lower than that of bigger cities. Urban geometry and vegetation (UI and NDVI were the variables that contributed the most to explain the variability of the maximum UHI intensity. It was observed that areas located in valleys had lower thermal values, suggesting a cool island effect. With the increase in NDVI in the central area of a maximum UHI, there was a significant decrease in its intensity and size (a 45% area reduction. It is noteworthy that it was possible to spatialize the UHI to the whole urban area by using multiple linear regression, providing an analysis of the urban set from urban-geographical variables and thus performing prognostic simulations that can be adapted to other small tropical cities.

  11. {sup 212}Pb as tracer for PM deposition on urban vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, Mario; Spadoni, Massimo; Carloni, Serena; Guglietta, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    {sup 212}Pb concentration in outdoor air is closely correlated with fine suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere. Thanks to this association, this isotope can be used to trace the sinking processes of particulate matter due to the vegetation, also providing accurate estimations of the deposition velocity on foliar surfaces. This approach is particularly effective in areas with high thoron fluxes and, consequently, high {sup 212}Pb fluxes from soil. The contribution of vegetation to the improvement of air quality (AQImp) in the municipality area (MA) of Rome (Latium, Italy), almost entirely located on Th-enriched volcanic soils, was estimated by studying {sup 212}Pb deposition velocity on the grasses (0.9–2.5 mm·s{sup −} {sup 1}) and on the most common tree classes, namely conifers (1.5–15 mm·s{sup −} {sup 1}), evergreen (1–4 mm·s{sup −} {sup 1}) and deciduous (0.2–1.5 mm·s{sup −} {sup 1}). {sup 212}Pb activity in outdoor air was determined by gamma spectrometry after air pumping with accumulation on cellulose filters and after collection on artificial electrostatically charged surfaces (ECS). The high {sup 212}Pb activity values obtained from this analysis (0.90 ± 0.6 Bq m{sup −} {sup 3} and 0.58 ± 0.15 Bq m{sup −} {sup 3}, respectively near and far from the soil) are consistent both with the average regional thoron flux from volcanic soils (2.9 · 10{sup 4} Bq m{sup −} {sup 2}·h{sup −} {sup 1}) and with the thoron flux measured in the volcanic soils of the study area. Thoron and {sup 212}Pb fluxes were also measured both in laboratory and in the field under different soil moisture conditions. The total AQImp for the period from September 2014 to September 2015, calculated after the classification of the MA of Rome into six classes of vegetation, provided a value of 0.20 corresponding to 2.3 Tons per day of removed PM{sub 10}. The role of grasslands in the PM{sub 10} removal, the contribution of the vegetation to the

  12. APPLIED FARM FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Ender, Judit; Mikaczo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Recently there have been more and more foodborne illnesses being associated with fresh vegetable produce. In response to this, consumer confidence has been lowered with the safety of the vegetable industry. So, many retailers have recently announced programs requiring growers to have independent third-party inspections. The goal with this essay is to introduce a vegetable farm and reveal its food safety procedures from the seeding through shipping,. reviewing, evaluating, and strengthening cu...

  13. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. - Highlights: ► Traffic-related pollutant deposition as important pathway for crop contamination. ► Heavy metal content often over EU standards for lead concentration in food crops. ► ‘Grow your own’ food in inner cities not always ‘healthier’ than supermarket products. ► No support for generalisations of crops as ‘risky high’ or ‘safe low’ accumulators. - Higher overall traffic burden increased, while the presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced heavy metal content in crop biomass.

  14. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  15. Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Carvalho Malta, Deborah; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2014-12-17

    The food environment can have an important influence on the availability of and access to food, which plays a significant role in the health of individuals. The goal of this study was to compare the consumption of fruits, legumes and vegetables (FLV) by adults and the availability of food stores in the context of socioeconomic and geographic space connected to basic health units in a Brazilian capital city. The study was developed from information obtained through the Risk Factors Surveillance for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL), using samples from Belo Horizonte from the years 2008 to 2010. A total of 5611 records were geocoded based on the postal code. A score was created based on the weekly and daily frequency of FLV intake of individuals. The coverage area of basic health units was used as a neighborhood unit. Georeferenced data on food stores in the city and neighborhood income were used. As neighborhood income increased, there was an increase in the distribution of food establishments for all of the studied categories. The highest FLV intake scores were observed in areas with higher income levels. The highest concentration of food stores, regardless of supply quality, was observed in geographic areas with higher purchasing power and in those where there was a greater concentration of other types of businesses and services, a different pattern from that found in other countries. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  17. Effect of leaking natural gas on soil and vegetation in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeks, J

    1972-01-01

    Leakage of natural gas from the gas distribution system affects the physical, chemical and biological processes in the soil. Particularly the microbial oxidation of methane is then of predominant importance for the composition of the soil gas phase. The rate of methane oxidation was measured under varying conditions of gas phase composition, temperature and nutrient supply. Computation models were evolved with which it is possible to calculate the effect of these and other factors on the distribution of methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide around a leak. Experiments with actual and artificial leaks as well as the calculations showed that the extent of the gas zone largely depends on the leakage rate, the depth of the groundwater table, the soil moisture content and the extent of the pavement. The soil temperature also proved to have a significant influence by its effect on the microbial methane oxidation. At low temperatures this microbial process is limited and consequently the anaerobic zone, which is invariably present in summer, may then disappear completely, thus making the probability of injury to vegetation negligible in winter. After repair of the leak the poor aeration conditions in the soil may persist for quite a long time. This is caused by the high consumption rate of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic substances and reduced anorganic compounds accumulated in the soil during gas leakage. The oxygen overdemand and the oxidation rate were determined for various gassed soils. Measures can be taken to accelerate soil recovery processes and to improve conditions for regeneration of injured trees and before planting new trees. Both experiments and calculations with computation models prove that installation of open ventilation channels is very effective, even if the leak cannot be immediately repaired. So ventilation channels can also be installed as preventive measure. 138 references.

  18. Levels of short chain chlorinated paraffins in pine needles and bark and their vegetation-air partitioning in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have been of considerable concern in recent years due to their high production volumes, environmental persistency and potential for long range atmospheric transport. Vegetation can take up considerable amounts of semivolatile organic compounds from the atmosphere and can act as indicators of local contamination. Paired pine needles and bark were sampled around Beijing during winter and summertime to investigate the distribution of SCCPs in urban areas. Levels in bark samples ranged 5.79-37.5 μg/g on a lipid normalized basis (lw) with a geometric mean (GM) of 16.9 μg/g lw whereas levels were 3.03-40.8 (GM 11.8) μ/g lw for needles. Average congener group abundance profiles showed equal contribution of all four carbon groups (C(10-13)) in wintertime where as higher abundances of C(10) and C(11) groups were found during summer. Uptake of SCCPs occurred mainly via kinetically limited gaseous deposition and particle bound deposition in the investigated area.

  19. Recipes and nutritional value of dishes prepared from green-leafy vegetables in an urban district of Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianatoandro, Verohanitra Annie; Avallone, Sylvie; Picq, Christian; Ralison, Charlotte; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    The recipes of 50 multi-ingredient dishes consumed by the population in an urban district were noted down. The nutritional value was determined as well as the cook value of the dishes in order to evaluate the severity of the thermal treatment. The recipes were simple and involved steps such as boiling, mixing, and cutting. Fibre contents were rather low except when the leaf stems were included. All the dishes had very high beta-carotene content (15.8-25.0 mg/100 g dry matter) and retinol activity equivalent (RAE) (1.3-2.3 mg RAE/100 g dry matter) because of the high proportion of fresh leafy vegetables (from 41.2% to 58.8% of the total dry matter of the ingredients). When meat was added to the preparation, the micronutrient content (iron, zinc, and retinol) was not increased significantly. In three dishes, a positive correlation was found between the thermal treatment severity and the 13-cis-beta-carotene amount.

  20. Nitrate in drinking water and vegetables: intake and risk assessment in rural and urban areas of Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav

    2017-06-06

    The study focuses on the estimation of health risk from nitrate present in the drinking water and vegetables in Nagpur and Bhandara districts in the state of Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples from 77 locations from the rural as well as urban areas and 22 varieties of vegetable were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrate for a period of 1 year (two seasons). The daily intake of nitrate from these water and vegetable samples was then computed and compared with standard acceptable intake levels to assess the associated health risk. The mean nitrate concentration of 59 drinking water samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards limit of 45 mg/L in drinking water. The rural and urban areas were found to have mean nitrate concentration in drinking water as 45.69 ± 2.08 and 22.53 ± 1.97 mg/L, respectively. The estimated daily intake of drinking water samples from 55 study sites had nitrate concentration far below the safety margin indicating serious health risk. The sanitation survey conducted in 12 households reported contaminated source with positive E. coli count in 20 samples as the major factor of health risk. The average nitrate concentration was maximum in beetroot (1349.38 mg/kg) followed by spinach (1288.75 mg/kg) and amaranthus (1007.64 mg/kg). Among the samples, four varieties of the vegetables exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) with an assumption of 0.5 kg consumption of vegetables for an average of a 60-kg individual. Therefore, irrigation of these locally grown vegetables should be monitored periodically for nitrogen accumulation by the crop above the ADI limit. The application of nitrogenous fertilizers should also be minimized in the rural areas to help protect the nitrate contamination in groundwater sources.

  1. Woody vegetation and soil characteristics of residential forest patches and open spaces along an urban-to-rural gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin L. Reichert; Sharon R. Jean-Philippe; Christopher Oswalt; Jennifer Franklin; Mark Radosevich

    2015-01-01

    As the process of urbanization advances across the country, so does the importance of urban forests, which include both trees and the soils in which they grow. Soil microbial biomass, which plays a critical role in nutrient transformation in urban ecosystems, is affected by factors such as soil type and the availability of water, carbon, and nitrogen. The aim of this...

  2. A contribution to the thermal and aero-dynamical modelling of the urban micro-climate. Analysis of the water and vegetation impact on the comfort conditions in outdoor spaces; Contribution a la modelisation thermo-aeraulique du microclimat urbain. Caracterisation de l'impact de l'eau et de la vegetation sur les conditions de confort en espaces exterieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinet, J.

    2000-11-01

    In summer, temperatures in cities may rise, thereby inducing the so-called 'urban heat island' and tremendous consequences on outdoor comfort, health risks, pollutant emission and energy consumption. Replacing vegetation and moist surfaces by concrete or asphalt may enhance these problems. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the impact of vegetation and water on urban micro-climate and comfort through numerical modelling; In the first part, a scientific literature review considers various topics applied to our problem such as urban micro-climate, simulations, urbanism, urban forestry and outdoor thermal comfort. This information is relevant to define and interpret further numerical modelling. Numerical simulations based on the coupling of the SOLENE. thermal program and the N3S CFD code are proposed to model wind flow, air and surface temperatures. The theoretical principles, hypothesis and coupling methodology are presented here. This set of numerical tools is combined in order to help urban or landscape planners, architects and engineers, to analyse the impacts of different projects on micro-climate and on outdoor thermal comfort, under hot summer conditions. To illustrate this approach, an open space in Montpellier (southern France) called the 'Place du Millenaire' and designed by Ricardo Bofill is studied, considering various cases (no vegetation, actual vegetation and vegetation in 30 years). The comparative results demonstrate improvements of urban form, micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort. (author)

  3. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetic study of phytotoxicity induced by foliar lead uptake for vegetables exposed to fine particles and implications for sustainable urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, TianTian; Austruy, Annabelle; Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2016-08-01

    At the global scale, foliar metal transfer occurs for consumed vegetables cultivated in numerous urban or industrial areas with a polluted atmosphere. However, the kinetics of metal uptake, translocation and involved phytotoxicity was never jointly studied with vegetables exposed to micronic and sub-micronic particles (PM). Different leafy vegetables (lettuces and cabbages) cultivated in RHIZOtest® devices were, therefore, exposed in a greenhouse for 5, 10 and 15days to various PbO PM doses. The kinetics of transfer and phytotoxicity was assessed in relation to lead concentration and exposure duration. A significant Pb accumulation in leaves (up to 7392mg/kg dry weight (DW) in lettuce) with translocation to roots was observed. Lead foliar exposure resulted in significant phytotoxicity, lipid composition change, a decrease of plant shoot growth (up to 68.2% in lettuce) and net photosynthesis (up to 58% in lettuce). The phytotoxicity results indicated plant adaptation to Pb and a higher sensitivity of lettuce in comparison with cabbage. Air quality needs, therefore, to be considered for the health and quality of vegetables grown in polluted areas, such as certain megacities (in China, Pakistan, Europe, etc.) and furthermore, to assess the health risks associated with their consumption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. How GNSS Enables Precision Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...

  6. Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Marshall, Fiona M

    2009-03-01

    Vegetables (Beta vulgaris L., Abelmoschus esculentus L. and Brassica oleracea L.) from the production and market sites of India were tested for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb. At market sites, the mean concentration of Cu in cauliflower, and of Zn and Cd in both palak and cauliflower had exceeded the PFA standard. Zn at the production sites also exceeded the PFA standard in cauliflower. Cd concentration in vegetables tested from both production and market sites was many folds higher than the EU standard. In contrast, Pb in vegetables tested from both production and market sites was below the PFA limit, but was considerably higher than the current EU and WHO standards. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables tested are higher at market sites than those at the crop production sites. The contributions of these vegetables to dietary intake of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were 13%, 1%, 47% and 9% of provisional tolerable daily intake, respectively. The study concludes that the transportation and marketing systems of vegetables play a significant role in elevating the contaminant levels of heavy metals which may pose a threat to the quality of the vegetables with consequences for the health of the consumers of locally produced foodstuffs.

  7. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro; Schou, Torben Wilde; Abaidoo, Robert Clement

    2016-03-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Cost-sharing among stakeholders appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers' associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation. The results further show that the probability of being willing to pay by farmers who agreed that the current water they used for irrigation was harmful is approximately 5.3 times greater than that of those who did not. The analysis of the farmers' ability to pay revealed that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m(3). This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce.

  8. The impact of farmers’ participation in field trials in creating awareness and stimulating compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Schou, Torben Wilde

    2016-01-01

    -barrier approach field trials. The results of the study show that participation in the field trials has statistically significant effects on farmers’ awareness of the farm-based multiple-barrier approach. Compliance has, however, been undermined by the farmers’ perception that the cost of compliance is more......The results of a study aimed as assessing the extent to which urban vegetable farmers’ participation in field trials can impact on their awareness and engender compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach are presented in this paper. Both qualitative...... and quantitative approaches have been used in this paper. One hundred vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations in the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana were covered. The individual farmers were grouped into two, namely: (1) participants and (2) non-participants of the farm-based multiple...

