WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban train system

  1. Optimal trajectory planning and train scheduling for urban rail transit systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yihui; van den Boom, Ton; De Schutter, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book contributes to making urban rail transport fast, punctual and energy-efficient –significant factors in the importance of public transportation systems to economic, environmental and social requirements at both municipal and national levels. It proposes new methods for shortening passenger travel times and for reducing energy consumption, addressing two major topics: (1) train trajectory planning: the authors derive a nonlinear model for the operation of trains and present several approaches for calculating optimal and energy-efficient trajectories within a given schedule; and (2) train scheduling: the authors develop a train scheduling model for urban rail systems and optimization approaches with which to balance total passenger travel time with energy efficiency and other costs to the operator. Mixed-integer linear programming and pseudospectral methods are among the new methods proposed for single- and multi-train systems for the solution of the nonlinear trajectory planning problem which involv...

  2. Urban Waters National Training Workshop 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page will house information on the 2016 Urban Waters National Training Workshop in Arlington VA from July 26 until 28. The page has directions, conference goals, speaker biographies, dates, the agenda, and the link to register.

  3. E – urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc J. Zakrajšek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and tele-communication technology are increasingly affecting life and employment. According to predictions, more than 80% of all business operations will be carried out electronically through so called e-business. Recently even in Slovenia discussions have begun on “e-government”. Despite desired or undesired control, virtual networks are changing urban systems into e-urban systems. The extent of benefits to the public also depend on planners. The article presents concepts with the signature “e” to describe urban systems, day-to-day life, real-estate and simulation.

  4. Advanced training systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1990-01-01

    Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.

  5. Urban mining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the fundamental concept of and current endeavors in “urban mining” among those who are interested in both metal resources and ecology. Systems for recycling and reusing precious metals and rare-earth minerals contained in used and discarded electronics are introduced in this book. The target audience is not academic researchers in the resource management and ecology fields but, rather, citizens who are concerned about our future environment and want to do something for the future.

  6. QoS-Aware Resource Allocation for Network Virtualization in an Integrated Train Ground Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hongli

    2018-01-01

    Urban rail transit plays an increasingly important role in urbanization processes. Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) Systems, Passenger Information Systems (PIS), and Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) are key applications of urban rail transit to ensure its normal operation. In existing urban rail transit systems, different applications are deployed with independent train ground communication systems. When the train ground communication systems are built repeatedly, limited wireless sp...

  7. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services are e......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  8. Automatically controlled training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milashenko, A.; Afanasiev, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the computer system for NPP personnel training was developed for training centers in the Soviet Union. The system should be considered as the first step in training, taking into account that further steps are to be devoted to part-task and full scope simulator training. The training room consists of 8-12 IBM PC/AT personal computers combined into a network. A trainee accesses the system in a dialor manner. Software enables the instructor to determine the trainee's progress in different subjects of the program. The quality of any trainee preparedness may be evaluated by Knowledge Control operation. Simplified dynamic models are adopted for separate areas of the program. For example, the system of neutron flux monitoring has a dedicated model. Currently, training, requalification and support of professional qualifications of nuclear power plant operators is being emphasized. A significant number of emergency situations during work are occurring due to operator errors. Based on data from September-October 1989, more than half of all unplanned drops in power and stoppages of power plants were due to operator error. As a comparison, problems due to equipment malfunction accounted for no more than a third of the total. The role of personnel, especially of the operators, is significant during normal operations, since energy production costs as well as losses are influenced by the capability of the staff. These facts all point to the importance of quality training of personnel

  9. Measuring Training ROI: Silver Bullet or Urban Legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    TSRD Doc NAWC Training Systems Division. Training Systems Requirements Analysis Webpage, 30 August 2007 Training System Plan Engineering Specs...QUESTIONNAIRES PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING MONITORING MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS 1-X: MSN EFFECTIVENESS (OUTPUT-ORIENTED) e.g.: SAFETY ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT...All costs required to research and develop a system before committing it to production ( engineering design, manufacturing of test articles, testing

