WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban transport edition

  1. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm).

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm)

  3. Urban Transport and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irandu, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The population according to the 1989 census was 21,448,774 inhabitants. This figure shows that on average the total population has been increasing by more than 40% every decade since 1948. As a result the widening gap between fertility and mortality, the population is growing at an accelerated rate. The current official population growth rate figure of 3.4% per annum puts the country among the world's most rapidly growing nations. It is projected that by the year 2010, the population will be about 37.4 million. At present the urban centres with a population size of 2,000 people and above constitute about 18.1% of the total population (Kenya, 1994). Rapid economic growth has led to the development of a number of urban centres as centres of commerce, industry and tourism. Consequently, this has led to rural urban drift. This drift to urban areas causes a number of problems which if unresolved will limit the ability of the urban centres to support their population The rapid increase in urban population causes a shortage of facilities to meet the increasing demand in services such as public transport, water supply, sewage and housing (Ramatullah, 1997: 161-168). Urban Transport acts as catalyst to both urban and national development, by facilitating the movements associated with urban and national Development. They provide a means by which goods and services are made available to industry and consumers, creating opportunity for social and economic interaction and employment. Without urban transport, access to health, education and employment would not be possible. Indeed urban transport is what gives life to urban development

  4. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book (Edition 20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-10-09

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 20'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  6. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2001-09-13

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  7. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, SC

    2001-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2-energy; Chapter 3-greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4-criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5-transportation and the economy; Chapter 6-highway vehicles; Chapter 7-light vehicles; Chapter 8-heavy vehicles; Chapter 9-alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10-fleet vehicles; Chapter 11-household vehicles; and Chapter 12-nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience

  8. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2005-03-08

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2003-10-24

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 – energy; Chapter 3 – highway vehicles; Chapter 4 – light vehicles; Chapter 5 – heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 – alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 – fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 – household vehicles; Chapter 9 – nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 – transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 – greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 – criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms is also included for the reader’s convenience.

  12. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  13. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2009-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with U.S Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program and the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  16. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  17. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  18. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.; Diegel, Susan W.

    2002-12-04

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www.cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4 - criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 6 - highway vehicles; Chapter 7 - light vehicles; Chapter 8 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 9 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 11 - household vehicles; and Chapter 12- nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  19. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  20. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  1. Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  4. Urban Mass Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, K. E.

    This bibliography is part of a series of Environmental Resource Packets prepared under a grant from EXXON Education Foundation. The most authoritative and accessible references in the urban transportation field are reviewed. The authors, publisher, point of view, level, and summary are given for each reference. The references are categorized…

  5. Sustainable Urban Transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor Melania R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection has become a common issue in every area, but extremely important for the domains which deal with intensive energy consumption as it is the case of the transportation. Achieving the sustainable cities on the other hand, is also focused on the protection of the environment in order to provide a higher quality of life for the population. Therefore it is considered that by improving the urban transportation planning additional benefits could be provided for both the environment and the sustainable development of the cities. One possibility is to supplement the traditionally land-use plans with the transportrelated zones analysis, where the city is divided in public transport, pedestrian and caroriented zones. Analyzing the transport-related zones of a city is important as it provides additional information in the assessment of the development trend. The process of zoning was conducted for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In this paper, the outcome of the zoning was analyzed for a more comprehensive review of the urban transport in order to attain a sustainable-oriented approach of the urban area development.

  6. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  7. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  8. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes -- highway, air, water, rail, pipeline -- is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  9. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes - highway, air, water, rail, pipeline - is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  10. Transportation energy data book: Edition 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Morris, M.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 12 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes--highway, air, water, rail, pipeline--is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  11. Future urban transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The urban environment is usually associated with a variety of activities, which involve matching the demand for goods, commerce, services, rules and laws, culture and intellectual exchange. Proximity and congregation are essential factors when it comes to the economic efficiency of urban society....... However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise...

  12. Urban Transportation: Issue and Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryati Shafii

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, quality of life of urban population is heavily dependent on social facilities provided within the environment. One of the most important facilities is transportations. Study on transportation mode in an urban area is especially very important because for almost every individual living in a large and densely populated area, mobility is one of the most crucial issues in everyday life. Enhance mobility, faster journey to work and less pollution from petrol-propelled vehicles can increase the quality of life, which in turn lead to a sustainable urban living. The study present transportation mode usage issues faced by community related to quality of life in an urban area. This study identifies several issues of transportation mode in urban areas and its impact on the quality of life. The study areas are Putrajaya, Kuala Lumpur and Bandar Kajang, Selangor. The methodology used in this research is secondary and primary data. The questionnaires for the survey were distributed from May 2008 to Jun 2008. These researches were conducted on 144 respondents for to evaluate their perception of transportation mode correlated to the quality of life. The collected data were then analyzed using “Statistical Packages for the Social Science” (SPSS. The respondents comprise of 61 males and 84 females from the age group of 18 to 57 years. This study identifies the percentage of public transportation mode usage in urban area, such as buses (16.7%, train (ERL, monorail and commuter-6.4%; which is very low compared to owning personal car (45.8% and motorcycle (25.4%.The result shows owning personal car is the highest (45.8% in three study areas and monorail and taxi are the lowest (1.4%. The Chi Square Test shows that among the mode transportation with traffic jam is quite difference in Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Kajang. Analysis of the Chi Square Test shows the result is 0.000 (two sides to respondent answering “yes” and analysis of Spearman

  13. An Implementation Guide for Intermodal Transportation Career Education. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associated Research Corp., South Miami, FL.

    One of a series devoted to career education in transportation, this teachers' guide, which is a revised edition of a guide issued in 1974, covers the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs in transportation career education and provides forms to be used in these three processes. The most important principles in program planning are…

  14. Urban Sprawl and Transportation Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Holcombe, Randall G.; Williams, DeEdgra W.

    2010-01-01

    One argument in support of minimizing urban sprawl is that sprawl creates transportation externalities. A problem with empirically examining the relationship between sprawl and transportation externalities is that sprawl is a difficult concept to quantify. This paper uses a measure of sprawl designed by Ewing, Pendall, and Chen (2002) to examine the relationship between sprawl and commute times, automobile ownership, miles driven, fatal auto accidents, air pollution, and highway expenditures....

  15. Urban Transportation Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Kurt A.; Foster, Patrick N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a learning activity that involves planning a community and then altering the transportation system to meet new specifications. Includes the rationale for the activity, how it fits into the technology education curriculum, and how it was implemented to fit a variety of age and grade levels. (JOW)

  16. Urban transportation: Perspectives on mobility and choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor); Arnold, G. R.; Bird, J. W.; Brooks, C. M. (Editor); Cobb, W. E.; Cross, J. E.; Darby, L. F.; Erb, N. H.; Ficht, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A study of urban transportation systems are presented characterized by intensive scrutiny of many ideas, philosophies, and academic perspectives. This report is intended to communicate some dimensions of the urban transportation problem to the general public.

  17. Urban regeneration and transportation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available -density development, progressively reducing in density as it moves out from the centre. Transit-Oriented Development includes design features such as (Morris 1996; Renne 2009): A neighbourhood designed for cycling and walking and having sufficient facilities...://transport.dot.gov.za/communication_centre_sub.aspx? DOT 2009. ?DOT Secretary Ray LaHood, HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan and EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson Announce Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities?, Press release, Tuesday June 16, 2009, http://www.dot-gov/affairs/2009 DTI 2010...

  18. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition I. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D B; Loebl, A S; Ogle, M C; Johnson, M L; Howard, E B

    1977-01-01

    This document contains statistical information on the major transportation modes, their respective energy consumption patterns, and other pertinent factors influencing performance in the transportation sector. Data relating to past, present, and projected energy use and conservation in the transportation sector are presented under seven chapter headings. These focus on (1) modal transportation characteristics, (2) energy characteristics of the transportation sector, (3) energy conservation alternatives involving the transportation sector, (4) government impacts on the transportation sector, (5) the supply of energy to the transportation sector, (6) characteristics of transportation demand, and (7) miscellaneous reference materials such as energy conversion factors and geographical maps. References are included for each set of data presented, and a more general bibliography is included at the end of the book. In addition, a glossary of key terms and a subject index is provided for the user. A second edition of this document is scheduled for publication in September 1977.

  19. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1994-05-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  20. Vgi Based Urban Public Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymurian, F.; Alesheikh, A. A.; Alimohammadi, A.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information technology have made geographic information system (GIS) a powerful and affordable tool for planning and decision making in various fields such as the public transportation. These technologies such as the social network (e.g. face-book, twitter), new technologies such as ubiquitous, mobile, Web 2.0, geo tagging and RFID can help to create better shapes and forms of the communication and geo-collaboration for public. By using these, user-generated content and spatial information can be easily and quickly produced and shared in a dynamic, interactive, multimedia and distributed environment. The concept of volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been introduced by the transaction from consultation to content interaction. VGI describes any type of content that has a geographic element and has been voluntarily collected. In other words, ordinary users; without a professional training, can participate in generating and using the spatial information. As a result, the gaps between the producers and users of GIS and spatial information, has been considerably reduced. Public transportation is one of the most important elements of the transportation system. Rapid growth of the cities has resulted in high increase of demand for the public transportation which created new challenges. Improvement of the desirability of public transportation can increase its efficiency, reduction of the environmental pollution (such as air and noise pollution), traffic problems, and fuel consumption. Hence, development of an urban public transportation system which is responsive to citizen's need and motivates them to use public transportation system is one of the most important objectives and issues that urban planners and designers are concerned about. One solution to achieve this, goal is to develop public transportation system by assistance from the system users. According to approach, users are considered as the valuable resources, because people who are

  1. Urban transport in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crass, M.; Short, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the cities of central and easter Europe rapidly rising numbers of motor vehicles are flooding streets, choking city centres and emitting alarming volumes of air pollution. Decision-makers in the region face difficult choices in the design and development of their urban transport systems. Saddled with the legacy of transport networks conceived under central planning - aged, often obsolete fleets, facilities and equipment -they must find ways to address the economic, social and environmental pressures caused by the skyrocketing growth in the use of cars and lorries. They also have to reconcile a decline in demand for public transport with tight budgetary constraints and pressure to recover more of their costs through rises in fares. (authors). 4 refs

  2. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book. Sixth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, G.; Holcomb, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics that characterize transportation activity and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this publication is to present a large amount of relevant data in an easily retrievable and usable format with the statistical data shown in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes (highway, air, water, rail, and pipeline) is treated separately, and aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented. The highway mode, accounting for over 77% of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with. Topics in this include vehicle stock characteristics, fuel efficiency, household vehicle ownership and use, fleet automobiles, buses, and trucks. Data are presented on each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively. Trends in vehicle and engine characteristics related to fuel economy are summarized. Emphasis is placed on vehicles and engines for highway use.

  4. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency published Training Course Series No. 1 (TCS-1), a training manual that provides in 20 chapters a detailed discussion of the background, philosophy, technical bases and requirements and implementation aspects of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The Transport Regulations are widely implemented by the IAEA's Member States and are also used as the bases for radioactive material transport requirements of modal organisations such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization. This document is a supplement of TCS-1 to provide additional material in the form of learning aids and new exercises, that have been developed with the use of TCS-1 at succeeding IAEA training courses. The learning aids in the first part of the supplement are hitherto unpublished material that provide detailed guidance useful in solving the exercises presented in the second part. Solutions to the exercises are on field at the IAEA Secretariat and are available by arrangement to lectures presenting IAEA training courses. 4 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  5. Data integration for urban transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    Urban transport planning aims at balancing conflicting challenges by promoting more efficient transport systems while reducing negative impacts. The availability of better and more reliable data has not only stimulated new planning methodologies, but also created challenges for efficient data

  6. Urban freight transportation : Challenges, failure, and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Goos; Quak, H.; Peeters, Rene; Woensel van, T.; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; Ten Hompel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  7. Urban freight transportation : challenges, failures and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, G.; Quak, H.; Peeters, R.; van Woensel, T.; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; ten Hompel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  8. Consolidation and coordination in urban freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to growing urbanization, fragmentation of freight flows, and increasingly strict delivery conditions, cities around the world have to deal with a vastly increasing number of freight transport flows. Carriers are unable to efficiently bundle these flows, resulting in inefficient urban transport.

  9. Arrangements for transition from the 1985 edition (as amended 1990) to the 1996 edition of the IAEA Transport Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to National Competent Authorities to facilitate compliance during, and after, transition from the previous edition of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Transport Regulations (Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition, as Amended 1990) to the 1996 editions (TS-R-1 [ST-1, Revised], in English; ST-1 in French, Russian and Spanish) of the regulations. This may also provide guidance to other users of the IAEA's Transport Regulations such as consignors, carriers, consignees, owners and designers and fabricators of radioactive material and package designers and fabrications

  10. Eco-Efficiency Indicators for Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on urban passenger transport eco-efficiency, which can be defined as the production of maximum benefits to society while minimising environmental impacts from urban transport’s inputs of energy and materials. Researchers have intensively studied transport’s varied environmental impacts, particularly through Life Cycle Assessment; this paper argues that primary transport energy per capita is presently the best measure of impact. Although transport’s societal benefits have generally been regarded as self-evident, access to out-of-home activities, not passenger-km, should be considered as the fundamental useful output of an urban transport system, since transport is a derived demand. We argue that access levels are roughly similar in all high-income OECD cities, so that these cities can be ranked on transport eco-efficiency simply on the basis of per capita primary transport energy.

  11. New governance principles for sustainable urban transport

    OpenAIRE

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper positions the communications and transport in the centre of a rejuvenation policy for a sustainable urban habitat, taking for granted the success of urban govemance will depend on the professionality of local/regional policy-making govemed by sound principles from business practice in corporate organizations.

  12. Service reliability and urban public transport design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2011-01-01

    The last few decades have shown a substantial increase in personal mobility. Urban traffic and transport volumes have been increasing for years. However, the share of public transport in this mobility growth did not change much and still remains rather limited. To ensure the accessibility and

  13. Urban Transportation Planning Short Course: Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This urban transportation pamphlet delves into the roles of policy groups and technical staffs in evaluating alternative transportation plans, evaluation criteria, systems to evaluate, and evaluation procedures. The introduction admits the importance of subjective, but informed, judgment as an effective tool in weighing alternative transportation…

  14. Application of real-time cooperative editing in urban planning management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changfeng; Liu, Renyi; Liu, Nan; Bao, Weizheng

    2007-06-01

    With the increasing of business requirement of urban planning bureau, co-edit function is needed urgently, however conventional GIS are not support this. In order to overcome this limitation, a new kind urban 1planning management system with co-edit function is needed. Such a system called PM2006 has been used in Suzhou Urban Planning Bureau. PM2006 is introduced in this paper. In this paper, four main issues of Co-edit system--consistency, responsiveness time, data recoverability and unconstrained operation--were discussed. And for these four questions, resolutions were put forward in paper. To resolve these problems of co-edit GIS system, a data model called FGDB (File and ESRI GeoDatabase) that is mixture architecture of File and ESRI Geodatabase was introduced here. The main components of FGDB data model are ESRI versioned Geodatabase and replicated architecture. With FGDB, client responsiveness, spatial data recoverability and unconstrained operation were overcome. In last of paper, MapServer, the co-edit map server module, is presented. Main functions of MapServer are operation serialization and spatial data replication between file and versioned data.

  15. Urban structure and sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane

    travel behaviour in a comprehensive analysis. Moreover, the phenomenon of compensatory leisure travel is addressed. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was carried out in an urban district (Østerbro) of central Copenhagen and in a small town (Borup) in the commuter belt of Greater Copenhagen...

  16. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  17. Particle transport in urban dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, R.J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; ApSimon, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative investigation of the potential for contamination of a dwelling by material carried in on the occupants' footwear has been completed. Data are now available on the transport capacity of different footwear for a small range of particle sizes and contamination source strengths. Additional information is also given on the rate of redistribution

  18. Examining zinc transporting P-type ATPases by genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin

    with the legal, financial and philosophical implications of using these techniques in crops. One of the feasible uses of genome editing techniques is to repair detrimental mutations that may have occurred in crop plants during domestication in genes controlling traits that could not be selected for. One...... mutants of AtHMA4. The use of genome editing tools holds the potential to generate precise mutations while obtaining a non-transgenic plant within two generations. The creation of such non-transgenic but improved plants by genome editing techniques is discussed here in a series of reviews, along...

  19. Conference on Transportation and Urban Life

    CERN Document Server

    Wenzel, H

    1976-01-01

    All the papers in this volume were presented at a conference on Transportation and Urban Life, held in Munich during the third week of September, 1975. The conference was sponsored by the Special Programme Panels on Systems Science and Human Factors of the Science Committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The distinguishing characteristic of the conference and of this volume lies in the combination of systems science and human factors contributions in the field of urban transportation. The initiative for attempting such a synthesis came from the sponsors. It is increasingly realised that the complexity of contemporary problems which applied scientists are being asked to solve is such that the coordinated efforts of several disciplines are needed to solve them. The brief which we formulated for the conference and distribu­ ted in our international call for papers was as follows: "The conference is intended to highlight significant psycho­ logical, SOCiological and economic aspects of transportatio...

  20. Eco efficiency of urban form and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Irmeli

    2007-01-01

    Urban planning and transportation system solutions and decisions have a large-scale significance for eco efficiency, the consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of greenhouse gas and other emissions, and the costs caused by communities.Planning solutions may impact on greenhouse gas emissions by 10 % at regional level, by 20 % at local community level and even by 200 % at local dwelling area level. Impact on emissions caused by transportation is even bigger: at least double compared to the impact on total emissions. Similarly large impacts can be seen concerning consumption of energy and other natural resources as well as costs.The most important factors in sustainable urban and transportation planning are at dwelling area level: location, structure, building density, house types, space heating systems, at community and regional level: area density, energy consumption and production systems, location of and distances between dwellings, working places and services, transportation systems, possibilities of walking and cycling, availability of public transport, and necessity for use of private cars. The presentation is based on the author's research and case studies from 1992 to 2006. The assessment method EcoBalance was developed to assess sustainability of communities and it has been applied at different planning levels: regional plans, local master plans and detailed plans. The EcoBalance model estimates the total consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of emissions and wastes and the costs caused directly and indirectly by communities on a life-cycle basis

  1. Arrangements for transition from the 1985 edition (as amended 1990) to the 1996 edition of the IAEA Transport Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In December 1996 the International Atomic Energy Agency published the 1996 Edition of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (formerly Safety Series No. 6) in a document called ST-1. That document has served as the basis for revising the UN Committee of Experts Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods (published in 1999 as ''Model Regulations''), and as the basis for the Class 7 portions of the forthcoming revisions of RID, ADR, IMO (IMDG Code), ICAO (Technical Instructions) and IATA modal dangerous goods regulations. ST-1 was subsequently reviewed and revised with minor editorial corrections, and in 2000, a revised English version of the regulations called TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised) was published. Difficulties may arise when applying the Regulations during the transition from the 1985 Edition of the Transport Regulations to the 1996 Edition of these regulations. These difficulties come mainly from the differences between the two sets of regulations, e.g. the definition of radioactive material with the new nuclide specific exemption levels, the new values of A 1 /A 2 , the annual dose limits, the related documentation, the labelling requirements for fissile material package, the changes in UN numbers and proper shipping names, the shipment of fissile material by air, etc. This TECDOC is intended to provide guidance on the implementation of changes in the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This guidance may be used to facilitate compliance with the Regulations. This guidance is aimed at all users of the regulations including National Competent Authorities, consignors, consignees and carriers

  2. Assessment of CHSST maglev for U.S. urban transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This report provides an assessment of the Urban Maglev system proposed by the Maglev Urban Systems Associates MUSA team for application in the United States. The proposed system is the Japanese Chubu high speed surface transportation (HSST) Maglev wh...

  3. Performativity and the project: enacting urban transport security in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    2015-01-01

    In April 2011, a large consortium of European rail and security suppliers, transport operators and research organisations launched the Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration (SECUR-ED) project with the objective of providing public transport operators with the means to enhance urban

  4. Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module III: Urban Transportation - Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ellen

    Included in this module are five activities dealing with modes of transportation in the urban environment. The activities include: (1) a discussion of transportation considerations in urban areas; (2) discussion of bikeways and their desirability in the urban environment; (3) the bikeway and the environment; (4) designing a bikeway; and (5)…

  5. The Public Urban Transport and The Tourism Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhcină Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A distinct activity within the transport services supply, the urban public transport is both a consequence and a cause of urban development. Through its functions, the urban public transport service allows the movement to and from various places of interest within an area not only of local residents, but also of different non-residents. In addition to this, if that locality is also a tourist destination, the urban public transport service gives tourists the possibility to travel to the various points of tourist attractions. In this paper we aim to present a few aspects related to the importance of the urban public transport service in increasing the attractiveness of the urban localities regarded as tourist attractions.

  6. Integrated policy analysis of sustainable urban and transportation development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Feng, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Fujiwara, A.; Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban and transportation development needs to balance economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This study conducts integrated policy analyses by explicitly incorporating these sustainability goals and optimizing the performance of transportation networks.

  7. Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    The nature of urban road transportation problems in Nigeria as at today can .... study. These are: Road network development between 1960 and 2006 ... roads in the Western region was tarred, ..... other smaller transport system (in this case.

  8. Urban Transportation Systems in Bogotá and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogotá and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems...

  9. Theme 10: greenhouse effect transport policies and urban organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This document describes the reference framework of the theme 10 ''greenhouse effect, transport policies and urban organization'' which is a part of the urban transports interface. It presents the specific actions realized by the theme 10 for a future integration in theme 1, 5 and 8. (A.L.B.)

  10. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  11. Consumer Views on Transportation and Energy (Third Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report has been assembled to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) with an idea of how the American public views various transportation, energy, and environmental issues. The data presented in this report have been drawn from multiple sources: surveys conducted by the Opinion Research Corporation (ORC) for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that are commissioned and funded by EERE, Gallup polls, news organization polls, surveys conducted by independent groups and academic institutions, and other sources.

  12. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  13. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  14. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to ''establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  15. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  16. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, 2005 edition. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication includes amendments to the 1996 Edition (As Amended 2003) arising from the second cycle of the biennial review and revision process, as agreed by the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC) at its ninth meeting in March 2004, as endorsed by the Commission on Safety Standards at its meeting in June 2004 and as approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in November 2004. Although this publication is identified as a new edition, there are no changes that affect the administrative and approval requirements in Section VIII. The fields covered are General Provisions (radiation protection; emergency response; quality assurance; compliance assurance; non-compliance; special arrangement and training); Activity Limits and Materials Restrictions, Requirement and Controls for Transport , Requirements for Radioactive Materials and for Packagings and Packages, Test Procedures, Approval and Administrative Requirements

  18. Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective control data ... mathematical modeling, probability theory and mathematical statistics, expert ... intended for development of methods and means of operative management of ...

  19. Impacts, trends and strategies in urban transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the urban mobility evolution from 1985 to 1995 and the possible future assets for transportation demand. For some scenarios are quantized the environmental impacts and energetic impacts [it

  20. Model architecture of intelligent data mining oriented urban transportation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bogang; Tao, Yingchun; Sui, Jianbo; Zhang, Feizhou

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at solving practical problems in urban traffic, the paper presents model architecture of intelligent data mining from hierarchical view. With artificial intelligent technologies used in the framework, the intelligent data mining technology improves, which is more suitable for the change of real-time road condition. It also provides efficient technology support for the urban transport information distribution, transmission and display.

  1. Capacity Development for Sustainable Urban Transportation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Senbil, Metin; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Zhang, Junyi

    2008-01-01

    To make urban transport sustainable, effective and efficient, first and foremost, there is a need for capacity development-capacity is defined as the ability to deal with problems in efficient and effective ways-in developing countries. Apart from many important capacity related problems such as lack of adequate infrastructure, older vehicle population, etc., policy makers in developing countries have to consider changing individual behavior to realize sustainable urban transportation policie...

  2. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  3. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Pojani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable urban development, not only because they are home to at least a quarter of the world’s population but because they also offer great potential for sustainable transformations. In principle, their size allows for flexibility in terms of urban expansion, adoption of “green” travel modes, and environmental protection. At the same time, smaller and medium-sized cities often have fewer resources to implement new transport measures and can be more vulnerable to fluctuations in the world economy. This article critically reviews the potential role and impact of nine commonly considered options for sustainable urban transport in cities in developing countries: (1 road infrastructure; (2 rail-based public transport; (3 road-based public transport; (4 support for non-motorized travel modes; (5 technological solutions; (6 awareness-raising campaigns; (7 pricing mechanisms; (8 vehicle access restrictions; and (9 control of land-uses. Drawing on international research and examples of policies to reduce the environmental impacts of transport in urban areas, this article identifies some key lessons for sustainable urban transport in smaller and medium-sized cities in developing countries. These lessons are certainly not always identical to those for megacities in the global south.

  4. Urban form and energy use for transport. A Nordic experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P

    1995-02-10

    The main research problem addressed in this thesis is the possible influence of several urban form variables on the amount of transportation, on the modal split between different means of transport, and on energy use for transportation. This problem is elucidated through five empirical investigations covering different geographic levels in a Nordic context, from individual employees and households to commuting regions. A main feature of the study is the combination of socioeconomic and urban form variables in empirical investigations, employing techniques of multivariate analysis. The investigations of residential areas and job sites have been based on travel surveys, while the investigations where the units of analysis are towns or regions have been based on fuel sales. The socioeconomic data have been collected from official statistics and from questionnaires. It is found that urban form variables exert important influences on transportation energy use. Urban density affects energy use for transportation. A central location of residences as well as workplaces is favourable with respect to energy conservation on an intra-urban scale, but not in a wider geographical context, where decentralization into several dense, relatively self-contained local communities distributed over the region is the most energy-saving pattern of regional development. Urban form characteristics favourable for minimizing transport energy requirements also seem favourable for energy conservation in buildings. 160 refs., 39 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. QUALITY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN URBAN AREA OF ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Simona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Service quality can be approached from four directions: consumer, vehicle performance (including the human operator, specialized company in passenger transport, and the Government (local Councils. Availability, comfort and convenience are the two main indicators that must be evaluated by citizens as being with high grades for a good quality of urban transport services. The instrument used to gather data is the preference survey.

  6. Quantitative assessment of urban transport development – a spatial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czech Artur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban transport is considered the basis of properly functioning cities and their development. The main aim of the paper is to attempt the assessment of urban transport development in selected voivodeships (provinces as a crucial factor of macro logistics. The research also aimed to identify the underdeveloped areas of urban transport in Poland as the basis for the implementation of support policy. The source of information in the investigation process was data drawn from the Central Statistical Office in Poland for 2013–2016. In the scope of dealing with the research problem, chosen classical and order multivariate statistical measures were implemented into the research process. Next, the taxonomic measures for the years of interest served as the basis for the construction of the total (general synthetic measure applicable to the entire period. The main results and findings of the research indicate that the level of urban transport development is correlated with the whole transportation system which affects the socio-economic development of some regions of Poland. The research can lead to a better understanding of Polish urban transportation development in selected regions. Hence, the results can be helpful in the investment process and for shaping the right transportation policy to improve the use of financial resources.

  7. Evaluation of alternative public transportation systems in Izmit urban transportation via axiomatic design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen AKMAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world and in our country, most of urban transportation is performed by public transportation. Public transportation is a system which provides transportation easiness and opportunity to people, not to vehicles. Therefore, giving priority to public transportation system is necessary in organizing urban transportation. In this study, in order to reduce traffic intensity and to facilitate passenger transportation in Izmit urban transportation, It is tried to determine appropriate public transportation system. For this, firstly, alternatives which could be used for public transportation were determined. These alternatives are metro, metrobus, tram, light rail system and monorail. Afterwards, the variables affecting decision making about public transportation were determined. These variables are cost, transportation line features, vehicle characteristics, sensitivity to environment and customer satisfaction. Lastly, most appropriate public transportation system is proposed by using the axiomatic design method. As a result, light trail system and metrobus are determined as the most appropriate alternatives for Izmit public transportation system.Keywords: Urban transportation, Multi criteria decision making, Axiomatic design

  8. A Basic Consideration on Urban Structure Analysis for Transportation Planning

    OpenAIRE

    本多, 義明; 加藤, 哲男; 稲葉, 隆夫

    1983-01-01

    1n this paper,using the method of FACTOR ANALYS1S, urban structure analysis for transportation planning is considered. Study areas are Fukui city, Takefu city and Obama city. From thisanalysis,planning informations are obtained for prior analysis of usual transportation planning.

  9. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro, G.; Norbis, W.; Panario, D.

    2012-01-01

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  10. Developing intelligent transportation systems using the national ITS architecture: an executive edition for senior transportation managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This document has been produced to provide senior transportation managers of state and local departments of transportation with practical guidance for deploying Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) consistent with the National ITS Architecture. T...

  11. Assessment of transport performance index for urban transport development strategies — Incorporating residents' preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambarwati, Lasmini; Verhaeghe, Robert; Arem, Bart van; Pel, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of urban transport depends on a variety of factors related to metropolitan structure; in particular, the patterns of commuting, roads and public transport (PT) systems. To evaluate urban transport planning efforts, there is a need for a metric expressing the aggregate performance of the city's transport systems which should relate to residents' preferences. The existing metrics have typically focused on a measure to express the proximity of job locations to residences. A Transport Performance Index (TPI) is proposed in which the total cost of transportation system (operational and environmental costs) is divided by willingness to pay (WTP) for transport plus the willingness to accept (WTA) the environmental effects on residents. Transport operational as well as the environmental costs are derived from a simulation of all transport systems, to particular designs of spatial development. Willingness to pay for transport and willingness to accept the environmental effects are derived from surveys among residents. Simulations were modelled of Surabaya's spatial structure and public transport expansion. The results indicate that the current TPI is high, which will double by 2030. With a hypothetical polycentric city structure and adjusted job housing balance, a lower index occurs because of the improvements in urban transport performance. A low index means that the residents obtain much benefit from the alternative proposed. This illustrates the importance of residents' preferences in urban spatial planning in order to achieve efficient urban transport. Applying the index suggests that city authorities should provide fair and equitable public transport systems for suburban residents in the effort to control the phenomenon of urban sprawl. This index is certainly a good tool and prospective benchmark for measuring sustainability in relation to urban development.

  12. Assessment of transport performance index for urban transport development strategies — Incorporating residents' preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambarwati, Lasmini, E-mail: L.Ambarwati@tudelft.nl [Department of Transport and Planning, TU Delft (Netherlands); Department of Civil Engineering, Brawijaya University (Indonesia); Verhaeghe, Robert, E-mail: R.Verhaeghe@tudelft.nl [Department of Transport and Planning, TU Delft (Netherlands); Arem, Bart van, E-mail: B.vanArem@tudelft.nl [Department of Transport and Planning, TU Delft (Netherlands); Pel, Adam J., E-mail: A.J.Pel@tudelft.nl [Department of Transport and Planning, TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    The performance of urban transport depends on a variety of factors related to metropolitan structure; in particular, the patterns of commuting, roads and public transport (PT) systems. To evaluate urban transport planning efforts, there is a need for a metric expressing the aggregate performance of the city's transport systems which should relate to residents' preferences. The existing metrics have typically focused on a measure to express the proximity of job locations to residences. A Transport Performance Index (TPI) is proposed in which the total cost of transportation system (operational and environmental costs) is divided by willingness to pay (WTP) for transport plus the willingness to accept (WTA) the environmental effects on residents. Transport operational as well as the environmental costs are derived from a simulation of all transport systems, to particular designs of spatial development. Willingness to pay for transport and willingness to accept the environmental effects are derived from surveys among residents. Simulations were modelled of Surabaya's spatial structure and public transport expansion. The results indicate that the current TPI is high, which will double by 2030. With a hypothetical polycentric city structure and adjusted job housing balance, a lower index occurs because of the improvements in urban transport performance. A low index means that the residents obtain much benefit from the alternative proposed. This illustrates the importance of residents' preferences in urban spatial planning in order to achieve efficient urban transport. Applying the index suggests that city authorities should provide fair and equitable public transport systems for suburban residents in the effort to control the phenomenon of urban sprawl. This index is certainly a good tool and prospective benchmark for measuring sustainability in relation to urban development.

  13. Transport of radionuclides in urban environs: working draft assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Akins, R.E.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Finley, B.H.; Kaestner, P.C.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, N.N.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impacts from transportation of radioactive materials in urban environs. The impacts from accident-free transport, vehicular accidents during transport, and from other abnormal situations are analyzed. The approach is outlined including description of the models developed and the data bases employed to account for the special features of the urban environment. The operations and contributions of the task group formed to assist in this study are also discussed. The results obtained for the New York City study area are presented and explained

  14. Transport of radionuclides in urban environs: working draft assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Akins, R.E.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Finley, B.H.; Kaestner, P.C.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, N.N.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impacts from transportation of radioactive materials in urban environs. The impacts from accident-free transport, vehicular accidents during transport, and from other abnormal situations are analyzed. The approach is outlined including description of the models developed and the data bases employed to account for the special features of the urban environment. The operations and contributions of the task group formed to assist in this study are also discussed. The results obtained for the New York City study area are presented and explained.

  15. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-03-15

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended).