  9. Prevalence, antibiogram, and cdt genes of toxigenic Campylobacter jejuni in salad style vegetables (ulam) at farms and retail outlets in Terengganu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Mohd Ikhsan; Tang, John Yew Huat; Baharuddin, Nabila Huda; Rahman, Nasiha Shakina; Rahimi, Nurul Faizzah; Radu, Son

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter jejuni in ulam at farms and retail outlets located in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 526 samples (ulam, soil, and fertilizer) were investigated for the presence of C. jejuni and the gene for cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) by using a multiplex PCR method. Antibiotic susceptibility to 10 types of antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion method for 33 C. jejuni isolates. The average prevalence of contaminated samples from farms, wet markets, and supermarkets was 35.29, 52.66, and 69.88%, respectively. The cdt gene was not detected in 24 of the 33 C. jejuni isolates, but 9 isolates harbored cdtC. Antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni isolates was highest to penicillin G (96.97% of isolates) followed by vancomycin (87.88%), ampicillin (75.76%), erythromycin (60.61%), tetracycline (9.09%), amikacin (6.06%), and norfloxacin (3.03%); none of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin. In this study, C. jejuni was present in ulam, and some isolates were highly resistant to some antibiotics but not to quinolones. Thus, appropriate attention and measures are required to prevent C. jejuni contamination on farms and at retail outlets.

  10. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  11. School farming and school feeding in Nakuru town, Kenya : practice and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.

    2007-01-01

    Most research on urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa has concentrated on farming by individual urban households, while farming by urban institutions has been largely overlooked. Probably the most prevalent and important type of institutional urban agriculture is school farming, the focus of this

  12. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  13. Urban biomass - not an urban legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. There is an estimated 16.4 million hectares of land in urban areas cultivated with turfgrass and associated vegetation. Vegetation in urban areas is intensely managed which lead to regula...

  14. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  15. Comparing Three Approaches of Evapotranspiration Estimation in Mixed Urban Vegetation: Field-Based, Remote Sensing-Based and Observational-Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Nouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being the driest inhabited continent, Australia has one of the highest per capita water consumptions in the world. In addition, instead of having fit-for-purpose water supplies (using different qualities of water for different applications, highly treated drinking water is used for nearly all of Australia’s urban water supply needs, including landscape irrigation. The water requirement of urban landscapes, particularly urban parklands, is of growing concern. The estimation of evapotranspiration (ET and subsequently plant water requirements in urban vegetation needs to consider the heterogeneity of plants, soils, water, and climate characteristics. This research contributes to a broader effort to establish sustainable irrigation practices within the Adelaide Parklands in Adelaide, South Australia. In this paper, two practical ET estimation approaches are compared to a detailed Soil Water Balance (SWB analysis over a one year period. One approach is the Water Use Classification of Landscape Plants (WUCOLS method, which is based on expert opinion on the water needs of different classes of landscape plants. The other is a remote sensing approach based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite. Both methods require knowledge of reference ET calculated from meteorological data. The SWB determined that plants consumed 1084 mm·yr−1 of water in ET with an additional 16% lost to drainage past the root zone, an amount sufficient to keep salts from accumulating in the root zone. ET by MODIS EVI was 1088 mm·yr−1, very close to the SWB estimate, while WUCOLS estimated the total water requirement at only 802 mm·yr−1, 26% lower than the SWB estimate and 37% lower than the amount actually added including the drainage fraction. Individual monthly ET by MODIS was not accurate, but these errors were cancelled out to give good agreement on an annual time step. We

  16. Assessment of vegetable production practices in Qwaqwa within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the information such as biographical information of the vegetable farmers, information about the vegetable gardens or farms, the current vegetable farming practices, irrigation practices on the vegetable soil and the farmers' physical and financial records were assessed. The assessment was conducted through ...

  17. Effects of wind farm construction and operation on mire and wet heath vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, north-west Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fagúndez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the environmental impact assessment for the construction of a wind farm within the Monte Maior Natura 2000 Site of Community Importance (SCI in Galicia, north-west Spain, a complete analysis of the development site’s important mire and wet heath plant communities was performed. The study included phytosociological characterisation, species-area metrics, calculation of α and β diversity, and analysis of physiognomical characteristics such as life forms, distribution ranges and phenology. Permanent quadrats were monitored for three years after construction of the wind farm in order to identify and describe any changes in floristic composition. Two phytosociological associations were recognised in mire habitat, namely Eleocharitetum multicaulis (Litorelletea uniflorae and Carici durieui-Sphagnetum papillosi subas. ericetosum mackaianae (Oxycocco-Sphagnetea, whilst the wet heath was assigned to Gentiano pneumonanthe-Ericetum mackaianae (Calluno-Ulicetea. The two plant communities shared most physiognomical characteristics and 13–33% of species. Low values were obtained for α and β diversity, with about nine species per square metre for heathland and ten species per square metre for mire habitat. Hemicryptophytes dominated and no therophytes were recorded. The dominant plant families were Poaceae in heathlands and Cyperaceae in mires, and most of the species flowered in early or late summer. Both communities were stable and no change in any of the attributes investigated was observed during the study period. The results indicate that, so long as the traditional land use of low-intensity grazing can be maintained, there are no major hazards for these plant communities. However, some of the data suggest that the improvement of access to the area provided by the wind farm may result in an increase in human activity which could affect environmental conditions and thus the longer-term stability of the plant communities.

  18. Drew Goodman, Earthbound Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Drew Goodman is CEO and co-founder, with his wife, Myra, of Earthbound Farm, based in San Juan Bautista, California. Two years after its 1984 inception on 2.5 Carmel Valley acres, Earthbound became the first successful purveyor of pre-washed salads bagged for retail sale. The company now produces more than 100 varieties of certified organic salads, fruits, and vegetables on a total of about 33,000 acres, with individual farms ranging from five to 680 acres in California, Arizona, Washington, ...

  19. The association of outdoor vegetation with ADHD-related behavior among children living in an urban community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Emerging research supports potential benefits of green space on children's behavior. Methods: We evaluated the cross-sectional association of outdoor vegetation (OV) and distance to parks with ADHD-like behavior in 560 eight-year-olds from a prospective, sociodemogr...

  20. Use of the photogrammetric data for vegetation inventory on urban areas. (Polish Title: Wykorzystanie danych fotogrametrycznych do inwentaryzacji zieleni na terenach zurbanizowanych)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalska, J. L.; Preuss, R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses the methodology of the implementation of an inventory of vegetation in an urban area using photogrammetric data in the form of color NIR "true - orthophotomap" (true - ortho) and the digital surface model (DSM) created with data from airborne laser scanning, or alternatively, with an automatic correlation of images. The vegetation inventory was conducted by classification on the basis of the characteristics contained in pixels of georeferenced true - ortho while taking into account the elevation data in the form of gridded DSM. To carry out the classification Erdas Imagine software was used. The correct classification process was preceded by the creation of the input data for this task. This data was obtained from the processing of digital aerial photos taken by a Vexcel UltraCam camera with the ground resolution GSD = 10cm and point clouds acquired from ALS. This processing included the generation of digital terrain model in the SCOP++ environment and the digital surface model in an Opals and Inpho environment. The Comparison of DSM created from two different sources of data showed the overall consistency and uniformity and the ability to use both models to generate a true - ortho product from digital aerial photographs. The work was performed on an INPHO photogrammetric workstation. "True - ortho" was generated from both the black and white NIR images and colour images. The classification carried out with the Erdas Imagine software proved that this software is suitable for classification based on the features extracted from the pixels with the simultaneous analysis of elevation data. Simultaneous use of data both from airborne laser scanning and colour infrared images made it possible to make an exact classification of vegetation on very difficult terrain, like built up urban areas. The results of the classification accuracy were evaluated by the visual verification in Google Street View application. At a time when airborne platforms are

  1. Analysis of organic farming practices amongst crop farmers in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. atoma & Family

    but not limited to sensitization of consumers on the benefit of organic foods, ... Organic farming is an agricultural technique of naturally producing quality crops, vegetables or animals ... This goal cannot be achieved by the conventional farming.

  2. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains. PMID:24065036

  3. Appraisal of hygiene indicators and farming practices in the production of leafy vegetables by organic small-scale farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-09-13

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

  4. "I don't tell my husband about vegetable sales" : gender dynamics in urban agriculture in Eldoret, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simiyu, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the sustainable livelihood approach, this book explores gender dynamics in urban agriculture, which is an integral part of the diversified portfolio of livelihood strategies adopted by residents of Eldoret town to cope with hard economic times. It explores the motives, needs, preferences

  5. "I don't tell my husband about vegetable sales" : Gender aspects of urban agriculture in Eldoret, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simiyu, Robert Romborah

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the sustainable livelihood approach, this book explores gender dynamics in urban agriculture, which is an integral part of the diversified portfolio of livelihood strategies adopted by residents of Eldoret town to cope with hard economic times. It explores the motives, needs, preferences

  6. Double Up Food Bucks program effects on SNAP recipients' fruit and vegetable purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Adjognon, Marie; Weatherspoon, Dave

    2017-12-12

    To encourage the consumption of more fresh fruits and vegetables, the 2014 United Sates Farm Bill allocated funds to the Double Up Food Bucks Program. This program provided Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program beneficiaries who spent $10 on fresh fruits and vegetables, in one transaction, with a $10 gift card exclusively for Michigan grown fresh fruits and vegetables. This study analyzes how fruit and vegetable expenditures, expenditure shares, variety and purchase decisions were affected by the initiation and conclusion, as well as any persistent effects of the program. Changes in fruit and vegetable purchase behaviors due to Double Up Food Bucks in a supermarket serving a low-income, predominantly Hispanic community in Detroit, Michigan were evaluated using a difference in difference fixed effects estimation strategy. We find that the Double Up Food Bucks program increased vegetable expenditures, fruit and vegetable expenditure shares, and variety of fruits and vegetables purchased but the effects were modest and not sustainable without the financial incentive. Fruit expenditures and the fruit and vegetable purchase decision were unaffected by the program. This study provides valuable insight on how a nutrition program influences a low-income, urban, Hispanic community's fruit and vegetable purchase behavior. Policy recommendations include either removing or lowering the purchase hurdle for incentive eligibility and dropping the Michigan grown requirement to better align with the customers' preferences for fresh fruits and vegetables.

  7. Best Practice Irrigation Management and Extension in Peri-Urban Landscapes--Experiences and Insights from the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, B. L.; Plunkett, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article to examine key irrigation management issues and their implications for future research and extension developments. Design/Methodology/Approach: Peri-urban landscapes are important as they supply fresh fruit, vegetables, turf, ornamental plants and other farm products to the cities. In this study, the…

  8. Root uptake of exogenous Ra226 by three edible vegetables grown in farm soils from the vicinity of the first Brasilian Uranium Mine and Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, V.S.; Franca, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the uptake of exogenous 226 Ra by carrot, brow-bean and cabbage. Greenhouse experiments were carried out with farm soils collected near the first Brazilian Uranium Mine and Mill and contamin ted with 226 Ra solution. After the maturity, the plants were harvested, ashed and this nuclide was analysed by gamma spectrometry. Among the edible parts, 226 Ra content decreased in the following order: cabbage > brown-bean > carrot. Soil-to-plant transfer coeficients were of the order of 10 -2 , values of 10 to 100 times greater than those observed in the region. The results emphasize the importance of irrigation water as a contamination pathway of human groups in the area. (Author) [pt

  9. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...... conventional farmers – declining prices, concentration of production and shift in bargaining power to the retailers. Logically, this situation will lead eventually to increasing conflicts between organic values and their subordination to free market forces, i.e. conventionalization. In the same time retailers...

  10. Hydrogen fluoride damage to vegetation from peri-urban brick kilns in Asia: A growing but unrecognised problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Berg, Leon J.L. van den; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Masood, Tariq; Büker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Ashmore, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The rapid urbanisation of many cities in south and south-east Asia has increased the demand for bricks, which are typically supplied from brick kilns in peri-urban areas. We report visible foliar damage to mango, apricot and plum trees in the vicinity of traditional Bull’s Trench brick kilns in Peshawar, Pakistan. Visible injury symptoms, hydrogen fluoride concentrations in air, and foliar fluoride concentrations were all greater in the vicinity of brick kilns than at more distant sites, indicating that fluoride emissions from brick kilns were the main cause of damage. Interviews with local farmers established the significant impact of this damage on their livelihoods. Since poorly regulated brick kilns are often found close to important peri-urban agricultural areas, we suggest that this may be a growing but unrecognised environmental problem in regions of Asia where emission control in brick kilns has not been improved. - Highlights: ► Demand for bricks is increasing in many parts of Asia. ► Fluoride emissions from brick kilns may pose a threat to peri-urban agriculture. ► We found extensive injury to fruit orchards close to brick kilns in Peshawar. ► Local farmers suffered large economic losses but did not identify brick kilns as a cause of this. ► The extent of crop damage from brick kilns with poor emission control in the region may not be fully recognised. - Hydrogen fluoride emissions from brick kilns may cause extensive but unrecognised damage to peri-urban crops in Asia.

  11. Ecohealth Approach to Flood Recession Farming in Okavango Delta ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, flood-recession farming (molapu) is a lucrative but ... Moreover, some practices involved in molapu farming may pose a threat to the ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  12. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  13. Evaluation of Dicentrarchus labrax Meats and the Vegetable Quality of Beta vulgaris var. cicla Farmed in Freshwater and Saltwater Aquaponic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nozzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to exploit the euryhaline nature of commercially attractive species for their cultivation in freshwater aquaponic systems. This approach may increase the profitability of aquaponic production in coastal countries where the consumption of marine fish is traditional and of commercial relevance. For this purpose, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reared in an aquaponic freshwater (AFW system and an aquaponic saltwater (ASW system (salinity 20 ppt, in combination with chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla seedlings, a salt tolerant plant. At the end of the trial, nitrate and phosphate concentration in water significantly increased in the ASW system, suggesting that the ability of B. vulgaris to absorb these substances was limited by salinity. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the concentration of some oligoelements such as Fe remained lower with respect to the concentration in the freshwater hydroponic solution, in both AFW and ASW. FTIR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on plants showed that growth at high salinity affected their lipid content. In the case of fish, freshwater had no effects on mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acid profiles, although saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in D. labrax reared in AFW. Our results demonstrates that it is possible to increase aquaponic profitability by farming D. labrax juveniles in an aquaponic freshwater system together with Beta vulgaris, obtaining good quality products.

  14. Mapping and Assessment of PM10 and O3 Removal by Woody Vegetation at Urban and Regional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fusaro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is the follow up of the URBAN-MAES pilot implemented in the framework of the EnRoute project. The study aims at mapping and assessing the process of particulate matter (PM10 and tropospheric ozone (O3 removal by various forest and shrub ecosystems. Different policy levels and environmental contexts were considered, namely the Metropolitan city of Rome and, at a wider level, the Latium region. The approach involves characterization of the main land cover and ecosystems using Sentinel-2 images, enabling a detailed assessment of Ecosystem Service (ES, and monetary valuation based on externality values. The results showed spatial variations in the pattern of PM10 and O3 removal inside the Municipality and in the more rural Latium hinterland, reflecting the spatial dynamics of the two pollutants. Evergreen species displayed higher PM10 removal efficiency, whereas deciduous species showed higher O3 absorption in both rural and urban areas. The overall pollution removal accounted for 5123 and 19,074 Mg of PM10 and O3, respectively, with a relative monetary benefit of 161 and 149 Million Euro for PM10 and O3, respectively. Our results provide spatially explicit evidence that may assist policymakers in land-oriented decisions towards improving Green Infrastructure and maximizing ES provision at different governance levels.