  10. Simulating train movement in an urban railway based on an improved car-following model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jing-Jing; Jin Xin-Min; Li Ke-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Based on the optimal velocity car-following model, in this paper, we propose an improved model for simulating train movement in an urban railway in which the regenerative energy of a train is considered. Here a new additional term is introduced into a traditional car-following model. Our aim is to analyze and discuss the dynamic characteristics of the train movement when the regenerative energy is utilized by the electric locomotive. The simulation results indicate that the improved car-following model is suitable for simulating the train movement. Further, some qualitative relationships between regenerative energy and dynamic characteristics of a train are investigated, such as the measurement data of regenerative energy presents a power-law distribution. Our results are useful for optimizing the design and plan of urban railway systems. (general)

  11. Research on Energy-Saving Operation Strategy for Multiple Trains on the Urban Subway Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption for multiple trains on the urban subway line is predominantly affected by the operation strategy. This paper proposed an energy-saving operation strategy for multiple trains, which is suitable for various line conditions and complex train schedules. The model and operation modes of the strategy are illustrated in detail, aiming to take full use of regenerative braking energy in complex multi-train systems with different departure intervals and dwell times. The computing method is proposed by means of the heuristic algorithm to obtain the optimum operation curve for each train. The simulation result based on a real urban subway line is provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving operation strategy.

  12. Knowledge society training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ionescu, Tudor Basarab; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Tatar, Florin; Tiron, Cristian; Georgescu, Luisa Maria

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to present the results of the Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a knowledge society training system, in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning software platform and several CBT objects/courses have been implemented. The conceived solution is called CBTCenter which is a complete E-Learning and CBT system, offering a variety of teaching and learning tools and services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quizzes, grades, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBTCenter is Labour safety - code name BB-001. The implementation of the CBT technology at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which take part in the educational process; the classroom space problem has been considerably reduced; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problems will decrease with the conversion of more and more conventional courses and materials into CBT objects/courses. (authors)

  13. Understanding complex urban systems integrating multidisciplinary data in urban models

    CERN Document Server

    Gebetsroither-Geringer, Ernst; Atun, Funda; Werner, Liss

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the modeling and understanding of complex urban systems. This second volume of Understanding Complex Urban Systems focuses on the challenges of the modeling tools, concerning, e.g., the quality and quantity of data and the selection of an appropriate modeling approach. It is meant to support urban decision-makers—including municipal politicians, spatial planners, and citizen groups—in choosing an appropriate modeling approach for their particular modeling requirements. The contributors to this volume are from different disciplines, but all share the same goal: optimizing the representation of complex urban systems. They present and discuss a variety of approaches for dealing with data-availability problems and finding appropriate modeling approaches—and not only in terms of computer modeling. The selection of articles featured in this volume reflect a broad variety of new and established modeling approaches such as: - An argument for using Big Data methods in conjunction with Age...

  14. Hidden linkages between urbanization and food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C; Ramankutty, Navin

    2016-05-20

    Global societies are becoming increasingly urban. This shift toward urban living is changing our relationship with food, including how we shop and what we buy, as well as ideas about sanitation and freshness. Achieving food security in an era of rapid urbanization will require considerably more understanding about how urban and food systems are intertwined. Here we discuss some potential understudied linkages that are ripe for further examination. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Khmelnitsky NPP personnel training system improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronov, V.G.; Issupov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant personnel training system improvement is described, including creation of Training center, development of training courses based on SAT methodology, development of training hardware

  16. Education and training support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Rhuji; Iyadomi, Motomi.

    1996-01-01

    In order to train the specialist such as operator or maintenance stuff of large scale plant such as nuclear power plant or thermal power plant, a high grade teaching and training support system is required as well as in training pilot of aeroplane. The specialist in such large scale plant is also a researcher in the field of machinery, electricity and physics at first, and is grown up a expert operator or maintenance stuff through learning of CAI system or OTJ used training material for teaching tool in addition of training used operating or maintenance training device imitating actual plant after acquiring determined knowledges by receiving fundamental education on nuclear and thermal power plants. In this paper, the teaching and training support systems of the nuclear and thermal power plants for a system supporting such teaching and training, respectively, were introduced. (G.K.)