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of a comprehensive review carried out by a panel of experts, a revised version of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1972 and published in April 1973 as Safety Series No.6 - 1973 Revised Edition. Minor amendments, together with a number of changes of detail were promulgated by the Director General in 1975 and 1977. In October 1978, the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, established by the Director General in 1977, reviewed and recommended a small number of additional amendments. The recommendations of SAGSTRAM were subsequently accepted by the Director General. All these minor amendments and changes of detail are incorporated in the present text of the Regulations. The purpose of these Regulations is to establish standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. They apply to the transport by land, water or air, including transport on own account, of radioactive material other than that which is an integral part of the means of transport. Transport includes any operation incidental to the whole course of carriage, such as loading, unloading and storage in transit. The term includes both normal transport and that under accident conditions

  17. Implementation of the 1996 edition of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.; Kervella, O.

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) completed a 10 year and revision of its 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' with approval of the amendments by its Board of Governors in September 1996. The revised edition contains some important changes in the regulations, including: type C package requirements; provisions for low dispersible material; uranium hexafluoride packaging; exemption value specifications; operational requirements, including the creation of a criticality safety index and new proper shipping names/UN numbers. The 1996 edition of the IAEA regulations has been published and corresponding revisions now being considered by the international transport safety organizations and Member States. In particular, the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, International Civil Aviation Organization and International Maritime Organization and preparing revisions to take into account the revised Class 7 requirements. An effective date of 1 January 2001 has been recommended so that international and domestic requirements might come into force simultaneously, thereby avoiding disruptive out-of-phase implementation. (authors)

  18. Smart urban design to reduce transportation impact in city centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezzai, Soufiane; Mazouz, Said; Ahriz, Atef

    2018-05-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious problems facing human being; urban wastes are in first range of energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gasses. Transportation or car traffic is one of the most consumer sectors of fuel, and most pollutant. Reducing energy consumption in transportation and the emission of pollutant gasses becomes an important objective for urban designers; many solutions may be proposed to help solving this problem in future designs, but it depend on other factors in existing urban space especially in city centers characterized with high occupation density. In this paper we investigate traffic rate in the city center of the case study, looking for the causes of the high traffic using gate count method and estimating fuel consumption. We try to propose some design solutions to reduce distances so fuel consumption and emission of pollutant gasses. We use space syntax techniques to evaluate urban configuration and verify the proposed solutions.

  19. Explanatory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 2. ed. (as amended 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is an updated version of the Second Edition of the Explanatory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1985 Edition) and replaces all previous versions of Safety Series No. 7. This publication includes the changes to Safety Series No. 7 contained in the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 Edition, Supplement 1988, as well as modifications adopted by the Review Panel that was convened in Vienna, 10-14 July 1989. For the convenience of the user, the old Safety Series style adopted in the original publication has been retained, although the old style has now been superseded by a new one, affecting the structure, the format and the cover of the Safety Series. It should be noted, however, that future editions will be published in the new style.

  20. Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations on achieving and demonstrating compliance with IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005 Edition, establishing safety requirements to be applied to the national and international transport of radioactive material. Transport is deemed to comprise all operations and conditions associated with and involved in the movement of radioactive material; these include the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging, and the preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt at the final destination of packages. This publication supersedes IAEA Safety Series No. TS-G-1.1, 2002 Edition

  1. Transportation barriers to accessing health care for urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Serena; Zarr, Robert L; Kass-Hout, Taha A; Kourosh, Atoosa; Kelly, Nancy R

    2006-11-01

    The Texas Children's Hospital Residents' Primary Care Group Clinic provides primary care to urban low-income children. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of transportation problems on a family's ability to keep an appointment. One hundred eighty-three caregivers of children with an appointment were interviewed. Caregivers who kept their appointment were compared with those who did not with respect to demographic and transportation-related characteristics. Logistic regression modeling predicted caregivers with the following characteristics were more likely not to keep an appointment: not using a car to the last kept appointment, not keeping an appointment in the past due to transportation problems, having more than two people in the household, and not keeping an appointment in the past due to reasons other than transportation problems. Future research should focus on developing interventions to help low-income urban families overcome non-financial access barriers, including transportation problems.

  2. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Circella

    2010-01-01

    Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...

  3. Measuring Health-related Transportation Barriers in Urban Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; Sharp, Lisa K; Syed, Saming T; Bhansari, Shikhi; Gerber, Ben S

    Access to reliable transportation is important for people with chronic diseases considering the need for frequent medical visits and for medications from the pharmacy. Understanding of the extent to which transportation barriers, including lack of transportation, contribute to poor health outcomes has been hindered by a lack of consistency in measuring or operationally defining "transportation barriers." The current study uses the Rasch measurement model to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure designed to capture types of transportation and associated barriers within an urban context. Two hundred forty-four adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from within an academic medical center in Chicago and completed the newly developed transportation questions as part of a larger National Institutes of Health funded study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01498159). Results suggested a two subscale structure that reflected 1) general transportation barriers and 2) public transportation barriers.

  4. Urban risks of truck transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Truck transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), normally maximizes use of Interstate highways, which are safer and more efficient for truck transport in general. In the estimation of transportation risks, population bordering a route is a direct factor in determining consequences and an indirect factor in determining exposure times, accident probabilities and severities, and other parameters. Proposals to transport RAM may draw intense resistance from stakeholders based on concern for population concentrations along urban segments but the length of a route segment is also a determinative factor in estimating the transport risks. To quantify the relative importance of these two factors, a potential route for transport of SNF (strict use of Interstate highways) was selected and compared with a modified version that bypassed urban areas. The RADTRAN 4 code for transportation risk assessment, which was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used in the present study to assess the relative risks of SNF transportation for alternative routes. The results suggest that emphasis on Interstate highways minimizes total route and urban segment risks

  5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1996 edition (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review by panels of experts convened by the IAEA starting in 1991, a revised version of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (formerly Safety Series No. 6) was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1996. This publication supersedes all editions of the Regulations issued under Safety Series No. 6. By 1969, the Regulations had been adopted by almost all international organizations concerned with transport and used by many Member States for their own regulations. Through the worldwide adoption of the IAEA Regulations for all modes of transport, a very high standard of safety in transport has been achieved. In the revisions since the first edition, attempts have been made to find a balance between the need to take account of technical advances and operational experience, and the desirability of providing a stable framework of regulatory requirements. One of the aims of this approach is to allow packages designed to previous versions of the Regulations to continue to be used for a reasonable period of time. It is recognized that not all regulatory changes can be implemented simultaneously; Member States and international organizations are therefore invited, in adopting this revision, to provide for use of both the 'old' requirements and the 'new' ones during a period of transition that may last for a few years. It is further recommended that adoption of these revised Regulations occur within a period of five years from publication to achieve worldwide harmonization of their application. In implementing the provisions of these Regulations, it may be necessary for Member States to issue complementary national regulations. Except as necessary for solely domestic purposes, such national regulations should not conflict with these Regulations. For convenience, the requirements to be met for the transport of specified types of consignments are included in an abbreviated form as Schedules in this publication

  6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1996 edition (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review by panels of experts convened by the IAEA starting in 1991, a revised version of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (formerly Safety Series No. 6) was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1996. This publication supersedes all editions of the Regulations issued under Safety Series No. 6. By 1969, the Regulations had been adopted by almost all international organizations concerned with transport and used by many Member States for their own regulations. Through the worldwide adoption of the IAEA Regulations for all modes of transport, a very high standard of safety in transport has been achieved. In the revisions since the first edition, attempts have been made to find a balance between the need to take account of technical advances and operational experience, and the desirability of providing a stable framework of regulatory requirements. One of the aims of this approach is to allow packages designed to previous versions of the Regulations to continue to be used for a reasonable period of time. It is recognized that not all regulatory changes can be implemented simultaneously. Member States and international organizations are therefore invited, in adopting this revision, to provide for use of both the 'old' requirements and the 'new' ones during a period of transition that may last for a few years. It is further recommended that adoption of these revised Regulations occur within a period of five years from publication to achieve worldwide harmonization of their application. In implementing the provisions of these Regulations, it may be necessary for Member States to issue complementary national regulations. Except as necessary for solely domestic purposes, such national regulations should not conflict with these Regulations. For convenience, the requirements to be met for the transport of specified types of consignments are included in an abbreviated form as Schedules in this publication

  7. Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.

    2005-01-01

    Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  8. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition); Reglement de transport des matieres radioactives. Edition de 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to ''establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  9. Assessment of sustainable urban transport development based on entropy and unascertained measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yancang; Yang, Jing; Shi, Huawang; Li, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    To find a more effective method for the assessment of sustainable urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment model of sustainable urban transport development was established based on the unascertained measure. On the basis of considering the factors influencing urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment indexes were selected, including urban economical development, transport demand, environment quality and energy consumption, and the assessment system of sustainable urban transport development was proposed. In view of different influencing factors of urban transport development, the index weight was calculated through the entropy weight coefficient method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted according to the actual condition. Then, the grade was obtained by using the credible degree recognition criterion from which the urban transport development level can be determined. Finally, a comprehensive assessment method for urban transport development was introduced. The application practice showed that the method can be used reasonably and effectively for the comprehensive assessment of urban transport development.

  10. ANALYTICAL AND SIMULATION PLANNING MODEL OF URBAN PASSENGER TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article described the structure of the analytical and simulation models to make informed decisions in the planning of urban passenger transport. Designed UML diagram that describes the relationship of classes of the proposed model. A description of the main agents of the model developed in the simulation AnyLogic. Designed user interface integration with GIS map. Also provides simulation results that allow concluding about her health and the possibility of its use in solving planning problems of urban passenger transport.

  11. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  12. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  13. Models in Planning Urban Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The solving of complex problems in public transport requiresthe usage of models that are based on the estimate of demandin planning the transport routes. The intention is to predictwhat is going to happen in the future, if the proposed solutionsare implemented. In the majority of cases, the publictransport system is formed as a network and stored in the computermemory in order to start the evaluation process by specifYingthe number of trip origins and destinations in each zone.The trip distribution model which is used to calculate the numberof trips between each pair in the zone is based on the overalltravel frictions from zone to zone.

  14. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  15. Urban transport, the environment and deliberative governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2006-01-01

    in local transport policy making and planning. The cases offer illustrative examples of policy processes and collaboration in which the development (or lack) of interdependence and trust have been decisive. In a concluding prescriptive endeavour, several aspects are tentatively suggested as being relevant...

  16. Citymobil, advanced transport for the urban environment : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, J.P. van; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van

    2012-01-01

    CityMobil was an integrated project in the Sixth Framework Program of the European Union. The objective of the project was to achieve more effective organization of urban transport for more rational use of motorized traffic with less congestion and pollution, safer driving, a higher quality of

  17. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hurk, E.; Koutsopoulos, H.; Wilson, N.H.M.; Kroon, L.G.; Maroti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative shuttle

  18. UrbanTransport Solution An Experience From Prague | Jeremiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the urban transport problems in Prague in Czech Republic. Based on the result of the research conducted, it was found that with the collapsed of Communism in Czech Republic, there was an upsurge in the use of private cars which was not possible during communism because the law does not ...

  19. Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was discovered that urban road transport system in Nigeria is inefficient and grossly inadequate even after 46 years of becoming independent from Colonial Rule. The paper suggested the construction of more motor-able roads within cities in order to increase the network; encourage increased public and private ...

  20. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Circella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned. This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, the integration of parking strategies in a comprehensive vision for the future of a city may significantly improve the allocation of resources and the reduction of the overall environmental externalities. The role of parking in the strategic planning of cities is discussed through the analysis of several recent projects in the city of Bari (Italy. The paper discusses the way these projects are linked (or eventually not linked to broader strategies for urban mobility, and how they might be coordinated into policy packages that promote more sustainable transportation. The use of an integrated land use transportation modeling approach to simulate the long-term evolution of the urban area may significantly contribute to estimate the long-term effects of the proposed policies. This approach may successfully support the process of policy evaluation and the selection of the optimal strategies to implement.

  1. Urban development and transport disadvantage: Methodology to evaluate social transport needs in Latin American cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lizarraga, Carmen; Jaramillo, Ciro; Grindlay, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the theoretical framework for accessibility, social exclusion and provision of public transport. The socio-economic and urban characteristics of Latin American cities require the creation of specific indices to determine social needs for public transport. In the article an index of social transport needs is drawn up. It can be used to highlight a problem which is severely affecting wide groups in Latin America who suffer social exclusion aggravated by a deficient provisi...

  2. Regulation of Na+/K+ ATPase transport velocity by RNA editing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Colina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Because firing properties and metabolic rates vary widely, neurons require different transport rates from their Na(+/K(+ pumps in order to maintain ion homeostasis. In this study we show that Na(+/K(+ pump activity is tightly regulated by a novel process, RNA editing. Three codons within the squid Na(+/K(+ ATPase gene can be recoded at the RNA level, and the efficiency of conversion for each varies dramatically, and independently, between tissues. At one site, a highly conserved isoleucine in the seventh transmembrane span can be converted to a valine, a change that shifts the pump's intrinsic voltage dependence. Mechanistically, the removal of a single methyl group specifically targets the process of Na(+ release to the extracellular solution, causing a higher turnover rate at the resting membrane potential.

  3. Optimal urban networks via mass transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Buttazzo, Giuseppe; Stepanov, Eugene; Solimini, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recently much attention has been devoted to the optimization of transportation networks in a given geographic area. One assumes the distributions of population and of services/workplaces (i.e. the network's sources and sinks) are known, as well as the costs of movement with/without the network, and the cost of constructing/maintaining it. Both the long-term optimization and the short-term, "who goes where" optimization are considered. These models can also be adapted for the optimization of other types of networks, such as telecommunications, pipeline or drainage networks. In the monograph we study the most general problem settings, namely, when neither the shape nor even the topology of the network to be constructed is known a priori.

  4. Heuristic urban transportation network design method, a multilayer coevolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Manan, Mohd Shahrudin Abd; Li, Rong; Wu, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    The design of urban transportation networks plays a key role in the urban planning process, and the coevolution of urban networks has recently garnered significant attention in literature. However, most of these recent articles are based on networks that are essentially planar. In this research, we propose a heuristic multilayer urban network coevolution model with lower layer network and upper layer network that are associated with growth and stimulate one another. We first use the relative neighbourhood graph and the Gabriel graph to simulate the structure of rail and road networks, respectively. With simulation we find that when a specific number of nodes are added, the total travel cost ratio between an expanded network and the initial lower layer network has the lowest value. The cooperation strength Λ and the changeable parameter average operation speed ratio Θ show that transit users' route choices change dramatically through the coevolution process and that their decisions, in turn, affect the multilayer network structure. We also note that the simulated relation between the Gini coefficient of the betweenness centrality, Θ and Λ have an optimal point for network design. This research could inspire the analysis of urban network topology features and the assessment of urban growth trends.

  5. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  6. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  7. No link of serotonin 2C receptor editing to serotonin transporter genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyddon, R.; Cuppen, E.; Haroutunian, V.; Siever, L.J.; Dracheva, S.

    2010-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process, which has the potential to alter the function of encoded proteins. In particular, serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2cR) mRNA editing can produce 24 protein isoforms of varying functionality. Rodent studies have shown that 5-HT2cR editing is dynamically

  8. Review of methods and indicators in sustainable urban transport studies overview from 2000 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Adiatna Nadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attention of countries either the developed or developing countries on sustainable urban transport is becoming more popular. The purpose of paper is to review the methods and the indicators used for measuring performance of sustainable urban transport. This study is based on the literature review and the case study observation and also uses the quantitative assessment. It reviews the theoretical aspects of sustainability factors at various research works and performance indicator in urban transportation. The indicators were classified into two major categories: (i assessment methods in sustainable urban transport (SUT, and (ii basic of sustainability indicators for urban transport. This study found several types of analytical techniques for measuring sustainability indicators in urban transport. It also identify five indicators as basic element to measure sustainable urban transport performance i.e. traffic congestion, traffic air pollution, traffic noise pollution, traffic accidents and land consumption for transport infrastructure.

  9. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce...

  10. Technology of Urban, Interurban and Rural Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work will consider the significance of various publictransport modes, since different methods of travel that form thetransport system are interconnected. The application of thelevel of service in one mode influences other transport modesand changes depending on the type of travel and is divided inthree groups: urban, interurban and rural travel. In consideringthe significance of urban public transport there are three levelsof trip-end generation/attraction, with which six types of urbantravel can be identified. lnterurban travel is presented throughtwo main transport modes, rail and bus. Apart from businesstrips, air travel is relatively insignificant, primarily because ofthe prices and small distances. In rural areas, characterized bylow population density, there is the problem of travelling of theelderly people, as well as those without cars, as the difficulty ofproviding economic public transport services has increased becausethe number of carried passengers is small. This results inthe reduction in mobility and the quality of life. Attempts havebeen made to improve the standard of provision of public transportservices by introducing unconventional transport means.

  11. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  12. The IAEA transport regulations: main modifications included in the 1996 edition and the possible impact of its adoption in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Novo, R.G.; Bianchi, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This paper points out a comparative analysis between the requirements of the 1985 edition (as Amended 1990), in-force in almost all countries included Argentina, and the 1996 edition, that is foresee to put in-force 1st January 2001, of the Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The English version of the 1996 edition was published in December 1996 and the Spanish one in September 1997. Such edition was the culmination of a difficult consensus and harmonisation reached after an analysis process of the-years cycle between the IAEA Member Sates and related international organisations (United Nations, International Civil Aviation Organisation, International Air Transport Association, International Federation of Air Lines Pilots Associations, International Maritime Organisation) as well as regional organisations (Economic Commission for Europe, Commission of the European Communities). Both editions of the Regulations include a set of design, operational and administrative requirements that substantially do not differ as for their safety basic philosophy. However, the 1996 edition introduces numerous modifications of different magnitude, which will derive in technological, economic and operative consequences. Of such modifications the paper only analysed the relevant ones which update the state of art in the subject and allow the Regulations continue maintaining an acceptable level of control of the radiation, criticality and thermal hazards to persons, property and the environment during the transport of radioactive material. In addition, the paper briefly describes the possible impact that the main modifications induced in the 1996 edition of the Regulations should have, depending on the type of user considered either in Argentina or in other Latin America countries. However, it is desirable that the personal of competent authorities of each country involved in transport

  13. Transportation cost of anticoagulation clinic visits in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jamie M; Clemente, Jennifer; Sharma, Krishna P; Taylor, Thomas N; Garwood, Candice L

    2011-10-01

    Patients being managed on warfarin make frequent or regular visits to anticoagulation monitoring appointments. International studies have evaluated transportation cost and associated time related to anticoagulation clinic visits. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the cost of transportation to such clinic visits in the United States. To describe the methods of transportation and estimate the average total cost of transportation to and from an anticoagulation clinic in an urban setting. We prospectively conducted a survey of patients treated at the Harper Anticoagulation Clinic located in Detroit, Michigan, during November 2010. The survey was given to patients while waiting at their regularly scheduled clinic appointments and included questions regarding mode of transportation, distance traveled in miles, parking payment, and time missed from work for clinic appointments. The mean distance traveled was translated into cost assuming 50 cents per mile based on 2010 estimates by the Internal Revenue Service. Sixty patients responded to the 11-item survey; response rates for individual items varied because participants were instructed to skip questions that did not pertain to them. Of the 47 participants responding to demographic questions, 70.2% were female, and 46.8% were older than 60 years. Transportation by private vehicle (80.0%), either driven by patients (41.7%) or someone else (38.3%), was the most common method reported. Use of private automobile translated into a cost of $11.19 per round trip. Other means of transportation identified include a ride from a medical transportation service (10.0%), bus (5.0%), walking (3.3%), and taxi (1.7%). The mean (SD) distance traveled to the clinic for all methods of transportation was 8.34 (7.7) miles. We estimated the average cost of round-trip transportation to be $10.78 weighted for all transportation modes. This is a direct nonmedical cost that is paid for by most patients out of pocket. However, 9 of 44 (20

  14. Urban Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....

  15. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  16. Zero emission vehicle for dense grid urban public transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ovidio, G. [University of l' Aquila, Faculty of Engineering, DAU (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports the operating scheme of a public transportation vehicle with zero polluting emission, working in urban areas in a transport network which has short and regular stop spacing not greater than 400-500 m, and by segments covered by 'shuttle-type' vehicles with high operating frequencies. In particular, the traction of the vehicle, of electric type exclusively, is supported by the functional coupling of an accumulation and alimentation system composed respectively of Fuel Cell e Flywheel Energy Storage Unite. This study proposes and analyzes a typology of hybrid vehicle of which the configuration of traction is specialized for the exigency connected to the different phases of the motion. The study contains the analysis and the measurement of the principal components of the propulsion system to the vary of the loading capabilities of the vehicles and of the geometric characteristic of the transport network.

  17. Disruption and adaptation of urban transport networks from flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pregnolato Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport infrastructure networks are increasingly vulnerable to disruption from extreme rainfall events due to increasing surface water runoff from urbanization and changes in climate. Impacts from such disruptions typically extend far beyond the flood footprint, because of the interconnection and spatial extent of modern infrastructure. An integrated flood risk assessment couples high resolution information on depth and velocity from the CityCAT urban flood model with empirical analysis of vehicle speeds in different depths of flood water, to perturb a transport accessibility model and determine the impact of a given event on journey times across the urban area. A case study in Newcastle-upon-Tyne (UK shows that even minor flooding associate with a 1 in 10 year event can cause traffic disruptions of nearly half an hour. Two adaptation scenarios are subsequently tested (i hardening (i.e. flood protection a single major junction, (ii introduction of green roofs across all buildings. Both options have benefits in terms of reduced disruption, but for a 1 in 200 year event greening all roofs in the city provided only three times the benefit of protecting one critical road junction, highlighting the importance of understanding network attributes such as capacity and flows.

  18. Sustainable Urban Homecare Delivery with Different Means of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Szander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing number of requests for homecare services, care institutions struggle to perform in urban traffic, which eventually makes travel times longer and less predictable and, therefore, leads to a declining service quality. Homecare delivery scheduling and planning tools must lead to efficient reliable routes that allow the nursing crew to make the least efforts and use the fewest institutional resources, and that consider urban sustainability goals. For the case study, a European city was selected with 58,000 people of whom 73 patients received long-term care at homes provided by 11 homecare nurses. While maximising patient satisfaction, a homecare planning algorithm considered many means of transport and minimised travel times. The study reduced the total nurses’ working hours/day by a bus and walking combination, and by comparing if nurses ride e-bikes, which respectively reduced ~35–44% of the total time that nurses spent travelling. This result is applicable to an urban environment where the public transport network is sufficient and biking is allowed on a reasonable number of roads. Better homecare management can support the efficient use of resources of health care institutions, high-quality home care and aspirations towards livable communities and sustainable development.

  19. URBAN TRANSPORT AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN ASIAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira MORITA

    2004-01-01

    This paper comprises a GIS-based land use analysis on the relationship between urbanization and transport infrastructure development, b GPS-based travel behavior survey, and c interview survey on residents' satisfaction with transport infrastructures and services. It was shown that the current land use patterns largely differ depending on the existence of agricultural infrastructure development in the pre-urbanized stage. It was also confirmed by a GPS-based travel survey that travel behavior patterns in scattered development areas are significantly different from those in orderly development areas. The former areas lack not only road space but also a structured hierarchy of networks, resulting in inefficient travel behaviors with low speed and detours. The GPS survey gave clearer pictures to grasp the relationship between travel patterns of residents and their demand for the improvement of local transport services. It was indicated that local governments who are responsible for these demands often fail to meet them due to financial and institutional limitations of the current system.

  20. Urban transport, the environment and the network society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2005-01-01

    Based on the conclusions of a completed Ph.D. thesis and post doctoral research activities, this paper describes and analyses environmental objectives and strategies have materialised in three cases of local transport policy making and planning; in the urban areas of Lund (Sweden), Groningen (The...... succeeded over conventional and more hierarchical ways of public policymaking. As such, these cases offer illuminating examples of collaborative dialogue, expressed through networks in which argumentative approaches and increased reflexivity about the ´rules of the game´ have been central elements. Finally...

  1. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Circella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Monetary instruments to regulate parking are often used in central areas of cities to discourage long term parking of vehicles. The availability of parking facilities, and its cost, in fact represents an important element in the decision to operate private vehicles in urban areas. The availability of instruments and tools to check the outcome of modification in parking regulations, in terms of modification of car use, successfully support planners in the determination of the best policies to decrease congestion, and regulate the use of transportation in cities. Integrated land use transportation models may successfully contribute to the assessment of such policy packages. This contribution discusses the use of the model MARS-Bari (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator for the analysis of future scenarios of development of land use and transportation. MARS-Bari is a fast integrated land use transportation model, which is designed for applications in strategic planning of urban and metropolitan areas. The model was developed as a decision support tool, to help planners in the definition of sets of policies on land use and transportation, and promote equilibrated growth of the urban system (smart growth. MARS-Bari shares the basic assumptions of the Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator (MARS modeling system, so far successfully applied to many cities of both Europe and Asia. The structure of MARS-Bari is highly flexible on purpose, allowing multiple hypothesis tests of future scenarios and policies. MARS-Bari works at a high level of spatial aggregation, and its simulations are developed on a long-term time horizon (30-years in the current version. Two main sub-models run in MARS-Bari: they respectively simulate the development of land use, and the transportation system. Four different classes of users are distinguished in the transportation model, depending on the possible access to one or more of the five transportation modes: car

  2. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2011-01-01

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  3. Modelling the impact of cyber attacks on the traffic control centre of an urban automobile transport system by means of enhanced cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Yoana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the major role means of protection play for strengthening the cybersecurity of critical transport infrastructure by using the advanced method of simulation modelling. The simulation model of a Traffic Control Centre (TTC of an urban Automobile Transport System (ATS is created by the author in the Riverbed Modeler Academic Edition 17.5 computer networks simulation system and is exposed to the impact of a Denial-of-Service attack. In addition, logical conclusions have been made on the basis of the experimental results obtained and evaluated by comparative analysis with results from analogous previous studies.

  4. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  5. Urban mobility, socioeconomic and urban transport variables in metropolitan areas in three continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de; Nassi, C.D.

    2016-07-01

    Transportation is the soul of urban cities. Find sustainable ways to keep people moving in our cities is more important than ever. Historically, cities have developed in different ways. Each has its own personality and complexity. But in all cases, transport and mobility have played a key role in city life. Due to the relevance of mobility this article tries to establish the relationship between some variables. The method was developed by collecting, analyzing and comparing data on metropolitan regions in North America, South America, Europe and Oceania through a mathematical model. From each selected location the following data were gathered: population, area (km²), demographic density (inhab/km²), socio-economic aspects (annual GDP per capita), transport system (subway extension), number of trips per person per day and modal split (% non-motorized, % public transport and % private transport). In this study we analyze some variables that influence the number of trips per person per day. Understanding the associations between all the variables that influence the number of trips per person per day contributes the planners to determine whether changes are needed to improve in the transport system in the metropolitan region. (Author)

  6. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-01-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  7. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-07-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  8. A Selected List of Urban, Environmental and Social Problem Gaming/Simulations. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwachs, Barbara

    This revised list includes games/simulations for all age levels, though often most applicable at the secondary through adult levels. In her reviews of available products, the author limited her listings to those games/simulations which are useful for educational purposes and which focus directly on social concerns relative to urban and…

  9. Urban expansion and transportation : the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lue, Bin; de Roo, Gert

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in the development of China's growing megacities in the transport-related environmental costs due to rapid urban expansion. In light of this issue, the authors examine the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing. Based on household-survey data, the

  10. Getting the goods without the bads : freight transportation demand management strategies to reduce urban impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This project identifies and evaluatesstrategies to reduce the social costs associated with goods movement in urban areas by managing : transportation demand. Information about various freight transportation demand management (TDM) strategies was gath...

  11. Sustainability in urban transport plans. Case study: Monorail in a hillside area in Medellin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Jaramillo, J.D.

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important concepts today is the incorporation of sustainability in urban transport plans. This paper presents the importance that sustainable urban transport plans must have on mobility policy in cities. It also shows the factors that make a transportation mode like urban railway be sustainable. Finally, the Monorail project in the Metropolitan Green Belt (Medellín-Colombia) is presented, showing its implication on the mobility in this low-income region and its integration with urban and regional plans. (Author)

  12. Development of an Interdisciplinary Workshop in Urban Transportation. Final Substantive Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Joseph V.

    This project has developed an interdisciplinary graduate workshop in transportation engineering to acquaint students with problems of urban transportation and the role of various disciplines in dealing with these problems. It provides an opportunity for students from the fields of engineering, urban and regional planning, and economics to interact…

  13. Controlling Urban Sprawl with Integrated Approach of Space-Transport Development Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Verhaeghe, R.; Pel, A.J.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sprawl phenomenon has been a huge issue since 20th century characterized by a rapid and unbalanced settlement development with transportation network particularly in a suburban area. The improvement of public transport system is a major requirement to minimize urban sprawl. Academic

  14. Model to predict the radiological consequences of transportation of radioactive material through an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.; DuCharme, A.R.; Finley, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    A model has been developed which predicts the radiological consequences of the transportation of radioactive material in and around urban environments. This discussion of the model includes discussion of the following general topics: health effects from radiation exposure, urban area characterization, computation of dose resulting from normal transportation, computation of dose resulting from vehicular accidents or sabotage, and preliminary results and conclusions

  15. Urban Transport Policies: The Dutch Struggle with Market Failures and Policy Failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet

    2004-01-01

    Transport is characterised by market failures that are of particular importance in urban settings. This paper reviews market failures and policy failures in The Netherlands for various transport markets, including road transport, public transport and biking. Special attention is paid to parking

  16. Kuznets curve and urban transport the scope of I+M programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article possibilities of application of Kuznets Curve in the domain of urban development and urban transport are tested. Comparative analysis of GRP per capita, local air pollutant and CO2 emission levels, and different urban and transport development strategies of world metropolises, clearly shows that EKC concept and I+M programs are highly overrated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  17. Public Transportation Based Dynamic Urban Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ-PEÑA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and results of a mobile sensor based opportunistic urban pollution monitoring network that uses public transportation buses as platforms for its deployment. This work is an extended and improved version of the paper presented to the IDAACS’09 conference. It reports some aspects of the implementation of a single pollution sensor based sensing node prototype which was used for testing an opportunistic communications network and which was reported in depth elsewhere. More emphasis is given to the description of the basic sensing unit and its modular conversion into a sensing system able to acquire data on several pollutants as well as temperature, humidity and geo-location information. The software architecture developed around it in order to process the huge amounts of data the system produces is also described. The different prototypes were tested on the public transportation system of the city of Vigo and on multiple test runs around the city of A Coruña in the north-west of Spain producing very promising results.

  18. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains

    OpenAIRE

    Gooddy, D.C.; Macdonald, D.M.J.; Lapworth, D.J.; Bennett, S.A.; Griffiths, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain ...

  19. Bioclimatic transport stop: Urban equipment kit; Parada bioclimatica de transporte: Kit de equipamiento urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Maria V; Barroso, Helen; Bonvino, Michelangelo; Puerta, Marigabriela [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Related to the analysis of offer of the urban public transportation, quantity and quality variables are identified, finding in the last one, the related to bus stop designing and equipping. This is, which elements a bus stop has to count with for its insertion in the urban public transportation system: information for the user, bench, trash can, et cetera: generally omitting, relevant aspects that must be considerate in its design and insertion: 1) the urban public transport, 2) the climate variables and 3) renewable energy and environmental preservation. For this presentation, thermal evaluations were made, using a thermal analysis software on prototypes of urban public transportation bus stops existent in Maracaibo (1.6 Mhab.)-Venezuela, city characterized for its high sunning, which duration approximately the same between the day period and night period: and for a marine climate of temperature (27.70 Celsius degrees) and high relative humidity (75%), low precipitation (490 mm) and predominant nor-northeast winds. The year average values of solar radiation corresponds to 5,59 kw/m{sup 2} day for the global radiation, 3.53 kw/m{sup 2} day for the direct radiation (63.1%) and 2.06% kw/m{sup 2} day for the diffuse radiation (36.9%). The maximum average value was obtained in the month of March with 6.4 kw/m{sup 2} day and the minimum on October, 4.7 kw/m{sup 2} day. In the other hand calculations about energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of the conventional bus stop were made. It is proposed a bus stop design conceptualized as the bioclimatic condenser of the urban equipment. Where beside to comply its clearly determined transportation functions, it can conjunct: 1) complementary urban service activities, depending to its categorization in the urban public transportation system of Maracaibo; 2) orientation; 3) regulator of the urban microclima; and 4) area insertion of these. [Spanish] Dentro de lo que corresponde al analisis de la oferta de transporte publico

  20. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  1. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  2. Using emission functions in mathematical programming models for ustainable urban transportation: an application in bilevel optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hızır, Ahmet Esat; Hizir, Ahmet Esat

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability is an emerging issue as a direct consequence of the population increase in the world. Urban transport systems play a crucial role in maintaining sustainability. Recently, sustainable urban transportation has become a major research area. Most of these studies propose evaluation methods that use simulation tools to assess the sustainability of different transportation policies. Despite all studies, there seems to be lack of mathematical programming models to determine the optima...

  3. Peptide/Cas9 nanostructures for ribonucleoprotein cell membrane transport and gene edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostalé-Seijo, Irene; Louzao, Iria; Juanes, Marisa; Montenegro, Javier

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of RNA guided endonucleases has emerged as one of the most important tools for gene edition and biotechnology. The selectivity and simplicity of the CRISPR/Cas9 strategy allows the straightforward targeting and editing of particular loci in the cell genome without the requirement of protein engineering. However, the transfection of plasmids encoding the Cas9 and the guide RNA could lead to undesired permanent recombination and immunogenic responses. Therefore, the direct delivery of transient Cas9 ribonucleoprotein constitutes an advantageous strategy for gene edition and other potential therapeutic applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The covalent fusion of Cas9 with penetrating peptides requires multiple incubation steps with the target cells to achieve efficient levels of gene edition. These and other recent reports suggested that covalent conjugation of the anionic Cas9 ribonucleoprotein to cationic peptides would be associated with a hindered nuclease activity due to undesired electrostatic interactions. We here report a supramolecular strategy for the direct delivery of Cas9 by an amphiphilic penetrating peptide that was prepared by a hydrazone bond formation between a cationic peptide scaffold and a hydrophobic aldehyde tail. The peptide/protein non-covalent nanoparticles performed with similar efficiency and less toxicity than one of the best methods described to date. To the best of our knowledge this report constitutes the first supramolecular strategy for the direct delivery of Cas9 using a penetrating peptide vehicle. The results reported here confirmed that peptide amphiphilic vectors can deliver Cas9 in a single incubation step, with good efficiency and low toxicity. This work will encourage the search and development of conceptually new synthetic systems for transitory endonucleases direct delivery.