  15. Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2014-05-01

    The European Environment Agency estimates that c.a. 250 000 sites required clean up and that about 100 000 ha could have been contaminated by metals in Europe. Numerous remediation techniques have been therefore tested and phytoremediation appears as a sustainable and low cost in situ technique particularly for large-scale remediation of polluted arable soils. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are already used in phytoextraction or phytostabilisation of many metal(loid)s (GU ET AL., 2013, SHARMA AND SHARMA, 2013). However, while plant inoculation with AMF will mostly result of an increase of the plant biomass, the response for lead accumulation in shoots is contrasted (LEBEAU ET AL., 2008). Furthermore, nothing is actually known for Sb transfer to plants phytoremediation-assisted AMF. Yet recently, many researches concern the accumulation of Sb in the environment, its (eco)toxicity and the risk of bioaccumulation in vegetables (FENG ET AL., 2013), especially in some China areas where Sb mining activities have widely contaminated arable lands (WU ET AL., 2011). Our research project, which is part of a national program for urban gardens (JASSUR, http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr), focused on polluted soils in associative urban gardens with both geogenic and anthropogenic origins for Pb and Sb. The impact of Pb and Sb on AMF density and diversity was studied using morphological and biomolecular approaches. The role of AMF symbiosis with Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) on Pb and Sb compartmentalization, speciation and phytoavailability was investigated. The influence of soil organic matters on these processes was examined. Eventually, the part of metal(loid)s available for humans in case of ingestion of lettuces unfit for human consumption (FOUCAULT ET AL., 2013; XIONG ET AL., 2013) will be assessed in relation with the influence of AMF symbiosis and organic matter. Key Words: Mycorrhiza, Antimony, Compartmentation, Speciation, Edible Plants, Urban Agriculture

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Children Eating More Fruit, Not Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vegetables through programs such as the WIC Cash Value Voucher, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Child ... providers and schools reduce fruit and vegetable purchasing costs and develop farm to school and farm to ...

  17. Development of web-based GIS services for sustainable soil resource management at farm level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kolovos, Chronis; Troyanos, Yerasimos; Doula, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Modern farms situated in urban or suburban areas, include various and in most cases diverse land covers. Land uses in such farms may serve residential, structured, aesthetic and agricultural purposes, usually delimited inside the boundaries of a single property. The environmental conditions across a farm, especially if it is situated on an irregular terrain, can be highly differentiated. Managing soil resources in a small scale diverse farm environment in a holistic and sustainable way should have spatial and temporal reference and take advantage of cut-edge geospatial technologies. In present study, an 8 hectare farm with various land uses in the southern suburbs of Attica Prefecture, Greece was systematically monitored regarding its soil, water and plant resources. Almost 80% of the farm's area is covered with trees, shrubs and low vegetation planted in a mosaic of parterres. Farm data collected concerned soil and water physicochemical characteristics, plant species, topographical features, irrigation network, valves and infrastructure. All data were imported and developed in a GIS geodatabase. Furthermore, web GIS services and a mobile GIS app were developed in order to monitor, update and synchronize present status and future changes performed in the farm. Through the web services and using the mobile GIS app, the user has access to all data stored in the geodatabase and according to access rights he can view or edit the spatial entities. The user can easily make query to specific features, combine their properties with other overlaying spatial data and reach accurate decisions. The app can be downloaded and implemented in mobile devices like smartphones and tablets for extending its functionality. As proven in this study, web GIS services and mobile GIS apps constitute an attractive suite of methodologies for effective and user friendly management of natural resources at farm level.

  18. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  19. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-02

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  20. Farming in an Agriburban Ecovillage Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing desire for local food systems has increased interest in peri-urban farming, leading to the rise of agriburban landscapes, in which a desire to farm or to be near farmland is a contributing factor to development patterns. Interviews and site visits to the Yarrow Ecovillage near Vancouver, Canada, outline an example of a development that allows new farmers access to land in a setting with few tensions between farming and non-farming residents in a zone on the edge of a protected agricultural region. Although there are limitations to replication of this model, we suggest that intentional settlements with an agricultural element on the rural/urban fringe could buffer traditional tensions between farm usage and residential usage, while allowing small-scale farmers a place to farm in areas with prohibitively high land values.

  1. Farm tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Just, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  2. Poultry Waste Management Techniques in Urban Agriculture and its Implications: A Case of Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vide Adedayo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the existing poultry waste management and utilization technique in urban vegetable farms. It analyses the implications of the management pattern on yield and revenue and further determines the socio-economic differentials of farmers on management pattern. Socio-economic survey was carried out to determine relationship between socio economic characteristics of farmers and poultry waste management while field experiments and estimations were done to determine poultry waste p...

  3. Farming pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, V P [Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8208 (United States); Schlesinger, W H [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545 (United States); Erisman, J W [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Modern farms produce particulate matter and gases that affect the environment and human health and add to rising atmospheric greenhouse-gas levels. European policymakers have made progress in controlling these emissions, but US regulations remain inadequate.

  4. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-08-24

    Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV) are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA) youth in Baltimore, MD. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10-14 y) dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice) and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake) controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD) servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth's healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15-1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23-1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03-1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01-1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04-1.16). Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9). In addition, youth shopping more frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable

  5. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA youth in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10–14 y dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. Results On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth’s healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15–1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23–1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03–1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01–1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04–1.16. Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9. In addition, youth shopping more

  6. ANNUAL FARM LABOR REPORT - 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LENHART, MARGOT WAKEMAN

    THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT SERVICE WHICH INCLUDED ORGANIZATION, STAFF, OFFICES, ASSOCIATES AND ADVISORS, AND MEETINGS WAS PRESENTED. AT THE STATE LEVEL, THERE WAS A RISE IN OVERALL CROP PRODUCTION AND A DECREASE IN TOTAL CROPLAND HARVEST. AT THE LOCAL LEVEL, URBAN ENCROACHMENT CHANGED THE NATURE OF PRODUCTION IN SOME AREAS AND…

  7. Off-Farm Employment and Economic Crisis: Evidence from Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Giannakis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Off-farm employment is an important strategy for complementing farm household income and maintaining rural livelihoods. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to investigate the effect of farm-level and regional-level factors on off-farm employment in Cyprus during the recent economic crisis period. The performance of nonfarm sectors positively affects off-farm employment; a one-percent increase in the share of the secondary and tertiary sector employment increases the likelihood of off-farm work by 9.5 times. The importance of location was also identified. Farm households located in rural areas are 70% less likely to engage in off-farm work than households located in urban areas. The positive effect of educational attainment and the negative effect of farm training confirmed the importance of human capital characteristics on off-farm labour participation. Farm structural factors are also significant determinants of off-farm employment. A one-hectare increase in the farm size decreases the odds of off-farm labour participation by 50%. Operators of crop farming holdings are 4.2 times more likely to work off the farm than operators of livestock and mixed-farming holdings. The results reveal the importance of adopting a multilevel and integrated approach for the analysis of off-farm employment.

  8. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management....

  9. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination of Salad Vegetables in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EBUBE AMAECHICHARLES

    Keywords: Parasitic, Salad vegetables, Contamination, Ilorin, Nigeria. 1. ... domestic animal origin as fertilizer, and the habit of eating vegetables raw or undercooked are ..... for cleaning the farm products before they are offered for sale.

  10. Assessing food security status among farming households in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... relative to urban farming practices was found to influence the food security status of the respondents. This is justified from the χ2 value of 9.263 and 6.443 returned for this factor and which is significant at 0.05 level of significance. Keywords: Food security; Odds; Urban farming. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research Vol.

  11. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A vegetação secundária em um fragmento florestal urbano: influência de exóticas invasoras na comunidade vegetal. Secondary vegetation in a urban forest remnant: alien species influence on plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2016-06-01

    urbanization. However, some small reserves protected by laws still sustain natural vegetation remnants.This work was developed in one of these reserves the Alberto Löfgren State Park – PEAL. We aimed to detect the successional stage of secondary vegetation of PEAL and check the influence of alien species in the successional process.We conducted a phytosociological survey in a 4.8 ha continuous forest patch, where 30 plots of 20 x 20 m were randomly distributed and individual shrubs and trees with a perimeter at breast height – PBH ≥ 15 cm were sampled. A total of 121 species (35 exotic, belonging to 102 genera and 44 families were recorded. Eleven species were categorized as endangered. The Shannon diversity and the Pielou equability indexes were 3.38 and 0.70 respectively, and the total density was 1,400 ind.ha-1. Half of the 12 species of highest importance value was alien species. We concluded that PEAL has a high degree of biological invasion, which may cause serious damage to the natural succession process in areas under recovery. In order to prevent the spread of alien species into the natural forests of Cantareira Range, we recommend the adoption of an integrated program that includes the alien species control and regional native species enrichment if needed. In this work we indicated the exotic species that should be managed first in order to restore the ecological sucession.

  13. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the

  14. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  15. The Potential of Urban Agriculture in Montréal: A Quantitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Haberman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing food in urban areas could solve a multitude of social and environmental problems. These potential benefits have resulted in an increased demand for urban agriculture (UA, though quantitative data is lacking on the feasibility of conversion to large-scale practices. This study uses multiple land use scenarios to determine different spaces that could be allocated to vegetable production in Montréal, including residential gardens, industrial rooftops and vacant space. Considering a range of both soil-bound and hydroponic yields, the ability of these scenarios to render Montréal self-sufficient in terms of vegetable production is assessed. The results show that the island could easily satisfy its vegetable demand if hydroponics are implemented on industrial rooftops, though these operations are generally costly. Using only vacant space, however, also has the potential to meet the city’s demand and requires lower operating costs. A performance index was developed to evaluate the potential of each borough to meet its own vegetable demand while still maintaining an elevated population density. Most boroughs outside of the downtown core are able to satisfy their vegetable demand efficiently due to their land use composition, though results vary greatly depending on the farming methods used, indicating the importance of farm management.

  16. Detection of Listeria Spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aimed to study the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern among Listeria monocytogenes in raw vegetables sourced from commercial farms and local farms in Terengganu. Thirteen types of vegetables investigated for the presence of L. monocytogenes using multiplex PCR and LAMP methods. Isolation of ...

  17. Effects of a School-Based Nutrition Program Diffused throughout a Large Urban Community on Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelip, Michael; Slusser, Wendelin; Thai, Chan L.; Kinsler, Janni; Erausquin, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity among US children has increased in recent years. Although increased fruit and vegetable consumption has not been directly linked to obesity prevalence, it has been posited that more fruits and vegetables (FV) could reduce the consumption of high-fat, energy-dense foods and may protect against childhood illnesses including…

  18. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Shahroud, Semnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of healthy vegetables, the present study was conducted to determine parasitic infection of vegetable consumed in Shahroud.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 92 samples of various vegetables collected from 16 vegetable growing farms and 1 vegetable process workshop. Results: Sixty two percent of tested vegetables lacked parasites and the highest amount of parasites observed (34.78% was related to Giardia lamblia. A significant relationship was observed between parasite and having toilets in the farms as well as the extent of farms.Conclusion: safety of fertilizers consumed by farms and healthy fruits can have an effective role in reducing the parasitic infections.

  19. Measurement Of Technical Efficiency In Irrigated Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured technical efficiency and identified its determinants in irrigated vegetable production in Nasarawa State of Nigeria using a stochastic frontier model. A complete enumeration of 193 NADP-registered vegetable farmers was done. The predicted farm technical efficiency ranges from 25.94 to 96.24 per cent ...

  20. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  1. Reuse of urban waste water, recovered by deep on in farms; Reutilizacion de aguas residuales urbanas, regeneradas mediante lagunaje profundo, en riego de praderas forrajeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arauzo Sanchez, M.; Colmenarejo Morcillo, M.F.; Bustos Aragon, A.; Hernaiz Algarra, P.J.; Martinez Alavarez, E.

    1998-10-01

    The reuse of regenerated urban wastewater in agriculture irrigation is a practice that is having an increasing leading role in Mediterranean Countries. it is, therefore, fundamental to safeguard the chemical and sanitary qualities of the regenerated wastewater by regeneration technologies improvement, as well as storing-regulation flow systems. The Research Group has started up a deep wastewater stabilization pond and a nearby experimental agricultural system, to study the reuse of regenerated wastewater in agriculture irrigation. The deep stabilization pond, 4,75 m deep and 2161 m``3 volume, is supplied continuously with urban wastewater from the secondary effluent of a conventional purifying plant. Hydraulic retention time is about 9 days. The experimental agricultural system consists of 6 plots (12.5x8 m each) sown with Festuca arundianacea Schreber, next to the deep stabilization pond. Plots were surface flooding irrigated from spring to autumn, and corp was cut 2 times, in July and October. Two treatments have been established; the irrigation with the deep stabilization pond effluent, and the second, irrigation with water from the Jarama river (which is normally used by farmers nearby the experimental area). Our intention is to compare both treatments in order to verify the suitability of wastewater reuse, stabilised and stored in a deep pond, in surface flooding irrigation of pastures. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. EFFECT OF FARM SIZE AND FREQUENCY OF CUTTING ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF FARM SIZE AND FREQUENCY OF CUTTING ON OUTPUT OF ... the use of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation technique was used in analyzing ... frequency of cutting that would produce maximum output of the vegetable as ...

  3. The Farm Process Version 2 (FMP2) for MODFLOW-2005 - Modifications and Upgrades to FMP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Hanson, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to dynamically simulate the integrated supply-and-demand components of irrigated agricultural is needed to thoroughly understand the interrelation between surface water and groundwater flow in areas where the water-use by vegetation is an important component of the water budget. To meet this need, the computer program Farm Process (FMP1) was updated and refined for use with the U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW-2005 groundwater-flow model, and is referred to as MF2005-FMP2. The updated program allows the simulation, analysis, and management of nearly all components of human and natural water use. MF2005-FMP2 represents a complete hydrologic model that fully links the movement and use of groundwater, surface water, and imported water for water consumption of irrigated agriculture, but also of urban use, and of natural vegetation. Supply and demand components of water use are analyzed under demand-driven and supply-constrained conditions. From large- to small-scale settings, the MF2005-FMP2 has the unique set of capabilities to simulate and analyze historical, present, and future conditions. MF2005-FMP2 facilitates the analysis of agricultural water use where little data is available for pumpage, land use, or agricultural information. The features presented in this new version of FMP2 along with the linkages to the Streamflow Routing (SFR), Multi-Node Well (MNW), and Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) Packages prevents mass loss to an open system and helps to account for 'all of the water everywhere and all of the time'. The first version, FMP1 for MODFLOW-2000, is limited to (a) transpiration uptake from unsaturated root zones, (b) on-farm efficiency defined solely by farm and not by crop type, (c) a simulation of water use and returnflows related only to irrigated agriculture and not also to non-irrigated vegetation, (d) a definition of consumptive use as potential crop evapotranspiration, (e) percolation being instantly recharged to the uppermost active

  4. Africa's Changing Farm Structure and Employment Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne, T.S.; Chapoto, A.; Sitko, N.; Muyanga, M.; Nkonde, C.; Chamberlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Even under optimistic assumptions about the rate of urbanization and growth of non-farm employment, agriculture will still be the main source of livelihood for the majority of Africans for at least the next several decades (Losch 2012). Non-farm wage jobs in Sub-Saharan Africa will be able to absorb between 40 to 65 percent of the additional 122 million workers estimated to enter the labor force before 2020 (Fine et al. 2012). This means that farming will be called upon to provide gainful emp...