  17. Urban Space Explorer: A Visual Analytics System for Urban Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karduni, Alireza; Cho, Isaac; Wessel, Ginette; Ribarsky, William; Sauda, Eric; Dou, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding people's behavior is fundamental to many planning professions (including transportation, community development, economic development, and urban design) that rely on data about frequently traveled routes, places, and social and cultural practices. Based on the results of a practitioner survey, the authors designed Urban Space Explorer, a visual analytics system that utilizes mobile social media to enable interactive exploration of public-space-related activity along spatial, temporal, and semantic dimensions.

  18. Launch team training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the training, certification, recertification, and proficiency maintenance of the Shuttle launch team is proposed. Previous training approaches are first reviewed. Short term program goals include expanding current training methods, improving the existing simulation capability, and scheduling training exercises with the same priority as hardware tests. Long-term goals include developing user requirements which would take advantage of state-of-the-art tools and techniques. Training requirements for the different groups of people to be trained are identified, and future goals are outlined.

  19. Developing a Webfires Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    8  Figure 2.  Waterfall Process Model. ...........................................................................11  Figure 3.  Spiral ...training system (WFTS). The third chapter in this section provides an overview of the purpose and methodology of the future training system. Chapter...Waterfall Process Model. b. Spiral Model The second systems engineering process model is the spiral process model. According to Blanchard and Fabrycky

  20. Optimal Training Systems STTR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Brad; Lovett, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    .... Using an optimal model of task performance subject to human constraints may be a more efficient way to develop models of skilled human performance for use in training, especially since optimal models...

  1. Tongue motor training support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Onishi, Kohei; Nakayama, Atsushi; Kamata, Katsuhiro; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new tongue-training system that can be used for improvement of the tongue's range of motion and muscle strength after dysphagia. The training process is organized in game-like manner. Initially, we analyzed surface electromyography (EMG) signals of the suprahyoid muscles of five subjects during tongue-training motions. This test revealed that four types tongue training motions and a swallowing motion could be classified with 93.5% accuracy. Recognized EMG signals during tongue motions were designed to allow control of a mouse cursor via intentional tongue motions. Results demonstrated that simple PC games could be played by tongue motions, achieving in this way efficient, enjoyable and pleasant tongue training. Using the proposed method, dysphagia patients can choose games that suit their preferences and/or state of mind. It is expected that the proposed system will be an efficient tool for long-term tongue motor training and maintaining patients' motivation.

  2. The ALICE analysis train system

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment hundreds of users are analyzing big datasets on a Grid system. High throughput and short turn-around times are achieved by a centralized system called the LEGO trains. This system combines analysis from different users in so-called analysis trains which are then executed within the same Grid jobs thereby reducing the number of times the data needs to be read from the storage systems. The centralized trains improve the performance, the usability for users and the bookkeeping in comparison to single user analysis. The train system builds upon the already existing ALICE tools, i.e. the analysis framework as well as the Grid submission and monitoring infrastructure. The entry point to the train system is a web interface which is used to configure the analysis and the desired datasets as well as to test and submit the train. Several measures have been implemented to reduce the time a train needs to finish and to increase the CPU efficiency.

  3. The Danish urban system pre-1800

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Bitsch; Mikkelsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    , religious and military centres. From 1200 to 1350 Denmark, similar to the German area, underwent considerable urbanization; a large number of market towns were created, and in contrast to the older ones they were mercantile towns. Denmark thus clearly became the most urbanized country in Scandinavia....... As Copenhagen grew in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the urban system decisively changed its character in the direction of a primate system. The characteristics of the primate system are particularly distinct within the boundaries of the Kingdom of Denmark, but less pronounced if the entire monarchy...... is included in the period in which Denmark was a conglomerate state. The institutional conditions must in general be attributed considerable importance in explaining Danish urban development. Thus, Denmark is one of the countries where town privileges were of great significance until the middle...