  4. URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT WITH THE USE OF ELECTRIC BUSES – DEVELOPMENT TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław KRAWIEC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The programing documents of the European Union determine the direction of transport systems development, including large cities and agglomerations. The context of these actions which aim to transform into ecologically clean and sustainable transport system is a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Assuming that public transport will significantly reduce the use of combustion-powered buses, studies on urban logistic enabling the use of electric buses for public transport are needed. The article presents the variants and scenarios for electric buses implementation in urban public transport, as well as the decision algorithm to support electric bus implementation based on technological, organisational, economic and ecological variables.

  5. Urban form, transportation and greenhouse gas emissions- Experiences in the Nordic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmaajaervi, I; Heinonen, S.; Lahti, P. [VTT, Building and Transport (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    The main objective of the project was to identify instruments to develop urban form and transportation systems in a sustainable way to decrease greenhouse gas emissions in the Nordic countries. Instruments can be found on different levels: national, regional and local. The main sectors are land use and transportation planning, land use and transportation policies, tax policy, co-operation, information dissemination, interaction, monitoring and early warning systems. Instruments concern for example control of urban development, supporting residential activities in city centres, control of location of shopping malls, preventing long commuting trips, reduction of transportation need and car dependency, promotion of walking, cycling and public transport and eco-managed telework. (au)

  6. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. Changes of the spatial organization, utilization and structure of cities, as well as of social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" on urban system Ćuprija-Jagodina-Paraćin at section Belgrade-Nis have been analysed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The guidances and options of urban systems and urban centres development policies in trans-European transport corridor, as well as possibilities to improve our planning system have been given. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  7. Research on assessment methods for urban public transport development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linghong; Dai, Hongna; Yao, Enjian; Jiang, Tian; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase in urban population, the urban travel demands in Chinese cities have been increasing dramatically. As a result, developing comprehensive urban transport systems becomes an inevitable choice to meet the growing urban travel demands. In urban transport systems, public transport plays the leading role to promote sustainable urban development. This paper aims to establish an assessment index system for the development level of urban public transport consisting of a target layer, a criterion layer, and an index layer. Review on existing literature shows that methods used in evaluating urban public transport structure are dominantly qualitative. To overcome this shortcoming, fuzzy mathematics method is used for describing qualitative issues quantitatively, and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used to quantify expert's subjective judgment. The assessment model is established based on the fuzzy AHP. The weight of each index is determined through the AHP and the degree of membership of each index through the fuzzy assessment method to obtain the fuzzy synthetic assessment matrix. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the rationality and practicability of the assessment system and the proposed assessment method.

  8. A long hard road? Urban freight transport challenges facing South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available shown very little interest in the increasingly severe freight transport problems facing urban areas, there is now growing interest in the logistics of collection and delivery services in towns and city centres....

  9. Applicability of CHSST Maglev technology for U.S. urban transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This report discusses the Chubu HSST technology applicability to U.S. urban transportation. This low speed system based on the principle of electromagnetic levitation by attractive suspension and propulsion by vehicle mounted linear induction motors ...

  10. Lifestyle as an Influential Factor to Urban Mobility Transport: a Case Study of Semarang City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismiyati, I.; Hermawan, F.

    2018-02-01

    Most of urban spatial structures in developing countries apparently face a typical phenomenon, as well as in Indonesia. The development of the urban spatial structure has the effects, namely to create polycentric pattern (sprawl). Moreover, communication technology believes that the factors of distance and density are highly considered in the organization of the urban structure. In other words, a distance problem is overcome by communication technology, in terms of interaction among people; in running their activities, mobility or distance is not a problem at all. Urban structure as path which is dependent is unable to intervene for an optimum form of urban structure because of dynamic of development objectives. In facts, lifestyle of inhabitant particularly concerning residential and vehicle ownership influences the mobility transport on the tremendous changes in developing countries. On the contrary, this research points out that mobility transport contributes to transportation problems as it becomes increasingly inefficient. Therefore, a sporadic traffic jam and increasing carbon emission issues have risen on the urban phenomenon. It is important to investigate the lifestyle, in terms of residential choice and vehicle ownership to reshape the urban spatial structure. The research aims to draw the urban spatial growth which extends to the phenomenon process toward polycentric pattern and inefficient transport mobility patterns triggering transportation problems in the context of Indonesia. The results confirm that lifestyle regarding residential choices to suburban area and vehicle ownership preference are unable to create the efficient mobility transport, either by cost, density consequences or vehicle ownership as orientation. This research recommends the local authority from multi-disciplinary sector, in particular public policy making to issue permission for authority of land use; residential area and transport agencies for reconciliation with regard to life

  11. High-capacity transport, floor area ratio and its relationship with urbanization of metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, B.L. de; Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de

    2016-07-01

    Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)

  12. Cable Connected Spinning Spacecraft, 1. the Canonical Equations, 2. Urban Mass Transportation, 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitchin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Work on the dynamics of cable-connected spinning spacecraft was completed by formulating the equations of motion by both the canonical equations and Lagrange's equations and programming them for numerical solution on a digital computer. These energy-based formulations will permit future addition of the effect of cable mass. Comparative runs indicate that the canonical formulation requires less computer time. Available literature on urban mass transportation was surveyed. Areas of the private rapid transit concept of urban transportation are also studied.

  13. COMPARISON OF SUSTAINABILITY BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT CONSIDERING URBAN STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Masanobu KII

    2003-01-01

    It is said that the car is convenient but consumes high-energy per passenger, while public transport is an environmentally friendly mode but needs high cost of investment and management. However, this view does not take account of urban structure such as population size and density. For instance, higher population density would cause congestion and consequent inconvenience for car usage. This may shift demand to public transport use. On the other hand, in a lower density of urban area, public...

  14. Low-Carbon Transportation Oriented Urban Spatial Structure: Theory, Model and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyao Ye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimising the spatial structure of cities to promote low-carbon travel is a primary goal of urban planning and construction innovation in the low-carbon era. There is a need for basic research on the structural characteristics that help to reduce motor traffic, thereby promoting energy conservation. We first review the existing literature on the influence of urban spatial structure on transport carbon dioxide emissions and summarise the influence mechanisms. We then present two low-carbon transportation oriented patterns of urban spatial structure including the traditional walking city and the modern transit metropolis, illustrated by case studies. Furthermore, we propose an improved model Green Transportation System Oriented Development (GTOD, which is an extension of traditional transit-oriented development (TOD and includes the additional features of a walking city and an emphasis on the integration of land use with a green transportation system, consisting of the public transportation and non-auto travel system. A compact urban form, effective mix of land use and appropriate scale of block are the basic structural features of a low-carbon transportation city. However, these features are only effective at promoting low-carbon transportation when integrated with the green traffic systems. Proper integration of the urban structural system with the green space system is also required. The optimal land use/transportation integration strategy is to divide traffic corridors with wedge-shaped green spaces and limit development along the transit corridors. This strategy forms the basis of the proposed urban structural model to promote low-carbon transportation and sustainable urban growth management.

  15. Measuring the impact of urban policies on transportation energy saving using a land use-transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Kii

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of a land-use transport model to the assessment of urban policies for building smart communities. First, we outline a model that explicitly formulates the actors' location-related decisions and travel behavior. Second, we apply this model to two urban policies – road pricing and land-use regulation – to assess their long-term impact on energy saving and sustainability using the case of a simplified synthetic city. Our study verifies that, under assumed conditions, the model has the capacity to assess urban policies on energy use and sustainability in a consistent fashion.

  16. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  17. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  18. Improvement of urban passenger transport ticketing systems by deploying intelligent transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jakubauskas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main advantages and disadvantages of conventional and intelligent ticketing systems and possible positive outcomes when introducing intelligent transport solutions – namely smart cards or e‑ticketing instead of conventional ones (paper tickets and magnetic cards are analysed in the paper. Two ideas of creating an intelligent ticketing system in an urban public transport are scrutinized. The first is electronic ticket and related equipment, the second – e-ticket and functional areas of it. In the article analysis has also been made on practical outcomes related with introduction of smart cards and e-ticketing. Practical tests and trials as well as a subsequent implementation of electronic tickets have proved unchallenged advantages of contactless smart cards against the contact ones. Nevertheless, a new age of modern technologies calls even for more effective solutions – namely virtual-ticketing systems that might be achieved through introduction of mobile technologies. Therefore, the main focus in the paper is made on the analysis of e-ticket.

  19. Regional disparity of urban passenger transport associated GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    With China’s urbanization and motorization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban passenger transport increased rapidly over recent years. As we estimated, China’s urban passenger transport associated motorized travel, energy consumption and lifecycle GHG emissions reached 2815 billion passenger kilometers (pkm), 77 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) and 335 million ton CO 2 equivalent in 2010, over half of which were located in eastern provinces. Over national level, GHG emissions by private passenger vehicles, business passenger vehicles, taxis, motorcycles, E-bikes, transit buses and urban rails accounted for 57.7%, 13.0%, 7.7%, 8.6%, 1.8%, 10.5% and 0.7% of the total. Significant regional disparity was observed. The province-level per capita GHG emissions ranged from 285 kg/capita in Guizhou to 1273 kg/capita in Beijing, with national average of 486 kg/capita. Depending on province context and local policy orientation, the motorization pathways of China’s several highest motorized provinces are quite diverse. We concluded that motorization rate and transport structure were the substantial factors determining urban passenger transport associated GHG emissions. Considering the great potential of urban passenger transport growth in China, policies guiding the optimization of transport structure should be in place with priority in eastern provinces. - Highlights: • Province-leveled motorized travel, energy consumption and GHG emissions in China were studied. • Significant regional disparities on urban passenger transport were observed. • Region-specific sustainable transport energy policies were discussed

  20. Macro-Level Modeling of Urban Transportation Safety: Case-Study of Mashhad (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transportation safety can be aimed at the planning stage in order to adopt safety management and evaluate the long-time policies. The main objective of this research was to make use of crash prediction models in urban transportation planning process. As such, it was attempted to gather data on the results of transportation master plan as well as Mashhad urban crash database. Two modelling method, generalized linear model with negative binomial distribution and geographically weighted regression, were considered as the methods used in this research. Trip variables, including trip by car, trip by bus, trip by bus services and trip by school services, were significant at 95%. The results indicated that both finalized models were competent in predicting urban crashes in Mashhad. Regarding to results urban transportation safety will be improved by changing the modal share for example from private car to bus. The application of the process presented in this study can improve the urban transportation safety management processes and lead to more accurate prediction in terms of crashes across urban traffic areas.

  1. Urban sprawl and its relationship with active transportation, physical activity and obesity in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-06-01

    Urban sprawl is a potential environmental influence on youth overweight/obesity. However, little is known about the association between urban sprawl and behaviours that influence obesity such as active transportation and physical activity. The study population consisted of 7,017 respondents aged 12 to 19 to the 2007/2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, living in Canada's 33 census metropolitan areas (CMAs). Factor analysis was used to obtain an urban sprawl score for each CMA, incorporating dwelling density, percentage of single or detached dwelling units, and percentage of the population living in the urban core. Multi-level logistic regression examined whether urban sprawl was associated with frequent active transportation (30 or more minutes a day), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (60 or more minutes a day), and overweight/obesity. Urban sprawl was associated with active transportation among 12- to 15-year-olds, with the relative odds of engaging in at least 30 minutes of active transportation per day increasing by 24% (95% CI: 10-39%) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in the urban sprawl score. For the entire sample aged 12 to 19, higher urban sprawl was associated with MVPA (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.20), but not with overweight/obesity (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.18). Urban sprawl was associated with active transportation and MVPA in Canadian youth, although in the opposite direction to what has been reported in the literature for adults.

  2. Crowding Valuation in Urban Tram and Bus Transportation based on Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yap, M.D.; Cats, O.; Yu, S; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Crowding in public transport can be of major influence on passengers’ travel experience and therefore affect route and mode choice. Therefore, it is important to understand how crowding in urban public transport is perceived by passengers. The availability of individual smart card transactions

  3. Analysis on the Chinese Urban Sustainable Development Demands for the Management Plan of Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵历男

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes the demands of the sustainable development and Chinese urban environmental protection for the management plan of intelligent transportation systems. The article also comments on how to work out the management plan of intelligent transportation systems with China's own characteristics.

  4. Assessment of CO 2 emission level in urban transport of Mekelle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transport plays a crucial role in accelerating development and improving quality of life by allowing ease transfer of people, goods and services. It is also one of the important preconditions for achieving developmental goals. This study therefore intends to assess the level of CO2 emissions in urban transport of Mekelle city.

  5. A covenant of halflings? developing a roadmap for the european urban transport goal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Schippl, Jens; Anderton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    ; and to phase them out by 2050; and “To achieve ‘essentially CO2- free city logistics’ in major urban centres by 2030.” This paper describes how the EU FP7 project TRANSFORUM conducted a stakeholder-driven process to produce a roadmap for the urban transport goal. A main conclusion was that the implementation......In the 2011 Transport Policy White Paper, the European Commission introduced ten goals for a more competitive and resource efficient transport system. One of the goal concerns urban transport, with the dual targets: “To halve the use of ‘conventionally-fuelled’ cars in urban transport by 2030...... of a roadmap for urban transport needs to adopt a broad and open approach, given the diversity among member states and cities across Europe. Also it was found that replacing conventional vehicles and fuels is an important but not sufficient strategy to reach the goal. A roadmap to reach towards the ‘halving...

  6. Analysing urban planning implications from an electric vehicles scenario for urban structure-, transport- and energy-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rid, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadtplanung und Entwerfen; Fachhochschule Erfurt (Germany). Fachgebiet Stadt- und Regionaloekonomie; Pesch, Franz; Wewer, Max; Sperle, Tilman [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadtplanung und Entwerfen

    2013-06-01

    electric vehicles in real world scenarios. However, a more holistic approach from the urban planning perspective is needed to make effective use of the potential benefits from electric-mobility. The ''urban typology for electric-mobility'' introduced here, can be used to evaluate potential benefits of electrio-mobility dependent on the urban structure in different cities. Also, it can be used in workshops or preliminary planning steps to facilitate planning processes and to include electro-mobility into sustainable transport schemes. Funded by the ''Electric Mobility Pilot Region Stuttgart'', this research was part of the Airfield Boblingen I Sindelfingen planning project. (orig.)

  7. Advisory material for the IAEA Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 Edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide advice on the application of the provisions of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6 (concerning the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material) in order to help achieve compliance with the regulatory standards. This document also reflects the corrections and changes implemented by the 1986 Supplement to the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Its intent is to describe methods, techniques and practices (citing any appropriate national and international standards) which can be considered a means of satisfying certain requirements. It should always be read as offering 'a way' or 'ways' rather than 'the unique way' of achieving compliance. The information provided is to be considered purely advisory and never mandatory, except where a competent authority may require use of any part or parts of the text. This document provides information about the technical requirements of the Regulations and about the methods and technology which may be employed to satisfy them, for the benefit of designers and manufacturers of packagings, consignors, carriers, competent authorities and others, i.e. it provides 'how' information

  8. The Fusion Model of Intelligent Transportation Systems Based on the Urban Traffic Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang-Dong; Wang, Tao

    On these issues unified representation of urban transport information using urban transport ontology, it defines the statute and the algebraic operations of semantic fusion in ontology level in order to achieve the fusion of urban traffic information in the semantic completeness and consistency. Thus this paper takes advantage of the semantic completeness of the ontology to build urban traffic ontology model with which we resolve the problems as ontology mergence and equivalence verification in semantic fusion of traffic information integration. Information integration in urban transport can increase the function of semantic fusion, and reduce the amount of data integration of urban traffic information as well enhance the efficiency and integrity of traffic information query for the help, through the practical application of intelligent traffic information integration platform of Changde city, the paper has practically proved that the semantic fusion based on ontology increases the effect and efficiency of the urban traffic information integration, reduces the storage quantity, and improve query efficiency and information completeness.

  9. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM; ZAHARA BATOOL

    2017-01-01

    This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in c...

  10. The rational operation of the urban transport line network by minimisation of the needed vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Daněk, Jan; Plevný, Miroslav; Teichmann, Dušan

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the urban transport line network is one of the fundamental problems in the traffic practice. Efficient functioning of the public mass transportation supported from the public sources in the towns is more urgent at present, when the individual automobile traffic leads to congestions in central parts of the cities. The demand to increase the culture of travelling in the public mass transportation requires, however, substantial costs. Therefore it is necessary to solve the ba...

  11. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective simulation of 'transport-land uses' policies in Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    The current trends of urban dynamics in the Third World are alarming with regard to climate change, because they are giving an increasingly important role to cars-to the detriment of public and non-motorized transportation. Yet this is the type of energy consumption that is expected to grow the fastest, in business-as-usual scenarios. How can these market-based urban trends be influenced? What level of emissions reduction can be achieved? This article shows that first, there is a relevant and urgent need to tackle the urban dynamics of cities in developing countries focusing on the 'transport-land uses' couple, and second, that existing transport technologies and decision-helping tools are already available to take up the climate change challenge. Through the application of an integrated 'transport-land uses' model, TRANUS, this study demonstrates that transit technologies affordable to an emerging city like Bangalore can significantly curb the trajectories of energy consumption and the ensuing carbon dioxide emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban planning. Furthermore, this study establishes that there are tools which are available to facilitate the necessary policy-making processes. These tools allow stakeholders to discuss different political alternatives integrating energy issues, based on quantitative assessments

  12. A case study predicting environmental impacts of urban transport planning in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shao, Li-guo; Xu, Ling; Shang, Jin-cheng

    2009-10-01

    Predicting environmental impacts is essential when performing an environmental assessment on urban transport planning. System dynamics (SD) is usually used to solve complex nonlinear problems. In this study, we utilized system dynamics (SD) to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with urban transport planning in Jilin City, China with respect to the local economy, society, transport, the environment and resources. To accomplish this, we generated simulation models comprising interrelated subsystems designed to utilize changes in the economy, society, road construction, changes in the number of vehicles, the capacity of the road network capacity, nitrogen oxides emission, traffic noise, land used for road construction and fuel consumption associated with traffic to estimate dynamic trends in the environmental impacts associated with Jilin's transport planning. Two simulation scenarios were then analyzed comparatively. The results of this study indicated that implementation of Jilin transport planning would improve the current urban traffic conditions and boost the local economy and development while benefiting the environment in Jilin City. In addition, comparative analysis of the two scenarios provided additional information that can be used to aid in scientific decision-making regarding which aspects of the transport planning to implement in Jilin City. This study demonstrates that our application of the SD method, which is referred to as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is feasible for use in urban transport planning.

  13. Activity-Based Costing Application in an Urban Mass Transport Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesko Boris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic overview of the application of Activity-Based Costing in an urban mass transport company which operates land public transport via buses and trolleys within the city. The case study was conducted using the Activity-Based Methodology in order to calculate the true cost of individual operations and to measure the profitability of particular transport lines. The case study analysis showed the possible effects of the application of the Activity-Based Costing for an urban mass transport company as well as the limitations of using the ABC methodology in the service industry. With regards to the application of the ABC methodology, the primary limitation of the accuracy of the conclusions is the quality of the non-financial information which had to be gathered throughout the implementation process. A basic limitation of the accurate data acquisition is the nature of the fare system of the transport company which does not allow the identification of the route that is taken by an individual passenger. The study illustrates the technique of ABC in urban mass transport and provides a real company example of information outputs of the ABC system. The users indicated that, the ABC model is very useful for profitability reporting and profit management. Also, the paper shows specific application of the Activity-Based Methodology in conditions of urban mass transport companies with regional specifics.

  14. Exclusions, exemptions and low specific activity material in the 1996 edition of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baekelandt, L.

    1997-01-01

    Exclusions and exemptions, total as well as partial, have always been part of the IAEA transport regulations, but these provisions were dispersed over various sections. In the 1996 edition of these regulations, some of these exclusions and exemptions have been kept unchanged, others have been changed and also, new ones have been added. This paper gives an overview of the exclusions and exemptions in the 1996 edition, the most important change with respect to the previous edition being the departure from the single exemption value of 70 Bq/g for all radionuclides to the radionuclide specific exemption values as specified in the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. As a consequence of this change, a new category of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material has been introduced. This paper also discusses the rationale of these changes to the regulations. (author)

  15. Indigenous Māori perspectives on urban transport patterns linked to health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raerino Ngāti Awa Te Arawa, K; Macmillan, Alex K; Jones Ngāti Kahungunu, Rhys G

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing body of research linking urban transport systems to inequities in health. However, there is a lack of research providing evidence of the effect of transport systems on indigenous family wellbeing. We examined the connections between urban transport and the health and wellbeing of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. We provide an indigenous exploration of current urban transport systems, with a particular focus on the impacts of car dependence and the need for culturally relevant travel. We interviewed nineteen Māori participants utilising qualitative research techniques underpinned by an indigenous research methodology (Kaupapa Māori). The data highlighted the importance of accessing cultural activities and sites relevant to 'being Māori', and issues with affordability and safety of public transport. Understanding the relationship between indigenous wellbeing and transport systems that goes further than limited discourses of inequity is essential to improving transport for indigenous wellbeing. Providing an indigenous voice in transport decision-making will make it more likely that indigenous health and wellbeing is prioritised in transport planning. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  17. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooddy, D C; Macdonald, D M J; Lapworth, D J; Bennett, S A; Griffiths, K J

    2014-10-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. 1964 Revised Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    In 1961 the International Atomic Energy Agency, within the framework of its statutory functions and in accordance with recommendations made by its Preparatory Commission and by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, published safety regulations which could be applied to the national and international transport of radio active materials by all means of transport. At the same time, the Director General of the Agency indicated that these regulations would be revised at appropriate intervals in consultation with Member States and the organizations concerned and invited suggestions for their improvement in the light of experience and increased knowledge. In preparing the revised regulations presented in this document, the Agency has received considerable support from its Member States and the organizations concerned, which have made extensive studies and suggestions in order to assist in its work. The Agency also convened several meetings of experts from its Member States and of representatives of a number of international organizations, and has been represented in several meetings convened by those organizations. In publishing the revised transport regulations which result from that co-ordinated effort, the Agency aims at proposing a lasting framework of principles and rules, complemented by appropriate technical data, acceptable for the safe transport of radio active materials by air, land and water. In particular, the developments which have been introduced concerning the packaging requirements, the nuclear safety criteria for the transport of fissile materials and the methods for testing packages should facilitate the international acceptance of packages by the authorities concerned. The Board of Governors of the Agency approved the revised regulations in June and September 1964. It authorized the Director General to apply them, as appropriate, to Agency operations and Agency assisted operations and to recommend to Member States and to the

  19. Rapid urbanization and the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Not only is Jakarta the largest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia, it is the also one of the most dynamic, though beset with most of the urban problems experienced in twenty-first century Southeast Asia. Batavia, colonial capital of the Netherland Indies in the first half of the 20th century was a small urban area of approximately 150,000 residents. In the second half, Batavia became Jakarta, the 28 million megacity capital of independent Indonesia. Among many urban problems, one major problem plagued Jakarta in the last two decades is traffic congestions. This paper discusses the extent to which rapid urbanization in Jakarta has contributed to the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta. The development of MRT could be viable solutions to alleviate the acute traffic jams in Jakarta. Jakarta will need to implement other innovative sustainable transportation policies including promoting active live through more walking and bicycling, carpool matching services, shuttle services, telecommuting and downzoning in downtown areas.

  20. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World : Beyond Megacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pojani, D.; Stead, D.

    2015-01-01

    Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable

  1. Security in the transport of radioactive material: Implementing guide. Spanish edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks

  2. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material. Implementing Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  3. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material. Implementing Guide (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  4. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooddy, D.C.; Macdonald, D.M.J.; Lapworth, D.J.; Bennett, S.A.; Griffiths, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. - Highlights: • Peri-urban floodplains have been found to

  5. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooddy, D.C., E-mail: dcg@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Macdonald, D.M.J.; Lapworth, D.J. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Bennett, S.A. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Griffiths, K.J. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. - Highlights: • Peri-urban floodplains have been found to

  6. Electre III method in assessment of variants of integrated urban public transport system in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna SOLECKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  8. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  9. An Economic Approach to Transportation and Urban Development in Metro Manila

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Lars Christian

    2001-01-01

    High population growth rate in Metro Manila has a direct effect on the intensity of urbanisation and development in the region and population is expected to reach 13 million by the year 2015. Urban congestion is one of the region's most pressing problems as air pollution has a major impact on public health and particularly affects children and the elderly. This study will give a broad description of transportation and urban development in Metro manila and thus contribute to improve the unders...

  10. Transport attitudes, residential preferences, and urban form effects on cycling and car use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Transport attitudes, residential preferences, and urban form effects on cycling and car use. Promotion of walking and cycling is part of policies at multiple levels and reasoned in public health as well as environmental sustainability outcomes. Urban form and neighborhood characteristics are thou....... Reduced car use seems to require a high degree of convenience of not driving – by means of very short, walkable distances to services...

  11. Perspective on an urban transportation strategy with BRT for developing cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Nakamura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system is one of the best strategies for urban transportation, especially in developing cities, mainly because of its cost-efficiency. Starting from Curitiba, Brazil in 1974, including Bogota, Colombia in 1999, many cities in Latin American Countries have implemented a BRT system. In almost all cases, BRT systems are working as a reliable high capacity service. In some cases, BRT systems are well coordinated with an urban transportation strategy framework and/or an urban planning strategy framework, integrating other transportation modes and land uses. Alternatively, there have been very few cases of BRT systems in Southeast Asian countries. Many cities considering implementation of BRT systems do not consider other urban transportation strategies such as Transit Oriented Development (TOD. The objective of the paper is to discuss the perspective of a BRT for developing cities. First, the paper reviews the history of BRT systems followed by a field survey of the results in Curitiba, mainly from an urban transportation and planning strategy point of view. Second, multimodal and inter-modal aspects are discussed, where the relationship with city buses, a balance between private car use and parking policies are emphasized. Third a framework of urban bus planning, management and operation is discussed considering the roles of public and private sectors based on the experiences of several developed cities. Finally, in terms of an urban planning strategy, reviewing the original and applied concepts of TOD, the authors discuss how a TOD strategy could work with BRT systems. The authors address the possibilities and limitations of BRT systems, especially in developing cities. More specific implications are presented in the case of medium sized cities of Southeast Asian countries.

  12. Impacts of Urban Transportation Mode Split on CO2 Emissions in Jinan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin He

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation—in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China’s Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU case, then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions—approximately 50% of the BAU

  13. An Overview of Problems and Solutions for Urban Freight Transport in Brazilian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise K. Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban freight transport is a challenge for Brazilian cities due to the lack of adequate planning for freight flow movement. Public managers also show negligence and a lack of awareness when dealing with urban logistics. Decision-support data on urban freight transport are still scarce, despite being of fundamental value to economic development. With this in mind, this paper presents problems and solutions regarding urban freight transport in Brazilian cities. Data were obtained through a survey conducted in nine cities and analysed by means of descriptive statistics and the successive intervals method. Additionally, a cluster analysis was performed to identify patterns regarding the typical characteristics of each city in order to compare and generalise the perception of retailers regarding problems and solutions at the national level. The results indicate divergent opinions among retailers from different cities, even from cities with similar socioeconomic profiles and urban dynamics. The municipalities which demonstrated the most similarities were (i Betim and Niteroi, in the Southeast of Brazil; (ii Palmas and Quixada, in the North and Northeast, respectively; and (iii Palmas and Caruaru, also in the North and Northeast. The results reinforce the importance of studying the local context and involving stakeholders in the process of planning urban logistics solutions.

  14. A closer look at urban transport. TERM 2013: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vicente, A.

    2013-12-01

    The EEA works in the transport area to assess the impacts of the sector on the human health and the environment. This work also allows the EEA to monitor the progress of integrating transport and environmental policies, and informing the EU, EEA member countries and the public about such progress. This is achieved by the production of relevant indicators that track progress towards policy targets for transport related to the environment, as well as through the elaboration of periodic assessments that cover all transport modes and the impacts of transport on the environment. The annual TERM report aims to enable policymakers to gauge the progress of those policies aiming to improve the environmental performance of the transport system as a whole. TERM 2013, has two distinct parts. Part A provides an annual assessment of the EU's transport and environment policies based on the TERM-CSI, a selection of 12 indicators from the broader set of EEA transport indicators to enabling monitoring of the most important aspects of transport. Part B focuses on urban transport and its effects on the environment. (LN)

  15. Impacts of urbanization on national transport and road energy use: Evidence from low, middle and high income countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumanyvong, Phetkeo; Kaneko, Shinji; Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2012-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to investigate quantitatively and systematically the impact of urbanization on transport energy use for countries of different stages of economic development. This paper examines the influence of urbanization on national transport and road energy use for low, middle and high income countries during 1975–2005, using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model. After controlling for population size, income per capita and the share of services in the economy, the main results suggest that urbanization influences national transport and road energy use positively. However, the magnitude of its influence varies among the three income groups. Changes in urbanization appear to have a greater impact on transport and road energy use in the high income group than in the other groups. Surprisingly, the urbanization elasticities of transport and road energy use in the middle income group are smaller than those of the low income group. This study not only sheds further light on the existing literature, but also provides policy makers with insightful information on the link between urbanization and transport energy use at the three different stages of development. - Highlights: ► Overall, urbanization increases national transport and road energy use. ► Urbanization elasticities of transport energy use differ across development stages. ► Urbanization elasticities in high-income group are higher than in other groups.

  16. Designed technological systems: the cases of urban transportation in Copenhagen and Bogotá

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    accomplished in two different parts of the planet: in the city of Bogotá, in Colombia, the first mass bus rapid transit system was designed, built and put into operation becoming the most visible icon of a great urban transformation of the 7 million inhabitants metropolis; in the city of Copenhagen, in Denmark...... is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences in the life of cities and citizens. Thus a problem that is often outlined in technical terms...

  17. Success and failures in urban transport planning in Europe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strategies do not solve but create problems and are cost-ineffective. Sustainability tends to .... Equity between cars and public transport would be necessary everywhere. This means the ... recreation and business areas. 3.3 Organization ...

  18. UrbanTransport Solution An Experience From Prague

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    Based on the result of the research ... associated with road transport like its impact on environment ..... Prague is utilizing a variety of marketing strategies used for many years in ... at strategic metro stations providing customers with maps , time ...

  19. Theorizing the Concept of Urban Public Transportation Institutional Framework in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahman Noor Ashikin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends in transportation have been changing and will continue to change over the years. Urban dwellers in developing countries require and demand for mobility and accessibility at the same growth rate of these urban areas. Often, this demand is accommodated by the increased number of private vehicles. Development of a country is closely linked with the transportation system facilities thus will have a positive impact on the economic growth and social fabric of a country. The traffic issues are always associated with private vehicles especially in any developing cities such as the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. A practical, efficient and effective transport system includes traffic management, public transport, road network and infrastructure. However, sadly, at present, the traffic problems in Malaysia are resulted from ineffective public transport system which is not methodically integrated from one place to another, therefore, forcing the people to use private vehicles for daily exercise. An integrated and comprehensive approach is required as it enhances the regulatory framework, planning structure and level of services delivered. For that reason, this paper reviews the magnitude of urban public transportation institutional framework in order to improve the people’s mobility, also to respond to the major problem of urban public transportation in the major city of Malaysia. This study therefore applies a case study design and relies very much on qualitative data encompassing policies and guidelines. The findings were drawn from an early investigation of the Malaysian institutional public transport framework through literature review which looks closely into the management structure, as well as the implementation of public transportation system and its enforcement.

  20. An empirical study of direct rebound effect for passenger transport in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Transport sector accounts for about 8% of total energy consumption in China and this share will likely increase in the visible future. Improving energy efficiency has been considered as a major way for reducing transport energy use, whereas its effectiveness might be affected by the rebound effect. This paper estimates the direct rebound effect for passenger transport in urban China by using the linear approximation of the Almost Ideal Demand System model and simulation analysis. Our empirical results reveal the existence of direct rebound effect for passenger transport in urban China. A majority of the expected reduction in transport energy consumption from efficiency improvement could be offset due to the existence of rebound effect. We have further investigated the relationship between the magnitude of direct rebound effect and households' expenditure. It was found that the direct rebound effect for passenger transport tends to decline with the increase of per capita household consumption expenditure. - Highlights: ► The magnitude of direct rebound effect for urban passenger transport in China is 96%. ► The rebound effect in China could be larger than that in developed countries. ► The rebound effect in China declined with the increase of per capita expenditure.