  5. Measurement of farm level efficiency of home gardens in Uyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the farm level efficiency of home vegetable gardens in Uyo, a stochastic production function which incorporates a model for the technical inefficiency effects was used. Using farm-level data from 80 home gardeners obtained through structured questionnaire, the parameters were estimated simultaneously with ...

  6. Interactive design of farm conversion : linking agricultural research and farmer learning for sustainable small scale horticulture production in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methods

  7. Supplementary data of “Impacts of mesic and xeric urban vegetation on outdoor thermal comfort and microclimate in Phoenix, AZ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyun Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An advanced Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach called Subset Simulation is described in Au and Beck (2001 [1] was used to quantify parameter uncertainty and model sensitivity of the urban land-atmospheric framework, viz. the coupled urban canopy model-single column model (UCM-SCM. The results show that the atmospheric dynamics are sensitive to land surface conditions. The most sensitive parameters are dimensional parameters, i.e. roof width, aspect ratio, roughness length of heat and momentum, since these parameters control the magnitude of sensible heat flux. The relative insensitive parameters are hydrological parameters since the lawns or green roofs in urban areas are regularly irrigated so that the water availability for evaporation is never constrained.

  8. Constraints in the adoption of Indigenous farming practices

    OpenAIRE

    K Kanagasabapathi; V Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous farming is a production system, based on renewal of ecological processes and strengthening of ecological functions of farm ecosystem to produce safe, healthy and sustainable food. Indigenous agriculture is being adopted by the farmers of Kolli Hills in centre Tamil Nadu for different reasons. However, a lot of constraints prevent the farmers in adopting indigenous farming practices, that include poor yield, poor marketing facilities, higher production cost and urbanization

  9. Constraints in the adoption of Indigenous farming practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kanagasabapathi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous farming is a production system, based on renewal of ecological processes and strengthening of ecological functions of farm ecosystem to produce safe, healthy and sustainable food. Indigenous agriculture is being adopted by the farmers of Kolli Hills in centre Tamil Nadu for different reasons. However, a lot of constraints prevent the farmers in adopting indigenous farming practices, that include poor yield, poor marketing facilities, higher production cost and urbanization

  10. Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Rowan A. Rowntree; E. Gregory McPherson; Susan M. Sisinni; Esther R. Kirkmann; Jack C. Stevens

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of city tree cover can aid in urban vegetation planning, management, and research by revealing characteristics of vegetation across a city. Urban tree cover in the United States ranges from 0.4% in Lancaster, California, to 55% in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two important factors that affect the amount of urban tree cover are the natural environment and land...

  11. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro

    2016-01-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals...... that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m3. This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce....

  12. Identical assemblage of Giardia duodenalis in humans, animals and vegetables in an urban area in southern Brazil indicates a relationship among them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Colli

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infects humans and other mammals by ingestion of cysts in contaminated water or food, or directly in environments with poor hygiene. Eight assemblages, designated A-H, are described for this species.We investigated by microscopy or by direct immunofluorescence technique the occurrence of G. duodenalis in 380 humans, 34 animals, 44 samples of water and 11 of vegetables. G. duodenalis cysts present in samples were genotyped through PCR-RFLP of β giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh genes and sequencing of gdh. The gdh gene was amplified in 76.5% (26/34 of the human faeces samples with positive microscopy and in 2.9% (1/34 of negative samples. In 70.4% (19/27 of the positive samples were found BIV assemblage. In two samples from dogs with positive microscopy and one negative sample, assemblages BIV, C, and D were found. Cysts of Giardia were not detected in water samples, but three samples used for vegetable irrigation showed total coliforms above the allowed limit, and Escherichia coli was observed in one sample. G. duodenalis BIV was detected in two samples of Lactuca sativa irrigated with this sample of water. BIV was a common genotype, with 100% similarity, between different sources or hosts (humans, animals and vegetables, and the one most often found in humans.This is the first study in Brazil that reports the connection among humans, dogs and vegetables in the transmission dynamics of G. duodenalis in the same geographic area finding identical assemblage. BIV assemblage was the most frequently observed among these different links in the epidemiological chain.

  13. Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Government clean-up activities and monitoring of waste disposal is ...

  14. Farm Management: rethinking directions?

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2004-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However has the study of Farm Management within Australia made significant contributions to agriculture or lagged in the background. Is it contributing to better Farm Management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leadin...

  15. Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga

    2016-01-01

    La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly

  16. Green infrastructure and urban sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagishima, Aya

    2018-02-01

    Temperature increase in urban areas due to the urban heat island as well as the global climate change inevitably raises the peak load supply for space cooling as well as the risk of heat-related illness in hot climate. This paper provides the comprehensive review of the thermal mitigation effect of urban vegetation based on the field observations.

  17. Mississippi's Farming & Nonfarming Population: A Comparison of Characteristics and Trends, 1950 to 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ellen S.

    Trends and changes in Mississippi farms, farmers, and farm populations were investigated for the period between 1950 and 1970 and comparisons were made between the farm population and that of the urban and rural nonfarm segments in terms of growth trends and 1970 characteristics. Data were drawn from both the Censuses of Agriculture (taken at five…

  18. Potentials of Urban Agriculture in Reflection of “The Thessaloniki Project - Red and Green”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáczányi Zsuzsanna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact the scene of food production is the rural territory; we are witnessing more and more unusual endeavours for farming in cities, additionally in megalopolises. There are numerous researches on the theme, and the new interest in the local cultivation of fruit and vegetable in cities is becoming an earnest factor in urban life in Western Europe, in the USA, and in the Developing World. At the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AUTh two professors of architecture managed a course for MSc students of architecture and horticulture, with the intend of designing forms of urban agriculture on a fallow area in Thessaloniki, and considering the crisis situation in Greek. With analysing the proposals of “The Thessaloniki project - Red and Green” parallel with various realized urban agriculture projects I emphasise the force and necessity of the generation of a community

  19. Agriculture in Urban Planning

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7.1 Water quality index based on Class III stipulated by the Peruvian law for vegetable ... Others continue to be advocates in the NGO sector and with community-based organizations. .... It supplies food to the city and income to those who farm. .... Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) in the 1980s led to widespread ...

  20. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Keith H. Nislow; David J. Nowak; Stephen DeStefano; David I. King; D. Todd. Jones-Farrand

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat...

  1. Influence of vegetation in the energetic balance outdoor urban spaces: Analysis and evaluation of its microclimatic effect; Influencia de la vegetacion en el balance energetico de los espacios exteriores urbanos: Analisis y evaluacion de sus efectos microclimaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, J. Manuel [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Roset, Jaume [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We present design guidelines to detect and to control the energy fluxes within and urban space. The main purpose is to create outdoor spaces with appropriate comfort conditions and to improve energy efficiency of adjacent buildings, by modifying its surrounding areas, approaching outdoor environment to the desired indoor conditions. The design guidelines as well as the concepts developed on this paper are explained in a language familiar to architects, urban planners and landscape designers, which have to take energetic and bioclimatic decisions up the first stage of a project process. A case study analysis of an urban scenery is presented, and conclusions about the advantage of using the vegetation as an instrument of microclimatic control are given. [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan pautas de diseno, que estan encaminadas, a saber detectar y en caso necesario reconducir, los flujos de energia dentro del espacio urbano. El proposito es crear espacios exteriores, con condiciones de confort ambiental, adecuadas a los usuarios de dicho espacio y por otro lado, mejorar la eficiencia energetica de los edificios, al modificar su entorno inmediato. Tanto las pautas de diseno, como los conceptos desarrollados en este trabajo, estan explicados con un discurso orientado al lenguaje de los profesionales dedicados al diseno urbano, arquitectonico y del paisaje, que son quienes deben hacer las consideraciones energeticas y bioclimaticas, desde las primeras etapas de un proyecto. Finalmente se presenta el ejemplo de un escenario urbano, donde se han realizado mediciones de los parametros climaticos, analizando cualitativa y cuantitativamente la influencia de la vegetacion y otros elementos del paisaje urbano sobre el microclima, y se dan conclusiones sobre la conveniencia de utilizar la vegetacion como un instrumento para el control microclimatico en los espacios exteriores urbanos.

  2. Development of a community-sensitive strategy to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in Nashville's urban food deserts, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Celia; Haushalter, Alisa; Buck, Tracy; Campbell, David; Henderson, Trevor; Schlundt, David

    2013-07-25

    Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee. We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville's food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy. Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies. Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies. Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores.

  3. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, S

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice.

  4. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice. (author)

  5. Siting Urban Agriculture as a Green Infrastructure Strategy for Land Use Planning in Austin, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Rogers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure refers to a type of land use design that mimics the natural water cycle by using the infiltration capacities of vegetation, soils, and other natural processes to mitigate stormwater runoff. As a multifunctional landscape, urban agriculture should be seen as a highly beneficial tool for urban planning not only because of its ability to function as a green stormwater management strategy, but also due to the multiple social and environmental benefits it provides. In 2012, the city of Austin adopted a major planning approach titled the “Imagine Austin Comprehensive Plan” (IACP outlining the city’s vision for future growth and land use up to 2039. The plan explicitly addresses the adoption of green infrastructure as a target for future land use with urban agriculture as a central component. Addressing this area of land use planning will require tools that can locate suitable areas within the city ideal for the development of green infrastructure. In this study, a process was developed to create a spatially explicit method of siting urban agriculture as a green infrastructure tool in hydrologically sensitive areas, or areas prone to runoff, in east Austin. The method uses geospatial software to spatially analyze open access datasets that include land use, a digital elevation model, and prime farmland soils. Through this method a spatial relationship can be made between areas of high surface runoff and where the priority placement of urban farms should be sited as a useful component of green infrastructure. Planners or geospatial analysts could use such information, along with other significant factors and community input, to aid decision makers in the placement of urban agriculture. This spatially explicit approach for siting potential urban farms, will support the integration of urban agriculture as part of the land use planning of Austin.

  6. Consumer perception and communication on welfare in organic laying hen farming

    OpenAIRE

    Heerkens, Jasper; Tuyttens, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A major reason for increased societal popularity of organic production systems is the growing general discontent with intensive farming practices. However, urbanization leads to limited knowledge of farming and farm animal welfare. Consumers believe organic farming leads to better animal welfare, although most health and welfare issues seen in conventional systems are also found in organic poultry systems. The majority of consumers do not translate attitude and good intention into action, the...

  7. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation.......The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...

  8. 循环经济视角下的城郊规模化养猪可持续发展研究——基于武汉市29家规模化猪场及周边农户的调查%The Sustainable Development of Peri-urban Scale Pig-raising under the Perspectives of Circular Economy——Based on the Survey of 29 Peri-urban Scale Pig Farms and Nearby Households in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥海; 王宇波; 周海川

    2011-01-01

    The pollution status of pig farms in Wuhan was described based on the survey data from 29 intensive pig farms and 145 households around in 2008. And its seriousness was further demonstrated through calculating the environmental carrying capacity of the pig farms. It would be a feasible way to achieve sustainable development in peri-urban scale pig-raising that developing circular economy through medium-sized biogas projects.%利用2008年对武汉市29家规模化猪场及其周边145个农户的调查数据.描述了武汉市规模化猪场环境污染的现状,并通过对猪场环境承栽力的测算,进一步论证了猪场环境污染的严峻现实,提出以大中型沼气工程为栽体发展循环经济,是实现城郊规模化养猪可持续发展的可行途径.

  9. Organic market gardening around the Paris agglomeration: agro-environmental performance and capacity to meet urban requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, Juliette; Medina, Michael Ramos; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-04

    Organic market gardening is often promoted by urban municipalities as a way to resource part of the food supply, creating new social links and protecting groundwater resources. The agronomical and environmental performance of six commercial organic market gardening farms supplying vegetables in Paris were evaluated and compared with other vegetable production systems. When expressed in terms of protein production, the yield of these systems appears rather low compared with the productive capacity of open-field organic cropping systems where vegetable production is inserted into rotation with other crops. Moreover, the requirement of producing infiltrated water meeting the drinking water standards seriously limits the allowable rate of fertilisation, thus limiting production. The data reported herein show that to supply the amount of vegetables required by the Paris agglomeration (12 million inhabitants) only by organic market gardening, 160,000-205,000 ha, i.e. 28-36 % of the agricultural area of the surrounding Ile-de-France region, would be required. We conclude that organic market gardening is only one of several other farming systems which can contribute to a re-localised supply of vegetables to large cities.

  10. A city hooked on urban farming

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    markets. She planted her garden five years ago. No one will hire her at age 55, she says. When her husband, whose work is unsteady, tried to discourage her from gardening on the grounds that she was exposing herself to too much sun, she started to charge him for what they ate and showed him the total after two months.

  11. Comparison of Pasture Vegetation in LFA Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Kecseiová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare pasture vegetation in LFA areas located in two different altitudes. Pasture vegetation sampling was performed 1 month on two different farms (Těšov, Vlčí Jámy. The selected places were marked by three representative places at 10 m2. Dried samples were weighed and chemically analyzed by standard methods ÚKZÚZ.

  12. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  13. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  14. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  15. Evaluation of Technological, Economic and Social Indicators for Different Farming Practices in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Galnaitytė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic and integrated farming practices contribute to protecting biodiversity, reducing environmental pollution, improving soil quality, and providing high-quality raw material for food industry. The objective of the article is to establish the methodology and evaluate the system of indicators, which enables answering the question which farming practice has more advantages: organic or integrated? Multi-criteria analysis methods were used to achieve this objective. When being compared with between conventional and integrated farming practices, organic farming practice achieves higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Organic farming reveals to be either superior, or similar to integrated farming practices in environmental terms. Potatoes, fruits and berries under both conventional and integrated farming practices have obtained the same rank (1–2 according to the selected criterions (yield, share of sold product, expenses on plant protection, production cost, price and labour input. Organic farming practice has shown worse rank. Organic farming practice has appeared to be the most suitable for vegetables.