  4. Systemic Resilience of Complex Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Salat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two key paradigms emerge out of the variety of urban forms: certain cities resemble trees, others leaves. The structural difference between a tree and a leaf is huge: one is open, the other closed. Trees are entirely disconnected on a given scale: even if two twigs are spatially close, if they do not belong to the same branch, to go from one to the other implies moving down and then up all the hierarchy of branches.  Leaves on the contrary are entirely connected on intermediary scales. The veins of a leaf are disconnected on the two larger scales but entirely connected on the two or three following intermediary scales before presenting tiny tree-like structures on the finest capillary scales. Deltas are leaves not trees. Neither galaxies nor whirlpools are trees. We will see in this paper that historical cities, like leaves, deltas, galaxies, lungs, brains and vein systems are all fractal structures, multiply connected and complex on all scales. These structures display the same degree of complexity and connectivity, regardless of the magnification scale on which we observe them. We say that these structures are scale free. Mathematical fractal forms are often generated recursively by applying again and again the same generator to an initiator. The iteration creates an arborescence. But scale free structure is not synonymous with a recursive tree-like structure. The fractal structure of the leaf is much more complex than that of the tree by its multiconnectivity on three or more intermediary levels. In contrast, trees in the virgin forest, even when they seem to be entangled, horizontal, and rhizomic, have branches that are not interconnected to form a lattice. As we will see, the history of urban planning has evolved from leaf-like to tree-like patterns, with a consequent loss of efficiency and resilience. Indeed, in a closed foliar path structure, the formation of cycles enables internal complexification and flow fluctuations due to the

  5. Basis scheme of personnel training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.; Odehnal, J.

    1998-01-01

    Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel

  6. Computer aided training system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    The first three phases of Training System Development (TSD) -- job and task analysis, curriculum design, and training material development -- are time consuming and labor intensive. The use of personal computers with a combination of commercial and custom-designed software resulted in a significant reduction in the man-hours required to complete these phases for a Health Physics Technician Training Program at a nuclear power station. This paper reports that each step in the training program project involved the use of personal computers: job survey data were compiled with a statistical package, task analysis was performed with custom software designed to interface with a commercial database management program. Job Performance Measures (tests) were generated by a custom program from data in the task analysis database, and training materials were drafted, edited, and produced using commercial word processing software

  7. Information Systems and Management Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B.; Smith, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A case study of a South Wales manufacturer illustrates the need for companies to adopt an integrated strategy for computerization and information systems. Lack of management training blending computing and business skills can have a crippling effect on system development and organizational health. (SK)

  8. Early Training Estimation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    first year efforts in CTES development were Cecil Wakelin, Gavin Livingstone, Ray Walsh« Peter Weddle, David Herlihy, Laurel Brown, Drs. Paul Ronco...and Society, 1980, pp. 1067-1974. David , J., Price, J. Successful communication in full scale engineering development statements of work. Air Force...1980, U.S. Army Engineering Laboratory. Shrier , S. Algorithms for system design. Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and

  9. Physician training rotations in a large urban health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ellen; Kim-Farley, Robert; Gunzenhauser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals are the normal setting for physician residency training within the United States. When a hospital cannot provide the specific training needed, a special rotation for that experience is arranged. Linkages between clinical and public health systems are vital to achieving improvements in overall health status in the United States. Nevertheless, most physicians in postgraduate residency programs receive neither training nor practical experience in the practice of public health. For many years, public health rotations have been available within the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (and its antecedent organizations). Arrangements that existed with local medical schools for residents to rotate with Los Angeles County Department of Health hospitals were extended to include a public health rotation. A general model for the rotation ensured that each resident received education and training relevant to the clinician in practice. Some parts of the model for experience have changed over time while others have not. Also, the challenges and opportunities for both trainees and preceptors have evolved and varied over time. A logic model demonstrates the components and changes with the public health rotation. Changes included alterations in recruitment, expectations, evaluation, formal education, and concepts related to the experience. Changes in the rotation model occurred in the context of other major environmental changes such as new electronic technology, changing expectations for residents, and evolving health services and public health systems. Each impacted the public health rotation. The evaluation method developed included content tests, assessment of competencies by residents and preceptors, and satisfaction measures. Results from the evaluation showed increases in competency and a high level of satisfaction after a public health rotation. The article includes examples of challenges and benefits to a local health department in providing a public

  10. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    environmental sustainability of large urban systems by relating the environmental sustainability performance of urban systems with global environmental burden boundaries quantifying pollution thresholds beyond which performance of global ecosystems services may be detrimentally affected....