  1. Environmental impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, N.C.; Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive material transport in urban areas is investigated and the specific urban features which influence environmental impacts are addressed. These features include the geographic and demographic make-up, and vehicular population and transportation patterns in the area. Previous efforts have not identified a most important population exposure pathway or group. This assessment examines several pathways and a number of urban specific population groups to evaluate their relative significance. In addition, because different causative events contribute to the overall environmental impacts, this assessment addresses four of these: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors, and sabotage or malevolent acts. Not only does radioactive material transport produce radiological and economic consequences but also it can have social impacts. The objective of this study is to examine both the quantitative environmental impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas and the more subjective social effects of this process. The social impacts assessment was performed by Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Seattle, Washington and their conclusions are only summarized here

  2. Transportation challenges for urban students with disabilities: parent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Benjamin C; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D; Brubacher, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored parent perspectives of the transportation difficulties students with disabilities experienced getting to and around school. Participants were parents of predominantly African American and Latino/a high school youth with disabilities from low income neighborhoods. Content analysis of 14 meetings with 5 to 12 parents sponsored by the school district revealed five primary themes concerning transportation: the role of aides, exclusion from school programming, scheduling problems, equipment problems, and physical safety issues. Findings are discussed in regard to students' social and emotional experiences at school. Implications for school policy include improving the integration of transportation within inclusion best practice models. Incorporating parent perspectives can help school administrators and staff enrich the quality of inclusive, socially just education for students with disabilities.

  3. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined...

  4. Factors influencing the control strategy of hybrid drive of urban public transport buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, Dalibor; Mruzek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of each drives is dependent on many factors. Hybrid drives and specially the drives of urban public transport may be affected by other factors given by transport infrastructure or operational conditions. These factors condition the suitable configuration of the individual elements of hybrid drive and the establishment of good control strategy of such drive. The study of influencing factors of the control strategy is the aim of this paper. (full text)

  5. System dynamics modeling of the impact of Internet-of-Things on intelligent urban transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Urban transportation systems are at the cusp of a major transformation that capitalizes on the proliferation of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), autonomous and cooperative vehicular and intelligent roadway technologies, advanced traffic management systems, and big data analytics. The benefits of these smart-transportation technologies were investigated using System Dynamics modeling, with particular emphasis towards vehicle sharing, intelligent highway systems, and smart-parking solutions. The m...

  6. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers : Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more

  7. Theme 10: greenhouse effect transport policies and urban organization; Theme 10: effet de serre politiques de deplacements et organisation urbaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document describes the reference framework of the theme 10 ''greenhouse effect, transport policies and urban organization'' which is a part of the urban transports interface. It presents the specific actions realized by the theme 10 for a future integration in theme 1, 5 and 8. (A.L.B.)

  8. Multi-criteria appraisal of multi-modal urban public transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) modelling framework for the appraisal of multi-modal urban public transportation services. MCDM is commonly used to obtain choice alternatives that satisfy a range of performance indicators. The framework embraces both compensatory and

  9. Transport of Escherichia Coli and solutes during waste water infiltration in an urban alluvial aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J.W.A.; van Herwerden, M.; Kebtie, M.; Noman, A.; Schrijven, J.F.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recharge of waste water in an unconsolidated poorly sorted alluvial aquifer is a complex process, both physically and hydrochemically. The aim of this paper is to analyse and conceptualise vertical transport mechanisms taking place in an urban area of extensive wastewater infiltration by analysing

  10. Scheduling of inspectors for ticket spot checking in urban rail transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Clausen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A central issue for operators of passenger transportation in urban rail is balancing the income from tickets against the cost of the operation. The main part of the income except for governmental subsides comes from sales of tickets. There are various ways to ensure that all passengers carry valid...

  11. Multi-agent control of urban transportation networks and of hybrid systems with limited information sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing efficient methods for control of large-scale systems by employing state-of-the-art control methods and optimization techniques. This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, we address dynamic traffic routing for urban transportation networks. In the second

  12. Financing urban transportation infrastructure in a multi-actors environment : the role of value capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roukouni, A.; Macharis, Cathy; Basbas, Socrates; Stephanis, Basil; Mintsis, George

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: A family of innovative financial mechanisms and tools for urban public transport, based on the value increment caused by enhanced accessibility, are lately gaining much popularity as a solution to the challenges posed by public financial resources’ shrinkage: Value Capture Finance (VCF).

  13. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt... standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  14. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt... standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  15. Developments for medium-capacity urban public transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calverley, H B

    1979-11-01

    Light guideway transit (LGT), that is, automatically operated urban electric vehicles carrying 12 to 70 passengers via elevated guideways or underground tunnels, with stations 250 to 800 meters apart, and self-contained during off hours as regards propulsion and control, could help relieve future energy demands. Over 30 LGT systems are currently under development, and their various mechanical, electrical, and power-source (three-phase distribution, thyristor phase-angle control and dc rotating motors) aspects are presented. Developments in present-day trolleys, battery buses (lead-acid, alkaline), combustion-engined buses, and hybrid vehicles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on energy, such as its mechanical storage by flywheels during regenerative braking. Specific requirements of future LGT systems, including vehicle support systems (by magnetic levitation using dc magnets, air support by either cushion or suction, pneumatic tires, steel wheels, or above-ground suspension), headway and line capacity, junction switching, and automatic vehicle control are discussed.

  16. Model to predict radiological consequences of transportation accidents involving dispersal of radioactive material in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of accidental releases of radioactive material which may result from transportation accidents in high-density urban areas is influenced by several urban characteristics which make computer simulation the calculational method of choice. These urban features fall into four categories. Each of these categories contains time- and location-dependent parameters which must be coupled to the actual time and location of the release in the calculation of the anticipated radiological consequences. Due to the large number of dependent parameters a computer model, METRAN, has been developed to quantify these radiological consequences. Rather than attempt to describe an urban area as a single entity, a specific urban area is subdivided into a set of cells of fixed size to permit more detailed characterization. Initially, the study area is subdivided into a set of 2-dimensional cells. A uniform set of time-dependent physical characteristics which describe the land use, population distribution, traffic density, etc., within that cell are then computed from various data sources. The METRAN code incorporates several details of urban areas. A principal limitation of the analysis is the limited availability of accurate information to use as input data. Although the code was originally developed to analyze dispersal of radioactive material, it is currently being evaluated for use in analyzing the effects of dispersal of other hazardous materials in both urban and rural areas

  17. Desirability and feasibility of sustainable urban transport systems. An expert-based strategic scenario approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Ouwersloot, H.; Rienstra, S.A. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    Current trends in transport indicate that the system is moving away from sustainability and that major changes are necessary to make the transport system more compatible with environmental sustainability. Main problems may occur in urban transport, where not many promising solutions are expected, while the problems are severe. In view of the great number of uncertainties, we will in our paper resort to scenarios. In the paper, expert scenarios, which lead to a sustainable transport system are constructed by applying the recently developed `Spider model`. Based on a set of distinct characteristics, leading to eight axes in the spatial, institutional, economic and social-psychological field, an evaluation framework is constructed, which visualizes the driving forces that largely influence the future of the transport system. Next, expected and desired scenarios are constructed by means of opinions of Dutch transport experts - both average scenarios and scenarios of segments of the respondents - which have been investigated by means of a survey. The expected scenarios indicate that many current trends will continue, while the transport system is largely the same as the current one. The desired scenarios on the other hand, suggest the emergence and the need for a more collective system, in which also many new modes are operating. In the paper the resulting urban transport systems are also discussed. By calculating the CO2 emissions in the average expected and desired scenario, it appears that the expected scenario does not lead to a large scale reduction of those emissions; the desired scenario however, may lead to a large scale reduction of the emissions. The conclusion is that the differences in expert opinion are small and that the road towards a sustainable (urban) transport system is still far away, although the compact city concept may perhaps offer some solution. 6 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  18. Transportation noise and exposed population of an urban area in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Joon Hee; Chang, Seo Il; Kim, Minho; Holt, James B; Seong, Jeong C

    2011-02-01

    Using noise prediction models, we explored the transportation noise levels of Youngdeungpo-gu, an urbanized area of Seoul Metropolitan City in the Republic of Korea. In addition, we estimated the population exposed to transportation noise levels and determined how many people are vulnerable to noise levels that would cause serious annoyance and sleep disturbance. Compared with the World Health Organization [WHO] recommended levels, the daytime and nighttime transportation noise levels were still high enough to have the two psychosocial effects on people when considering the recommended levels of the World Health Organization (WHO; 55 decibels [dB[A

  19. Energy efficiency of urban transportation system in Xiamen, China. An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanxin; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Casazza, Marco; Cui, Shenghui; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated life cycle approach is used to study Urban Transport Metabolism (UTM). • A selection of different material, energy and environmental assessment methods is synergically applied. • The study is based on an accurate inventory of infrastructure, machinery and operative resource costs. • Results show that the different methods provide much needed insight into different aspects of UTM. • Innovative Bus Rapid Transport shows better resource and environmental performance than Normal Bus Transport system. - Abstract: An integrated life cycle approach framework, including material flow analysis (MFA), Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), exergy analysis (EXA), Emergy Assessment (EMA), and emissions (EMI) has been constructed and applied to examine the energy efficiency of high speed urban bus transportation systems compared to conventional bus transport in the city of Xiamen, Fujian province, China. This paper explores the consistency of the results achieved by means of several evaluation methods, and explores the sustainability of innovation in urban public transportation systems. The case study dealt with in this paper is a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system compared to Normal Bus Transit (NBT). All the analyses have been performed based on a common yearly database of natural resources, material, labor, energy and fuel input flows used in all life cycle phases (resource extraction, processing and manufacturing, use and end of life) of the infrastructure, vehicle and vehicle fuel. Cumulative energy, material and environmental support demands of transport are accounted for. Selected pressure indicators are compared to yield a comprehensive picture of the public transportation system. Results show that Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) shows much better energy and environmental performance than NBT, as indicated by the set of sustainability indicators calculated by means of our integrated approach. This is because of the higher efficiency of such

  20. Urban Mobility Analysis on Efficiency and Sustainability by Means of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branea, Ana-Maria; Gaman, Marius; Badescu, Stefana

    2017-10-01

    Patterns of urban land use are inherently linked to the predominantly used means of transportation, both generating and being generated themselves. While each mode of transportation shapes a different development typology a clear understanding of their interrelations and dependencies is needed in order to create a comprehensive mobility strategy. The study proposes a 15-criteria analysis framework developed to identify and quantify the main modes of transportation’s key aspects. The analysis framework was applied to a yearlong research on Timisoara, Romania, comprising hard, quantitative data, digital simulations and mobility pattern analysis and soft data, quality assessment and perceived needs and satisfaction levels. The research was carried out in clear opposition to the national trend of official mobility strategies focusing on accommodating increased levels of car traffic on the underdeveloped existing roads infrastructure. By analysing the efficiency and sustainability of all four main modes of transportation the results offer a holistic comprehensive view. While, despite current practices, no mobility strategy can focus on a single means of transportation, the article will only present in detail the research on cycling, infrastructure and use, as it is the most underdeveloped and least discussed at the national level and proven through our study to be the most efficient for a city of Timisoara’s size and characteristics. By identifying a clear link between urban land use patterns, infrastructure quality and perceptions and the most efficient means of transportation for each particular city type mobility strategies could shift the trend of urban development towards a more sustainable one.

  1. The City from the Wire the Aerial Cable Transport for the Urban Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban transfer by using ropeways can produce impacts and externalities which, if well-managed, can trigger processes reliever, sustainable development and promoting tourism inside the city. The article starts from the consideration of urban transport by ropeways as a viable, effective alternative to the collective transfer among different areas of the city, particularly in those cities characterized by unique morphological or hydrographic territory which are fit for being overcome by mobility systems at high altitude. These features, in many international urban contexts, also contribute to enhance the amenity and the urban appeal. The paper intends to underline how the ropeways can become an efficient urban transport system between urban sites, often placed at different heights and for which there is a less accessibility by ground, and at the same time, a fascinating way of tourist mobility that allow people to observe the city from above (moving on it, in a sort of dynamic view. This interesting functional convergence has been often highlighted in the studies conducted on this mode of transportation, ,which in the past was considered one  of the real possibilities for urban moving. Many cities are characterized by this type of mobility and within which existing systems of lifts, oblique connections between parts of the city are provided by urbansystems, lifts, cable cars, escalators, moving walkways, etc.. A focus is also provided in relation to the ropeways, currently operating in many cities around the world, highlighting the effectiveness of mobility solutions at high altitude, although not necessarily intended for the slope, taken in metropolitan contexts outside of Europe since the Seventies. Furthermore a specific attention it is payed to the plants currently disused in Turin and in Naples with a special regard to the possible recovery prospects in a new urban mobility system. For the city of Naples it is presented also a new project

  2. Space evolution model and empirical analysis of an urban public transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Shao, Feng-jing; Sun, Ren-cheng; Li, Shu-jing

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the space evolution of an urban public transport network, using empirical evidence and a simulation model validated on that data. Public transport patterns primarily depend on traffic spatial-distribution, demands of passengers and expected utility of investors. Evolution is an iterative process of satisfying the needs of passengers and investors based on a given traffic spatial-distribution. The temporal change of urban public transport network is evaluated both using topological measures and spatial ones. The simulation model is validated using empirical data from nine big cities in China. Statistical analyses on topological and spatial attributes suggest that an evolution network with traffic demands characterized by power-law numerical values which distribute in a mode of concentric circles tallies well with these nine cities.

  3. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  4. The Factors Influencing Transport Energy Consumption in Urban Areas: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport energy consumption accounts for about one third of total energy consumption in EU. Despite significant advances in transport technology and fuel formulation, transport energy consumption has increased in most EU countries over the last three decades. This increase in consumption occurred as a result of factors such as higher car ownership, a growth in automobile use and an increase in vehicle distances traveled. As travel and land-use are a function of one another, it is often hypothesized that changing urban structure can result in changes in energy consumption. Understanding how different land use characteristics may influence travel behaviour and the corresponding energy consumption is crucial for planners and policy makers in order to develop strategic actions to shrink the environmental footprint of the urban transportation sector. The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the connections between land use, travel behavior and energy consumption. In particular, this paper seeks to identify the determinants of transport energy consumption in urban areas by reviewing evidence from empirical studies. To this aim, nine characteristics of land use are presented and their effects on both travel behaviour and energy use are discussed Our review shown that, in contrast to the focus on the effect of the built environment on travel, only few researchers have empirically investigated the linkage between the built environment and transportation energy use. The research described in this paper has been developed within the PON04a2_E Smart Energy Master project. It represents part of a much broader research project aimed at the development of an integrated model of urban energy efficiency.

  5. Electric buses - An energy efficient urban transportation means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Reinhart [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Transportation Studies, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Bus transit systems with electric traction are an important contribution to the post fossil fuel mobility. Most renewable energy sources provide energy in the form of electricity. Electric motors thus have promise in the development of the way ''beyond oil''. The reactivation of trolley bus systems - grid bounded but also catenary free for short distances - paves this way. The design of modern trolley bus operations overcomes the existing disadvantages of conventional buses using fossil fuel. Germany has an efficient industry in this field, that offers braking energy recovery and energy storage in modern supercapacitors as well as technical and organisational innovations for a local emission free and a low noise transit system. Gentle but powerful when starting and braking, the trolley bus is cost effective and easy to integrate into an existing infrastructure. Such an electric bus system is ecological, customer-friendly and suitable for cities. It has a high economic efficiency and it also expands the traffic planning field towards an ecological future technology. This paper shows examples at home and abroad how electric buses achieve an energy solving modern urban traffic. It gives insights into technical developments of electric vehicle equipment, cateneries with fast driving handling characteristics and the use of plain electric and hybrid powertrains. (author)

  6. Calculating the Contribution Rate of Intelligent Transportation System in Improving Urban Traffic Smooth Based on Advanced DID Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-wei; Yun, Jun; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of intelligent transportation system around the world, which helps to relieve urban traffic congestion problems. For instance, many mega-cities in China have devoted a large amount of money and resources to the development of intelligent transportation system. This poses an intriguing and important issue: how to measure and quantify the contribution of intelligent transportation system to the urban city, which is still a puzzle. This paper pro...

  7. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Ijaz; Guelen, Guercan

    2007-01-01

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  8. From myth to science in urban and transport planning: from uncontrolled to controlled and responsible urban development in transport planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoflacher, Hermann

    2009-03-01

    Fossil energy use for mechanical transport modes enhanced travel speed far above human evolutionary experience, which is walking speed. Transport became faster and more convenient for people and industry. But planning had to be done without knowing the effects of these new modes. Individual experiences were extrapolated to the system and myths were created, like 'growth of mobility', 'time saving by speed' and 'freedom of modal choice'. Scientific based analysis show that these are real myths. These effects do not exist in the system. The number of trips is constant, travel time can not be saved in the system; speed lengthens distances and freedom of choice is limited by human evolution. Benefits from time saving can not be calculated any more and car traffic flow is only the effect of mistakes in parking organisation.

  9. Transportation and socioemotional well-being of urban students with and without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Benjamin C; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which transportation difficulties were associated with social, psychological, and academic experiences of urban, at-risk students who recently experienced a school transition. Participants included 165 predominantly African American and Latino/a high school youth with and without disabilities, a critical population for community psychology to address given their likelihood of multiple marginalizations. Results suggested transportation problems within school predicted more school stressors and aggressive behavior. Transportation problems to and from school predicted fewer school resources, less school belonging, and more school stressors, anxiety, and depression. Greater time to get to school predicted fewer school resources, less school belonging, and more depressive symptoms. This study demonstrates the importance of including transportation in how the school day is conceptualized, and offers several implications for how transportation services can be best addressed.

  10. Integration of cabs and hired cars in urban transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer,

    1984-01-01

    Integrating taxis and limousine services into the public transit system has become a major goal in designing new forms of public transportation. Expanding the spectrum of possible use for these vehicles - for both scheduled and on-demand service - requires, first of all, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the current state of affairs in this area. Administrative, organizational, technical, and legal issues as well as the respective traffic patterns had to be investigated. This investigation was to find out if, and in what ways, taxis and limousine services could actually be incorporated into the public transit system. In addition, the results were interpreted against the background of experiments and tentative models for regular, scheduled and supplementary public transit. As a result, we developed a generalized concept for integrating the two systems and proposed possible forms of service, organization, and financial calculation. Included were legal issues and comments on contractual relations between the partners.

  11. THE CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY RECOVERY ELECTRIFIED URBAN TRANSPORT DURING THE INSTALLATION DRIVE FOR TRACTION SUBSTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sulim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a great attention is paid to increasing of energy efficiency at operated electrified urban transport. Perspective direction for increasing energy efficiency at that type of transport is the application of regenerative braking. For additional increasing of energy efficiency there were suggested the use of capacitive drive on tires of traction substation. One of the main task is the analysis of energy recovery application  with drive and without it.These analysis demonstrated that the calculation algorithms don’t allow in the full volume to carry out calculations of amount and cost of energy recovery without drive and with it. That is why we see the current interest to this topic. The purpose of work is to create methods of algorithms calculation for definite amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport due to definite regime of motion on wayside. There is algorithm developed, which allow to calculate amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport on wayside during the installation capacitive drive at traction substation. On the basis of developed algorithm for the definite regime of wagon motion of subway there were fulfilled the example of energy recovery amount and its cost calculation, among them with limited energy intensity drive, when there are 4 trains on wayside simultaneously.

  12. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  13. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  14. Urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential: A case study for Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Binbin; Du, Huibin; Ma, Shoufeng; Fan, Ying; Broadstock, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential to reduce urban passenger transport is projected between 2010 and 2040. • Four scenarios reflecting different policy mixes are considered. • The potential for energy conservation and emission reductions are obtained. • Vehicle population regulation is most effective in energy saving and reducing overall GHG. • Emission standards are the most effective measure to reduce pollutant emissions. - Abstract: With rapid growth of the vehicle population, urban passenger transport in China is largely responsible for increases in energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and also atmospheric pollutants (NO x , CO, HC, PM). In this paper, we first develop an urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential evaluation model using the “Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)” tool; and then take Tianjin city as an empirical case to evaluate the reduction potential of final energy consumption, GHG emissions and pollutants emissions of Tianjin’s urban passenger transport sector between 2010 and 2040 under four scenarios, i.e. BAU (business as usual) scenario, PP (the 12th five-year plan policy) scenario, CP (comprehensive policy) scenario and HP (hybrid policy of PP and CP) scenario. The results show that due to the public transport promotion, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in 2040 can be reduced by 22% and 22.6% in the PP scenario, compared to BAU. The largest reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 and atmospheric pollutants emissions can be achieved under CP scenario, in which vehicle population regulation is the most effective to be implemented. Emissions standard regulation is the most effective measure to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions in all the scenarios and green energy promotion is especially effective to reduce NO x and PM

  15. Advantages of electrical propulsion applied to the urban transportation with express lines; Vantagens da propulsao eletrica aplicada ao transporte urbano em linhas expressas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca; Rodrigues, Joaquim Augusto Pinto; Henriques Junior, Mauricio F.; Dresch, Patricia Miranda; Dantas, Fabricio dos Santos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Energia], E-mail: energia@int.gov.br; Bernardes, Fernanda Manhaes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper intends to compare the various possible solutions for urban bus propulsion under the environmental aspects (gaseous emissions, vibrations and noises), energy efficiency and energetic operational costs, facing the evident signals of energy inefficiency and environmental limitations presented at urban highway transports of large cities.

  16. Model and Empirical Study on Several Urban Public Transport Networks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yimin; Ding, Zhuo

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the empirical investigation results on the urban public transport networks (PTNs) and propose a model to understand the results obtained. We investigate some urban public traffic networks in China, which are the urban public traffic networks of Beijing, Guangzhou, Wuhan and etc. The empirical results on the big cities show that the accumulative act-degree distributions of PTNs take neither power function forms, nor exponential function forms, but they are described by a shifted power function, and the accumulative act-degree distributions of PTNs in medium-sized or small cities follow the same law. In the end, we propose a model to show a possible evolutionary mechanism for the emergence of such network. The analytic results obtained from this model are in good agreement with the empirical results.

  17. Towards Hybrid Urban Mobility: Kick Scooter as a Means of Individual Transport in the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata; Macikowski, Bartosz

    2017-10-01

    The characteristic feature of a contemporary city is its inconvenience and oppressiveness caused by the hitherto dominant paradigm of urban planning based on car mobility. As a result, the inhabitants have to cope with air pollution, noise, spatial barriers, sedentary lifestyle and other factors which worsen their health and quality of life. Ecological and physically activating urban mobility thus plays an increasingly important role in the process of creating a friendly and healthy city. For many years, a steadily increasing share of bicycles in urban traffic has been observed. There are also other trending forms of non-motorized transport, such as in-line skates, skateboards, kick scooters, etc. Riding each of them can be regarded as a form of recreation or sport, but also as an ecological, physically activating means of urban mobility. The paper discusses the different forms of recreational mobility in the context of the possibility of combining it with city public transport, with particular emphasis on kick scooters. Kick scooters are becoming more and more popular, not only among children and youth, but also among adults, who use it mainly as a means of the non-motorised urban transport. Numerous publications from different parts of the world show a dynamic growth of this phenomenon. The aim of the article is also to answer the question in what extent the design of public space takes into consideration the use of these new forms of transport and recreation and, consequently, what aspects and requirements should be taken into account in the planning and design process. The paper presents the conclusions of a field study carried out with a group of students in Szczecin and Berlin. The aim of the research was to evaluate the possibilities of using kick scooters in big cities as a means of hybrid mobility combined with public transport by exploring the spectrum of public spaces (streets, squares, traffic nodes and hubs, public buildings, etc.) and testing the

  18. Cooperating Mobile GIS and Wireless Sensor Networks for Managing Transportation Infrastructures in Urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Time management is a major subject which, in order to optimize trip conditions, emphasizes on interpreting processes and classifying individual's information. In this paper, with the aim of providing an optimal system for urban commuting in proper time in Mashhad, each user using SMS and introducing some of his/her mental priorities to the system, will be able to select the best option depending on the timing of movement of the available public transport system. The present study adopts a newly developed method of time management which is evaluated for urban transportation considering dynamic conditions of a spatial database. For this purpose, regarding time management, processed data such as bus lines, taxi networks, and the subway system are combined in a spatial framework of a designed Mobile GIS based on a wireless network. So, multiple potential paths which end to a desirable destination.

  19. Urban planning, public transit and related initiatives for more sustainable transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The characteristics of ten Canadian cities and their transportation systems were summarized. The need to conserve resources and to maintain environmental quality has lead to initiatives aimed at achieving more sustainable urban transportation. The most promising initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and achieve other sustainability objectives were described. Ways to overcome the most significant barriers were suggested. Since suburban areas are generally automobile-dependant, the major challenge is how to retrofit these areas with high quality transit services. A corollary objective is to achieve more compact, mixed-use urban structure and pedestrian-friendly streetscapes, thereby reducing average trip distances and making it feasible for the transit, walking and cycling modes to be used more extensively. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Environmental Impacts of Promoting New Public Transport Systems in Urban Mobility: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ortego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban mobility is highly dependent on private vehicles causing pollution, traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The tram has become one of the most relevant public transport modes in those cities which need to reduce the private vehicle dependency. However, the implementation of this kind of infrastructure must be done carefully to avoid unsuccessful route designs which make the system unfeasible to operate. With the aim of analysing the impact that a tram can cause in a city, an original methodology has been developed, which takes into account the effect of the new transport system implementation on three subimpacts: traffic, public bus and outskirts neighbourhoods. This methodology uses different data sources from urban traffic, environmental and energy systems. The methodology has been applied to the city of Zaragoza (Spain with a current population of around 700,000 inhabitants. The main results found were that tram line 1 saves 6% of the annual final energy consumption of urban mobility, urban traffic has decreased by 7.7% in the city as a whole and by 39.7% for streets close to the tramway.

  1. Prioritizing recovery of urban lifelines in the aftermath of hazards: Transportation in post-Harvey Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Bhatia, U.; Sela, L.; Wang, R.; Kodra, E.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    A well-designed recovery strategy for lifeline infrastructure networks can lead to faster and more reliable restoration of essential services in the aftermath of natural catastrophes such as hurricanes or earthquakes. Urban and regional lifelines impact one another, while the recovery of urban lifelines in turn impacts regional infrastructural resilience, owing to the interdependence of lifelines across scales. Prior work by our team, often in collaboration, has led to the development of new recovery approaches based on network science and engineering, including centrality measures from network science, information theoretic metrics, and network optimization approaches. We have developed proof-of-concept demonstrations at both regional scales, such as for the Indian Railways Network and the US National Airspace System both subjected to multiple hazards, and to urban settings, such as the post-Hurricane recovery of combined power-subway system-of-systems in Boston and the New York City MTA after Hurricane Sandy. Here we make an attempt to understand how such methods may have been, or continue to be, applicable to the transportation network in Houston post-Harvey, and more broadly, how and to what extent lessons learned in urban and regional resilience may generalize across cases. We make an assessment of the state of the literature, process understanding, simulation models, data science methods, and best practices, necessary to address problems of this nature, with a particular focus on post-Harvey recovery of transportation services in Houston.

  2. The Arabidopsis thaliana RNA editing factor SLO2, which affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, participates in multiple stress and hormone responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Zhang, Chunyi; Mühlenbock, Per; Eastmond, Peter J; Valcke, Roland; De Coninck, Barbara; Oden, Sevgi; Karampelias, Michael; Cammue, Bruno P A; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2014-02-01

    Recently, we reported that the novel mitochondrial RNA editing factor SLO2 is essential for mitochondrial electron transport, and vital for plant growth through regulation of carbon and energy metabolism. Here, we show that mutation in SLO2 causes hypersensitivity to ABA and insensitivity to ethylene, suggesting a link with stress responses. Indeed, slo2 mutants are hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stress during the germination stage, while adult plants show increased drought and salt tolerance. Moreover, slo2 mutants are more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection. An increased expression of nuclear-encoded stress-responsive genes, as well as mitochondrial-encoded NAD genes of complex I and genes of the alternative respiratory pathway, was observed in slo2 mutants, further enhanced by ABA treatment. In addition, H2O2 accumulation and altered amino acid levels were recorded in slo2 mutants. We conclude that SLO2 is required for plant sensitivity to ABA, ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress. Although two stress-related RNA editing factors were reported very recently, this study demonstrates a unique role of SLO2, and further supports a link between mitochondrial RNA editing events and stress response.

  3. Transport mobility 5 years after stroke in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Hanna C; Selander, Helena

    2018-04-01

    Background People after stroke may have residual problems with mobility that can affect their independence and mode of transport. However, there is limited knowledge about transport mobility several years after stroke. Objective The objective was to survey the outdoor mobility and transportation in an urban setting five years post-stroke. Method This cross-sectional study was based on a mail survey focusing on long-term consequences after stroke. The survey comprises a set of self-evaluated questionnaires and was sent to 457 persons, of whom 281 responded (61.5%). From the survey, items regarding transportation and mobility were selected and analyzed. Results A high level of mobility function was reported with regard to outdoor mobility and different modes of transport. However, one-fifth still reported problems with outdoor mobility and mode of transport. Some perceived barriers were reported, predominantly mobility aspects such as transfer to/from, and getting on/off specific transportation mode/s. The respondents reported some communication problems and cognitive impairments, but these were not reported as prominent barriers when using public transport. A total of 67% were active drivers and were more often men (p = 0.002), younger (p ≤ 0.001), and were less dependent at discharge from the acute hospital (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions Five years post-stroke, mobility problems were the dominant barrier reported when using transport modes. Individualized transport training is needed during rehabilitation to increase possibility to participate. Infrastructure and transportation planning should focus on older, women, and people with impairments to be able to facilitate the use of public transport and mobility.

  4. Selected Abstracts of the 3rd Edition of Transport of High Risk Infants; Oxford (UK); August 31st-September 2nd, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 3rd Edition of Transport of High Risk Infants; Oxford (UK); August 31st-September 2nd, 2017ABS 1. MORTALITY RATE IN 23-30 WEEKS PRE­MATURE BORN IN LEVEL 2 HOSPITAL IN COMPARISON TO THOSE BORN IN TERTIARY-CARE HOSPITAL • J.P. Doray, J.L. DorayABS 2. THE QUEBEC AEROMEDICAL EXPERIENCE: EVACUATION OF NEONATES FROM AREAS IN EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS – IN­NOVATIONS IN SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY • É. Notebaert, J. Provencher, R. Bernier, S. Côté, S. KindABS 3. NASAL HIGH FLOW S...

  5. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie Keith; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier–Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were valida...

  6. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: j.a.sorialara@uva.nl; Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl; Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes.

  7. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A.; Bertolini, Luca; Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes

  8. Simulating Transport and Land Use Interdependencies for Strategic Urban Planning—An Agent Based Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Huynh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agent based modelling has been widely accepted as a promising tool for urban planning purposes thanks to its capability to provide sophisticated insights into the social behaviours and the interdependencies that characterise urban systems. In this paper, we report on an agent based model, called TransMob, which explicitly simulates the mutual dynamics between demographic evolution, transport demands, housing needs and the eventual change in the average satisfaction of the residents of an urban area. The ability to reproduce such dynamics is a unique feature that has not been found in many of the like agent based models in the literature. TransMob, is constituted by six major modules: synthetic population, perceived liveability, travel diary assignment, traffic micro-simulator, residential location choice, and travel mode choice. TransMob is used to simulate the dynamics of a metropolitan area in South East of Sydney, Australia, in 2006 and 2011, with demographic evolution. The results are favourably compared against survey data for the area in 2011, therefore validating the capability of TransMob to reproduce the observed complexity of an urban area. We also report on the application of TransMob to simulate various hypothetical scenarios of urban planning policies. We conclude with discussions on current limitations of TransMob, which serve as suggestions for future developments.

  9. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers.

  10. Essays in Societal System Dynamics and Transportation : Report of the Third Annual Workshop in Urban and Regional Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    This document contains the White Papers on urban-regional modeling presented at the Workshop as well as additional research papers aimed at increasing our understanding of the relationships between transportation and society. The ultimate aim is to p...