  16. Rural Livelihoods: Interplay Between Farm Activities, Non-Farm Activities and the Resource Base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; Meijerink, G.W.; Eaton, D.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Despite ongoing urbanization, over 70% of the world's poor are located in rural areas (IFAD 2001). Agriculture plays an important part in their livelihoods. Rural households play a central role in realizing policy objectives. Production decisions at farm household level determine the current

  17. Vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in San Jose, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algert, Susan J; Baameur, Aziz; Renvall, Marian J

    2014-07-01

    Urban dwellers across the United States increasingly access a variety of fresh vegetables through participation in neighborhood-level community gardens. Here we document vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in the city of San Jose, CA, to better understand the capacity of community gardens to affect food affordability in an urban setting. A convenience sample of 83 community gardeners in San Jose completed a background survey during spring and summer 2012. On average, gardeners were aged 57 years and had a monthly income of $4,900; 25% had completed college. A representative subset of 10 gardeners was recruited to weigh vegetable output of their plots using portable electronic scales at three separate garden sites. Accuracy of each portable scale was verified by comparing the weight of a sample vegetable to weights obtained using a lab scale precise to 0.2 oz. Garden yields and cost savings were tabulated overall for each plot. Results indicate that community garden practices are more similar to biointensive high-production farming, producing 0.75 lb vegetables/sq ft, rather than conventional agricultural practices, producing 0.60 lb/sq ft. Gardens produced on average 2.55 lb/plant and saved $435 per plot for the season. Results indicate that cost savings are greatest if vertical high value crops such as tomatoes and peppers are grown in community gardens, although yields depend on growing conditions, gardener's skill, availability of water, and other factors. Future research is needed to document cost savings and yields for specific crops grown in community gardens. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study on the Application of Different Types of Mulches on Some Growth Characteristics of Two Varieties of Tagetes in Mashhad Urban Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pakdel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of four types of mulch including wood chips, municipal compost, sawdust and gravel in three different thicknesses on temperature soil, moisture and growth characteristics of two cultivars of Tagetes (Tagetes patella var Durango Bee and Tagetes erecta var Antigua were examined in Mashhad area with semi-arid climate. The research was conducted as a split plot based on a completely random block design with four replications. Treatments included control (no mulching and four types of mulch including wood chips, municipal compost, sawdust and gravel in three thickness levels (4, 8 and 12 cm. During the study, soil moisture and temperature, total flower number, fresh and dry weight of plant, plant height and fresh weight of root were measured. Sawdust mulch with 12 cm thickness had the highest soil moisture (23.62% and lowest soil temperature (25.01ºC, and led to greater increases in growth characteristics of the two cultivars. In both cultivars, increasing of mulch thickness led to the increased rate of growth. The Antigua cultivar showed a better vegetative growth, smaller flower number, and larger flowers in comparison with Durango Bee cultivar. All mulch types were significantly different from control. Overall, in both cultivars the highest and smallest growth taits were detected in sawdust and control, respectively. It seems that sawdust by preserving soil moisture and reducing drought stress out performs the other mulches in dry and semi-arid areas.

  19. Non - Vegetated Standard Bioretention Structure Hydrodynamic Soil Characterization For Ponding - Layer Optimum Thickness Determination With A Distinctive Urban - Region Rainfall Event In Bogota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Ávila, Frank; Acero Rivero, Germán Eduardo; Angulo Jaramillo, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Aiming to propose a system, in accordance with Best Management Practices (BMP) kind of structures, specifically a standard bioretention system in Bogota city, and in order to apply the inverse solution methodology on Hydrus - 1D, it is mandatory to determine each θ_s; θ_r; α;n and ks parameters in van Genuchten - Mualem function, without considering the hysteresis phenomenon, for a standard bioretention system composing soils, as well as required components and dimensions to implement the bioretention structure in Bogota. First, a bioretention structure general dimensioning was carried out based on current urban landscaping regulations and recommendations given by the sewage - system service provider in Bogota city. Soil composing and design were performed after information gathering and previous investigation on bioretention systems dimensioning from different sources such as manuals. To give an adequate interpretation of the vadose zone, a soil column experimental prototype was built to be able to control and measure the intervening parameters in the subsoil unidimensional flow description, such as capillary pressure, soil water saturation, inflow and outflow. Thirteen sensor - based devices were built to measure the inverse model required parameters. It is important to underline that all the designed instrumentation was based on low cost electronic development. In addition, the whole instrumentation system is controlled by an Arduino Mega PLC and was designed and built as a personal initiative by the author of this work. For signal processing and data capturing, a commercial Lab View version intuitive program was designed, to be able to create a user-friendly interface to make real-time sensor visualisation and control. Finally, all the hydrodynamic characterisation for the studied soils was made through a Hydrus-1D inverse model and laboratory experimenting and obtained results. In addition, several direct models were run in order to determinate both

  20. Quality of Organic Vegetables Grown in Two Certified Sites on the Outskirts of Bucharest Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Lungu Mihaela; Ștefănescu Sorin Liviu; Dumitrașcu Monica

    2017-01-01

    Soil fertility properties, irrigation water quality, mineral nutrition, and some vegetables mineral composition were studied in the frame of a project regarding yield quality monitoring in certified organic vegetable farms, in two farms placed on the outskirts of Bucharest Municipality which provide products for the town’s organic market. Chemical analysis of the soil samples collected from the two farms reflects a good fertility, close to the natural one of this region soils, with well-balan...

  1. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  2. Thi Qar Bee Farm Thi Qar, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    vegetation and fields where bees once gathered pollen and beekeepers face hardships from droughts and lack of financial assistance. 1...of equipment, and provided training to the bee farmers. General topography of the area was flat with vacant or agricultural land extending for a...OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION THI QAR BEE FARM THI QAR, IRAQ SIGIR PA--09--188

  3. Agri-aqua farming in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Buendia, R.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems have been in existence in Thailand for centuries. This country has the most varied integrated farming operations in southeast Asia; pig, cattle, buffalo, chicken, duck, vegetable, aquatic plant, rice and orchard in combination with fish are practices. The systems most preferred by subsistence farmers are rice-fish, duck-fish and chicken-fish culture. A brief outline is given of these 3 systems.

  4. Farming in a fish tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth, H

    1992-01-01

    Water, fish, and vegetables are all things that most developing countries do not have enough of. There is a method of food production called aquaculture that integrates fish and vegetable growing and conserves and purifies water at the same time. A working system that grows vegetables and fish for regional supermarkets in Massachusetts is a gravity fed system. At the top of the system is a 3,000 gallon fish rearing tank that measures 12 feet in diameter. Water trickles out of the tank and fish wastes are captured which can be composted and used in farm fields. The water goes into a bio filter that contains bacteria which convert harmful ammonia generated from fish waste into beneficial nitrate. Then the water flows into 100 foot long hydroponic tanks where lettuce grows. A 1/6 horsepower pump return the purified water to the fish tank and completes the cycle. The key to success is maintaining a balance between the fish nutrients and waste and the plants nutrients and waste. The system is estimated to produce 35,000 heads of lettuce and 2 tons of fish annually which translates into $23,500. The system could be adapted to developing countries with several modifications to reduce the start up cost.

  5. Survey of the Current Status of Weed Control and Herbicide Usage by the Small-Scale Commercial Vegetable Farmers in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mburu, D.N; Drennan, D.S.H

    1999-01-01

    Vegetable production in Kenya is a market that has grown very rapidly in the decade due to increased demand in the local and international markets. This has led to an increase in hectarerage planted to vegetable thus leading in labour shortage due urban migration of potential casual labourers especially the youth. This has resulted to inadequate labour for weed control especially at the critical period. The objectives of this study were to find out the problems encountered by farmers in their bid to control weeds and whether they considered weeds as their major problem. The survey was conducted in Kikuyu, Lari and Kinango divisions where intensive vegetable farming is done by small-scale farmers for commercial purposes. The farmers were randomly selected and interviews conducted in their farms, based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method. The results obtained showed that the farmers who previously relied on manual labour for weed control were increasingly using herbicides for weed control. The adoption of herbicide technology by these small scale farmers was out of their own initiative, either due to labour shortage or because one had a special weed problem that had defied other methods of control.From the information obtained it was clear that locally generated data information on herbicide use by small-scale farmers is seriously lacking for most if not all vegetable crops

  6. The contamination on farm products from 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Xu Shiming; Hou Lanxin

    1990-02-01

    The 125 I contamination on 15 farm products have been investigated. The effects of 12 farm crops (wheat, bean, eggplants and other vegetables) contaminated by 125 I during the growing stage on their fruits and seeds have been studied. The results show that the 125 I radioactive substance is mainly concentrated on the fruit surface, and the radioactivity rapidly decreased towards its kernel. The fruits and seeds would not be contaminated when plants were contaminated in the seedling stage

  7. Vegetation state in the alienation zone after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapegin, L.M.; Dajneko, N.M.; Timofeev, S.F.

    2002-01-01

    Vegetation state within the alienation zone on the territory of formed state farm 'Savichi' of the Bragin region was studied. 9 agroecosystem associations of the Braun-Blanguet system were selected. Their ecological, biological and economic characteristics are given. The research has shown that the content of Sr 90 in vegetative mass of most agroecosystem associations exceeded normative level. (authors)

  8. Economics of Dry Season Vegetable Production by Women Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to analyze the economics of dry season vegetable farming among women farmers in Owerri West local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 50 randomly selected dry season women vegetable farmers. Data were analyzed ...

  9. Organic and conventional vegetables: Comparison of the physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five representative samples of conventional vegetables, certified organic and non-certified organic vegetables were gotten from farms and supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The result shows that the organic carrot showed higher acidity (0.11 g % citric acid) and total sugar (5.68 g %) than those found in standard ...

  10. Comparing Profitability and Efficiency of Resource Use in Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared resource allocation, yield, net farm income and resource use efficiency under private and government controlled vegetable irrigation schemes. Production data covering three vegetable enterprises were collected from 280 respondents. This consisted of 141 from private and 139 from government ...

  11. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  12. Investigating Strategies for Sustainable Vegetable Food Crop System in Three Agro Ecological Zones of the Humid Tropics Area of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    TATA NGOME, Precillia Ijang; AFARI-SEFA, Victor; NTSOMBOH-NTSEFONG, Godswill; OKOLLE, Justin; BILLA, Samuel Fru; MOMA, Crescence; ATEMKENG FONJI, Maureen; NGOME, Ajebesone Francis

    2018-01-01

    Vegetable cultivation remains an essential component of local people’s livelihoods. However, marked trend shifts in the varieties of vegetables due to large-scale commercial vegetable farming of exotic varieties in the broader market economy have resulted in the gradual disappearance of biodiversity involving vital species. The present study examined the situation of vegetable crop farming in three agro-ecological zones of Cameroon. Data were collected from a random sample of 235 respondents ...

  13. Nutrient flows and balances in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems of Kano, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulkadir, A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Agbenin, J.O.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient balances are useful indicators to assess the sustainability of farming systems. This study study investigates inflow and outflow of major nutrients in urban and periurban production systems in Kano, Nigeria. To this end, 16 households representing three different urban and peri-urban (UPA)

  14. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  15. The Transforming Power of Urbanization: Changes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Power of Urbanization: Changes and uncertainties among the Farming. Community in Laga .... production, exchange, conflict, the exercise of power, knowledge production and ..... The Anti- Politics Machine: “Development”, Depoliticization.

  16. Is Farm Management Skill Persistent?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Paulson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Farm management skills can affect farm managers' performance. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) panel data across 6,760 farms from 1996 through 2011. Two out-of-sample measures of skill are used to analyze the ability of farm managers that consistently perform well over yearly and longer time horizons. Persistence tests show management skills are consistent and predictable. Results also suggest that the most ...

  17. Transfer of 137Cs to wild vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Mezawa, Akane; Kawakami, Akira

    1998-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal radiation dose, it is needed to estimate the amount of radionuclide incorporated to human body using a simulation model. 137 Cesium (Cs) is easily transferred associating with food intake as well as potassium and so, Cs is an important nuclide for evaluation of internal radiation. 137 Cs concentrations in wild vegetables are higher than those of cultured vegetables and milk. Therefore, the transfer coefficients of 137 Cs from soil to wild vegetables were estimated in this study. Wild vegetables and soils of their farms were collected in the Hakkoda Mountain range of Aomori Prefecture. The levels of 137 Cs in wild vegetables were 0.42-18.35 (Bq/kg), whereas those in cabbage and spinach were 0.08 and 0.01 (Bq/kg), respectively, indicating that the Cs level is dozens to several hundreds times higher in wild vegetables than cultured ones. And the transfer coefficient was estimated as 0.003-0.94 for the former and 0.001-0.8 for the latter. On the other hand, 1 37 Cs levels of the soils on which wild vegetables grew was 28.0 Bq/kg and it was 3.9 Bq/kg for the farm soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and pH of the soil on the transfer coefficient were studied. (M.N.)

  18. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  19. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  20. Accounting for urban biogenic fluxes in regional carbon budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (R E ) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. INFLUENCIA DE LA VEGETACIÓN EN LOS NIVELES DE RUIDO URBANO INFLUÊNCIA DA VEGETAÇÃO NOS NÍVEIS DE RUÍDO URBANO INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION IN URBAN NOISE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Posada

    2009-12-01

    ção não cumpre um papel significativo na diminuição do ruído. Portanto, para seu controle em zonas urbanas devem tomar-se medidas diferentes à plantação de árvores, ou estabelecer barreiras vivas mais largas, compridas, altas e densas.The objective of the study was to assess the capacity of vegetation to reduce the noise in the Aburrá valley. The methodology comprised two phases: the first was the revision of secondary information related to the role of vegetation and to obtain the conceptual bases for further experimental development. The second phase was the measurement of noise levels 10 m from the sound source (high traffic road in urban public green zones with different plant coverage (tree, shrub, and a mixture of trees and shrubs and without vegetation. Results showed no significant differences between the sites with and without vegetation, allowing us to infer that under conditions of the study, characterized by having few individuals of trees and shrubs dispersed, the vegetation does not play a significant role in reducing noise. Therefore, for its control in urban areas measures other than the planting of trees must be taken, or wider, longer, denser, and higher live barriers should be established.

  2. Landscape composition influences farm management effects on farmland birds in winter: A pan-European approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, F.; Snoo, de G.R.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of agricultural intensity, various farming practices, landscape composition and vegetation cover on the abundance and species richness of wintering farmland birds, assessed simultaneously across seven European regions. The abundance and species richness of wintering

  3. Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo. ... Veld management in a game farming situation poses problems due to the ineffectiveness of rotational grazing systems. Simplification of natural ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological

  5. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  6. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  7. 7 CFR 1412.62 - Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting... Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.62 Fruit, vegetable, and wild rice acreage reporting violations. (a)(1) If an acreage report of fruits, vegetables, or wild rice planted on base acreage of a farm...

  8. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations Is Associated with Acculturation among Latino Farm Workers12

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, Susana L.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Schenker, Marc B.

    2013-01-01

    We examined adherence to dietary recommendations on fruit/vegetable and fat intake and identified correlates with acculturation indicators as well as with family, lifestyle, and occupational factors in a farm worker cohort in central California. Interviewer-administered questionnaires for this cross-sectional study were completed from January 2006 to April 2007. Participants were 18- to 55-y-old Latinos living in Mendota in a farm worker household. We assessed fruit/vegetable consumption and ...

  9. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  10. The use of town refuse ash in urban agriculture around Jos, Nigeria: health and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, M W

    2006-01-15

    This paper reports on a study that examines the health and environmental risks of using town refuse ash in urban vegetable production in Jos, Nigeria, in terms of heavy metal accumulation in the food chain. Soil and crop samples, collected from five study farms, and samples of the river water used for irrigation, were analysed for seven heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. On the basis of the field data the paper discusses: (1) the potential soil deficiencies and toxicities; (2) the probable links between soil heavy metal levels and fertilisation practices; (3) the heavy metal concentrations in crop tissue in relation to crop growth and human health. The findings suggest that soil concentrations of the seven metals fall within 'typical' soil levels, and that there should not be any problems of either toxicities or deficiencies for crop growth. There was evidence of slight accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd on some of the farms with a history of town refuse ash use. However, in all farms lettuce crops contained very large concentrations of Fe, and Pb concentrations that were 20 to 40 times higher than the WHO/FAO maximum recommended level in leafy vegetables for human consumption. The Cd content of carrot tissue was 10 times higher than the WHO/FAO recommended limit. The relatively small number of soil and crop samples precluded any formal attempt at correlating the concentrations of heavy metals found in the vegetable crops with the farm levels. Nevertheless, the data suggested that these were not linked. The paper goes on to consider various potential sources of the metals found in the crops, including irrigation water, town refuse ash and air-borne dust, and discusses additional health and environmental risks pertaining to the use of town refuse ash. Undoubtedly, the heavy Pb and Cd contamination of certain crops indicates the urgent need for future studies to ascertain the precise source of these metals, and although the practice of using town refuse ash does

  11. Diversity, knowledge and use of leafy vegetables in northern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Vilkamaa, Anna M.; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    More than half of the world’s population is now living in urban areas, yet little is known on the transmission of traditional plant knowledge during urbanisation. This study assesses the diversity of leafy vegetables in urban markets and the current level of knowledge and use in Chiang Mai Province...... of Chiang Mai city. The residents participated in a knowledge test using photographs of six species widely used in dishes and six species specific to traditional homemade dishes. The diversity of leafy vegetables in urban areas of Chiang Mai Province has remained the same in the past decade. Leafy vegetable...