  11. Fiscal instruments for regulating the sustainable development of urban transport systems in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburov, I.; Leontyeva, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The article explains the role of public transport pricing. It proves the need for a systemic approach to building a modern public transit system. The authors argue that the main objective of the approach should be to reduce the use of private vehicles in the urban environment and increasing public transport use. It is proven that for the consumer of transport services the price per trip is an important factor when deciding whether to travel by car or by public transport. The authors analyze the available literature assessing the effects of widespread car ownership on users of the city transit system. Conflict situations that occur due to the unabated desire of city residents to travel by car are analyzed. A research method is proposed. It is shown that public transport fares have been growing in Russia at an accelerated pace when compared to the overall increase in prices of all goods and services, including motor vehicles, petrol and oils. The fare growth has resulted in a 3.6 fold drop in demand for public transport services over the 15 years being analyzed. Over the same period, the number of privately owned cars grew 120 percent. A conclusion is drawn that regular fare hikes have encouraged urban population to gradually opt against travelling by public transport. That resulted in higher demand for car travel and, eventually, in an accelerated growth in car usage. One can conclude that a persistent institutional trap has taken shape in Russian metropolises. Essentially, it means that higher public transport fares have led to lower demand for public transit services. As ridership goes down, public transport operators have to again increase prices, thus driving the demand for their services down. It is proven that escaping the trap will require restoring the ratio of prices to make sure that the price charged for a public transport trip is far lower than the cost of travelling by car. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of the factor of public

  12. Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment for Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    By 2050, nearly 70% of the global population is projected to live in urban areas. Because the environments we inhabit affect our health, urban and transport designs that promote healthy living are needed. We estimated the number of premature deaths preventable under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity (PA), air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces. We developed and applied the Urban and TranspOrt Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) tool to Barcelona, Spain. Exposure estimates and mortality data were available for 1,357,361 residents. We compared recommended with current exposure levels. We quantified the associations between exposures and mortality and calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the number of premature deaths preventable. We also modeled life-expectancy and economic impacts. We estimated that annually, nearly 20% of mortality could be prevented if international recommendations for performance of PA; exposure to air pollution, noise, and heat; and access to green space were followed. Estimations showed that the greatest portion of preventable deaths was attributable to increases in PA, followed by reductions of exposure to air pollution, traffic noise, and heat. Access to green spaces had smaller effects on mortality. Compliance was estimated to increase the average life expectancy by 360 (95% CI: 219, 493) days and result in economic savings of 9.3 (95% CI: 4.9, 13.2) billion EUR/year. PA factors and environmental exposures can be modified by changes in urban and transport planning. We emphasize the need for a) the reduction of motorized traffic through the promotion of active and public transport and b) the provision of green infrastructure, both of which are suggested to provide opportunities for PA and for mitigation of air pollution, noise, and heat. Citation: Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Basagaña X, Cirach M, Cole-Hunter T, Dadvand P, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Foraster M

  13. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  14. Intelligent urban public transportation for accessibility dedicated to people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiying; Hou, Kun-Mean; Zuo, Decheng; Li, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The traditional urban public transport system generally cannot provide an effective access service for people with disabilities, especially for disabled, wheelchair and blind (DWB) passengers. In this paper, based on advanced information & communication technologies (ICT) and green technologies (GT) concepts, a dedicated public urban transportation service access system named Mobi+ has been introduced, which facilitates the mobility of DWB passengers. The Mobi+ project consists of three subsystems: a wireless communication subsystem, which provides the data exchange and network connection services between buses and stations in the complex urban environments; the bus subsystem, which provides the DWB class detection & bus arrival notification services; and the station subsystem, which implements the urban environmental surveillance & bus auxiliary access services. The Mobi+ card that supports multi-microcontroller multi-transceiver adopts the fault-tolerant component-based hardware architecture, in which the dedicated embedded system software, i.e., operating system micro-kernel and wireless protocol, has been integrated. The dedicated Mobi+ embedded system provides the fault-tolerant resource awareness communication and scheduling mechanism to ensure the reliability in data exchange and service provision. At present, the Mobi+ system has been implemented on the buses and stations of line '2' in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France). The experiential results show that, on one hand the Mobi+ prototype system reaches the design expectations and provides an effective urban bus access service for people with disabilities; on the other hand the Mobi+ system is easily to deploy in the buses and at bus stations thanks to its low energy consumption and small form factor.

  15. Intelligent Urban Public Transportation for Accessibility Dedicated to People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiying; Hou, Kun-Mean; Zuo, Decheng; Li, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The traditional urban public transport system generally cannot provide an effective access service for people with disabilities, especially for disabled, wheelchair and blind (DWB) passengers. In this paper, based on advanced information & communication technologies (ICT) and green technologies (GT) concepts, a dedicated public urban transportation service access system named Mobi+ has been introduced, which facilitates the mobility of DWB passengers. The Mobi+ project consists of three subsystems: a wireless communication subsystem, which provides the data exchange and network connection services between buses and stations in the complex urban environments; the bus subsystem, which provides the DWB class detection & bus arrival notification services; and the station subsystem, which implements the urban environmental surveillance & bus auxiliary access services. The Mobi+ card that supports multi-microcontroller multi-transceiver adopts the fault-tolerant component-based hardware architecture, in which the dedicated embedded system software, i.e., operating system micro-kernel and wireless protocol, has been integrated. The dedicated Mobi+ embedded system provides the fault-tolerant resource awareness communication and scheduling mechanism to ensure the reliability in data exchange and service provision. At present, the Mobi+ system has been implemented on the buses and stations of line ‘2’ in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France). The experiential results show that, on one hand the Mobi+ prototype system reaches the design expectations and provides an effective urban bus access service for people with disabilities; on the other hand the Mobi+ system is easily to deploy in the buses and at bus stations thanks to its low energy consumption and small form factor. PMID:23112622

  16. Intelligent Urban Public Transportation for Accessibility Dedicated to People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional urban public transport system generally cannot provide an effective access service for people with disabilities, especially for disabled, wheelchair and blind (DWB passengers. In this paper, based on advanced information & communication technologies (ICT and green technologies (GT concepts, a dedicated public urban transportation service access system named Mobi+ has been introduced, which facilitates the mobility of DWB passengers. The Mobi+ project consists of three subsystems: a wireless communication subsystem, which provides the data exchange and network connection services between buses and stations in the complex urban environments; the bus subsystem, which provides the DWB class detection & bus arrival notification services; and the station subsystem, which implements the urban environmental surveillance & bus auxiliary access services. The Mobi+ card that supports multi-microcontroller multi-transceiver adopts the fault-tolerant component-based hardware architecture, in which the dedicated embedded system software, i.e., operating system micro-kernel and wireless protocol, has been integrated. The dedicated Mobi+ embedded system provides the fault-tolerant resource awareness communication and scheduling mechanism to ensure the reliability in data exchange and service provision. At present, the Mobi+ system has been implemented on the buses and stations of line ‘2’ in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France. The experiential results show that, on one hand the Mobi+ prototype system reaches the design expectations and provides an effective urban bus access service for people with disabilities; on the other hand the Mobi+ system is easily to deploy in the buses and at bus stations thanks to its low energy consumption and small form factor.

  17. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  18. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  19. Changes in transport behavior during the financial crisis. An analysis of urban form, location and transport behavior in the greater Copenhagen area 2006-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    A multitude of studies have focussed on the connections between urban form, location and transport behavior to inform sustainable and resilient urban planning. However, few have studied the stability of urban form and location effects under changing economic conditions. This paper presents...... an analysis of the changes in urban form and location correlates of travel distances in the Danish Zealand/Copenhagen region from before the financial crisis (2006/07) to some years after the financial downturn (2010/11). Significant changes are found in the socio-economic as well as urban form and location....../destinations. It follows that the location pattern, the geographical configuration of the urban region, is a factor in households' adaptive strategies which partly determine the possibilities for reducing travel and the possibilities for adaption and regional resilience....

  20. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  1. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  2. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  3. Assessment of the environmental impacts produced by the transport of radioactive materials through urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is performing an environmental assessment for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to ascertain the impacts produced by the transportation of radioactive materials near and through a large, densely populated area. Radiological, nonradiological and economic environmental impacts due to the transportation of all radioactive materials are considered, excepting those related to weapons, weapon components, or shipments on military vehicles. Although New York City is being studied initially to execute the methodology as a function of a real, complex urban environment, the assessment model developed is general in its basic content and is suitable for application to any urban area. Radiological consequences are being computed for cases involving ''normal'' and accident conditions. In the ''normal'' case, nothing unusual takes place, but small radiation doses are still received by nearby people. In the accident case, dispersion of possibly released material away from the accident site is considered. In addition, impacts due to deviations from quality assurance practices, as a result of human error, are being calculated using the assessment model in a special manner. Certain aspects of sabotage and diversion are also being investigated for an urban setting. Radiological consequences are being quantified in terms of human health effects and decontamination costs

  4. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.

  5. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements. (Russian Edition); Pravila bezopasnoj perevozki radioaktivnykh materialov. Izdanie 2012 goda. Konkretnye trebovaniya bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  6. Evaluation of daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Carlyn J; Stieb, David M; Egyed, Marika; Brion, Orly; Johnson, Markey

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to traffic and traffic-related air pollution is associated with a wide array of health effects. Time spent in a vehicle, in active transportation, along roadsides, and in close proximity to traffic can substantially contribute to daily exposure to air pollutants. For this study, we evaluated daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians using the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2 results. Approximately 4-7% of daily time was spent in on- or near-road locations, mainly associated with being in a vehicle and smaller contributions from active transportation. Indoor microenvironments can be impacted by traffic emissions, especially when located near major roadways. Over 60% of the target population reported living within one block of a roadway with moderate to heavy traffic, which was variable with income level and city, and confirmed based on elevated NO 2 exposure estimated using land use regression. Furthermore, over 55% of the target population ≤ 18 years reported attending a school or daycare in close proximity to moderate to heavy traffic, and little variation was observed based on income or city. The results underline the importance of traffic emissions as a major source of exposure in Canadian urban centers, given the time spent in traffic-influenced microenvironments.

  7. Freight transportation and the potential for invasions of exotic insects in urban and periurban forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Colunga-Garcia; Robert A. Haack; Adesoji O. Adelaja

    2009-01-01

    Freight transportation is an important pathway for the introduction and dissemination of exotic forest insects (EFI). Identifying the final destination of imports is critical in determining the likelihood of EFI establishment. We analyzed the use of regional freight transport information to characterize risk of urban and periurban areas to EFI introductions. Specifc...

  8. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  9. Modelling of transport and collisions between rigid bodies to simulate the jam formation in urban flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hadji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the simulation of transport and interaction betweenbodies considered as a rectangular shape particles, in urban flow. We usedan hydrodynamic two-dimensional finite elements model coupled to theparticles model based on Maxey-Riley equations, and taking into accountof contact between bodies. The finite element discretization is based onthe velocity field richer than pressure field, and the particles displacementsare computed by using a rigid body motion method. A collision strategy isalso developed to handle cases in which bodies touch.

  10. Considerations on the use of elastic wheels to the urban transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesan, Ioan; Arsene, Sorin; Manea, Ion

    2018-03-01

    To minimize dynamic wheel-rail interaction efforts a condition is that the unassembled mass of the vehicle is as small as possible. The elastic wheel by its construction fulfills these conditions - she has interposed between the crown and the body of the wheel, the elastic rubber elements. In this way, it can be considered that the unsupported mass is represented only by the mass of the wheel crown. Additionally, this elasticity also has a reduction effect on rolling noise. This feature makes it suitable for use on urban transport vehicles.

  11. A Case-Based Reasoning for Regulation of an Urban Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bouamrane

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classification-based approach to case-based reasoning. This approach has been implemented in a decision-making system for regulating an urban transportation network. Planning relies on two classification processes: strong classification to retrieve a similar planning perturbation and smooth classification when the former fails. Smooth classification is an original mechanism that can become of general use in case-based reasoning. We discuss in this paper the two processes from general and applicative point of view.

  12. Parameterizing Urban Canopy Layer transport in an Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Stefan; Rotach, Mathias W.

    2016-04-01

    The percentage of people living in urban areas is rising worldwide, crossed 50% in 2007 and is even higher in developed countries. High population density and numerous sources of air pollution in close proximity can lead to health issues. Therefore it is important to understand the nature of urban pollutant dispersion. In the last decades this field has experienced considerable progress, however the influence of large roughness elements is complex and has as of yet not been completely described. Hence, this work studied urban particle dispersion close to source and ground. It used an existing, steady state, three-dimensional Lagrangian particle dispersion model, which includes Roughness Sublayer parameterizations of turbulence and flow. The model is valid for convective and neutral to stable conditions and uses the kernel method for concentration calculation. As most Lagrangian models, its lower boundary is the zero-plane displacement, which means that roughly the lower two-thirds of the mean building height are not included in the model. This missing layer roughly coincides with the Urban Canopy Layer. An earlier work "traps" particles hitting the lower model boundary for a recirculation period, which is calculated under the assumption of a vortex in skimming flow, before "releasing" them again. The authors hypothesize that improving the lower boundary condition by including Urban Canopy Layer transport could improve model predictions. This was tested herein by not only trapping the particles, but also advecting them with a mean, parameterized flow in the Urban Canopy Layer. Now the model calculates the trapping period based on either recirculation due to vortex motion in skimming flow regimes or vertical velocity if no vortex forms, depending on incidence angle of the wind on a randomly chosen street canyon. The influence of this modification, as well as the model's sensitivity to parameterization constants, was investigated. To reach this goal, the model was

  13. PERCEPTION OF MODES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT COMPARED TO TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR OF URBAN INHABITANTS IN LIGHT OF MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna HEBEL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study introduces the notion of “travel behaviour” among urban inhabitants, as well as highlighting its most common determinants, one of which is the perception of public transport. The study includes a comparative analysis of the link between passenger perceptions of the main modes of public transport in relation to the actual mode of transport chosen to complete a certain journey, based on market research results collected within a given city.

  14. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  15. The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.

  16. The selection of a mode of urban transportation: Integrating psychological variables to discrete choice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoba Maquilon, Jorge E; Gonzalez Calderon, Carlos A; Posada Henao, John J

    2011-01-01

    A study using revealed preference surveys and psychological tests was conducted. Key psychological variables of behavior involved in the choice of transportation mode in a population sample of the Metropolitan Area of the Valle de Aburra were detected. The experiment used the random utility theory for discrete choice models and reasoned action in order to assess beliefs. This was used as a tool for analysis of the psychological variables using the sixteen personality factor questionnaire (16PF test). In addition to the revealed preference surveys, two other surveys were carried out: one with socio-economic characteristics and the other with latent indicators. This methodology allows for an integration of discrete choice models and latent variables. The integration makes the model operational and quantifies the unobservable psychological variables. The most relevant result obtained was that anxiety affects the choice of urban transportation mode and shows that physiological alterations, as well as problems in perception and beliefs, can affect the decision-making process.

  17. Triggering of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms in Patients Using Urban Public Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saboya Lenzi, Luiz Guilherme; Fernandes, Carlos Henrique; Myiamoto Meirelles, Lia; Baptista Gomes Dos Santos, João; Faloppa, Flávio; Raduan Neto, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compressive neuropathy found in clinical practice. Recent studies evaluated which external factors could be involved in the CTS symptoms, including prolonged exposure to vibration, especially in the upper limb. This study investigated signs and symptoms in patients with CTS after using urban transport on (1) both upper limbs, (2) how long before these symptoms appear, and (3) the hands position or body reaction during the act of pressing the safety bars. Methods: The study was conducted from July 2012 to April 2013. A total of 205 (178 women and 27 men) patients were evaluated. CTS was diagnosed in 285 hands. All participants answered a questionnaire formulated by the authors. The questionnaire was applied by researchers who were single-blinded and not involved in the research. Results: Most of the participants (87%) were women, but there was no statistical significance in age between groups (women = 51.24 ± 8.47 years, men = 51.10 ± 6.52 years, P > .05). The symptoms appeared significantly in the first 15 minutes after boarding when compared with patients who had no symptoms during the journey. There was no difference between hands position along the journey and the onset of symptoms. Conclusions: The onset of symptoms in patients with CTS using urban public transportation most commonly occurred in the first 15 minutes after boarding. Public transport vibration seems to be, at least in part, directly related to the development of symptoms. Questionnaires for the assessment of paresthesia symptoms during the use of public transport may be useful for CTS diagnosis.

  18. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  19. Transportation Costs and Subsidy Distribution Model for Urban and Suburban Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ševrović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport (PT subsidy provides the means to impose the optimal combination of fare and Level of Service (LoS offered to passengers. In regions where one PT operator services multiple local communities on multiple lines it becomes hard to uniformly link the actual cost of a line and thus the LoS offered, to a particular local community. This leads to possible disproportions in the overall subsidy distribution that can result in being unfair to some local communities, mainly the ones that are sparsely populated or geographically isolated. In order to extricate this problem the appropriate level of PT subsidisation according to the average values in the European cities was investigated and the current subsidy policies in Croatia were investigated. Based on this research and the hypothesis that the offered LoS must be reflected in the subsidy amount a new subsidy distribution model was established that involves a series of analytical procedures and processes. This model introduces several factors used for the calculation of the actual share in costs. Thus, the amount of subsidies for individual lines in a region can be determined based on the actual service offered to the local community, The proposed model has been tested and successfully implemented in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in the Republic of Croatia.

  20. Seasonal Drivers of Dissolved Metal Transport During Infiltration of Road Runoff in an Urban Roadside Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, A.; Bain, D.

    2017-12-01

    Infiltration-based green infrastructure (GI) is being increasingly applied in urban areas, systems characterized by substantial legacy contamination and complicated hydrology. However, it is not clear how the application of green infrastructure changes the geochemistry of urban roadside environments. Most current research on GI focuses on small sets of chemical parameters (e.g. road salt, nitrogen and phosphorous species) over relatively short time periods, limiting comprehensive understanding of geochemical function. This work measures changes in groundwater infiltration rate and dissolved metal concentrations in two infiltration trenches in Pittsburgh, PA to evaluate function and measure dissolved metal transport from the system over time. Two distinct geochemical regimes seem to be driven by seasonality: road de-icer exchange and microbial driven summer reducing conditions. Interactions between these geochemical regimes and variability in infiltration rate control the flux of different metals, varying with metal chemistry. These findings suggest the adoption of infiltration based green infrastructure will likely create complicated patterns of legacy contamination transport to downstream receptors.

  1. The Local-Level Management of Climate Change: the Case of Urban Passenger Transportation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, Ian Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions is one of the largest and most pressing collective-action problems facing humanity. Addressing this transversal, trans-boundary policy challenge requires action at multiple scales of governance: from behavioral changes by individuals to modifications of local, national and international regulatory frameworks and decision-making processes. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this project draws on theories on collective action, institutional economics, multilevel governance, and indicators in decision making to analyze what appears to be an increasingly poly-centric governance approach to achieving cross-scale action on GHG mitigation. This dissertation addresses the over-arching question of what governance changes are needed to deliver lasting GHG emissions reductions in the urban passenger transport sector in France? This analysis suggests that achieving greenhouse gas mitigation is dependent not only on the ability of actors to coordinate action, but also on the information tools needed to integrate these issues into decision-making at multiple levels of government and across policy priorities. Thus, GHG mitigation must be linked as an often-complementary issue with existing policy priorities. The findings resulting from this dissertation have a number of contributions to make both to the theoretical literature as well as to general policy practice and the specific decision-making process in France in terms of transport, urban planning and climate governance. (author)

  2. Chemical and toxicological characterization of exhaust emissions from alternative fuels for urban public transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrio Baldassarri, L.; Conti, R.; Crebelli, B.; Iamicelli, A.L.; De Berardis, M.; Gambino, A.L.; Iannaccone, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS, the National Institute of Health of Italy) and the Istituto dei Motori (IM) of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR, National Research Council) have carried out this study, jointly funded by the two institutes together with the Ministry of Environment. The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from two urban bus engines were studied: a diesel engine fueled with both diesel oil and bio diesel blend and an equivalent spark-ignition one fuelled with compressed natural gas, operating in steady-state conditions. Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated derivatives, carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter was also evaluated. The impact of diesel-powered transport on urban air quality, and the potential benefits for human health deriving from the use of natural gas for public transport, are discussed [it

  3. Telehealth-Enabled Emergency Medical Services Program Reduces Ambulance Transport to Urban Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, James R; Gonzalez, Michael; Alqusairi, Diaa; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Jackson, Adria; Mikhail, Jennifer; Persse, David

    2016-11-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) agencies transport a significant majority of patients with low acuity and non-emergent conditions to local emergency departments (ED), affecting the entire emergency care system's capacity and performance. Opportunities exist for alternative models that integrate technology, telehealth, and more appropriately aligned patient navigation. While a limited number of programs have evolved recently, no empirical evidence exists for their efficacy. This research describes the development and comparative effectiveness of one large urban program. The Houston Fire Department initiated the Emergency Telehealth and Navigation (ETHAN) program in 2014. ETHAN combines telehealth, social services, and alternative transportation to navigate primary care-related patients away from the ED where possible. Using a case-control study design, we describe the program and compare differences in effectiveness measures relative to the control group. During the first 12 months, 5,570 patients participated in the telehealth-enabled program, which were compared against the same size control group. We found a 56% absolute reduction in ambulance transports to the ED with the intervention compared to the control group (18% vs. 74%, P models are effective at reducing unnecessary ED ambulance transports and increasing EMS unit productivity. This provides support for broader EMS mobile integrated health programs in other regions.

  4. Energy conservation in urban areas in the framework of a sustainable transportation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, M.

    2001-07-01

    The widespread of transport is recognized as a major contributor to an extensive range of undesirable side effects, covering all stages, from production to use and disposal. The transport sector is one of the major consumers of energy mainly fossil fuels and therefore contributes adverse emissions with local direct health effects as well as a significant share of 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs), which play a crucial role in determining the earth's climate. Moreover, the transportation sector is implicated in causing some social problems such as intensive use of public space. Present growth in vehicle ownership and use in urban areas, is unsustainable. Petroleum fuels, which are the main energy source for the transport sector, are essentially non-renewable. In short, the transportation system is unsustainable and is becoming more unsustainable. Measures need to be taken at a number of levels to mitigate the negative effects of transport and to reduce the increasing dependence on the fossil fuels as a main transportation energy soruce. The main objectives of this study are: (a) analyzing the transportation's role in the energy markets and its related environmental problems and defining the sustainable transport in urban areas, (b) analyzing alternative urban planning philosophies, (c) presenting a suggested procedure for sustainable develop ment of urban transport and energy consumption, (d) identifying the potential impacts of this procedure by being applied to Alexandria city, as a case study. The identification is based on evaluating four different scenarios for the year 2015 which are compared to each other, as well as with a business-as usual scenario (Do-Nothing Solution). These scenarios are based on the proposed sustainable transport and energy systems started from (Do-Minimum Solution) until (Do-Maximum Solution). To facilitate the calculations, an interactive computer program called 'TraEnergy' is developed in the framework of this

  5. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  6. Chemical signatures of urban, open burning and dust transportation in an urban environment- megacity in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, B.; Verma, S.

    2016-12-01

    A sub-micron aerosol sampler (SAS) consisting of two parallel stacked filter units (SFU) was deployed at an urban location (Kolkata) to study the sub-micron aerosols (water soluble inorganic ions (WSII) and carbonaceous aerosols (elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)) collected over a year (September 2010 to August 2011). Quantification of 10 WSII species using Ion Chromatograph (IC) indicated alkaline nature of aerosols with calcium (Ca2+) being the major neutralizing factor of acidity at the study site. In terms of WSII percentage contribution, the most abundant were crustal species (Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+) and marine species (chloride (Cl-)), followed by the secondary species sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) . Ca2+ (fugitive and transported dust) was dominant throughout the study period with K+ concentrations exhibiting seasonality with agricultural residue burning. Further, results of carbonaceous aerosols analyzed using the OC-EC aerosol analyzer following Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) protocol exhibited pronounced seasonality in OC than EC with the overall mean concentration of OC being three folds than EC. Primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon concentrations (SOC) estimated using EC tracer method showed 57% (43%) of POC (SOC) from various emission sources. Investigation of OC/EC ratio along with non-sea salt potassium (nss-K+) values revealed influence of season specific anthropogenic activities on both OC and EC concentrations (viz. Open burning (OB)) besides fossil fuel (FF) and biofuel (BF) usage for cooking and heating prevalent over the region. Source apportionment was discerned using positive matrix factorization (PMF) with four major factors (crustal, agricultural, anthropogenic sources and mixed source (crustal + agriculture + anthropogenic) as the primary contributors to the sub-micron aerosols at the study site.

  7. Urban structure and transport behaviour. Results from the survey of transport habits; Bystruktur og transportadfaerd. Hvad siger transportvaneundersoegelsen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, L.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyse the effects on private transport and environmental impact from urban size and structure, and the localisation. In this analysis, the CO{sub 2}-emission is used as the indicator of the environmental impact of the transport i.e. as a result of the energy consumption. The report is organised in 3 main chapters concerning localisation of residential areas, workplace, and centre functions. One of the important results from the analyses is the environmental benefit of avoiding residential development in smaller towns and villages. It is especially important to avoid urban sprawl around the big cities. Concentration in the big cities or in the neighbouring cities is environmentally much more promising. On the other hand it might be expedient to promote a slow development with workplaces in smaller towns to get a good balance between inhabitants and workplaces but it is important to give priority to non-specialised workplaces. Residential or business development in whichever size of the cities above 10,000 inhabitants makes no difference. On the other hand an expansion of centre activities has substantial effect on the CO{sub 2}-emission especially in cities with more than 22,000 inhabitants. Variation in localization inside the cities influences the CO{sub 2}-emission much more than the variability between cities. Residential areas as well as workplace intensive business ought to be promoted at central places near the stations. Upon deciding whether to give priority to residential areas or business at an actual area, more aspects need to be considered. One problem is that a residence and a workplace generate different person kilometres and the areas they occupy vary. It seems to be best to give priority to residential areas in the central areas and to business development around the stations. But this depends on the actual conditions and more detailed analyses might also be revealed. A planning policy promoting a development with

  8. Transport Infrastructure and the Environment in the Global South: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cervero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Integrasi infrastruktur transportasi dan perkembangan kota harus ditingkatkan kepentingannya. Di banyak kota di belahan bumi bagian selatan, investasi pada Bus Rapid Transit (BRT memberikan kesempatan untuk peningkatan tersebut. Akan tetapi, sampai saat ini, sistem BRT telah gagal dalam menciptakan pembangunan yang kompak dan multi-guna bukan saja karena kurangnya perencanaan strategis kawasan stasiun tetapi juga dampak dari penempatan jalur-jalur dan stasiun pada wilayah perkotaan yang stagnan dan pada median jalan yang sibuk. Sistem BRT selama ini dipertimbangkan dan dirancang sebagai suatu investasi pergerakan dan bukan pembentuk kota. Disebabkan mayoritas pertumbuhan kota di masa depan di seluruh dunia akan berada pada kota-kota menengah yang cocok untuk investasi BRT, kesempatan untuk membuat sistem BRT sebagai investasi pembentuk kota tidak boleh disia-siakan. Pembangunan yang berorientasi transit adalah salah satu dari sejumlah model yang paling menjanjikan untuk mendorong pola pergerakan dan urbanisasi yang lebih berkelanjutan di kota-kota di belahan bumi selatan.Kata kunci. Transportasi publik, bus rapid transit, tata guna lahan, keberlanjutan, pembangunan berorientasi transitAbstract. The integration of transport infrastructure and urban development must be elevated in importance. In many cities of the Global South, recent Bus Rapid Transit (BRT investments provide an unprecedented opportunity to do just that. To date, however, BRT systems have failed to leverage compact, mixed-use development due not only to little strategic station-area planning but also factors like siting lines and stations in stagnant urban districts and busy roadway medians. BRT systems are being conceived and designed as mobility investments rather than city-shaping ones. Given that the majority of future urban growth worldwide will be in intermediate-size cities well-suited for BRT investments, the opportunities for making these not only mobility

  9. A Segment-Based Trajectory Similarity Measure in the Urban Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingchi; Zhong, Haishi; Xiao, Xianjian; Li, Xiaofang

    2017-03-06

    With the rapid spread of built-in GPS handheld smart devices, the trajectory data from GPS sensors has grown explosively. Trajectory data has spatio-temporal characteristics and rich information. Using trajectory data processing techniques can mine the patterns of human activities and the moving patterns of vehicles in the intelligent transportation systems. A trajectory similarity measure is one of the most important issues in trajectory data mining (clustering, classification, frequent pattern mining, etc.). Unfortunately, the main similarity measure algorithms with the trajectory data have been found to be inaccurate, highly sensitive of sampling methods, and have low robustness for the noise data. To solve the above problems, three distances and their corresponding computation methods are proposed in this paper. The point-segment distance can decrease the sensitivity of the point sampling methods. The prediction distance optimizes the temporal distance with the features of trajectory data. The segment-segment distance introduces the trajectory shape factor into the similarity measurement to improve the accuracy. The three kinds of distance are integrated with the traditional dynamic time warping algorithm (DTW) algorithm to propose a new segment-based dynamic time warping algorithm (SDTW). The experimental results show that the SDTW algorithm can exhibit about 57%, 86%, and 31% better accuracy than the longest common subsequence algorithm (LCSS), and edit distance on real sequence algorithm (EDR) , and DTW, respectively, and that the sensitivity to the noise data is lower than that those algorithms.

  10. Assessment of GHG mitigation and CDM technology in urban transport sector of Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nitin; Gurjar, Bhola Ram; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2018-01-01

    The increase in number of vehicles in metropolitan cities has resulted in increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in urban environment. In this study, emission load of GHGs (CO, N 2 O, CO 2 ) from Chandigarh road transport sector has been estimated using Vehicular Air Pollution Inventory (VAPI) model, which uses emission factors prevalent in Indian cities. Contribution of 2-wheelers (2-w), 3-wheelers (3-w), cars, buses, and heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs) to CO, N 2 O, CO 2 , and total GHG emissions was calculated. Potential for GHG mitigation through clean development mechanism (CDM) in transport sector of Chandigarh under two scenarios, i.e., business as usual (BAU) and best estimate scenario (BES) using VAPI model, has been explored. A major contribution of GHG load (~ 50%) in Chandigarh was from four-wheelers until 2011; however, it shows a declining trend after 2011 until 2020. The estimated GHG emission from motor vehicles in Chandigarh has increased more than two times from 1065 Gg in 2005 to 2486 Gg by 2011 and is expected to increase to 4014 Gg by 2020 under BAU scenario. Under BES scenario, 30% of private transport has been transformed to public transport; GHG load was possibly reduced by 520 Gg. An increase of 173 Gg in GHGs load is projected from additional scenario (ADS) in Chandigarh city if all the diesel buses are transformed to CNG buses by 2020. Current study also offers potential for other cities to plan better GHG reduction strategies in transport sector to reduce their climate change impacts.

  11. Urban Sustainability by Analysis of Renewable Technologies in the Public Transport of the City of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dullius

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To work sustainability issues in the urban environment is one of the great challenges in current. One of the ways to reach goals of this size is through the insertion of sustainable technologies in the public transportation sector. Examples include the use of biofuel instead of fossil fuels and the adoption of hybrid electric buses. Such replacements have been carried out in the collective transportation of the city of Curitiba, Paraná, which has been a pioneer in this type of management and has 1.7 vehicles per inhabitant. Therefore, the proposal of the article is to question the extent to which these actions contribute to the sustainability of the planet. For this purpose, emissions from the vehicles that compose the city's bus fleet were quantified over a one-year period, with evaluation of opacity tests and greenhouse gas emissions [GHG's]. In the period, the public transport sector was responsible for the emission of approximately 200,000 metric tons CO2 eq. The use of biodiesel in public transportation in Curitiba prevented the emission of approximately 10,000 metric tons of CO2. The results of the opacity tests indicated that the hybrid model operating the B100 emits about 93% less black smoke. It was verified that there is a significant contribution by the city to reduce the emission of GHG's. By economic analysis, if the entire fleet of the city of Curitiba were hybrid, with the total volume of fuel used, an economy of R $ 62,558,868.08 would be obtained, which would cover public health expenditures emissions from public transportation, for example, from the city of São Paulo, the most populous in South America.

  12. Research on the Design of Visually Impaired Interactive Accessibility in Large Urban Public Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiru

    2017-12-01

    In medieval times, due to people’s reliance on belief, public space of Christianity came into being. With the rise of secularization, religion gradually turned into private belief, and accordingly public space returned to private space. In the 21st century, due to people’s reliance on intelligent devices, information-interactive public space emerges, and as information interaction is constantly constraining the visually impaired, public space regressed to the exclusive space of limited people[1]. Modernity is marked by technical rationality, but an ensuing basic problem lies in the separation between human action, ethics and public space. When technology fails to overcome obstacles for a particular group, the gap between the burgeoning intelligent phenomena and the increasing ratio of visually impaired is also expanding, ultimately resulting in a growing number of “blind spots” in information-interactive space. Technological innovation not only promotes the development of the information industry, but also promotes the rapid development of the transportation industry. Traffic patterns are diversifying and diverging nowadays, but it’s a fatal blow for people with visually disabilities, Because they still can only experience the most traditional mode of transportation, sometimes even not go out. How to guarantee their interactive accessibility in large urban public transport system right, currently, is a very important research direction.

  13. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport

  14. A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSPORT IN SPAIN USING THE FIVE FORCES MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Ortega, Alba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector in Spain is a branch of economic activity which is already of great importanceaccording to its own invoicing, value added and occupation figures, in addition to its indirect economic effects. It has an additional strategic value for economic policy, since it constitutes a fundamental part ofthe cost of placing products on increasing markets in a competitive manner. The mobility and trans-portation of passengers in cities in turn plays an essential role in the economic and social activity. All of these reasons, in addition to the recent significant problems of ustainability which this priority sector is currently confronting in all aspects, justify an interest in a study which attempts to obtaina profile of this public service by using a strategic analysis through the application of the traditional Porter Five Forces Model. The application of this model will allow us to obtain a general strategic vision which, when combined with a maturity analysis, ill provide a more in-depth knowledge of the object under study, that will serve as a basis for subsequent analyses of the collective urban public transport service.

  15. An assessment of transit ridership: increased suburban to urban public transportation options in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Suburban development is occurring near urban areas across America. Often these communities are : separated by large masses of land with no linkage to the urban core. Referred to as urban sprawl, this type : of development causes a challenge for trans...

  16. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material provide standards for ensuring a high level of safety of people, property and the environment against radiation and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive material. The basic requirements to be met are: Effective containment of radioactive material; Effective control of radiation emitted from the package; A subcritical condition for any fissile material; and Adequate dissipation of any heat generated within the package. Effective quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes are required, for example: (a) Appropriate and sound packages are used; (b) The activity of radioactive material in each package does not exceed the regulatory activity limit for that material and that package type; (c) The radiation levels external to, and the contamination levels on, surfaces of packages do not exceed the appropriate limits; (d) Packages are properly marked and labelled and transport documents are completed; (e) the number of packages containing radioactive material in a conveyance is within the regulatory limits; (f) Packages of radioactive material are stowed in conveyances and are stored at a safe distance from persons and photosensitive materials; (g) Only those transport and lifting devices which have been tested are used in loading, conveying and unloading packages of radioactive material; and (h) Packages of radioactive material are properly secured for transport. The control of the transport of radioactive materials may be necessary also for other reasons, e.g. safeguards control and physical protection of nuclear materials and control of a property. For radioactive materials having other dangerous properties, the regulations of Member States, modal conventions and agreements, and other relevant documents of international organizations need to be applied. A Member State may require in its national regulations that an additional approval be

  17. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department.

  18. Spreading of 137 C in the Goiania urban area by resuspension and transport of surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana

    2002-01-01

    The resuspension of surface soil was considered the mechanism responsible by the spreading of 137 Cs after the Goiania accident, which affected an urban area of about 1 km 2 . Studies on the transport of 137 Cs associated to the surface soil were performed in a house located at 57 th Street, close to the main focus of contamination, from 05/89 to 07/00. Periodically, samples of surface soil and soil profile were collected at the house yards and street dust sampling at representative locations was performed in order to know the extension of the contamination in the city. The soil profile samples have shown the low mobility of 137 Cs in deep layers of the soil, although a slight long-term decrease of the 137 Cs activity concentration in the surface soil were observed. The 137 Cs activity concentration in the street dust samples also decrease with time, suggesting a natural dilution of the contamination in those samples; higher values were only found in few locations close to the foci of primary deposition and no additional spreading of the radionuclide is expected to occur from that area. Street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the spreading of caesium in urban environment. (author)

  19. National competent authorities. List no. 17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 edition (Safety series no.6 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  20. National competent authorities. List no. 1. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  1. National competent authorities. List no. 2. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  2. National competent authorities. List no. 3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  3. National competent authorities. List no. 5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-09-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  4. National competent authorities. List no. 4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  5. National competent authorities. List no. 4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  6. National competent authorities. List no. 5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-09-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  7. National competent authorities. List no. 17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 edition (Safety series no.6 )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  8. National competent authorities. List no. 3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  9. National competent authorities. List no. 2. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  10. National competent authorities. List no. 1. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  11. Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona S. Stachlewska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During August 2016, a quasi-stationary high-pressure system spreading over Central and North-Eastern Europe, caused weather conditions that allowed for 24/7 observations of aerosol optical properties by using a complex multi-wavelength PollyXT lidar system with Raman, polarization and water vapour capabilities, based at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET network urban site in Warsaw, Poland. During 24–30 August 2016, the lidar-derived products (boundary layer height, aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, depolarization ratio were analysed in terms of air mass transport (HYSPLIT model, aerosol load (CAMS data and type (NAAPS model and confronted with active and passive remote sensing at the ground level (PolandAOD, AERONET, WIOS-AQ networks and aboard satellites (SEVIRI, MODIS, CATS sensors. Optical properties for less than a day-old fresh biomass burning aerosol, advected into Warsaw’s boundary layer from over Ukraine, were compared with the properties of long-range transported 3–5 day-old aged biomass burning aerosol detected in the free troposphere over Warsaw. Analyses of temporal changes of aerosol properties within the boundary layer, revealed an increase of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent accompanied by an increase of surface PM10 and PM2.5. Intrusions of advected biomass burning particles into the urban boundary layer seem to affect not only the optical properties observed but also the top height of the boundary layer, by moderating its increase.

  12. Toward reduced transport errors in a high resolution urban CO2 inversion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Deng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a high-resolution atmospheric inversion system combining a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM and the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF, and test the impact of assimilating meteorological observation on transport accuracy. A Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA technique continuously assimilates meteorological observations from various observing systems into the transport modeling system, and is coupled to the high resolution CO2 emission product Hestia to simulate the atmospheric mole fractions of CO2. For the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX project, we evaluated the impact of assimilating different meteorological observation systems on the linearized adjoint solutions and the CO2 inverse fluxes estimated using observed CO2 mole fractions from 11 out of 12 communications towers over Indianapolis for the Sep.-Nov. 2013 period. While assimilating WMO surface measurements improved the simulated wind speed and direction, their impact on the planetary boundary layer (PBL was limited. Simulated PBL wind statistics improved significantly when assimilating upper-air observations from the commercial airline program Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS and continuous ground-based Doppler lidar wind observations. Wind direction mean absolute error (MAE decreased from 26 to 14 degrees and the wind speed MAE decreased from 2.0 to 1.2 m s–1, while the bias remains small in all configurations (< 6 degrees and 0.2 m s–1. Wind speed MAE and ME are larger in daytime than in nighttime. PBL depth MAE is reduced by ~10%, with little bias reduction. The inverse results indicate that the spatial distribution of CO2 inverse fluxes were affected by the model performance while the overall flux estimates changed little across WRF simulations when aggregated over the entire domain. Our results show that PBL wind observations are a potent tool for increasing the precision of urban meteorological reanalyses

  13. An overview of natural hazard impacts to railways and urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Nezval, Vojtěch; Bílová, Martina; Andrášik, Richard; Kubeček, Jan

    2017-04-01

    We present an overview and two case studies of natural hazard impacts on rail transportation systems in the Czech Republic. Flooding, landsliding, heavy snowfall, windstorms and glaze (black ice) are the most common natural processes which occur in this region. Whereas flooding and landsliding usually cause direct damage to the transportation infrastructure, other hazards predominantly cause indirect losses. Railway and urban tramline networks are almost fully dependent on electricity which is provided by a system of overhead lines (electric lines above the tracks). These lines are extremely susceptible to formation of glaze which blocks conduction of electric current. A December 2014 glaze event caused significant indirect losses in the largest Czech cities and railways due to the above-mentioned process. Details of this event will be provided during the presentation. Windstorms usually cause tree falls which can affect overhead lines and physically block railway tracks. Approximately 30 % of the Czech railway network is closer than 50 m from the nearest forest. This presents significant potential for transport interruption due to falling trees. Complicated legal relations among the owners of the plots of land along railways, the environment (full-grown trees and related habitat), and the railway administrator are behind many traffic interruptions due to falling trees. We have registered 2040 tree falls between 2012 and 2015 on the railway network. A model of the fallen tree hazard was created for the entire Czech railway network. Both above-mentioned case studies provide illustrative examples of the increased fragility of the modern transportation systems which fully rely on electricity. Natural processes with a low destructive power are thereby able to cause network wide service cut-offs.

  14. Telehealth-Enabled Emergency Medical Services Program Reduces Ambulance Transport to Urban Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Robert Langabeer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emergency medical services (EMS agencies transport a significant majority of patients with low acuity and non-emergent conditions to local emergency departments (ED, affecting the entire emergency care system’s capacity and performance. Opportunities exist for alternative models that integrate technology, telehealth, and more appropriately aligned patient navigation. While a limited number of programs have evolved recently, no empirical evidence exists for their efficacy. This research describes the development and comparative effectiveness of one large urban program. Methods The Houston Fire Department initiated the Emergency Telehealth and Navigation (ETHAN program in 2014. ETHAN combines telehealth, social services, and alternative transportation to navigate primary care-related patients away from the ED where possible. Using a case-control study design, we describe the program and compare differences in effectiveness measures relative to the control group. Results During the first 12 months, 5,570 patients participated in the telehealth-enabled program, which were compared against the same size control group. We found a 56% absolute reduction in ambulance transports to the ED with the intervention compared to the control group (18% vs. 74%, P<.001. EMS productivity (median time from EMS notification to unit back in service was 44 minutes faster for the ETHAN group (39 vs. 83 minutes, median. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality or patient satisfaction. Conclusion We found that mobile technology-driven delivery models are effective at reducing unnecessary ED ambulance transports and increasing EMS unit productivity. This provides support for broader EMS mobile integrated health programs in other regions.

  15. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen

    2010-05-11

    Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudinal mixed-method study of a new urban section of the M74 motorway in Glasgow, Scotland, that aims to combine quantitative epidemiological and spatial data with qualitative interview data from local residents. We interviewed 12 residents purposively sampled from a larger study cohort of 1322 to include men and women, different age groups, and people with and without cars, all living within 400 metres of the proposed route of the new motorway. We elicited their views and experiences of the local urban environment and the likely impact of the new motorway using a topic guide based on seven key environmental constructs (aesthetics, green space, convenience of routes, access to amenities, traffic, road danger and personal danger) reflecting an overall ecological model of walking and cycling. Traffic was widely perceived to be heavy despite a low local level of car ownership. Few people cycled, and cycling on the roads was widely perceived to be dangerous for both adults and children. Views about the likely impacts of the new motorway on traffic congestion, pollution and the pleasantness of the local environment were polarised. A new motorway has potential to cause inequitable psychological or physical severance of routes to local amenities, and people may not necessarily use local walking routes or destinations such as parks and shops if these are considered undesirable, unsafe or 'not for us'. Public transport may have the potential to promote or discourage active travel in different socioeconomic

  16. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutrie Nanette

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudinal mixed-method study of a new urban section of the M74 motorway in Glasgow, Scotland, that aims to combine quantitative epidemiological and spatial data with qualitative interview data from local residents. Methods We interviewed 12 residents purposively sampled from a larger study cohort of 1322 to include men and women, different age groups, and people with and without cars, all living within 400 metres of the proposed route of the new motorway. We elicited their views and experiences of the local urban environment and the likely impact of the new motorway using a topic guide based on seven key environmental constructs (aesthetics, green space, convenience of routes, access to amenities, traffic, road danger and personal danger reflecting an overall ecological model of walking and cycling. Results Traffic was widely perceived to be heavy despite a low local level of car ownership. Few people cycled, and cycling on the roads was widely perceived to be dangerous for both adults and children. Views about the likely impacts of the new motorway on traffic congestion, pollution and the pleasantness of the local environment were polarised. A new motorway has potential to cause inequitable psychological or physical severance of routes to local amenities, and people may not necessarily use local walking routes or destinations such as parks and shops if these are considered undesirable, unsafe or 'not for us'. Public transport may have the potential to promote or

  17. Calculating the Contribution Rate of Intelligent Transportation System in Improving Urban Traffic Smooth Based on Advanced DID Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of intelligent transportation system around the world, which helps to relieve urban traffic congestion problems. For instance, many mega-cities in China have devoted a large amount of money and resources to the development of intelligent transportation system. This poses an intriguing and important issue: how to measure and quantify the contribution of intelligent transportation system to the urban city, which is still a puzzle. This paper proposes a matching difference-in-difference model to calculate the contribution rate of intelligent transportation system on traffic smoothness. Within the model, the main effect indicators of traffic smoothness are first identified, and then the evaluation index system is built, and finally the ideas of the matching pool are introduced. The proposed model is illustrated in Guangzhou, China (capital city of Guangdong province. The results show that introduction of ITS contributes 9.25% to the improvement of traffic smooth in Guangzhou. Also, the research explains the working mechanism of how ITS improves urban traffic smooth. Eventually, some strategy recommendations are put forward to improve urban traffic smooth.

  18. Fate and Transport of Nutrients in Groundwater and Surface Water in an Urban Slum Catchment Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyenje, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the generation, transport and fate of sanitation-related nutrients in groundwater and surface water in an urban slum area in sub-Saharan Africa. In excess, nutrients can cause eutrophication of downstream water bodies. The study argues that nitrogen-containing rains and

  19. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  20. Participatory quantitative health impact assessment of urban and transport planning in cities: A review and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Khreis, Haneen; Verlinghieri, Ersilia; Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David

    2017-06-01

    Urban and transport planning have large impacts on public health, but these are generally not explicitly considered and/or quantified, partly because there are no comprehensive models, methods and tools readily available. Air pollution, noise, temperature, green space, motor vehicle crashes and physical activity are important pathways linking urban and transport planning and public health. For policy decision-making, it is important to understand and be able to quantify the full-chain from source through pathways to health effects and impacts to substantiate and effectively target actions. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of recent studies on the health impacts related to urban and transport planning in cities, describe the need for novel participatory quantitative health impact assessments (HIA) and provide recommendations. To devise our searches and narrative, we were guided by a recent conceptual framework linking urban and transport planning, environmental exposures, behaviour and health. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and references from relevant articles in English language from January 1, 1980, to November 1, 2016, using pre-defined search terms. The number of HIA studies is increasing rapidly, but there is lack of participatory integrated and full-chain HIA models, methods and tools. These should be based on the use of a systemic multidisciplinary/multisectorial approach and state-of-the-art methods to address questions such as what are the best, most feasible and needed urban and transport planning policy measures to improve public health in cities? Active citizen support and new forms of communication between experts and citizens and the involvement of all major stakeholders are crucial to find and successfully implement health promoting policy measures. We provided an overview of the current state-of-the art of HIA in cities and made recommendations for further work. The process on how to get there is as important and

  1. Digital Advertising System in Urban Transport System of Žilina Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madleňák Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and information and communication technologies (ICT have changed everything: news, commerce, advertising, relating to others, getting information and transport too. It has changed how the people work, how they practice religion, how they date, how they spend the free time and how they travel. One of the technological innovations that are based on usage ICT in advertising space is digital signage. This article presents the results of research dedicated to investigate the relationships between customers-passengers and this new ICT technology in real environment. The results of the research stimulate the discussion about the future advertising practices in Žilina town. Based on the wide analysis of opportunities the digital signage technology in advertising practices, the presented marketing research investigates how passengers accept virtual advertising technology in urban transport system of Žilina town. Authors highlight the advantages of interactivity between digital signage technology and consumers. The conclusions of this article triggers further investigations in the area of the interactions between the digital advertising technology and passengers, and the passengers’ perception and acceptation of shopping activities on the basis of advertising in digital signage medias.

  2. Health impacts related to urban and transport planning: A burden of disease assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Until now, estimates of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) have mainly been produced on national or regional levels. These general estimates, however, are less useful for city governments who have to take decisions on local scales. To address this gap, we focused on the city-level burden of disease (BD) due to exposures affected by urban and transport planning. We conducted a BD assessment using the Urban and Transport Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) tool to estimate annual preventable morbidity and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity (PA), exposure to air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces in Barcelona, Spain. Exposure estimates and morbidity data were available for 1,357,361 Barcelona residents ≥20years (2012). We compared recommended with current exposure levels to estimate the associated BD. We quantified associations between exposures and morbidities and calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the number of attributable cases. We calculated DALYs using GBD Study 2015 background DALY estimates for Spain, which were scaled to Barcelona considering differences in population size, age and sex structures. We also estimated annual health costs that could be avoided under compliance with exposure recommendations. Not complying with recommended levels for PA, air pollution, noise, heat and access to green spaces was estimated to generate a large morbidity burden and resulted in 52,001 DALYs (95% CI: 42,866-61,136) in Barcelona each year (13% of all annual DALYs). From this BD 36% (i.e. 18,951 DALYs) was due to traffic noise with sleep disturbance and annoyance contributing largely (i.e. 10,548 DALYs). Non-compliance was estimated to result in direct health costs of 20.10 million € (95% CI: 15.36-24.83) annually. Non-compliance of international exposure recommendations was estimated to result in a considerable BD and in substantial

  3. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.; Chang, Daniel P. Y.

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NO x concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NO x in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NO x) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality

  4. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihua Wang; Ogden, Joan M.; Chang, Daniel P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NO x concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NO x in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NO x ) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air

  5. Spatial Heterogeneity of Sustainable Transportation Offer Values: A Comparative Analysis of Nantes Urban and Periurban/Rural Areas (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bulteau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovative solutions have been implemented to promote sustainable mobility in urban areas. In the Nantes area (northwestern part of France, alternatives to single-occupant car use have increased in the past few years. In the urban area, there is an efficient public transport supply, including tramways and a “busway” (Bus Rapid Transit, as well as bike-sharing services. In periurban and rural areas, there are carpool areas, regional buses and the new “tram-train” lines. In this article, we focus on the impact on house prices of these “sustainable” transportation infrastructures and policies, in order to evaluate their values. The implicit price of these sustainable transport offers was estimated through hedonic price functions describing the Nantes urban and periurban/rural housing markets. Spatial regression models (SAR, SEM, SDM and GWR were carried out to capture the effect of both spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. The results show patterns of spatial heterogeneity of transportation offer implicit prices at two scales: (i between urban and periurban/rural areas, as well as (ii within each territory. In the urban area, the distance to such offers was significantly associated with house prices. These associations varied by type of transportation system (positive for tramway and railway stations and negative for bike-sharing stations. In periurban and rural areas, having a carpool area in a 1500-m buffer around the home was negatively associated with house prices, while having a regional bus station in a 500-m buffer was non-significant. Distance to the nearest railway station was negatively associated with house prices. These findings provide research avenues to help public policy-makers promote sustainable mobility and pave the way for more locally targeted interventions.

  6. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolás, J.F., E-mail: j.nicolas@umh.es [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R. [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Carratalá, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Parque Tecnológico, C/Charles R. Darwin 14, E-46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm{sup − 3}, was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm{sup − 3}). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm{sup − 3}, than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O{sub 3} levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean

  7. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolás, J.F.; Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R.; Carratalá, A.; Mantilla, E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm − 3 , was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm − 3 ). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm − 3 at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm − 3 at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm − 3 , than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O 3 levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean value. - Highlights:

  8. Freight transportation and the potential for invasions of exotic insects in urban and periurban forests of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Haack, Robert A; Adelaja, Adesoji O

    2009-02-01

    Freight transportation is an important pathway for the introduction and dissemination of exotic forest insects (EFI). Identifying the final destination of imports is critical in determining the likelihood of EFI establishment. We analyzed the use of regional freight transport information to characterize risk of urban and periurban areas to EFI introductions. Specific objectives were to 1) approximate the final distribution of selected imports among urban areas of the United States, 2) characterize the final distribution of imports in terms of their spatial aggregation and dominant world region of origin, and 3) assess the effect of the final distribution of imports on the level of risk to urban and periurban forests from EFI. Freight pattern analyses were conducted for three categories of imports whose products or packaging materials are associated with EFI: wood products, nonmetallic mineral products, and machinery. The final distribution of wood products was the most evenly distributed of the three selected imports, whereas machinery was most spatially concentrated. We found that the type of import and the world region of origin greatly influence the final distribution of imported products. Risk assessment models were built based on the amount of forestland and imports for each urban area The model indicated that 84-88% of the imported tonnage went to only 4-6% of the urban areas in the contiguous United States. We concluded that freight movement information is critical for proper risk assessment of EFI. Implications of our findings and future research needs are discussed.

  9. Phosphorus transport and retention in a channel draining an urban, tropical catchment with informal settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-03-01

    attributed to the resuspension of P-rich bed sediment that accumulated in the channel during low flows. However, first-flush effects were not observed. Our findings provide useful insights into the processes governing the fate and transport of P in urban slum catchments in SSA.

  10. Promoting active transportation as a partnership between urban planning and public health: the columbus healthy places program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christine Godward; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    Active transportation has been considered as one method to address the American obesity epidemic. To address obesity prevention through built-environment change, the local public health department in Columbus, Ohio, established the Columbus Healthy Places (CHP) program to formally promote active transportation in numerous aspects of community design for the city. In this article, we present a case study of the CHP program and discuss the review of city development rezoning applications as a successful strategy to link public health to urban planning. Prior to the CHP review, 7% of development applications in Columbus included active transportation components; in 2009, 64% of development applications adopted active transportation components specifically recommended by the CHP review. Active transportation recommendations generally included adding bike racks, widening or adding sidewalks, and providing sidewalk connectivity. Recommendations and lessons learned from CHP are provided.

  11. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-12-01

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  12. Long-term trends in U.S. gas transportation: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, June 1992. Gas Research Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihn, M.L.; Woods, T.J.

    1992-06-01

    The paper summarizes the trends in lower-48 gas transportation in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices

  13. Security in the transport of radioactive material: Implementing guide. Spanish edition; La seguridad fisica en el transporte de materiales radiactivos. Guia de aplicacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  14. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers’ preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger’s choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost. PMID:29746528

  15. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cuiying; Guan, Wei; Ma, Jihui

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers' preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger's choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost.

  16. Transport and Breakdown of Organic Matter in Urban and Forested Streams: The Effects of Altered Hydrology and Landscape Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, K. T.; Swan, C. M.; Pouyat, R. V.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Stack, W. P.; Fisher, G. T.

    2006-05-01

    A better understanding of how urbanization and trees interact to alter organic matter transport and cycling is needed to assess retention in catchments and streams, as well as to estimate the magnitude of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The influx of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOC) to headwater streams normally originates within or near riparian areas, and is important to aquatic food webs in stream ecosystems. Urban catchments, however, have huge effective drainage densities (due to storm drainage infrastructure), which facilitate a POM/DOC "gutter subsidy" to streams that dwarfs riparian inputs and alters benthic litter quality (and represents a major short-circuit in the carbon vegetation-soil cycle.) We measured in-situ leaf litter breakdown rates, flows, DOC, BOD and nutrients in forested, suburban and urban streams of the BES LTER and Baltimore City DPW sampling networks, which encompassed a variety of urban and rural landscapes. Sycamore and Planetree leaf litter in-situ experiments revealed faster breakdown rates for suburban and urban landscape litter than for riparian litter, with rates being much faster than literature values for forested catchments. DOC, BOD and nutrient data (storm and dry weather) from BES/DPW stream sites showed much higher concentrations and loads in the more urbanized catchments and indicate the streams are likely heterotrophic and experience transient but high dissolved oxygen demands. High nutrient concentrations, faster litter breakdown rates, and substantially higher upland urban fluxes of organic matter (particulate and dissolved) in urban streams suggest that export rates are likely substantially higher than in forested systems and that carbon loads to both downstream aquatic systems and to the atmosphere (as CO2) are substantial.

  17. Explanatory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document pertains to Safety Series No. 7 of the IAEA, which is to explain the provisions of the IAEA Safety Series No. 6 in order to help comprehension of the regulatory standards and to promote compliance, public acceptance and further development of the Regulations. The document also reflects corrections and changes implemented by the 1986 Supplement to the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The intent of the document is to show why certain provisions of Safety Series No. 6 exist, why they are so formed (including any relevant history) and the rationale behind the provisions. Definitions are presented, basic principles established, activity and fissile material limits as well as computational techniques are presented. The detailed requirements (the latter sections are built on this information) concern: shipping and storage, material packagings and packages which govern design. Test requirements are provided. Approval and administrative requirements are stated. Heavy emphasis is placed on providing safety through design. It contains the cornerstone of the basic requirements for packagings, packages and material-related aspects.

  18. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie K.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2010-11-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier-Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were validated against experimental data obtained in wind-tunnel studies before the model was applied to study the detailed turbulence, temperature, and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon of aspect ratio 1. The effects of different Richardson numbers ( Ri) were investigated. The ground heating significantly enhanced mean flow, turbulence, and pollutant flux inside the street canyon, but weakened the shear at the roof level. The mean flow was observed to be no longer isolated from the free stream and fresh air could be entrained into the street canyon at the roof-level leeward corner. Weighed against higher temperature, the ground heating facilitated pollutant removal from the street canyon.

  19. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph; Pages, P

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago.

  20. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  1. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  2. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Pages, P.

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago

  3. Study of efficiency indicators of urban public transportation systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomazinis, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the efforts of a research project on efficiency problems of urban public transportation systems (UPTS). Three test regions were selected in an effort to discover, clarify, and understand the efficiency relationships within UPTS. The test regions vary from a small one-mode region to a large multi-mode region. The UPTS are first divided into three major system components, i.e., primary services, support functions, and the network. Then each system is divided by mode, and each component by each distinct function carried within the system component. The inputs to the system are also divided by type, i.e., labor, capital, and energy, and according to the contributor, i.e., the operator, the direct user, the society at large, and the government at all levels. Input units are also traced in terms of money costs (Fiscal Inputs Matrix) and physical units (Physical Inputs Matrix). System outputs are also separated by the receiver and the nature of the outputs. Efficiency analysis is then explored in a hierarchical manner exploring three types of relationships, i.e., system inputs vs. system outputs; component inputs vs. component inputs; and component outputs vs. component outputs. Efficiency indicators are then discussed as to the type of useful service they may offer in various types of efficiency analysis problems.

  4. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  5. Impacts of urbanization on nitrogen cycling and aerosol, surface and groundwater transport in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Gallo, E.; Carlson, M.; Riha, K. M.; Brooks, P. D.; McIntosh, J. C.; Sorooshian, A.; Michalski, G. M.; Meixner, T.

    2011-12-01

    Semi-arid regions are experiencing disproportionate increases in human population and land transformation worldwide, taxing limited water resources and altering nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry. How the redistribution of water and N by urbanization affects semi-arid ecosystems and downstream water quality (e.g. drinking water) is unclear. Understanding these interactions and their feedbacks will be critical for developing science-based management strategies to sustain these limited resources. This is especially true in the US where some of the fastest growing urban areas are in semi-arid ecosystems, where N and water cycles are accelerated, and intimately coupled, and where runoff from urban ecosystems is actively managed to augment a limited water supply to the growing human population. Here we synthesize several ongoing studies from the Tucson Basin in Arizona and examine how increasing urban land cover is altering rainfall-runoff relationships, groundwater recharge, water quality, and long range transport of atmospheric N. Studies across 5 catchments varying in impervious land cover showed that only the least impervious catchment responded to antecedent moisture conditions while hydrologic responses were not statistically related to antecedent rainfall conditions at more impervious sites. Regression models indicated that rainfall depth, imperviousness, and their combined effect control discharge and runoff ratios (p channel characteristics and infrastructure controlled runoff chemistry. Groundwater studies showed nonpoint source contamination of CFCs and associated nitrate in areas of rapid recharge along ephemeral channels. Aerosol measurements indicate that both long-range transport of N and N emissions from Tucson are being transported and deposited at high elevation in areas that recharge regional groundwater. Combined, our findings suggest that urbanization in semi-arid regions results in tradeoffs in the redistribution of water and N that have important

  6. Inputs and Fluvial Transport of Pharmaceutical Chemicals in An Urban Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G. D.; Shala, L.

    2006-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are classes of emerging chemical contaminants thought to enter the aquatic environment primarily through wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharges. As the use of drugs is expected to rise with the aging demographics of the human population and with more river water being diverted to meet potable water demands, the presence of PPCPs in surface water is becoming an issue of public concern. The intent of our study was to quantify potential WTP inputs of PPCPs to rivers in the Wasington, DC (USA) region, and to investigate the fluvial transport of PPCPs in the Anacostia River (AR), the mainstem of a highly contaminated urban watershed in Washington, DC. The approach was to sample WTP water at various stages of treatment, and to measure seasonal concentrations of PPCPs in fluvial transport in the AR. Surface water from the AR was collected through the use of automated samplers during normal flow and storm flow regimes near the head of tide of the AR, just upstream from the confluence of the Northeast (NE) and Northwest (NW) Branches, the two prominent drainages in the watershed. The water samples were filtered to separate river particles from water, and the filtered water was extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The filters were extracted by sonication in methanol. The SPE and filter extracts were analyzed for a group of widely distributed PPCPs as trimethylsilyl derivatives by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most frequently detected PPCPs at WTPs included ibuprofen, caffeine, naproxen and triclosan, which ranged from 45 μg/L (caffeine) to 5 μg/L (triclosan) in WTP influent and from 0.08 μg/L (triclosan) to 0.02 μg/L (ibuprofen) in effluent water. Similar PPCPs were detected in both the NE and NW Branches of the AR, but higher concentrations on average were observed in the NE Branch, which receives WTP effluent upstream from the sampling point. The incidence of PPCPs correlated

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  8. Development of a Quantitative Methodology to Assess the Impacts of Urban Transport Interventions and Related Noise on Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Braubach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU project “Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe” (URGENCHE explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Development of a quantitative methodology to assess the impacts of urban transport interventions and related noise on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braubach, Matthias; Tobollik, Myriam; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Hiscock, Rosemary; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Sarigiannis, Denis A; Keuken, Menno; Perez, Laura; Martuzzi, Marco

    2015-05-26

    Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU) project "Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe" (URGENCHE) explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki) linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution.

  10. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Britter, Rex E; Norford, Leslie Keith; Entekhabi, Dara

    2010-01-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street ca...

  11. Participation for Sustainable Urban Freight Transport Systems : A Case Study of Freight Receivers in the City of Gothenburg

    OpenAIRE

    Lindkvist, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a case study research that look into the difficulty in engaging freight receivers in initiatives related to urban freight transport. The aim of the paper is to investigate how participatory processes could be formed for more successful outcomes and how the freight receivers could become more engaged in the processes. By conducting a qualitative research where primarily interviews with freight receivers and other concerned stakeholder were made, it was possible to distinguish di...

  12. Atmospheric transport of urban-derived NHx: Evidence from nitrogen concentration and δ15N in epilithic mosses at Guiyang, SW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueyan; Xiao Huayun; Liu Congqiang; Li Youyi; Xiao Hongwei

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration and δ 15 N in 175 epilithic moss samples were investigated along four directions from urban to rural sites in Guiyang, SW China. The spatial variations of moss N concentration and δ 15 N revealed that atmospheric N deposition is dominated by NH x -N from two major sources (urban sewage NH 3 and agricultural NH 3 ), the deposition of urban-derived NH x followed a point source pattern characterized by an exponential decline with distance from the urban center, while the agricultural-derived NH x was shown to be a non-point source. The relationship between moss N concentration and distance (y = 1.5e -0.13x + 1.26) indicated that the maximum transporting distance of urban-derived NH x averaged 41 km from the urban center, and it could be determined from the relationship between moss δ 15 N and distance [y = 2.54 ln(x) - 12.227] that urban-derived NH x was proportionally lower than agricultural-derived NH x in N deposition at sites beyond 17.2 km from the urban center. Consequently, the variation of urban-derived NH x with distance from the urban center could be modeled as y = 56.272e -0.116x - 0.481 in the Guiyang area. - Tissue N concentration and δ 15 N in epilithic mosses may be indicators for atmospheric transport of urban-derived NH x

  13. Vulnerability effects of passengers' intermodal transfer distance preference and subway expansion on complementary urban public transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Yan, Yongze; Ouyang, Min; Tian, Hui; He, Xiaozheng

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability studies on urban public transportation systems have attracted growing attentions in recent years, due to their important role in the economy development of a city and the well-beings of its citizens. This paper proposes a vulnerability model of complementary urban public transportation systems (CUPTSs) composed of bus systems and subway systems, with the consideration of passengers’ intermodal transfer distance preference (PITDP) to capture different levels of complementary strength between the two systems. Based on the model, this paper further introduces a CUPTSs-aimed vulnerability analysis method from two specific aspects: (a) vulnerability effects of different PITDP values, which facilitate the design of policies to change PITDP to reduce system vulnerability; (b) vulnerability effects of different subway expansion plans, which facilitate the vulnerability investigation of current expansion plan and the identification of the optimal expansion plan from the system vulnerability perspective. The proposed CUPTSs-aimed vulnerability analysis method is applied to investigate the complementary bus and subway systems in the city of Wuhan, China. The insights from this study are helpful to analyze other CUPTSs for valuable planning suggestions from the vulnerability perspective. - Highlights: • We model complementary urban public transportation systems’ (CUPTSs) vulnerability. • We use a PITDP metric to capture different levels of complementary relationship. • We study vulnerability under different PITDP and different subway expansion plans. • We analyze dynamic vulnerability of CUPTSs during their expansion process.

  14. Selected Abstracts of the 3rd Edition of Transport of High Risk Infants; Oxford (UK; August 31st-September 2nd, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 3rd Edition of Transport of High Risk Infants; Oxford (UK; August 31st-September 2nd, 2017ABS 1. MORTALITY RATE IN 23-30 WEEKS PRE­MATURE BORN IN LEVEL 2 HOSPITAL IN COMPARISON TO THOSE BORN IN TERTIARY-CARE HOSPITAL • J.P. Doray, J.L. DorayABS 2. THE QUEBEC AEROMEDICAL EXPERIENCE: EVACUATION OF NEONATES FROM AREAS IN EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS – IN­NOVATIONS IN SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY • É. Notebaert, J. Provencher, R. Bernier, S. Côté, S. KindABS 3. NASAL HIGH FLOW SUPPORT DURING NEONATAL RETRIEVAL IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA • V. Abraham, C. Roberts, B. Manley, L. Owen, M. Stewart, P. DavisABS 4. NEONATAL TRANSPORT TO AND FROM A REGIONAL LEVEL 2 CENTRE • C. Moore, M. Cassidy, M. Byrne, A. Bowden, J. Franta, I. Farombi, J. FitzsimonsABS 5. PASSIVE THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA DURING AMBULANCE AND HELICOPTER SECONDARY NEONATAL TRANSPORT IN NEONATES WITH HYPOXIC BRAIN INJURY: 10-YEARS RETROSPECTIVE SURVEY • M. Leben, M. Nolimal, I. Vidmar, S. GrosekABS 6. STABILIZATION OF CRITICALLY ILL NEW­BORNS: PREVENTION OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY • A. Babintseva, Y. Hodovanets, L. AgafonovaABS 7. TRANSPORT OF THE SURGICAL NEONATES • R. Pejaver, A. Poveidein, D. Winterbank-Scott, C. Keys, N. GuptaABS 8. AUDIT OF VENTILATED NEONATAL TRANS­FERS IN NORTHERN IRELAND FROM 1ST JANUARY 2017 UNTIL 1ST MAY 2017 • R. Moore, S. KnoxABS 9. “HUB AND SPOKE” ECMO IN NEONATES WITH MECONIUM ASPIRATION SYNDROME: A PRELIMINARY REPORT • N. Doglioni, D. Fichera, F. Zanella, M. Padalino, V. Vida, G. Stellin, P. Lago, D. TrevisanutoABS 10. INTRA-HOSPITAL TRANSPORTATION OF EX­TREMELY PRETERM INFANTS AND INCI­DENCE OF INTRAVENTRICULAR HAEMOR­RHAGES • N. Wadström, M. Breindahl, B. Hallberg, B. SkiöldABS 11. RISK OF POSTNATAL TRANSPORT AND OUT­COME OF LATE PRETERM INFANTS BORN AT NON-TERTIARY CENTRES: A RETRO­SPEC­TIVE COHORT STUDY • N. Doglioni, L. Salmaso, P. Facchin, D. TrevisanutoABS 12. COMPARING THREE METHODS OF THERA

  15. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  16. Different fuelling technologies for urban transport bus service in an Italian big town: economic, environmental and social considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarelli, M.G.L.; Cali, M.; Bertonasco, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the energy field, an important cause of pollutant emissions is linked to ground transportation. The increase of the ratio between energy consumption due to transport and the gross internal product has been 1.12% per year from 1970. All these energy consumption increases have been made while using fossil fuel with serious environmental consequences on the local and global scale and reduction of fuel availability. Environmental policy points towards improvement by cleaner fuels utilisation and increase of engine efficiencies. In this paper, a specific application will be discussed concerning the public transport service in an Italian urban area: a bus fleet motorised with fuel cell systems will be compared with traditional buses using fossil fuels. The comparison will be done in energy, economic, environmental and social terms

  17. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with the Wellington Integrated Land-Use, Transportation and Environment (WILUTE model, and forecasted changes in active commuter trips associated with changes in the built environment. Results indicated high income individuals were more likely to commute actively than individuals on low income. Several land-use and transportation factors were associated with active commuting and results from the modelling showed a potential increase in active commuting following an increase in bus frequency and parking fees. In conclusion, regional level policies stimulating environmental factors that directly or indirectly affect active commuting may be a promising strategy to increase population level physical activity. Access to, and frequency of, public transport in the neighbourhood can act as a facilitator for a more active lifestyle among its residents without negatively affecting disadvantaged groups.