  12. Risk perception and management in smallholder dairy farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, K.; Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies on smallholder dairy farmers' risk perceptions and management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research of developing countries. This study focuses on farmers' risk perception and management strategies of smallholder dairy farms in urban and

  13. Modelling the smart farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. O'Grady

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart farming envisages the harnessing of Information and Communication Technologies as an enabler of more efficient, productive, and profitable farming enterprises. Such technologies do not suffice on their own; rather they must be judiciously combined to deliver meaningful information in near real-time. Decision-support tools incorporating models of disparate farming activities, either on their own or in combination with other models, offer one popular approach; exemplars include GPFARM, APSIM, GRAZPLAN amongst many others. Such models tend to be generic in nature and their adoption by individual farmers is minimal. Smart technologies offer an opportunity to remedy this situation; farm-specific models that can reflect near real-time events become tractable using such technologies. Research on the development, and application of farm-specific models is at a very early stage. This paper thus presents an overview of models within the farming enterprise; it then reviews the state-of the art in smart technologies that promise to enable a new generation of enterprise-specific models that will underpin future smart farming enterprises.

  14. Study of Concentrations and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Resulting From the Consumption of Agriculture Product in Different Farms of Dayyer City, Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Arfaeinia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of heavy metals and increasing their concentration and reaching them to the danger range can threaten human health by entering to food chain. Thus, continuous monitoring of pollutants consentration in agricultural products is important. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the heavy metals concentration and risk assessment resulting from them in agriculture product with two types of irrigation in farms of Dayyer city which is one of the counties in Boushehr province. Material and Methods: Samples of agriculture product were harvested in three in three categories vegetables included: leafy (lettuce, spinach, cabbage, tuber (onion, potato, and fruit (tomato, green pepper from farms of Dayyer city with two types of irrigation included River Water Irrigation (RWI( and Ground Water Irrigation (GWI. Totally 320 samples were analyzed by using (ICP-OES -Spectrum Arcos after acidic digestion steps and extraction of heavy metals from samples. Then, the obtained results were analyzed by diffrent equations and statistic softwares. Results: results showed that the concentrations of metals were 68.75 (47.71, 277.62 (196.12, 32.68 (18.31, 42.19 (17.09, 1.76 (0.87 and 12.04 (5.83 mg kg-1 for Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb in RWI (and GWI, respectively in irrigated farms with river water (farms irrigated by ground water. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher in the soil of farms which irrigated with river water than those which irrigated with ground water (P<0.05. Also, results showed that in farms which irrigated by ground water, the highest Target hazard quotient (THQ have been reported in spinach with mentioned values; Zn (0.1150, Cd (1.2846, Cu (0.2030 and Pb (1.9141. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the concentration of heavy metals in soil and agricultural products which irrigated with contaminated water with urban and industrial sewage was higher than soil and agricultural productswhich

  15. O PAPEL DA COBERTURA VEGETAL NOS AMBIENTES URBANOS E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA QUALIDADE DE VIDA NAS CIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíse Ernestina Prestes Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HE ROLE OF VEGETATION IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN CITIES This study aimed to understand the benefits of the vegetation cover for the quality of urban life, setting as this quality is measured and, reflecting on the handling of the native vegetation in the process of formation and expansion of urban spaces. This study also sought, address aspects of urban vegetation in Rondonópolis – MT, while a medium-sized municipality, which experiences a process of accelerated growth from the 1970s to understand the influence of vegetation on the quality of life in cities and its function in urban environments, this study proposes a critical reflection on the role of vegetation in urban ecosystems, through a narrative review based on scientific articles, books, theses and dissertations on the subject. This narrative review addressed the urban ecosystems against the intense urban growth and its consequent deterioration of environmental quality provided the urban population. Thus, this narrative review has allowed a better understanding of the influence of vegetation on the quality of life in cities, establishing the vegetation exerts specific ecosystem functions, which in large part, are completely ignored by urban planning. Still, the analysis of local studies on the vegetation cover in Rondonópolis allowed understand how this city booming, organizes and maintains the vegetation in its urban space.

  16. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  17. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    : the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  18. Social-geographic approaches to application of economic-mathematical modeling in predicting the place of Ukrainian farming economies in food market commoditization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Rudenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social-geographic analysis of farmery with application of economic-mathematical modeling allowed for prediction of farming economies’ role in food market commoditization. The equation of potential demand was suggested. Actual consumption and its recommended rates with respect to meat and meat products, milk and milk products, eggs, fish and fish products, bread and cereal products, potatoes, vegetables, fruits and berries, etc, were compared. Cartographic model of Ukrainian domestic food market’s potential capacity (within good-money relations was developed. The low level of purchasing power, especially in rural population, makes a high percentage of foodstuffs be beyond the goods-money relations. In rural areas, they (inclusive of farmers produce and consume a significant portion of foodstuffs that escaped the goods-money relations, or such foodstuffs were given to them by the relatives. We regard that in the process of assessment of the capacity of domestic food market, this share of products should also be taken into account. The assessment also necessitates consideration of the number of urban and rural population in Ukrainian regions; manufacturing of certain types of agricultural production; needs in this or that type of product as prescribed by minimal and rational consumption rates. When predicting, with the use of economic-mathematical modeling, the places of farming economies in commoditization of food market, it is reasonable to apply the parameters of time series of the number of farming economies and the areas of lands used by them with consideration of the dynamics of population number and the level of its (population self-provision with agricultural production. Application of predictive linear models shows that the share of production manufactured by farming economies will be most essential before 2020 on the market of potatoes and vegetables (reaching 15 %. Despite the predicted double increase in animal production, its share

  19. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, NN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research were : 1) to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2) to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3) to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4) to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performe...

  20. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, tools and ... inspection and maintenance can help prevent accidents. Using safety gloves, goggles and other protective equipment can also ...

  1. Farm-made aquafeeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    New, Michael B; Tacon, Albert G. J; Csavas, I

    1995-01-01

    .... Five other working papers are on economics, the selection of equipment, feed ingredients, formulation and on-farm management and supplementary feeding in semi-intensive aquaculture, all directed...

  2. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  3. Urban Agriculture, Commons and Urban Policies: Scaling up Local Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mancebo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available May urban agriculture be the cornerstone that helps reconfigure more sustainable cities and if so, under which conditions? And if so, what type of urban agriculture? Such are the two issues underlying this article. Why not counteracting urban sprawl by fostering what could be called “rural sprawl”, by introducing nature and rural characteristics such as farming within the city, in its interstitial areas and wastelands? In this perspective, urban agriculture becomes a common good, bringing people together and reshaping the whole urban fabric that would eventually propose a radical remaking of the urban. Urban agriculture lends particularly well to long-lasting urban policies, especially those turning environmental “bads”—such as brownfields and wastelands—into environmental “goods” and urban amenities. Urban agriculture in interstitial abandoned urban areas may be one of cities’ main seedbeds of creative innovation. It is all about the right to decide and the power to create, renewing and deepening what Henri Lefebvre called The Right to the City.

  4. Post-Disaster Food and Nutrition from Urban Agriculture: A Self-Sufficiency Analysis of Nerima Ward, Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Giles Bruno; Sekiyama, Makiko; Terada, Toru; Yokohari, Makoto

    2017-07-10

    Background : Post-earthquake studies from around the world have reported that survivors relying on emergency food for prolonged periods of time experienced several dietary related health problems. The present study aimed to quantify the potential nutrient production of urban agricultural vegetables and the resulting nutritional self-sufficiency throughout the year for mitigating post-disaster situations. Methods : We estimated the vegetable production of urban agriculture throughout the year. Two methods were developed to capture the production from professional and hobby farms: Method I utilized secondary governmental data on agricultural production from professional farms, and Method II was based on a supplementary spatial analysis to estimate the production from hobby farms. Next, the weight of produced vegetables [t] was converted into nutrients [kg]. Furthermore, the self-sufficiency by nutrient and time of year was estimated by incorporating the reference consumption of vegetables [kg], recommended dietary allowance of nutrients per capita [mg], and population statistics. The research was conducted in Nerima, the second most populous ward of Tokyo's 23 special wards. Self-sufficiency rates were calculated with the registered residents. Results : The estimated total vegetable production of 5660 tons was equivalent to a weight-based self-sufficiency rate of 6.18%. The average nutritional self-sufficiencies of Methods I and II were 2.48% and 0.38%, respectively, resulting in an aggregated average of 2.86%. Fluctuations throughout the year were observed according to the harvest seasons of the available crops. Vitamin K (6.15%) had the highest self-sufficiency of selected nutrients, while calcium had the lowest (0.96%). Conclusions : This study suggests that depending on the time of year, urban agriculture has the potential to contribute nutrients to diets during post-disaster situations as disaster preparedness food. Emergency responses should be targeted

  5. Post-Disaster Food and Nutrition from Urban Agriculture: A Self-Sufficiency Analysis of Nerima Ward, Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Bruno Sioen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-earthquake studies from around the world have reported that survivors relying on emergency food for prolonged periods of time experienced several dietary related health problems. The present study aimed to quantify the potential nutrient production of urban agricultural vegetables and the resulting nutritional self-sufficiency throughout the year for mitigating post-disaster situations. Methods: We estimated the vegetable production of urban agriculture throughout the year. Two methods were developed to capture the production from professional and hobby farms: Method I utilized secondary governmental data on agricultural production from professional farms, and Method II was based on a supplementary spatial analysis to estimate the production from hobby farms. Next, the weight of produced vegetables [t] was converted into nutrients [kg]. Furthermore, the self-sufficiency by nutrient and time of year was estimated by incorporating the reference consumption of vegetables [kg], recommended dietary allowance of nutrients per capita [mg], and population statistics. The research was conducted in Nerima, the second most populous ward of Tokyo’s 23 special wards. Self-sufficiency rates were calculated with the registered residents. Results: The estimated total vegetable production of 5660 tons was equivalent to a weight-based self-sufficiency rate of 6.18%. The average nutritional self-sufficiencies of Methods I and II were 2.48% and 0.38%, respectively, resulting in an aggregated average of 2.86%. Fluctuations throughout the year were observed according to the harvest seasons of the available crops. Vitamin K (6.15% had the highest self-sufficiency of selected nutrients, while calcium had the lowest (0.96%. Conclusions: This study suggests that depending on the time of year, urban agriculture has the potential to contribute nutrients to diets during post-disaster situations as disaster preparedness food. Emergency responses should be

  6. Occurrence and bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants in lettuce grown in peri-urban horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2018-05-14

    Peri-urban horticulture performs environmental and socio-economic functions and provides ecological services to nearby urban areas. Nevertheless, industrialization and water pollution have led to an increase in the exposure of peri-urban vegetables to contaminants such as trace elements (TEs) and organic microcontaminants (OMCs). In this study, the occurrence of chemical contaminants (i.e., 16 TEs, 33 OMCs) in soil and lettuce leaves from 4 farm fields in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona was assessed. A rural site, outside the peri-urban area of influence, was selected for comparison. The concentration of TEs and OMCs ranged from non-detectable to 803 mg/kg dw and from non-detectable to 397 μg/kg dw respectively in the peri-urban soil, and from 6 · 10 -5 to 4.91 mg/kg fw and from non-detectable to 193 μg/kg fw respectively in lettuce leaves. Although the concentration of Mo, Ni, Pb, and As in the soil of the peri-urban area exceeded the environmental quality guidelines, their occurrence in lettuce complied with human food standards (except for Pb). The many fungicides (carbendazim, dimetomorph, and methylparaben) and chemicals released by plastic pipelines (tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate, bisphenol F, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) used in agriculture were prevalent in the soil and the edible parts of the lettuce. The occurrence of these chemical pollutants in the peri-urban area did not affect the chlorophyll, lipid, or carbohydrate content of the lettuce leaves. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that soil pollution, fungicide application, and irrigation water quality are the most relevant factors determining the presence of contaminants in crops. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Security and Productivity among Urban Farmers in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food Security and Productivity among Urban Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v22i1.15. Saleh, M.K. ... increase income of urban farmers in the area. Keywords: Food security, urban agricultural productivity, farming household. ..... Access to Bank loans. 8. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial and ...

  8. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind the DWMm......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... the DWMmodel is to model the in- stationary wind farm flow characteristics by considering wind turbine wakes as passive tracers continuously emitted from the wind farm turbines each with a downstream transport pro- cess dictated by large scale turbulent eddies (lateral and ver- tical transportation; i.......e. meandering) and Taylor advection. For the present purpose, the DWM model has been im- plemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2 [1], and the per- formance of the resulting model complex is mainly verified by comparing simulated and measured loads for the Dutch off-shore Egmond aan Zee wind farm [2]. This farm...

  9. Summary of Data Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Horne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO.