  18. Virtual transportation as a solution to urban transportation problems: a critical analysis of the potential of telecommuting as a work trip reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczynski, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Recent advancements in technology have made virtual transportation a potential solution to the urban transportation crisis. Virtual transportation (also called telecommuting or teleworking) was defined as `a philosophy of allowing an employee to perform required tasks full-time or part-time from his or her choice of location by using information technology`. Virtual transportation would help ease peak travel demands during rush hours. The exhaust gases from automobiles with internal combustion engines emit pollutants such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds and nitrous oxides into the atmosphere, thus virtual transportation could contribute significantly to the improvement of air quality. Telecommuting also offers other advantages, for example, geographic constraints of time and space are removed and employees are able to locate anywhere with telecommunications networks. It was suggested that road pricing could be used to generate revenue to build networks of telecommunication centres. Road pricing could be an incentive for commuters to substitute physical travel with virtual travel. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Stéphane; Therrien, Marie-Christine; Normandin, Julie-Maude

    2010-05-01

    Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal. Stéphane Beauregard M.Sc. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Julie-Maude Normandin Ph.D. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Marie-Christine Therrien Professor École nationale d'administration publique The proposed paper presents preliminary results on the resilience of organizations managing critical infrastructure in the Metropolitan Montreal area (Canada). A resilient city is characterized by a network of infrastructures and individuals capable of maintaining their activities in spite of a disturbance (Godschalk, 2002). Critical infrastructures provide essential services for the functioning of society. In a crisis situation, the interruption or a decrease in performance of critical infrastructures could have important impacts on the population. They are also vulnerable to accidents and cascading effects because on their complexity and tight interdependence (Perrow, 1984). For these reasons, protection and security of the essential assets and networks are one of the objectives of organizations and governments. But prevention and recovery are two endpoints of a continuum which include also intermediate concerns: ensuring organizational robustness or failing with elegance rather than catastrophically. This continuum also includes organizational resilience (or system), or the ability to recover quickly after an interruption has occurred. Wildavsky (1988) proposes that anticipation strategies work better against known problems while resilience strategies focus on unknown problems. Anticipation policies can unnecessarily immobilize investments against risks, while resilience strategies include the potential for a certain sacrifice in the interests of a more long-term survival and adaptation to changing threats. In addition, a too large confidence in anticipation strategies can bring loss of capacity of an

  20. Sustainability Measures of Urban Public Transport in Cities: A World Review and Focus on the Asia/Middle East Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris De Gruyter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of public transport sustainability in cities have been very limited to date, particularly in more developing countries located throughout Asia and the Middle East. This paper assesses the sustainability of urban public transport systems in cities by adopting a quantitative measurement framework containing 15 public transport sustainability indicators. It compares aggregate sustainability performance of urban public transport in international regions of cities, and then examines the relative sustainability of selected cities in the Asia and Middle East region. The world region analysis shows that Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America achieve the highest aggregate normalised scores for sustainable public transport, in that order. In general, the results suggest that western developed countries (Western Europe, North America, and Oceania have better performance on environmental and social indicators but poorer performance on system effectiveness and economic indicators. Asia and Latin America perform the other way round; better on economic and system effectiveness and worse on social and environmental indicators. Eastern Europe is one of the few regions with higher level performance all round. The city-based analysis of Asia/Middle East suggested that out of the 26 cities studied, the top 3 cities in terms of sustainable public transport in the Asia and Middle East Region are: 1st, Manila (Philippines; 2nd, Tokyo (Japan; and 3rd, Chennai (India. Dubai (United Arab Emirates (UAE, rated 26th, Shizuoka (Japan, rated 25th and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia, rated 24th were the lowest rated cities. The paper explores the implications of the findings and makes suggestions for future research.

  1. The role of personal values, urban form, and auto availability in the analysis of walking for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Matthew A; Karash, Karla H; Adler, Thomas; Sallis, James

    2007-01-01

    To examine the association of personal values, the built environment, and auto availability with walking for transportation. Participants were drawn from 11 U.S. metropolitan areas with good transit services. 865 adults who had recently made or were contemplating making a residential move. Respondents reported if walking was their primary mode for nine trip purposes. "Personal values" reflected ratings of 15 variables assessing attitudes about urban and environmental attributes, with high reliability (ot = 0.85). Neighborhood form was indicated by a three-item scale. Three binary variables were created to reflect (1) personal values, (2) neighborhood form, and (3) auto availability. The association with walking was reported for each of the three variables, each combination of two variables, and the combination of three variables. An analysis of covariance was applied, and a hierarchic linear regression model was developed. All three variables were associated with walking, and all three variables interacted. The standardized coefficients were 0.23for neighborhood form, 0.21 for autos per person, and 0.18 for personal values. Positive attitudes about urban attributes, living in a supportive neighborhood, and low automobile availability significantly predicted more walking for transportation. A framework for further research is proposed in which a factor representing the role of the automobile is examined explicitly in addition to personal values and urban form.

  2. Distribution and disinfection of bacterial loadings associated with particulate matter fractions transported in urban wet weather flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Joshua A; Sansalone, John J

    2012-12-15

    Urban runoff is a resource for reuse water. However, runoff transports indicator and pathogenic organisms which are mobilized from sources of fecal contamination. These organisms are entrained with particulate matter (PM) that can serve as a mobile substrate for these organisms. Within a framework of additional treatment for reuse of treated runoff which requires the management of PM inventories in unit operations and drainage systems there is a need to characterize organism distributions on PM and the disinfection potential thereof. This study quantifies total coliform, Escherichia coli, fecal streptococcus, and enterococcus generated from 25 runoff events. With the ubiquity and hetero-dispersivity of PM in urban runoff this study examines organism distributions for suspended, settleable and sediment PM fractions differentiated based on PM size and transport functionality. Hypochlorite is applied in batch to elaborate inactivation of PM-associated organisms for each PM fraction. Results indicate that urban runoff bacterial loadings of indicator organisms exceed U.S. wastewater reuse, recreational contact, and Australian runoff reuse criteria as comparative metrics. All monitored events exceeded the Australian runoff reuse criteria for E. coli in non-potable residential and unrestricted access systems. In PM-differentiated events, bacteriological mobilization primarily occurred in the suspended PM fraction. However, sediment PM shielded PM-associated coliforms at all hypochlorite doses, whereas suspended and settleable PM fractions provide less shielding resulting in higher inactivation by hypochlorite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. From Rail-Oriented to Automobile-Oriented Urban Development and Back. 100 Years of Paradigm Change and Transport Policy in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedemann Kunst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport and its side effects are major problems in rapidly growing cities. Car traffic dominates these cities and pollutes the environment without being able to sufficiently secure the mobility of the urban population and goods. A paradigm shift in urban and transport policy will be necessary to change this situation. In spite of its different development dynamics, Berlin is an interesting example to discuss development strategies for rapidly growing cities because in the course of more than 100 years, a twofold paradigm shift has occurred in the city both conceptually and practically:  Berlin has shifted from a city dominated by rail traffic  to an automobile-oriented city,  and has then gradually transformed back into a city in which  an intertwined system of public and non-motorized individual means of transport secures the mobility of the urban population. The interdependencies on the conceptual level between urban planning and transport policies as well as on a practical level between urban structures and transport systems can be studied using the example of Berlin. Experiences with the implementation of automobile-oriented planning and the special conditions in the first decade after reunification led to protests, reflection, and a revision of the transport policy. A strategically designed process of integrated planning has brought about a trend reversal, and steered the development of transport in the direction of clearly formulated sustainability-oriented objectives. In this process, the reintegration of transport and spatial planning and a reorganization of institutional structures at the administrative level was of particular importance. Compact, rail-oriented settlement structures like in the metropolitan region of Berlin make it easier to dispense with automobiles than sprawled structures. The residual role that qualitatively improved automobiles will take in the cities of the future will have to be determined by research and

  4. City of New York v. United States Dep't of Transportation: urban radioactive waste transportation gets another green light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainey, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines the background of this suit, which invalidated a municipal law prohibiting the transportation of large quantities of radioactive waste through city streets. The analysis focuses on two major issues: (1) whether the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act gives the Department of Transportation (DOT) the rulemaking power to preempt local law, and (2) whether DOT should have prepared an environmental impact statement before rulemaking. It concludes that DOT's action was arbitrary, and suggests some intermediate actions that would aid DOT in making a more informed decision. This could include a verification of DOT environmental assessment data and a more complete analysis of human error. The case illustrates the need for a lesser degree of judicial deference to federal agency action with respect to the volatile and unpredictable area of hazardous waste transportation

  5. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: using large-eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extending cost–benefit analysis for the sustainability impact of inter-urban Intelligent Transport Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosz, Ben; Grant-Muller, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports research involving three cost–benefit analyses performed on different ITS schemes (Active Traffic Management, Intelligent Speed Adaptation and the Automated Highway System) on one of the UK's busiest highways — the M42. The environmental scope of the assets involved is widened to take into account the possibility of new technology linked by ICT and located within multiple spatial regions. The areas focused on in the study were data centre energy emissions, the embedded emissions of the road-side infrastructure, vehicle tailpipe emissions, additional hardware required by the vehicles (if applicable) and safety, and all aspects of sustainability. Dual discounting is applied which aims to provide a separate discount rate for environmental elements. For ATM, despite the energy costs of the data centre, the initial implementation costs and mitigation costs of its embedded emissions, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved, although the scheme becomes less effective later on its lifecycle due to rising costs of energy. ISA and AHS generate a negative result, mainly due to the cost of getting the vehicle on the road. In order to negate these costs, the pricing of the vehicle should be scaled depending upon the technology that is outfitted. Retrofitting on vehicles without the technology should be paid for by the driver. ATM will offset greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO 2 equivalency over a 25 year lifespan. This reduction has taken into account the expected improvement in vehicle technology. AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO 2 equivalency over 15 years of operational usage. However, this offset is largely dependent on assumptions such as the level of market penetration. - Highlights: • Three cost–benefit analyses are applied to inter-urban intelligent transport. • For ATM, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved. • ATM offsets greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO 2 equivalency over 25 years. • ISA and AHS

  7. Extending cost–benefit analysis for the sustainability impact of inter-urban Intelligent Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolosz, Ben, E-mail: kolosz27@gmail.com; Grant-Muller, Susan, E-mail: S.M.Grant-Muller@its.leeds.ac.uk

    2015-01-15

    The paper reports research involving three cost–benefit analyses performed on different ITS schemes (Active Traffic Management, Intelligent Speed Adaptation and the Automated Highway System) on one of the UK's busiest highways — the M42. The environmental scope of the assets involved is widened to take into account the possibility of new technology linked by ICT and located within multiple spatial regions. The areas focused on in the study were data centre energy emissions, the embedded emissions of the road-side infrastructure, vehicle tailpipe emissions, additional hardware required by the vehicles (if applicable) and safety, and all aspects of sustainability. Dual discounting is applied which aims to provide a separate discount rate for environmental elements. For ATM, despite the energy costs of the data centre, the initial implementation costs and mitigation costs of its embedded emissions, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved, although the scheme becomes less effective later on its lifecycle due to rising costs of energy. ISA and AHS generate a negative result, mainly due to the cost of getting the vehicle on the road. In order to negate these costs, the pricing of the vehicle should be scaled depending upon the technology that is outfitted. Retrofitting on vehicles without the technology should be paid for by the driver. ATM will offset greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over a 25 year lifespan. This reduction has taken into account the expected improvement in vehicle technology. AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 15 years of operational usage. However, this offset is largely dependent on assumptions such as the level of market penetration. - Highlights: • Three cost–benefit analyses are applied to inter-urban intelligent transport. • For ATM, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved. • ATM offsets greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 25 years

  8. Accident Management System Based on Vehicular Network for an Intelligent Transportation System in Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusor Rafid Bahar Al-Mayouf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As cities across the world grow and the mobility of populations increases, there has also been a corresponding increase in the number of vehicles on roads. The result of this has been a proliferation of challenges for authorities with regard to road traffic management. A consequence of this has been congestion of traffic, more accidents, and pollution. Accidents are a still major cause of death, despite the development of sophisticated systems for traffic management and other technologies linked with vehicles. Hence, it is necessary that a common system for accident management is developed. For instance, traffic congestion in most urban areas can be alleviated by the real-time planning of routes. However, the designing of an efficient route planning algorithm to attain a globally optimal vehicle control is still a challenge that needs to be solved, especially when the unique preferences of drivers are considered. The aim of this paper is to establish an accident management system that makes use of vehicular ad hoc networks coupled with systems that employ cellular technology in public transport. This system ensures the possibility of real-time communication among vehicles, ambulances, hospitals, roadside units, and central servers. In addition, the accident management system is able to lessen the amount of time required to alert an ambulance that it is required at an accident scene by using a multihop optimal forwarding algorithm. Moreover, an optimal route planning algorithm (ORPA is proposed in this system to improve the aggregate spatial use of a road network, at the same time bringing down the travel cost of operating a vehicle. This can reduce the incidence of vehicles being stuck on congested roads. Simulations are performed to evaluate ORPA, and the results are compared with existing algorithms. The evaluation results provided evidence that ORPA outperformed others in terms of average ambulance speed and travelling time. Finally, our

  9. Developing and applying mobility performance measures for freight transportation in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed in a one-year study with the objective to develop an : understanding of the interrelationships of urban goods movement and congestion and identify performance : measures that will help evaluate the impa...

  10. Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Effects of the Urban Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    While bicyclists and other active travelers obtain health benefits from increased physical activity, they also risk uptake of traffic-related air pollution. But pollution uptake by urban bicyclists is not well understood due to a lack of direct measu...

  11. “Looking back, looking forward": urban development and transport infrastructure in Gauteng Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mubiwa, B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that land-use and transportation systems have a two-way dependency. On one hand, the existing land-use structures influence trip distances and transport mode choice, while on the other hand transport infrastructure and systems...

  12. Retrospective review of injury severity, interventions and outcomes among helicopter and nonhelicopter transport patients at a Level 1 urban trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannay, R Scott; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Ball, Chad G; Laupland, Kevin; Feliciano, David V

    2014-02-01

    Air ambulance transport for injured patients is vitally important given increasing patient volumes, the limited number of trauma centres and inadequate subspecialty coverage in nontrauma hospitals. Air ambulance services have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared with ground transport in select circumstances. Our primary goal was to compare injuries, interventions and outcomes in patients transported by helicopter versus nonhelicopter transport. We performed a retrospective 10-year review of 14 440 patients transported to an urban Level 1 trauma centre by helicopter or by other means. We compared injury severity, interventions and mortality between the groups. Patients transported by helicopter had higher median injury severity scores (ISS), regardless of penetrating or blunt injury, and were more likely to have Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 8, require airway control, receive blood transfusions and require admission to the intensive care unit or operating room than patients transported by other means. Helicopter transport was associated with reduced overall mortality (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.39). Patients transported by other methods were more likely to die in the emergency department. The mean ISS, regardless of transport method, rose from 12.3 to 15.1 (p = 0.011) during our study period. Patients transported by helicopter to an urban trauma centre were more severely injured, required more interventions and had improved survival than those arriving by other means of transport.

  13. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Norford, Leslie K.; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Entekhabi, Dara

    2012-02-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street canyon of aspect ratio 2 and 0.5, while only the street canyon of aspect ratio 0.5 showed a change in flow regime (from wake interference flow to skimming flow). The street canyon of aspect ratio 1 does not show any significant change in the flow field. Ground heating generated strong mixing of heat and pollutant; the normalized temperature inside street canyons was approximately spatially uniform and somewhat insensitive to the aspect ratio and heating intensity. This study helps elucidate the combined effects of urban geometry and thermal stratification on the urban canyon flow and pollutant dispersion.

  14. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Using large-eddy simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Large-eddy simulation reproduces two unsteady vortices seen in a lab experiment. • Reactive pollutants in an urban street canyon exhibit significant spatial variation. • O 3 production rate inferred by the NO x -O 3 -steady-state-defect approach is discussed. • Ground level sourced pollutants are largely trapped within the lower vortex. • A method of quantifying parameters of a two-box model is developed. - Reactive pollutants in a deep street canyon exhibit significant spatial variation driven by two unsteady vortices. A method of quantifying parameters of a two-box model is developed

  15. Some considerations for air transportation analysis to non-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the problems associated with air transportation to and from nonurban areas. While a significant proportion of public transportation needs of nonurban areas are met by aircraft, there are indications that improvement in air transportation service are called for and would be rewarded by increased patronage. However, subsidized local service carriers are attracted by large aircraft operation, and there is a tendency to discontinue service to low density areas. Prospects and potential means for reversing this trend are discussed.

  16. Compact or spread-out cities: Urban planning, taxation, and the vulnerability to transportation shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusdorf, Francois; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that cities made more compact by transportation taxation are more robust than spread-out cities to shocks in transportation costs. Such a shock, indeed, entails negative transition effects that are caused by housing infrastructure inertia and are magnified in low-density cities. Distortions due to a transportation tax, however, have in absence of shock detrimental consequences that need to be accounted for. The range of beneficial tax levels can, therefore, be identified as a function of the possible magnitude of future shocks in transportation costs. These taxation levels, which can reach significant values, reduce city vulnerability and prevent lock-ins in under-optimal situations

  17. A Proposal for the Development of a Robot-Based Physical Distribution and Transportation Network for Urban Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Brooks, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    The personal automobile ushered in a renaissance in individual freedom of movement. This general-purpose vehicle is capable of fulfilling almost all of the local and regional transportation needs of the average citizen. It can commute the owner to work and leisure, ferry passengers, deliver packa...... by the general public. This system is intended to reduce the inefficiency, energy waste, pollution and congestion associated with transporting a large general-purpose vehicle and a human driver in order to deliver small quantities of physical goods in high density urban areas.......The personal automobile ushered in a renaissance in individual freedom of movement. This general-purpose vehicle is capable of fulfilling almost all of the local and regional transportation needs of the average citizen. It can commute the owner to work and leisure, ferry passengers, deliver...... packages and groceries, and in many cases can even haul other modes of transportation like bicycles, snowmobiles, trailers and boats. However, like any general-purpose system, serious inefficiencies must be tolerated in individual tasks in order to provide such a wide breadth of capabilities...

  18. Public transport subsidies. The impacts of regional bus cards on the travel demand and energy use in Finish urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Pekkarinen, S [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This study is a part of a larger Finnish project financed by the Ministry of Transport and Communications concerned with evaluating the impacts of new integrated fare and ticket policies. The objective of the policy is to encourage a modal shift from cars to public transport, thereby reducing energy use and the harmful environmental effects of transport. The regional bus card systems (RBC) provide the opportunity to purchase a monthly ticket, at a substantial discount of normal fares, which is valid on all buses in an area covering a city centre and the smaller independent communities surrounding. RBC systems are subsidized by both Local Authorities and the state government and are currently operating in over ten urban areas in Finland. The objectives of this research project are: (1) to estimate the fare elasticities of the demand of bus services and the price elasticities of RBC demand, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted subsidizing policy and (3) to assess the consequences of the fares policy on energy use in transport. This paper deals specifically with the latter two issues. (EG)

  19. Forecasting inter-urban transport demand for a logistics company: A combined grey–periodic extension model with remnant correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting short-term transport demand for an individual logistics company involved in a competitive market is critical to make short-term operation decisions. This article proposes a combined grey–periodic extension model with remnant correction to forecast the short-term inter-urban transport demand of a logistics company involved in a nationwide competitive market, showing changes in trend and seasonal fluctuations with irregular periods different to the macroeconomic cycle. A basic grey–periodic extension model of an additive pattern, namely, the main combination model, is first constructed to fit the changing trends and the featured seasonal fluctuation periods. In order to improve prediction accuracy and model adaptability, the grey model is repeatedly modelled to fit the remnant tail time series of the main combination model until prediction accuracy is satisfied. The modelling approach is applied to a logistics company engaged in a nationwide less-than-truckload road transportation business in China. The results demonstrate that the proposed modelling approach produces good forecasting results and goodness of fit, also showing good model adaptability to the analysed object in a changing macro environment. This fact makes this modelling approach an option to analyse the short-term transportation demand of an individual logistics company.

  20. Ontology-based multi-agent system for urban freight transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, N.; Duin, R. van; Tavasszy, L.

    2014-01-01

    Congestion, pollution, and safety are some of the most worrisome side-effects of the urban goods movement activities. These problems are generally attributed to the underlying characteristics of the domain such as heterogeneous stakeholders, their conflicting objectives and resulting distributed

  1. Electric two wheelers, zero emission solution for urban door to door transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    The noise and exhaust pollution coupled with increasing congestion faced by urban centres demands new personal mobility solution for faster door to door connectivity. The advancement in electric power train and lowering cost of Li-ion battery is made it possible to develop light weight fully...

  2. Urban Transport Services in Sub-Saharan Africa : Improving Vehicle Operations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The report presents findings, and the way forward in respect of the Knowledge and Research (KAR) Project on vehicle operations in Sub-Saharan Africa, basically undertaken in Uganda and Ghana. In the first phase, the study identified problems faced by transport operators in both countries, and analyzed their impact on vehicle operating costs, as well as examining transport regulations, and ...

  3. Transportation behaviours of older adults: an investigation into car dependency in urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Laurie; Snow, Stephen; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne

    2012-09-01

    Increased car dependency among Australia's ageing population may result in increased social isolation and other health impacts associated with the cessation of driving. While public transport represents an alternative to car usage, patronage remains low among older cohorts. This study investigates the facilitators and barriers to public transport patronage and the nature of car dependence among older Australians. Data were gathered from a sample of 24 adults (mean age = 70 years) through a combination of quantitative (remote behavioural observation) and qualitative (interviews) investigation. Findings suggest that relative convenience, affordability and health/mobility may dictate transport mode choices. The car is considered more convenient for the majority of suburban trips irrespective of the availability of public transport. Policy attention should focus on providing better education and information regarding driving cessation and addressing older age specific social aspects of public transport including health and mobility issues. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  4. Reliability and validity of the Spanish Language Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd Edition) in a sample of American, urban, Spanish-speaking Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Laura; Li, Susan Tinsley; Pliskin, Neil H

    2008-05-01

    The utility of the Spanish WAIS-III was investigated by examining its reliability and validity among 100 Spanish-speaking participants. Results indicated that the internal consistency of the subtests was satisfactory, but inadequate for Letter Number Sequencing. Criterion validity was adequate. Convergent and discriminant validity results were generally similar to the North American normative sample. Paired sample t-tests suggested that the WAIS-III may underestimate ability when compared to the criterion measures that were utilized to assess validity. This study provides support for the use of the Spanish WAIS-III in urban Hispanic populations, but also suggests that caution be used when administering specific subtests, due to the nature of the Latin America alphabet and potential test bias.

  5. Coordinated Development between Urban Tourism Economy and Transport in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By selecting the panel data from 2005 to 2014 of 9 cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD in China, this paper respectively establishes the evaluation index system of tourism economy and transport. It also applies a synthetic evaluation model and coupling coordination model to estimate comprehensive indices of tourism economy and transport system and their coordinated relationships. The results show that: (1 during 2005–2014, the synthetic indices of tourism economy generally presented constantly upward tendency and the synthetic indices of transport represented wave-like raising trend in the PRD region; (2 during 2005–2014, the 9 cities in the PRD region gradually tended to have coordinated development between tourism economy and transport, and the central area of the PRD region developed faster than the flanks; (3 the correlations between the tourism economy and transport of the cities with abundant tourism resources, developed economy, and advanced transport facilities were more remarkable, and the coordination degrees were higher. Besides, macro-policies, mega-events, and locations also impacted on coordinated development between the tourism economy and transport in the PRD region.

  6. Modelling transport of storm-water pollutants using the distributed Multi-Hydro platform on an urban catchment near Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the increasingly use of vehicles causes expanding contaminated storm-water runoff from roads and the associated quarters. Besides, the current utilization of city's separated sewer systems underlines the needs for evaluating precisely the growing impact of these polluted effluents on receiving water bodies. Nevertheless, traditional means of water quality modelling had shown its limits (Kanso, 2004), more accurate modelling schemes are hence required. In this paper, we found that the application of physically based and fully distributed model coupled with detailed high-resolution data is a promising approach to reproduce the various dynamics and interactions of water quantity/quality processes in urban or peri-urban environment. Over recent years, the physically based and spatially distributed numerical platform Multi-Hydro (MH) has been developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (El-Tabach et al. , 2009 ; Gires et al., 2013 ; Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2014). This platform is particularly adapted for representing the hydrological processes for medium size watersheds, including the surface runoff, drainage water routing and the infiltrations on permeable zones. It is formed by the interactive coupling of several independent modules, which depend on generally used open-access models. In the framework of the ANR (French National Agency for Research) Trafipollu project, a new extension of MH, MH-quality, was set up for the water-quality modelling. MH-quality was used for the simulation of pollutant transport on a peri-urban and highly trafficked catchment located near Paris (Le Perreux-sur-Marne, 0.2 km2). The set-up of this model is based on the detailed description of urban land use features. For this purpose, 15 classes of urban land uses relevant to water quality modelling were defined in collaboration with the National Institute of Geography of France (IGN) using Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (5cm). The delimitation of the urban catchment was then performed

  7. Modelling the urban air quality in Hamburg with the new city-scale chemistry transport model CityChem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Ramacher, Martin; Aulinger, Armin; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelling plays an important role by providing guidelines for efficient air pollution abatement measures. Currently, most urban dispersion models treat air pollutants as passive tracer substances or use highly simplified chemistry when simulating air pollutant concentrations on the city-scale. The newly developed urban chemistry-transport model CityChem has the capability of modelling the photochemical transformation of multiple pollutants along with atmospheric diffusion to produce pollutant concentration fields for the entire city on a horizontal resolution of 100 m or even finer and a vertical resolution of 24 layers up to 4000 m height. CityChem is based on the Eulerian urban dispersion model EPISODE of the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). CityChem treats the complex photochemistry in cities using detailed EMEP chemistry on an Eulerian 3-D grid, while using simple photo-stationary equilibrium on a much higher resolution grid (receptor grid), i.e. close to industrial point sources and traffic sources. The CityChem model takes into account that long-range transport contributes to urban pollutant concentrations. This is done by using 3-D boundary concentrations for the city domain derived from chemistry-transport simulations with the regional air quality model CMAQ. For the study of the air quality in Hamburg, CityChem was set-up with a main grid of 30×30 grid cells of 1×1 km2 each and a receptor grid of 300×300 grid cells of 100×100 m2. The CityChem model was driven with meteorological data generated by the prognostic meteorology component of the Australian chemistry-transport model TAPM. Bottom-up inventories of emissions from traffic, industry, households were based on data of the municipality of Hamburg. Shipping emissions for the port of Hamburg were taken from the Clean North Sea Shipping project. Episodes with elevated ozone (O3) were of specific interest for this study, as these are associated with exceedances of the World

  8. Investigating the consequences of urban volcanism using a scenario approach II: Insights into transportation network damage and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Daniel M.; Deligne, Natalia I.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Woods, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Transportation networks are critical infrastructure in urban environments. Before, during and following volcanic activity, these networks can incur direct and indirect impacts, which subsequently reduces the Level-of-Service available to transportation end-users. Additionally, reductions in service can arise from management strategies including evacuation zoning, causing additional complications for transportation end-users and operators. Here, we develop metrics that incorporate Level-of-Service for transportation end-users as the key measure of vulnerability for multi-hazard volcanic impact and risk assessments. A hypothetical eruption scenario recently developed for the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, is applied to describe potential impacts of a small basaltic eruption on different transportation modes, namely road, rail, and activities at airports and ports. We demonstrate how the new metrics can be applied at specific locations worldwide by considering the geophysical hazard sequence and evacuation zones in this scenario, a process that was strongly informed by consultation with transportation infrastructure providers and emergency management officials. We also discuss the potential implications of modified hazard sequences (e.g. different wind profiles during the scenario, and unrest with no resulting eruption) on transportation vulnerability and population displacement. The vent area of the eruption scenario used in our study is located north of the Māngere Bridge suburb of Auckland. The volcanic activity in the scenario progresses from seismic unrest, through phreatomagmatic explosions generating pyroclastic surges to a magmatic phase generating a scoria cone and lava flows. We find that most physical damage to transportation networks occurs from pyroclastic surges during the initial stages of the eruption. However, the most extensive service reduction across all networks occurs 6 days prior to the eruption onset, largely attributed to the

  9. Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.

  10. Risk analysis related to dangerous materials transport and storage in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Hubert, P.; Pages, P.

    1989-12-01

    Risk management in an urban areas not always an easy task and the selection of appropriate prevention measure is often difficult. Consequences of an accident can be multiple (mortality, destruction, pollution, interruption of supplies, economic losses, traffic difficulties), and preventive measures are difficult to compare. The objective of this report is to present different methods applicable for decision making emphasising the criteria for their intercomparison and their limitations. In any case a more sophisticated analysis is needed for risk management in urban areas. Principals of methods needed for decision making are presented. These methods are based on a single criteria (regular constraint), on a few criteria that can be measured (cost-benefit), or a number of criteria at choice. These rather general methods should be adaptable to be applied for specific domain. For risk management the following adaptation are presented: identifying the limit of maximum individual risk (generalisation of regular constraint); adoption of different values of human life as a function of nature of consequences (generalisation of cost-benefit method), application of risk avoidance factors. These different developments predict versions of tools for decision making which can be applicable to risk management in urban areas [fr

  11. Evaluating transportation equity : an intermetropolitan comparison of regional accessibility and urban form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The concept of accessibility is used as the measurement tool to assess the link between social equity and the built environment because : it simultaneously accounts for both land-use patterns and a transportation system. This study compares 25 metrop...

  12. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and f...

  13. Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans

  14. Urban poverty and informal motorcycle transport services in a Nigerian intermediate settlement: a synthesis of operative motives and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Zakariyya Al-Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining operations motives and satisfaction in motorcycle taxi operators in Auchi. Primary data were sourced using structured questionnaires. Of the 148 questionnaires administered, 135 were found analysable. SPSS software version 17.0 was used for data analysis. The frequency distribution result of the demographic information of the respondents revealed that males, aged 21–30 year (58%, are predominantly involved in the operation. The education level of the majority of operators was in the secondary cohort (62.2%. Among operators, 56% operate motorcycle taxis for self-employment, whilst 34.1% was for augmenting income. A test of hypothesis result suggested that operator satisfaction based on the motive behind operation is statistically significant at 1%. The findings also strengthen previous studies. In terms of sustainability, informal motorcycle taxis are considered by the study to be unrealistic given the efficient transport system and enabling economic situation. Moreover, their operation impacts negatively on the environment, health, social and human capital development. Government and transport policy-makers should pursue efficient integrated modal transport system. Poverty alleviation machinery by government should explore viable initiatives that will engage the urban poor, especially youths, to divest their massive involvements in motorcycle taxi operation in Nigeria.

  15. Multiplex editing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a multiplex editing system. The system allows multiple editing of nucleic acid sequences such as genomic sequences, such as knockins of genes of interest in a genome, knockouts of genomic sequences and/or allele replacement. Also provided herein are a method...... for editing nucleic acids and a cell comprising a stably integrated endonuclease....

  16. Use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, to Assess Developmental Outcome in Infants and Young Children in an Urban Setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, Daynia E; Ramdin, Tanusha; Rakotsoane, David; Agaba, Faustine; Davies, Victor A; Chirwa, Tobias; Cooper, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a tool developed in a Western setting. To evaluate the development of a group of inner city children in South Africa with no neonatal risk factors using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III), to determine an appropriate cut-off to define developmental delay, and to establish variation in scores done in the same children before and after one year of age. Cohort follow-up study. 74 children had at least one Bayley III assessment at a mean age of 19.4 months (95% CI 18.4 to 20.4). The mean composite cognitive score was 92.2 (95% CI 89.4 to 95.0), the mean composite language score was 94.8 (95% CI 92.5 to 97.1), and mean composite motor score was 98.8 (95% CI 96.8 to 101.0). No child had developmental delay using a cut-off score of 70. In paired assessments above and below one year of age, the cognitive score remained unchanged, the language score decreased significantly ( p = 0.001), and motor score increased significantly ( p = 0.004) between the two ages. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a suitable tool for assessing development in urban children in southern Africa.