  10. Wind farms and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkesteijn, L.; Havinga, R.; Benner, J.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The siting of wind farms is becoming an increasingly important issue in the Netherlands. This paper gives an overview of the current situation concerning the planning of wind farms. We will pay attention to: Wind energy in official Dutch planning policy. To select the optimal sites, the government has made an administrative agreement with the 7 windy provinces. Nevertheless, wind energy is still fighting for a rightful position in physical planning policy. Some examples will illustrate this. Studies on siting and siting problems in the Netherlands. In order to gain more insight into aspects of wind farming several studies have been executed. In this paper special attention will be paid to the results of a study on the potential impact of large windturbine clusters on an existing agricutural area. Experiences with siting of wind farms in the Netherlands. Based on experiences with the planning and realization of farms, this paper gives the main problems. In the final part of the paper we present some general conclusions. Generally speaking, the knowledge is available for selecting optimal sites in the Netherlands. The basic problems for wind farming nowadays seem to be the visual impact and actually obtaining the ground. Nevertheless, there do seem to be enough sites for realizing the goals in the Netherlands. (au)

  11. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  12. An integrated approach to assess the dynamics of a peri-urban watershed influenced by wastewater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Jampani; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Pavelic, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In many urban and peri-urban areas of India, wastewater is under-recognized as a major water resource. Wastewater irrigated agriculture provides direct benefits for the livelihoods and food security of many smallholder farmers. A rapidly urbanizing peri-urban micro-watershed (270 ha) in Hyderabad was assessed over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2010 for changes in land use and associated farming practices, farmer perceptions, socio-economic evaluation, land-use suitability for agriculture and challenges in potential irrigated area development towards wastewater use. This integrated approach showed that the change in the total irrigated area was marginal over the decade, whereas the built-up area within the watershed boundaries doubled and there was a distinct shift in cropping patterns from paddy rice to paragrass and leafy vegetables. Local irrigation supplies were sourced mainly from canal supplies, which accounted for three-quarters of the water used and was largely derived from wastewater. The remainder was groundwater from shallow hard-rock aquifers. Farmer perception was that the high nutrient content of the wastewater was of value, although they were also interested to pay modest amounts for additional pre-treatment. The shift in land use towards paragrass and leafy vegetables was attributed to increased profitability due to the high urban demand. The unutilised scrubland within the watershed has the potential for irrigation development, but the major constraints appear to be unavailability of labour and high land values rather than water availability. The study provides evidence to support the view that the opportunistic use of wastewater and irrigation practices, in general, will continue even under highly evolving peri-urban conditions, to meet the livelihood needs of the poor driven by market demands, as urban sprawl expands into cultivable rural hinterlands. Policy support is needed for enhanced recognition of wastewater for agriculture, with flow

  13. Importance of bee pollination for cotton production in conventional and organic farms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of wild bee and feral honeybee visits for cotton production on conventional and organic farms. Experiments were conducted in Brazil, on a conventional cotton farm in Mato Grosso state in the Amazon biome and on an organic farm in Paraíba state in the Caatinga biome. On the conventional farm, bee assemblage and cotton production were measured near to and far from natural vegetation. Bee richness, fibre fraction, seed number and yield (Kg/ha were higher by 57.14, 1.95, 17.77 and 18.44% respectively in plots near natural vegetation, but bee abundance did not vary with distance to natural vegetation. On the organic farm, because the cropping area is surrounded by natural vegetation, pollination deficit was evaluated using an exclusion experiment where cotton production of flowers bagged to prevent bee visitation (spontaneous self-pollination was compared to production of flowers open to bee visitation (open pollination. Open pollinated flowers had higher average boll weight, fibre weight and seed number. Although cotton is not directly dependent on bee pollination, bees increased cotton production on the organic farm by more than 12% for fibre weight and over 17% for seed number. Our data confirm the importance of maintaining communities of pollinators on cotton farms, especially for organic production.

  14. Where is Farm Management Going?

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2003-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However the study of Farm Management within Australia has been limited over recent decades. Is it contributing to better farm management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leading or following? During that time there ha...

  15. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  16. Niche farm fresh products: organic and biodynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    There has been a general increase in demand for ‘organic’ or ‘biodynamic’ produce. As mineral nitrogen fertilizers are prohibited in organic farming, livestock manure often becomes the central fertilizer. Livestock manure is a known potential source of human pathogens, so it can be speculated...... that the observed increase in vegetable-associated foodborne outbreaks of pathogens is linked to its use. Legislation and guidelines vary regarding minimization of contamination risk in relation to use of livestock manure. An assessment of the effect of differences in management between organic and conventional...

  17. FARM PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the strategic and operations aspects of managing a farm. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM panel data across 9,831 farms from 1996 through 2014. The alpha scores (or skill estimates for farm managers are analyzed to determine if most profitable farmers possess specific skills or knowledge against adverse events in a volatile environment. Farms are evaluated under different scenarios of management skill portfolios. Fundamental farm management basics are discussed in this study, including budgeting, production planning, financial analysis, financial management, investment analysis, and control management. We find substantial difference of farm management styles and performance efficiency in management skill portfolios. We also find evidence of most skilled farm managers are more efficient on both revenue side and costs side. The approaches used in this study also allow comparison among farms of different sizes and types. The activities of top farms can be replicated by poorer performers and the study provide a unique way for comparing the farm management styles and ability of most skilled farm managers to that of less skilled ones. The innovative method is framed by comparing business strategies and performance styles in the following aspects: production and operations planning, land management and control, and production costs evaluation. Farm managers will want to consult it as well to improve the effectiveness, objectivity, and success of their decisions.

  18. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  19. The Quiet Rise of Medium-Scale Farms in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Anseeuw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-scale farms have become a major force in Malawi’s agricultural sector. Malawi’s most recent official agricultural survey indicates that these account for over a quarter of all land under cultivation in Malawi. This study explores the causes and multifaceted consequences of the rising importance of medium-scale farms in Malawi. We identify the characteristics and pathways of entry into farming based on surveys of 300 medium-scale farmers undertaken in 2014 in the districts of Mchinji, Kasungu and Lilongwe. The area of land acquired by medium-scale farmers in these three districts is found to have almost doubled between 2000 and 2015. Just over half of the medium-scale farmers represent cases of successful expansion out of small-scale farming status; the other significant proportion of medium-scale farmers are found to be urban-based professionals, entrepreneurs and/or civil servants who acquired land, some very recently, and started farming in mid-life. We also find that a significant portion of the land acquired by medium-scale farmers was utilized by others prior to acquisition, that most of the acquired land was under customary tenure, and that the current owners were often successful in transferring the ownership structure of the acquired land to a long-term leaseholding with a title deed. The study finds that, instead of just strong endogenous growth of small-scale famers as a route for the emergence of medium-scale farms, significant farm consolidation is occurring through land acquisitions, often by urban-based people. The effects of farmland acquisitions by domestic investors on the country’s primary development goals, such as food security, poverty reduction and employment, are not yet clear, though some trends appear to be emerging. We consider future research questions that may more fully shed light on the implications of policies that would continue to promote land acquisitions by medium-scale farms.

  20. Nutrient flows in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems in three West African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulkadir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Sustainability, CATPCA, two-step cluster analysis, farm types, nutrient balances, West Africa, gross margin, NUTMON/MONQI.

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is defined as the cultivation of crops and keeping livestock within and around cities. In addition to providing the

  1. Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Although satellite data are very useful for analysis of the urban heat island effect at a coarse scale, they do not lend themselves to developing a better understanding of which surfaces across the city contribute or drive the development of the urban heat island effect. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., less than 15 m) to adequately resolve these surfaces and their attendant thermal energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace the benefits of the urban forest. These benefits include mitigating the urban heat island effect, making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and aid in overall cooling of the community. High spatial resolution thermal data are required to quantify how artificial surfaces within the city contribute to an increase in urban heating and the benefit of cool surfaces (e.g., surface coatings that reflect much of the incoming solar radiation as opposed to absorbing it thereby lowering urban temperatures). The TRN (thermal response number) is a technique using aircraft remotely sensed surface temperatures to quantify the thermal response of urban surfaces. The TRN was used to quantify the thermal response of various urban surface types ranging from completely vegetated surfaces to asphalt and concrete parking lots for Huntsville, AL.

  2. The Vertical Farm: A Review of Developments and Implications for the Vertical City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the emerging need for vertical farms by examining issues related to food security, urban population growth, farmland shortages, “food miles”, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Urban planners and agricultural leaders have argued that cities will need to produce food internally to respond to demand by increasing population and to avoid paralyzing congestion, harmful pollution, and unaffordable food prices. The paper examines urban agriculture as a solution to these problems by merging food production and consumption in one place, with the vertical farm being suitable for urban areas where available land is limited and expensive. Luckily, recent advances in greenhouse technologies such as hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics have provided a promising future to the vertical farm concept. These high-tech systems represent a paradigm shift in farming and food production and offer suitable and efficient methods for city farming by minimizing maintenance and maximizing yield. Upon reviewing these technologies and examining project prototypes, we find that these efforts may plant the seeds for the realization of the vertical farm. The paper, however, closes by speculating about the consequences, advantages, and disadvantages of the vertical farm’s implementation. Economic feasibility, codes, regulations, and a lack of expertise remain major obstacles in the path to implementing the vertical farm.

  3. The possibility to reconcile the conflict between the preservation of synanthropic vegetation and the development of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impoverishment of synanthropic vegetation has been observed in Polish cities for at least half a century. It relates to both the decrease in the area of its occurrence and reduction in species diversity. This is associated with changes in land development, a faster construction process, and an increasingly smaller area of wasteland as well as with the fact that agricultural land and farm buildings are found in cities less and less frequently. Municipal management has been modernised and rubbish, soil or rubble dumps are encountered less often. Besides, the aesthetics adopted by modern man does not allow for the existence of spontaneous vegetation, since in an ordered world such great freedom and liberty are not accepted. Nevertheless, synanthropic flora is one of elements of greenery co-creating a unique urban ecosystem. It increases species richness, improves the climate, and contributes to a reduction in pollution and noise. The present paper highlights difficulties related to the preservation of this flora in cities, and a concept is presented how to introduce it into urban green spaces. Different forms of green spaces are presented in the case of which it is possible to use synanthropic plants, e.g.: ecological lawns and flower meadows, extensive roof gardens, and ecological parks.

  4. Utilization of Yard for Vegetable Hydroponics in Serut Village, Panti Sub-District, Jember District

    OpenAIRE

    dewanti, parawita

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables as a horticultural product is a food source that is always consumed by humans daily, including in urban areas. Assorted Vegetables can be eaten raw or processed and it takes as a decoration on the food. Needs vegetables including lettuce, green pakcoy and other vegetables from day to day continues to increase. Therefore, it needs supply of vegetables from the area around the town of Jember including Serut Village, District Panti Sub-District, Jember District. Serut village has the ...

  5. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  6. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...... together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen....

  7. Wind farm policy 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    Argyll and Bute District Council, having received a number of planning applications for the erection of wind farms, seeks, in this document, to set out its environmental policy on these installations in line with national government guidelines and those from Strathclyde Regional Council. District Council policy on thirteen environmental issues connected with wind farm construction is set out, covering issues such as environmental impacts on wild-life, noise pollution, access for construction, maintenance and decommissioning vehicles as well as planning consent issues. Recommendations are made to four interested bodies, Strathclyde Regional Council, the Forestry Authority and Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. (UK)

  8. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  9. Internalisation of microbes in vegetables: microbial load of Ghanaian vegetables and the relationship with different water sources of irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Eric S; Lanyo, R; Kayang, Boniface B; Quaye, Jonathan; Edoh, Dominic A

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of pathogens in the internal parts of vegetables is usually associated with irrigation water or contaminated soil and could pose risk to consumers as the internalised pathogens are unaffected by external washing. This study was carried out to assess the rate of internalisation of microbes in common Ghanaian vegetables. Standard microbiological methods were employed in microbial enumeration of vegetables collected at the market and farm levels, as well as irrigation water and soil samples. The overall mean counts of vegetables were 4.0 x 10(3) cfu g(-1); 8.1 x 10(2) cfu g(-1); 2.0 x 10(2) cfu g(-1); 3.5 x 10(2) cfu g(-1) for total bacteria, coliform counts, faecal coliform counts and yeast counts, respectively. The rate of internalisation of coliforms in vegetables irrigated with stream/well water was 2.7 times higher than those irrigated with pipe water. The mean coliform counts (4.7 x 10(7) cfu g(-1)) and faecal coliform counts (1.8 x 10(6) cfu g(-1)) of soil samples were similar to those of stream water suggesting both sources exerted similar contamination rates on the vegetables. Generally, there were no significant variations between the rates of internalisation of microbes at the market and farm levels at p vegetables mainly occurred at the farm level. The study has shown that microbial contamination of vegetables in Ghana is not limited to the external surface, but internal vegetable parts could harbour high microbial loads and pose risk to consumers. Safety practices associated with the commodity should therefore not be limited to external washing only. There is the additional need of heating vegetables to eliminate microbes both externally and internally before consumption.

  10. Farm production performance in Russian regions: farm panel data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.

    2003-01-01

    The Russian agricultural sector has experienced many problems since the beginning of the 1990s that resulted in a fall in farm output. Employing a production function approach and, unlike other studies, farm-level data on more than 20,000 Russian large-scale farms for the period 1995-2000, this

  11. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  12. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  13. Food Security Attainment Role of Urban Agriculture: A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The information indicated in Adama Master Plan (1995) reveals that the mean annual .... 'access' marks the ability of a household to get command over. '... enough supply of ..... practices, resource utilization and management of urban farming.

  14. School farming for school feeding: experiences from Nakuru, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Foeken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available School feeding is an important development tool and is related to at least three Millennium Development Goals. School farming has been largely overlooked in the urban agriculture literature but with many parents nowadays unable to afford school lunches for their children, it can play a vital role in reducing the costs involved in providing nutritional meals for pupils. This paper examines school farming in an urban setting, namely Nakuru town, Kenya and looks at the current practice, the extent to which school farming contributes to school feeding programs, and the challenges it faces and how these can be overcome. Based on a survey done in almost all primary and secondary schools in Nakuru, it shows that school farming and school feeding are now common practice in the town and that in many cases school farming does indeed contribute to school feeding programs. However, much more is possible and the paper indicates how various constraints in terms of land, water, support and leadership might be overcome.

  15. The geography of urban agriculture: New trends and challenges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duží, Barbora; Frantál, Bohumil; Rojo, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 130-138 ISSN 1210-8812 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 642372 - INSPIRATION Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : urban agriculture * peri-urban agriculture * food production * urban farming * food gardening Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Urban studies (planning and development) Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2016 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMGRClanky/2017_3_DUZI.pdf

  16. Urban food self-reliance: significance and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, L J

    1993-10-01

    This news account provides coverage of the satisfaction of urban food needs when retail costs are prohibitively high in developing countries. This account reports that 50-80% of average income is spent on food in nearly 50% of developing country's largest cities. Surveys conducted during the late 1980s confirm a range of 60-80% of income for expenditures on food. Surveys reveal that urban food costs are 10-30% higher than costs for rural dwellers. Urban household food production is a practice that has been around since the times of the Aztecs, the Incas, and Mayan cities. Reports survive of the Javanese and city dwellers along the Tigris and Euphrates producing their own food. Asian policy makers promote urban food production as critical to urban survival. Other factors influence urban food production. These factors include rapid urbanization, ineffective agricultural policies, inadequate food distribution systems, withdrawal of subsidies, reduction of wages, inflation, unemployment, lax urban regulations, civil strife, and drought. Government agencies are sometimes obstacles in outlawing the practice. Recent support for urban agriculture includes ten Asian, six African, and six Latin American countries. The number of urban farm workers is reported as 200 million worldwide. 700 million receive the benefits of urban agriculture. 25% of urban households in the US were engaged in urban food production during the 1980s. Better information, such as in comparative and longitudinal studies, is needed on urban poverty and the links between nutrition, income, employment, waste, and environmental issues. If cost-benefit analysis research finds a positive impact, then urban planners may need to incorporate city farming into conventional land use. The value of city farming needs to be assessed. Street food vending is an important source of income, particularly for women. Urban farming requires efficiency of space and knowledge of advances in technology and planning.

  17. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  18. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  19. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  20. Farming the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  1. Production Farms at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, M.; Rinaldo, F.; Wolbers, S.

    1994-05-01

    UNIX Farms at Fermilab have been used for more than than three years to solve the problem of providing massive amounts of CPU processing power for event reconstruction. System configurations, parallel processing software, administration and allocation issues, production issues and other experiences and plans are discussed

  2. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  3. The wind farm business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, T.

    1995-01-01

    This article highlights the tasks to be undertaken by the wind farm business starting with the initial site selection, through the planning stage and the consideration of technical matters, to the implementation and financial aspects. The current situation in the UK with regard to installed wind turbines, public attitude, and future prospects are discussed. (UK)

  4. Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. Research studies from many cities have documented these effects range from decreases in air quality, increased energy consumption and alteration of regional climate to direct effects on human health.