  17. LEDs APPLICATION IN THE SERVICE OF URBAN PASSENGER TRANSPORT IN THE CITY OF URUAPAN MICHOACÁN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Arevalo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of urban transport in the city of Uruapan Michoacán and the rest of the country is essential. The bus routes are identified by labeled numbers, however in the darkness of early morning, evening or rainy day, they is difficult to identify, because of the material used (white shoes paint. Through high-brightness LEDs, displays can be built based on seven-segment digits that display the route number. Without using programmable devices it is possible to turn on/off each segment and easily get any number from 0 to 9, also it is possible to the cost of equipment and get less fragile circuits.

  18. A model library for dynamic transport and fate of micropollutants in integrated urban wastewater and stormwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Gevaert, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    by using substance inherent properties, following an approach commonly used in large-scale MP multimedia fate and transport models. The chosen level of complexity ensures a low data requirement and minimizes the need for field measurements. Next to a synthesis of model applications, a didactic example......The increasing efforts in reducing the emission of micropollutants (MP) into the natural aquatic environment require the development of modelling tools to support the decision making process. This article presents a library of dynamic modelling tools for estimating MP fluxes within Integrated Urban...... Wastewater and Stormwater system (IUWS – including drainage network, stormwater treatment units, wastewater treatment plants, sludge treatment, and the receiving water body). The models are developed by considering the high temporal variability of the processes taking place in the IUWS, providing a basis...

  19. Allocation private building in urban city and along the transport arteries for creating a modern energy-efficient living environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyanov, Vitaliy; Prelovskaya, Yana

    2017-10-01

    This article submits for consideration the structuring elements of the “private sector” development system, the so-called architectural heritage of the Russian province [1]. Three types of development, still present in central parts of settlement systems, i.e. parts of historical value, are revealed. Common features of private plot development for the majority of middle-scale and small towns are characterized. Dependence of the types on various factors: ethnical, natural (geographical), economical, is revealed. It is important to determine which buildings are located along the transport arteries. Does it have historical significance and cultural value, since it forms the image of the city. The outgoing line passes, as a rule, through the entire settlement system and leads to the central part. Basic principles of formation of historically emerged development types, such as blocks, streets and side streets, are shown, and also problems needed to be solved by the means of urban planning are generalized and casted.

  20. Urban distribution by electric transport. A guide for municipalities. 2013; Stedelijke distributie met elektrisch vervoer. Een gids voor gemeenten. 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    This guide provides practical tools for municipalities in the Netherlands to develop and implement policies for urban distribution by electric transport (a.k.a. e-distribution). The guide highlights the different roles that municipalities can play to promote electric mobility. The guide also describes the policies and measures that fit these roles. Further, practical experiences and examples give a clear picture of present activities of municipalities and entrepreneurs in this field [Dutch] Deze gids biedt gemeenten praktische handvatten om beleid te ontwikkelen en uit te voeren voor stedelijke distributie met elektrisch vervoer (e-distributie). De gids belicht de verschillende rollen die gemeenten kunnen vervullen om elektrisch vervoer te bevorderen. Ook beschrijft de gids de beleidskeuzen en maatregelen die bij deze rollen passen. Verder geven praktijkervaringen en voorbeelden een duidelijk beeld van wat gemeenten en ondernemers doen die al op dit terrein actief zijn.

  1. Urban Freight Management with Stochastic Time-Dependent Travel Times and Application to Large-Scale Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the vehicle routing problem (VRP in large-scale urban transportation networks with stochastic time-dependent (STD travel times. The subproblem which is how to find the optimal path connecting any pair of customer nodes in a STD network was solved through a robust approach without requiring the probability distributions of link travel times. Based on that, the proposed STD-VRP model can be converted into solving a normal time-dependent VRP (TD-VRP, and algorithms for such TD-VRPs can also be introduced to obtain the solution. Numerical experiments were conducted to address STD-VRPTW of practical sizes on a real world urban network, demonstrated here on the road network of Shenzhen, China. The stochastic time-dependent link travel times of the network were calibrated by historical floating car data. A route construction algorithm was applied to solve the STD problem in 4 delivery scenarios efficiently. The computational results showed that the proposed STD-VRPTW model can improve the level of customer service by satisfying the time-window constraint under any circumstances. The improvement can be very significant especially for large-scale network delivery tasks with no more increase in cost and environmental impacts.

  2. Study on transfer optimization of urban rail transit and conventional public transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Sun, Quan Xin; Mao, Bao Hua

    2018-04-01

    This paper mainly studies the time optimization of feeder connection between rail transit and conventional bus in a shopping center. In order to achieve the goal of connecting rail transportation effectively and optimizing the convergence between the two transportations, the things had to be done are optimizing the departure intervals, shorting the passenger transfer time and improving the service level of public transit. Based on the goal that has the minimum of total waiting time of passengers and the number of start of classes, establish the optimizing model of bus connecting of departure time. This model has some constrains such as transfer time, load factor, and the convergence of public transportation grid spacing. It solves the problems by using genetic algorithms.

  3. Nonemergency medical transportation and health care visits among chronically ill urban and rural medicaid beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Leela V; Wedel, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Inaccessibility to health care services due to lack of transportation affects the most vulnerable segments of the society. The effect of Medicaid-provided nonemergency medical transportation (NEMT) in Oklahoma on health care visits for the management of chronic illnesses is examined. Analyses of claims data show that African Americans are the highest users of NEMT. Medicaid beneficiaries who use NEMT services are significantly more likely to make the recommended number of annual visits for the management of chronic conditions than those who do not use NEMT. Increased use of NEMT by making the services more accommodating and convenient for beneficiaries is proposed.

  4. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  5. Web-based survey design for unravelling semi-compensatory choice in transport and urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Shlomo; Shiftan, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of semi-compensatory models is gaining momentum in transport planning in recent years. However, traditional survey methodologies focus on collecting solely compensatory choice data, which leads to information loss when semi-compensatory models are estimated. The present study...

  6. The Influence of the Urban Transport System in Java on City Fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system of city transportation and city typology in Central Java affects the fluctuation of fuel consumption. The population size, number of private motor vehicles, RGDP (Regional Gross Domesic Product), number of motorcycles and road length have high correlation with fuel consumption. The higher the population size, ...

  7. Impact of urban structure on personal transportation in the context of a large Danish provincial city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a detailed study of the land use ? transport connection, with special emphasis on the location of residences, in the context of a larger Danish provincial city (the city of Aalborg with approx. 120.000 inhabitants, situated in North Jutland). The study was car...

  8. Home Delivery and the Impacts on Urban Freight Transport : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.G.S.N.; Nemoto, T.; Browne, M.

    2014-01-01

    This review paper discusses the latest developments in internet shopping, home delivery and the potential impacts on city logistics and alternative vehicle use. The review has illustrated the rapid changes during the past few years and the potentially important impacts on patterns of transport

  9. the influence of the urban transport system in java on city fuel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nick

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... traffic jam, the use of space, environment conservation (exhaust ... road condition [9], road network patterns [4];. [10]. Data transportation system of the city and the ... cities, 4 big cities and 13 towns, not the city of. Jakarta, not ...

  10. Turbulence and pollutant transport in urban street canyons under stable stratification: a large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal stratification of the atmospheric surface layer has strong impact on the land-atmosphere exchange of turbulent, heat, and pollutant fluxes. Few studies have been carried out for the interaction of the weakly to moderately stable stratified atmosphere and the urban canopy. This study performs a large-eddy simulation of a modeled street canyon within a weakly to moderately stable atmosphere boundary layer. To better resolve the smaller eddy size resulted from the stable stratification, a higher spatial and temporal resolution is used. The detailed flow structure and turbulence inside the street canyon are analyzed. The relationship of pollutant dispersion and Richardson number of the atmosphere is investigated. Differences between these characteristics and those under neutral and unstable atmosphere boundary layer are emphasized.

  11. A study of the potential of remote sensors in urban transportation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietschier, D.; Modlin, D. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The potential uses of remotely sensed data as applied to the transportation planning process are presented. By utilizing the remote sensing technology developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the various space programs, it is hoped that both the expense and errors inherent in the conventional data collection techniques can be avoided. Additional bonuses derived from the use of remotely sensed data are those of the permanent record nature of the data and the traffic engineering data simultaneously made available. The major mathematical modeling phases and the role remotely sensed data might play in replacing conventionally collected data are discussed. Typical surveys undertaken in the overall planning process determine the nature and extent of travel desires, land uses, transportation facilities and socio-economic characteristics. Except for the socio-economic data, data collected in the other surveys mentioned can be taken from photographs in sufficient detail to be useful in the modeling procedures.

  12. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Mutrie Nanette; Mitchell Richard; Ogilvie David; Petticrew Mark; Platt Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudin...

  13. Telehealth-Enabled Emergency Medical Services Program Reduces Ambulance Transport to Urban Emergency Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Langabeer, James R.; Gonzalez, Michael; Alqusairi, Diaa; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Jackson, Adria; Mikhail, Jennifer; Persse, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emergency medical services (EMS) agencies transport a significant majority of patients with low acuity and non-emergent conditions to local emergency departments (ED), affecting the entire emergency care system’s capacity and performance. Opportunities exist for alternative models that integrate technology, telehealth, and more appropriately aligned patient navigation. While a limited number of programs have evolved recently, no empirical evidence exists for their efficacy. T...

  14. Estimating the Capacity of Urban Transportation Networks with an Improved Sensitivity Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muqing Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The throughput of a given transportation network is always of interest to the traffic administrative department, so as to evaluate the benefit of the transportation construction or expansion project before its implementation. The model of the transportation network capacity formulated as a mathematic programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC well defines this problem. For practical applications, a modified sensitivity analysis based (SAB method is developed to estimate the solution of this bilevel model. The high-efficient origin-based (OB algorithm is extended for the precise solution of the combined model which is integrated in the network capacity model. The sensitivity analysis approach is also modified to simplify the inversion of the Jacobian matrix in large-scale problems. The solution produced in every iteration of SAB is restrained to be feasible to guarantee the success of the heuristic search. From the numerical experiments, the accuracy of the derivatives for the linear approximation could significantly affect the converging of the SAB method. The results also show that the proposed method could obtain good suboptimal solutions from different starting points in the test examples.

  15. Psychometric properties of the assessment of quality of working life scale in the urban transport sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alberto Figueroa-Chaves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Quality of Working Life (QWL is the degree of satisfaction, physical, mental and social well-being experienced by people in their working environment; it contains the objective and subjective dimensions. For this study, the subjective dimension of the QWL was addressed, which is formed by occupational health, labor welfare and perception of the work. Objective: To determine the psychometric properties of the assessment of quality of life scale at work in the transport sector. Materials and methods: A quantitative descriptive-instrumental study of the scale was made, which consists of 108 items and was applied to 468 drivers of the strategic system of public transport in the city of San Juan de Pasto. The evidence of Kaiser Meyer Olkin and roundness of Bartlett, the factorial analysis and Cronbach Alpha were calculated. Results: The scale presented appropriate features of validity and reliability. It evaluates two factors: labor welfare and healthy life styles, and the respective scales to be applied are presented. Conclusions: The factorial analysis allows us to affirm that the Scale of Quality of Working Life in the transport sector can be applied in subsequent studies.

  16. Detecting Urban Transport Modes Using a Hybrid Knowledge Driven Framework from GPS Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Deb Das

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transport mode information is essential for understanding people’s movement behavior and travel demand estimation. Current approaches extract travel information once the travel is complete. Such approaches are limited in terms of generating just-in-time information for a number of mobility based applications, e.g., real time mode specific patronage estimation. In order to detect the transport modalities from GPS trajectories, various machine learning approaches have already been explored. However, the majority of them produce only a single conclusion from a given set of evidences, ignoring the uncertainty of any mode classification. Also, the existing machine learning approaches fall short in explaining their reasoning scheme. In contrast, a fuzzy expert system can explain its reasoning scheme in a human readable format along with a provision of inferring different outcome possibilities, but lacks the adaptivity and learning ability of machine learning. In this paper, a novel hybrid knowledge driven framework is developed by integrating a fuzzy logic and a neural network to complement each other’s limitations. Thus the aim of this paper is to automate the tuning process in order to generate an intelligent hybrid model that can perform effectively in near-real time mode detection using GPS trajectory. Tests demonstrate that a hybrid knowledge driven model works better than a purely knowledge driven model and at per the machine learning models in the context of transport mode detection.

  17. Analysis of satisfaction factors at urban transport interchanges: Measuring travelers’ attitudes to information, security and waiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois Garcia, D.; Monzon de Caceres, A.; Hernandez del Olmo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Transport interchanges can be considered as a node, where people transfer from one mode to another, and as a place to stay, using facilities and services as well as waiting areas. Reducing disruption of transfer in multimodal trips is a key element for assuring seamless mobility in big cities. Based on previous research (Hernández & Monzón, 2016) this paper aims to explore the predictive capacity of attitudes towards several service factors on general satisfaction with transport interchange. Complementary, it was analyzing how personal and trip characteristics are related to evaluation of some variables, and examining the influence of waiting time on the perceived quality. To that end, a two steps methodology was conducted (personal and on-line interview) in a representative sample of 740 users (54% female, 55% work purpose trip). We performed path analysis to test the model showing a satisfactory statistical fit. The model developed show good performance for predicting general satisfaction at Moncloa Transport Interchange (Madrid, Spain). The outputs of the model indicate that Information and Safety and Security factors predicted 49% of general satisfaction. Furthermore, the results showed also a strong association between evaluation of Design and Environmental quality, factors that not affect directly general satisfaction but do so through Information and Safety & Security perception, acting the last as mediator variables. Nevertheless, spending time queuing inside the interchange show a negative influence on Information and Safety & Security, while age of participants affect negatively to Information, which mean that elder have some cognitive accessibility problems. Moreover, our data shows gender differences in safety perception, since women feel less safe (particularity the youngest) inside the interchange. The results indicate a number of priority measures to enhance. (Author)

  18. History of transportation in Chicago: Its impact on the urban landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, A.V.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the author presents some of his thoughts on the relationship between transportation and how Chicago used its land. He has chosen to do this by looking at the question from a historical perspective. He attempts to do this by tracking the link between transportation and the use of land. This linkage actually involves only a few simple human factors such as a desire to pay the least amount for land, getting from place to place as swiftly as possible, being paid the most for work done and living in a country-like setting with all of the serenity that image conjures. The author argues these factors are what brought Chicago to where it is, and makes no attempt to judge this as good or bad. The author argues that energy consumption or scarcity, like railroad or transit strikes, have had little long-term effect on how people travel and therefore how they use land. The notion that resources were inexhaustible permeated Chicago`s early history. Human factors appear to the author to have had and probably will continue to have a more profound effect on transportation than anything else. He does not believe society knows what individuals will pay in energy costs to maintain their real or perceived mobility. The real cost of fuel and vehicles is much higher (and so is transit usage) in Europe, but VMT and vehicle ownership still are growing at an astounding rate. Mobility is perceived as good, not bad. How does one convince people to limit their mobility when it is good?

  19. Dynamic analysis of energy, environment and congestion effects of urban transport policy. Variabilisation of car taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dender, K Van [Center for Economic Studies (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    Road transport is an important cause of external costs. In general three types of external costs can be distinguished: congestion, air and noise pollution causing environment damage and health hazards, and road accidents. Policy measures aiming at the reduction of external costs mostly are limited to a specific cost-type. The lack of integration of policies causes inefficiencies, because external costs are strongly interlinked. In Ochelen and Proost, congestion, pollution and road accidents are treated as externalities. An optimal pricing and regulation policy for transport is calculated for Brussels in 2005. Regulation consists of prescriptions to car producers concerning the environmental characteristics of car-technology. Optimal prices charge transport users the social cost of their trips, with possibly a correction for the marginal cost of public funds. In a perfect pricing policy, prices would be differentiated according to conditions of congestion and pollution at each moment in time. The model is flexible enough to simulate the effects of more realistic policy packages. This flexibility has its cost in terms of degree of detail of the model. This paper deals with an extension of the Ochelen and Proost model, in two directions. The model is currently still a prototype. We concentrate on the main issues involved in making the model dynamic. The degree of detail therefore is rather limited. Magnitudes of policy effects must be interpreted carefully. We are more confident as to what concerns the directions of the effects. The paper first deals with the methodology of the model, calibration of the model and on the base case scenario, which serves as reference cases for the policy evaluation. (EG)

  20. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  1. History of transportation in Chicago: Its impact on the urban landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the author presents some of his thoughts on the relationship between transportation and how Chicago used its land. He has chosen to do this by looking at the question from a historical perspective. He attempts to do this by tracking the link between transportation and the use of land. This linkage actually involves only a few simple human factors such as a desire to pay the least amount for land, getting from place to place as swiftly as possible, being paid the most for work done and living in a country-like setting with all of the serenity that image conjures. The author argues these factors are what brought Chicago to where it is, and makes no attempt to judge this as good or bad. The author argues that energy consumption or scarcity, like railroad or transit strikes, have had little long-term effect on how people travel and therefore how they use land. The notion that resources were inexhaustible permeated Chicago's early history. Human factors appear to the author to have had and probably will continue to have a more profound effect on transportation than anything else. He does not believe society knows what individuals will pay in energy costs to maintain their real or perceived mobility. The real cost of fuel and vehicles is much higher (and so is transit usage) in Europe, but VMT and vehicle ownership still are growing at an astounding rate. Mobility is perceived as good, not bad. How does one convince people to limit their mobility when it is good?

  2. How do the definitions of urban and rural matter for transportation safety? Re-interpreting transportation fatalities as an outcome of regional development processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Beyer, Kirsten; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Urban and rural places are integrated through economic ties and population flows. Despite their integration, most studies of road safety dichotomize urban and rural places, and studies have consistently demonstrated that rural places are more dangerous for motorists than urban places. Our study investigates whether these findings are sensitive to the definition of urban and rural. We use three different definitions of urban-rural continua to quantify and compare motor vehicle occupant fatality rates per person-trip and person-mile for the state of Wisconsin. The three urban-rural continua are defined by: (1) popular impressions of urban, suburban, and rural places using a system from regional economics; (2) population density; and (3) the intensity of commute flows to core urbanized areas. In this analysis, the three definitions captured different people and places within each continuum level, highlighting rural heterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, the three definitions resulted in similar fatality rate gradients, suggesting a potentially latent "rural" characteristic. We then used field observations of urban-rural transects to refine the definitions. When accounting for the presence of higher-density towns and villages in rural places, we found that low-density urban places such as suburbs and exurbs have fatality rates more similar to those in rural places. These findings support the need to understand road safety within the context of regional development processes instead of urban-rural categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of Collective Production of Biomethane from Livestock Waste for Urban Transportation Mobility in Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Camile Pasqual

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water, energy, and food are essential elements for human life, but face constant pressure resulting from economic development, climate change, and other global processes. Predictions of rapid economic growth, increasing population, and urbanization in the coming decades point to rapidly increasing demand for all three. In this context, improved management of the interactions among water, energy, and food requires an integrated “nexus” approach. This paper focuses on a specific nexus case: biogas generated from organic waste, a renewable source of energy created in livestock production, which can have water-quality impacts if waste enters water bodies. An innovative model is presented to make biogas and biomethane systems feasible, termed “biogas condominiums” (based on collective action given that small- and medium-scale farms on their own cannot afford the necessary investments. Based on the “farm to fuel” concept, animal waste and manure are converted into electrical and thermal energy, biofuel for transportation, and high-quality biofertilizer. This nexus approach provides multiple economic, environmental, and social benefits in both rural and urban areas, including reduction of ground and surface water pollution, decrease of fossil fuels dependence, and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions, among others. The research finds that biogas condominiums create benefits for the whole biogas supply chain, which includes farmers, agroindustry, input providers, and local communities. The study estimated that biomethane potential in Brazil could substitute the country’s entire diesel and gasoline imports as well as 44% of the total diesel demand. In the United States, biomethane potential can meet 16% of diesel demand and significantly diversify the energy matrix.

  4. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no 28. 1997 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    To assist Member States in implementing IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA maintains an updated list of national competent authorities designated for this purpose

  5. General edition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaturi, Sylvain

    1969-01-01

    Computerized edition is essential for data processing exploitation. When a more or less complex edition program is required for each task, then the need for a general edition program become obvious. The aim of this study is to create a general edition program. Universal programs are capable to execute numerous and varied tasks. For a more precise processing, the execution of which is frequently required, the use of a specialized program is preferable because, contradictory to the universal program, it goes straight to the point [fr

  6. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Robert A; Sloan, Chantel D; Cooper, Victoria C; Robinson, Daniel R; Hendrickson, Nathan R; McCord, Tyler A; Johnston, James D

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile) arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) during peak "rush hour" times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr) and walking (16.8 μg/hr), and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr). Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure.

  7. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Cooper, Victoria C.; Robinson, Daniel R.; Hendrickson, Nathan R.; McCord, Tyler A.; Johnston, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters’ daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile) arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) during peak “rush hour” times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr) and walking (16.8 μg/hr), and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr). Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure. PMID:29121096

  8. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Chaney

    Full Text Available Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA during peak "rush hour" times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr and walking (16.8 μg/hr, and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr. Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure.

  9. Assessing the Impacts of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation on the Dynamics of Urban Growth: A Case Study of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although China has promoted the construction of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation (CSGT to guide sustainable development, it may create substantial challenges, such as rapid urban growth and land limitations. This research assessed the effects of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge on impervious surface growth in Cixi County, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Changes in impervious surfaces were mapped based on Landsat images from 1995, 2002, and 2009 using a combination of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA and landscape metrics. The results indicated that the area and density of impervious surfaces increased significantly during construction of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge (2002–2009. Additionally, the bridge and connected road networks promoted urban development along major roads, resulting in compact growth patterns of impervious surfaces in urbanized regions. Moreover, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge promoted the expansion and densification of impervious surfaces in Hangzhou Bay District, which surrounds the bridge. The bridge also accelerated socioeconomic growth in the area, promoting rapid urban growth in Cixi County between 2002 and 2009. Overall, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge is an important driver of urban growth in Cixi County, and policy suggestions for sustainable urban growth should be adopted in the future.

  10. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-08-01

    The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

  11. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 33. 2002 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  12. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 32. 2001 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  13. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 32. 2001 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  14. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 34. 2003 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  15. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 34. 2003 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  16. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 35. 2004 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  17. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 33. 2002 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  18. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 35. 2004 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  19. The evil of good is better: Making the case for basic life support transport for penetrating trauma victims in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappold, Joseph F; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Santora, Thomas A; Beadle, Dania; Dauer, Elizabeth D; Sjoholm, Lars O; Pathak, Abhijit; Goldberg, Amy J

    2015-09-01

    Controversy remains over the ideal way to transport penetrating trauma victims in an urban environment. Both advance life support (ALS) and basic life support (BLS) transports are used in most urban centers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at an urban Level I trauma center. Victims of penetrating trauma transported by ALS, BLS, or police from January 1, 2008, to November 31, 2013, were identified. Patient survival by mode of transport and by level of care received was analyzed using logistic regression. During the study period, 1,490 penetrating trauma patients were transported by ALS (44.8%), BLS (15.6%), or police (39.6%) personnel. The majority of injuries were gunshot wounds (72.9% for ALS, 66.8% for BLS, 90% for police). Median transport minutes were significantly longer for ALS (16 minutes) than for BLS (14.5 minutes) transports (p = 0.012). After adjusting for transport time and Injury Severity Score (ISS), among victims with an ISS of 0 to 30, there was a 2.4-fold increased odds of death (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.4) if transported by ALS as compared with BLS. With an ISS of greater than 30, this relationship did not exist (odds ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). When examined by type of care provided, patients with an ISS of 0 to 30 given ALS support were 3.7 times more likely to die than those who received BLS support (95% CI, 2.0-6.8). Among those with an ISS of greater than 30, no relationship was evident (odds ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). Among penetrating trauma victims with an ISS of 30 or lower, an increased odds of death was identified for those treated and/or transported by ALS personnel. For those with an ISS of greater than 30, no survival advantage was identified with ALS transport or care. Results suggest that rapid transport may be more important than increased interventions. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  20. A Hybrid Fuzzy Inference System Based on Dispersion Model for Quantitative Environmental Health Impact Assessment of Urban Transportation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Tashayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial variation of traffic-related air pollution has been and is a long-standing challenge in quantitative environmental health impact assessment of urban transportation planning. Advanced approaches are required for modeling complex relationships among traffic, air pollution, and adverse health outcomes by considering uncertainties in the available data. A new hybrid fuzzy model is developed and implemented through hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS. This model is integrated with a dispersion model in order to model the effect of transportation system on the PM2.5 concentration. An improved health metric is developed as well based on a HFIS to model the impact of traffic-related PM2.5 on health. Two solutions are applied to improve the performance of both the models: the topologies of HFISs are selected according to the problem and used variables, membership functions, and rule set are determined through learning in a simultaneous manner. The capabilities of this proposed approach is examined by assessing the impacts of three traffic scenarios involved in air pollution in the city of Isfahan, Iran, and the model accuracy compared to the results of available models from literature. The advantages here are modeling the spatial variation of PM2.5 with high resolution, appropriate processing requirements, and considering the interaction between emissions and meteorological processes. These models are capable of using the available qualitative and uncertain data. These models are of appropriate accuracy, and can provide better understanding of the phenomena in addition to assess the impact of each parameter for the planners.

  1. Assessing the impact of atmospheric chemistry on the fate, transport, and transformation of adulticides in an urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, S.; Yoon, S.; Guagenti, M. C.; Sheesley, R. J.; Usenko, S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are literal hot spots of mosquito-borne disease transmission and air pollution during the summer months. Public health authorities release aerosolized adulticides to target adult mosquitoes directly in to the atmosphere to control mosquito populations and reduce the threat of diseases (e.g. Zika). Permethrin and malathion are the primary adulticides for controlling adult mosquito populations in Houston, TX and are typically sprayed at night. After being released into the atmosphere adulticides are subject to atmospheric oxidation initiated by atmospheric oxidants (e.g. O3 and NO3) which are driven by anthropogenic air pollutants (e.g. NOx; NO and NO2). Particulate matter (PM) samples were measured at both application and downwind locations. Sampling sites were determined using the combination of atmospheric plume transport models and adulticide application data provided by Harris County Public Health Mosquito Division. Atmospheric PM samples were taken using a Mobile Laboratory, equipped with total suspended PM and PM2.5 (PM with diameter Interestingly, during malathion-use periods, atmospheric malaoxon concentrations measured in the PM2.5 samples were similar to corresponding TSP samples. This suggests that the majority of the malathion (and malaoxon) was associated with fine PM. During permethrin-use periods, atmospheric permethrin concentrations measured in the PM2.5 samples were an order and half lower in magnitude. This suggests that permethrin may be undergoing less volatilization into the gas phase after application as compared to malathion (and or malaoxon). Unlike permethrin, malathion was not sprayed with a carrier or a synergistic compound. As a result, malathion may be more prone to volatilization. The atmospheric oxidation and migration to fine PM may result in decreased efficacy and increase atmospheric transport, both of which have environmental and human health consequences.

  2. Photochemistry and transport of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in urban and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel Craig

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) adversely affects human health, reduces crop yields, and contributes to climate forcing. To limit these effects, the processes controlling O3 abundance as well as that of its precursor molecules must be fully characterized. Here, I examine three facets of O 3 production, both in heavily polluted and remote environments. First, using in situ observations from the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the Baltimore/Washington region, I evaluate the emissions of the O 3 precursors CO and NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). I find that CO/NOx emissions ratios derived from observations are 21% higher than those predicted by the NEI. Comparisons to output from the CMAQ model suggest that CO in the NEI is accurate within 15 +/- 11%, while NOx emissions are overestimated by 51-70%, likely due to errors in mobile sources. These results imply that ambient ozone concentrations will respond more efficiently to NOx controls than current models suggest. I then investigate the source of high O3 and low H2O structures in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). A combination of in situ observations, satellite data, and models show that the high O3 results from photochemical production in biomass burning plumes from fires in tropical Southeast Asia and Central Africa; the low relative humidity results from large-scale descent in the tropics. Because these structures have frequently been attributed to mid-latitude pollution, biomass burning in the tropics likely contributes more to the radiative forcing of climate than previously believed. Finally, I evaluate the processes controlling formaldehyde (HCHO) in the TWP. Convective transport of near surface HCHO leads to a 33% increase in upper tropospheric HCHO mixing ratios; convection also likely increases upper tropospheric CH 3OOH to ~230 pptv, enough to maintain background HCHO at ~75 pptv. The long-range transport of polluted air, with NO four times the convectively controlled background

  3. National competent authorities. List no. 16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  4. National competent authorities. List no. 11. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  5. National competent authorities. List no. 13. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  6. National competent authorities. List no. 12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  7. National competent authorities. List no. 10. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  8. National competent authorities. List no. 9. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  9. National competent authorities. List no. 15. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  10. National competent authorities. List no. 14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  11. National competent authorities. List no. 13. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  12. National competent authorities. List no. 7. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  13. National competent authorities. List no. 6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  14. National competent authorities. List no. 11. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  15. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 27. 1996 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  16. National competent authorities. List no. 8. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  17. National competent authorities. List no. 10. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  18. National competent authorities. List no. 7. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  19. National competent authorities. List no. 9. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  20. National competent authorities. List no. 6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  1. National competent authorities. List no. 14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  2. National competent authorities. List no. 16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  3. National competent authorities. List no. 15. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  4. National competent authorities. List no. 12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  5. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 30. 1999 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  6. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 31. 2000 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  7. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 29. 1998 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  8. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 30. 1999 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  9. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 26. 1995 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  10. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 29. 1998 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  11. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 26. 1995 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  12. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 31. 2000 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  13. National competent authorities. List no. 8. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  14. Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiting; Zhang, Jingxu; Mi, Zilong; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.

  15. An emission model as an alternative to O-D matrix in urban goods transport modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús González-Feliu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un método alternativo a la matriz O-D par a estimar los impactos del transporte de mercancías urbano. La originalidad del modelo está en tres elementos principales. La primera es qu e la unidad utilizada es la entrega. La segunda es que se sigue un enfoque inductivo, partiendo de una base de datos rica para definir las diferentes funciones generadoras sin utilizar a priori un marc o matemático definido. La tercera es que el modelo es de emisión, es decir, se genera el número de entregas que envían los diferentes estab lecimientos urbanos, y no las que ellos reciben. En primer lugar, se realiz a una revisión de la literatura para posicionar la investigació n. A continuación, se presentan los principales elementos metodológicos usados, pr incipalmente el procedimiento de generación de la entrega y mét odo de definición de ruta. Finalmente, los resultados de validación pa ra las dos partes del modelo se presentan y discuten críticamente.

  16. Proceedings of MUTA 2006, the 4. international forum on urban mobility and advanced transportation : alternative energies for the automobile; Actes du colloque MUTA 2006, le 4. forum international sur la mobilite urbaine et les transports avances : alternatives energetiques dans l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    Clean modes of transport were highlighted at this forum with particular reference to the needs of transport operators in meeting urban mobility targets. The constraints facing the delivering of goods in urban centres were identified along with political and financial incentives that can promote research and innovation in the transportation sector. Other topical issues included mass transportation as a means to achieve clean and efficient mobility; the leadership role of governments in establishing policies for sustainable transportation; intelligent transportation systems and their many applications; and, transportation solutions presented by electric vehicles. The technological developments required to meet the needs of buses, tramways and trucks were also identified along with some of the technical and societal barriers to the development of special urban vehicles, such as small delivery vehicles for local transport. New collaborative projects aimed at improving buses and delivery vehicles were highlighted with reference to future prospects for individualized urban mobility. Regulations and incentives that would contribute to fewer cars in urban environments were discussed in terms of the challenge created by the public's resistance to change. Methods to overcome bad habits and to optimize modal transport were recommended. Funding tools for transport innovation in France, Europe and elsewhere were highlighted along with case studies of research and development projects in urban transport. New developments and applications in batteries and hybrid technology for automotive propulsion systems were reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Malik, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  18. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh’s shared bike system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents’ health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers’ properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers. PMID:28859121

  19. The function of county seats and transport connections as factors of attractiveness of main urban centres of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Klarić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses changes in the radius of influence of the most important Croatian cities in relation to the situation before 1992 and estimates how it could affect possible change of territorial organization. The decline of the population in most cities in the last twenty years and improvement of their transport accessibility are highlighted as particularly important processes that affect the growth or decline in their attractiveness. For the purpose of determination of the attractive power of cities, changes in the territorial organization of the judicial power, health care and education at university level were analysed, as well as some specific indicators, such as spatial distribution of large shopping malls and multiplex cinemas. Based on research, it is concluded that the existing administrative-territorial structure of Croatia does not need a radical change in spite of certain shortcomings. Instead of that, it is necessary to establish economic and statistical regions without administrative authority, especially in areas around large urban agglomerations.

  20. The function of county seats and transport connections as factors of attractiveness of main urban centres of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Klarić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses changes in the radius of influence of the most important Croatian cities in relation to the situation before 1992 and estimates how it could affect possible change of territorial organization. The decline of the population in most cities in the last twenty years and improvement of their transport accessibility are highlighted as particularly important processes that affect the growth or decline in their attractiveness. For the purpose of determination of the attractive power of cities, changes in the territorial organization of the judicial power, health care and education at university level were analysed, as well as some specific indicators, such as spatial distribution of large shopping malls and multiplex cinemas. Based on research, it is concluded that the existing administrative-territorial structure of Croatia does not need a radical change in spite of certain shortcomings. Instead of that, it is necessary to establish economic and statistical regions without administrative authority, especially in areas around large urban agglomerations.