  5. Training Needs of Farm Women Towards Entrepreneurial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatesan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study revealed that majority (45.83% of the Farm women had medium training need and 30.83 per cent of them had high training need in case of homestead vegetable production. In term of training need in nursery establishment, about 45.00 per cent of the Farm women fell under medium training need category while 35.00 per cent of them fell under high training need category. As regards to their training needs in livestock & poultry rearing, the majority (49.17% of the Farm women had high training needs compared to 35.00 per cent of them having medium training needs. A big share (40.83% of the Farm women had high training needs in food processing, while 33.33 per cent of them had medium training needs. Farmers’ education, farm size, annual income, organizational participation and agricultural knowledge showed negative significant correlation, while fatalism had significant positive association with the training needs. The major problems faced by the Farm women in carrying out their EDPs were: lack of capital/credit, lack of irrigation water, lack of land, lack of knowledge about insect/disease control, marketing & communication facilities and attack of birds/animals, etc.

  6. Sequential sampling and biorational chemistries for management of lepidopteran pests of vegetable amaranth in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Harris, Dionne; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2003-06-01

    Although vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus viridis L. and A. dubius Mart. ex Thell., production and economic importance is increasing in diversified peri-urban farms in Jamaica, lepidopteran herbivory is common even during weekly pyrethroid applications. We developed and validated a sampling plan, and investigated insecticides with new modes of action, for a complex of five species (Pyralidae: Spoladea recurvalis (F.), Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.), Noctuidae: Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and S. eridania Stoll). Significant within-plant variation occurred with H. bipunctalis, and a six-leaf sample unit including leaves from the inner and outer whorl was selected to sample all species. Larval counts best fit a negative binomial distribution. We developed a sequential sampling plan using a threshold of one larva per sample unit and the fitted distribution with a k(c) of 0.645. When compared with a fixed plan of 25 plants, sequential sampling recommended the same management decision on 87.5%, additional samples on 9.4%, and gave inaccurate recommendations on 3.1% of 32 farms, while reducing sample size by 46%. Insecticide frequency was reduced 33-60% when management decisions were based on sampled data compared with grower-standards, with no effect on crop damage. Damage remained high or variable (10-46%) with pyrethroid applications. Lepidopteran control was dramatically improved with ecdysone agonists (tebufenozide) or microbial metabolites (spinosyns and emamectin benzoate). This work facilitates resistance management efforts concurrent with the introduction of newer modes of action for lepidopteran control in leafy vegetable production in the Caribbean.

  7. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  8. The financial feasibility of producing fish and vegetables through aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Roel H.; Lacambra, Lysette; Landstra, Ynze; Perini, Chiara; Poulie, Joline; Schwaner, Marie J.; Yin, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Aquaponics, producing fish and vegetables in a closed-loop water system, reduces fertilizer use and water discharge, and is therefore promoted as a sustainable venture. A recent global study found that the majority of 257 surveyed aquaponics farms made losses, but the reasons have been poorly

  9. Farmers' Perception towards Organic-based Vegetable Produc-tion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established that organic farming is a production system that sustain the health of the soils, ecosystems and people. This study assessed the small-scale farmers' perception towards organic based vegetable production in Ilaro agricultural zone of Ogun state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in the ...

  10. Growth and Yield Responses of Vegetable Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amendment of acidic soil with lime application enhances nutrient availability for optimum vegetable cowpea production. Field experiments were conducted in the teaching and research farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons to determine the growth and yield ...

  11. Response of Sesamum radiatum Schum vegetable and seed yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of Sesamum radiatum Schum vegetable and seed yield to phosphorus ... Western region of Nigeria and Research Farm of the Bio-fuel and Alternate ... that 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 was appropriate with basal application of 80 kg N ha-1.

  12. Heavy metal contamination of some vegetables from pesticides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable farming in developing countries is characterized by the indiscriminate application of pesticides and the resultant pollution of agricultural soil with heavy metals that form constituents of these pesticides. These heavy metals have long term toxicity to human and other biota in the ecosystem. This problem is ...

  13. Impact of Prosopis (mesquite) invasion and clearing on vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the impact of Prosopis invasion and clearing on vegetation species composition and diversity (alien and indigenous species richness and cover) in Nama-Karoo rangeland on two sheep farms in the Beaufort ... Keywords: invasive plants – exotic, Nama-Karoo, plant community ecology, rehabilitation, semi-arid ...

  14. Genetic diversity amongst landraces of a dioecious vegetatively ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cultivated betelvine is grown in traditional farming systems many of which are managed exclusively or com- munally. The betelvine growers invariably named ...... vegetative cultivation practices fixed the variations by eliminating selection of the plants on the basis of sexual reproduction. This could be another reason for the ...

  15. level of gross margin among vegetable farmers in iwo zone of osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Udoh and Oluwatoyin (2006), fruits and vegetable ... zone are primarily Yoruba descent and the zone's primary economic activity is ... Areas. Two farming communities were randomly selected from each of the selected local ... N33979.47 respectively, accounting for low revenue of the vegetable farmers.

  16. Does gender affect the quality of soil and vegetable amaranth under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of vegetables has been established to prevent cancer, hypertension and many other diseases. Cultivation of vegetables around cities is a lucrative venture and amaranth is fact becoming a leading leafy vegetable for commercial production under peri-urban in Nigeria. The system is a source of economic ...

  17. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  18. Cooling urban heat islands with sustainable landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson

    1994-01-01

    This paper is directed to the policy-makers who are responsible for urban design and its climatological consequences. It summarizes our current knowledge on the structure, energetics, and mitigation of the urban heat island. Special attention is given to physical features of the environment that can be easily manipulated, particularly vegetation. Prototypical designs...

  19. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  20. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... turbine farm based on a dynamic programming type of method....

  1. Energy management and energy autonomy of French farms: status and perspectives of action for public authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report aims at giving the present state of knowledge about possible energy savings and renewable energy production in farms, and at proposing a hierarchy of actions and measures for a better energy management and energy autonomy in French farms. As far as knowledge is concerned, the authors discuss an assessment of agriculture energy consumption in France, analyse energy costs in farms, discuss the assessment of the global energy consumption by farms, and propose a first estimate of possible energy savings. Actions leading to energy savings or renewable energy production concern various aspects: the production system, agricultural techniques, crops, use of pure vegetal oil, biogas, solar heater, solar drying, buildings, greenhouses, biomass boilers, vegetal oil cogeneration, photovoltaic energy, wind energy. Key actions are identified which concern nitrogen management, wood energy, biogas, energy management, use of cereals for heating, and so on

  2. Farm work-related asthma among US primary farm operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; White, Gretchen E; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%-68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%-45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention.

  3. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Dale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s Santa Clara Valley. In 1976 he bought ten acres of farmland near Watsonville in Santa Cruz County but continued to work repairing fuel injection systems rather than farming at his new home. In 1981, a struggle with cancer inspired him to rethink his life and become an organic farmer. His neighbor, who had grown strawberries using pesticides and chemical fertilizers, asserted that strawberries could not be grown organically. Coke set out ...

  4. Organic Farming in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In this article latest developments in Europe are presented: › Current statistics › Review of the European political and legal framework for organic agriculture › EU regulation on organic farming › Policy support › Action plans › Research › Progress of the OrganicDataNetwork project › Successful policy work of IFOAM EU › Further reading › Websites

  5. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    . The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age...... food of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin and foraging on the ground close to livestock were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. than those foraging further away or hunting in the air. These findings suggest that wild birds may play a role in sustaining the epidemiology of Campylobacter...

  7. Diversity of parasitic contamination in raw vegetables commonly consumed in Shiraz, southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asadpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the parasitic contamination of row vegetables at farms and retails, separately. Methods: A total of 224 samples from 8 different kinds of vegetables were randomly collected from the retails and farms (retails: 80; farms: 144 in the same area and then were tested for helminth egg, Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by using sedimentation, floatation and common staining methods. Results: In total, 31.2% (25/80 and 36.8% (53/144 of retails and farms vegetables were contaminated with a variety of parasites, respectively. Parasites detected in retail and farm vegetables were Giardia cysts (3.7% and 4.8%, Taenia spp. eggs (2.5% and 4.1%, Trichostrongylus eggs (2.5% and 2.0%, Ascaris eggs (2.5% and 2.0%, Hymenolepis egg (1.2% and 0.0%, Cryptosporidium spp. (1.2% and 1.3% and Trichuris eggs (0.0% and 1.3%. Conclusions: Based on our results, fresh vegetables can be a source of food-borne parasitic disease in humans. Public educationand awareness, washing vegetables properly and improving of sanitary and irrigation conditions of these kinds of food should be necessary.

  8. Participation in Farm Markets in Rural Northwest Pakistan: A Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Inayatullah Jan

    2012-01-01

    Participation in farm markets is important for increasing income of farmers in the developing countries. A number of factors account for a household participation in agricultural marketing. This study attempts to explore such associated factors which playa significant role in farmers’ participation in farm markets in rural northwest Pakistan. Drawing on empirical data from the field survey; gur, vegetables, and milk were the main products offered for marketing in the area. The degree of speci...

  9. Case report: Malnutrition and undernutrition as cause of mortality in farmed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik O. Ågren

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhoea evolved during the third year of farming in a group of six reindeer farmed in central Sweden. The first death occurred in July, and despite offering supplemental feed, the deaths continued. Within 9 months five animals (83% were dead. The necropsy findings indicated emaciation in all cases. The initially adequate clover vegetation in the paddock had been depleted over the years, leading to malnutrition and undernutrition of reindeer in the summer season.

  10. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  11. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  12. Efficiency of parks in mitigating urban heat island effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Dons, Klaus; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure can to a certain extent mitigate urban warming. However, the cooling effect of plants varies with space, time and plant-specific properties. To contribute to our understanding of the cooling effect of vegetation on urban surface and air temperature, 21 parks in Addis...... and spatial design of green spaces in cooling the environment....

  13. Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of air pollution removal by the urban forest have mostly been based on mean values of forest structure variables for an entire city. However, the urban forest is not uniformly distributed across a city because of biophysical and social factors. Consequently, air pollution removal function by urban vegetation should vary because of this spatial heterogeneity....

  14. Impacts of vegetation change on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. J.; Verburg, K.; Smith, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    Vegetation change is the accepted cause of increasing river salt concentrations and the salinisation of millions of hectares of farm land in Australia. Replacement of perennial native vegetation by annual crops and pastures following European settlement has altered the water balance causing increased groundwater recharge and mobilising the naturally saline groundwater. The Redesigning Agriculture for Australian Landscapes Program, of which the work described here is a part, was established to develop agricultural practices that are more attuned to the delicate water balance described above. Results of field measurements will be presented that contrast the water balance characteristics of native vegetation with those of conventional agricultural plants, and indicate the functional characteristics required of new agricultural practices to reduce recharge. New agricultural practices may comprise different management of current crops and pastures, or may involve introducing totally new species. In either case, long-term testing is required to examine their impact on recharge over a long enough climate record to encompass the natural variability of rainfall that is characteristic of most Australian farming regions. Field experimentation therefore needs to be complemented and extended by computer simulation. This requires a modelling approach that is more robust than conventional crop modelling because (a) it needs to be sensitive enough to predict small changes in the residual recharge term, (b) it needs to be able to simulate a variety of vegetation in different sequences, (c) it needs to be able to simulate continuously for several decades of input data, and (d) it therefore needs to be able to simulate the period between crops, which often has a critical impact on recharge. The APSIM simulation framework will be used to illustrate these issues and to explore the effect of different vegetation combinations on recharge.

  15. Profitability Analysis of Selected Farms in the Batinah Region of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slim Zekri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector of Oman represents less than 2% of the total GDP and uses 88% of the fresh water. Several decision makers are questioning whether the agricultural activity in the Sultanate of Oman can be sustained and if so what type of crops should be encouraged. More than 53% of the agricultural cropped area is situated in the Batinah coastal area where farming is exclusively based on groundwater pumping. A sample of 49 market-oriented farms from the Batinah region was surveyed during 2006. Four types of farms were considered. Results showed that the most profitable farms are mixing fodder crops and vegetables with a net margin of 1,412 RO/ha/year. The less profitable farms are based on tree crops and vegetables with a net margin of 847 RO/ha/year. For vegetables the most profitable crop is tomato with an average net margin of 2,580 RO/ha/year with a standard deviation of 2,043 RO/ha/year and the least profitable crop is cabbage with 113 RO/ha/ year with a standard deviation of 182 RO/ha/year. The net margin of crops grown under drip irrigation is higher than that for crops under furrow irrigation, with a difference of 548 RO/ha/year. Farms equipped with such modern irrigation systems tend to irrigate almost the same area in winter as in summer, while farms under furrow irrigation crop less than one percent of their cropped area during summer compared to winter. Consequently and contrary to expectations, modern irrigation systems tend to increase, rather than reduce, groundwater pumping given the financial incentives for farmers to grow summer vegetables instead of only winter vegetables. Even so, the net water use efficiency is greater for vegetable production under drip irrigation than it is for fodder production. The figures show that, on average, farming in the Batinah is financially profitable for the types of farm considered in this study. However, profitability varies widely between different farms and crops. The reasons for

  16. Socio-economic characterization of integrated cropping systems in urban and peri-urban agriculture of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ur Rehman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisalabad city is surrounded by agricultural lands, where farmers are growing vegetables, grain crops, and fodder for auto-consumption and local marketing. To study the socioeconomic impact and resource use in these urban and peri-urban agricultural production (UPA systems, a baseline survey was conducted during 2009–2010. A total of 140 households were selected using a stratified sampling method and interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that 96 % of the households rely on agriculture as their main occupation. Thirty percent of the households were owners of the land and the rest cultivated either rented or sharecropped land. Most of the families (70 % were headed by a member with primary education, and only 10 % of the household head had a secondary school certificate. Irrigationwater was obtained from waste water (37 %, canals (27 %, and mixed alternative sources (36 %. A total of 35 species were cultivated in the UPA systems of which were 65% vegetables, 15% grain and fodder crops, and 5% medicinal plants. Fifty-nine percent of the households cultivated wheat, mostly for auto-consumption. The 51 % of the respondents grew cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. and gourds (Cucurbitaceae in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. Group marketing was uncommon and most of the farmers sold their produce at the farm gate (45 % and on local markets (43 %. Seeds and fertilizers were available from commission agents and dealers on a credit basis with the obligation to pay by harvested produce. A major problem reported by the UPA farmers of Faisalabad was the scarcity of high quality irrigation water, especially during the hot dry summer months, in addition to lacking adequate quantities of mineral fertilizers and other inputs during sowing time. Half of the respondents estimated their daily income to be less than 1.25 US$ and spent almost half of it on food. Monthly average household income and expenses were 334 and 237 US

  17. Notes on energy farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, O.

    1976-01-01

    The probability of accidents to nuclear power stations within the next 20 years is about 50% (in Sweden). Figures are given to show that substantial quantities of energy can be obtained by processing waste, peat and vegetable matter into gaseous and liquid fuels. (J.S.)

  18. Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

    2012-01-01

    The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods.

  19. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  20. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...