  11. Training system of knowledge society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, M.; Ionescu, T.B.; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Tatar, Florin; Tiron, C.; Georgescu, Luisa Maria

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The paper aims at presenting the results of Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a training system of knowledge society in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning platform and several CBT objects/courses were worked out. The conceived E-Learning solution is called CBT Center and it is a complete system offering a variety of teaching and learning services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quiz, marks, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBT Center is the 'Thermodynamics'. CBT technology implementation at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which are part of the educational process; there is no space problem any more; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problem will decrease, while more and more disciplines will be transformed as CBT objects. (authors)

  12. Integrated training support system for PWR operator training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Junichi; Komatsu, Yasuki

    1999-01-01

    The importance of operator training using operator training simulator has been recognized intensively. Since 1986, we have been developing and providing many PWR simulators in Japan. We also have developed some training support systems connected with the simulator and the integrated training support system to improve training effect and to reduce instructor's workload. This paper describes the concept and the effect of the integrated training support system and of the following sub-systems. We have PES (Performance Enhancement System) that evaluates training performance automatically by analyzing many plant parameters and operation data. It can reduce the deviation of training performance evaluation between instructors. PEL (Parameter and Event data Logging system), that is the subset of PES, has some data-logging functions. And we also have TPES (Team Performance Enhancement System) that is used aiming to improve trainees' ability for communication between operators. Trainee can have conversation with virtual trainees that TPES plays automatically. After that, TPES automatically display some advice to be improved. RVD (Reactor coolant system Visual Display) displays the distributed hydraulic-thermal condition of the reactor coolant system in real-time graphically. It can make trainees understand the inside plant condition in more detail. These sub-systems have been used in a training center and have contributed the improvement of operator training and have gained in popularity. (author)

  13. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  14. Understanding complex urban systems multidisciplinary approaches to modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gurr, Jens; Schmidt, J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Complex Urban Systems takes as its point of departure the insight that the challenges of global urbanization and the complexity of urban systems cannot be understood – let alone ‘managed’ – by sectoral and disciplinary approaches alone. But while there has recently been significant progress in broadening and refining the methodologies for the quantitative modeling of complex urban systems, in deepening the theoretical understanding of cities as complex systems, or in illuminating the implications for urban planning, there is still a lack of well-founded conceptual thinking on the methodological foundations and the strategies of modeling urban complexity across the disciplines. Bringing together experts from the fields of urban and spatial planning, ecology, urban geography, real estate analysis, organizational cybernetics, stochastic optimization, and literary studies, as well as specialists in various systems approaches and in transdisciplinary methodologies of urban analysis, the volum...

  15. Open innovation in urban energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM School of Management, Freising (Germany); Barth, V. [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Ecological Economics, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Despite recent efforts, existing urban energy systems still hardly meet the demands of sustainable development or climate change. Meeting these targets thus will require innovations that use energy much more efficiently and emit far less greenhouse gases. These innovations need to be made on the production as well as the consumption side, on all levels, and need to cover not only technical aspects, but even more service solutions. While many of these solutions still need to be developed, some are already invented but only exist in limited market segments. Opening closed urban planning processes and using open innovation tools can foster bottom-up urban energy system transformation by addressing the interactive ways of decision-making integrating company representatives and citizens. While open innovation tools like (open) innovation workshops or ideas competitions are already used by several companies to find and develop new designs and products, there is yet little experience with energy efficiency ideas and bottom-up changes. Therefore, we analyse energy-efficient ideas generated in three different ideas competitions. We discuss the findings for theory and research on open innovation approaches and bottom-up urban changes. Our results show that there are a vast number of ideas available in the public. Open innovation tools offer advanced possibilities to generate energy-efficient solutions.

  16. Visions of sustainable urban energy systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Ursula [HFT Stuttgart (Germany). zafh.net - Centre of Applied Research - Sustainable Energy Technology; Mikosch, Milena [Steinbeis-Zentrum, Stuttgart (Germany). Europaeischer Technologietransfer; Liesner, Lisa (eds.)

    2010-09-15

    Within the polycity final conference from 15th to 17th September, 2010, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Visions of sustainable urban energy system (Ursula Eicker); (2) Words of welcome (Tanja Goenner); (3) Zero-energy Europe - We are on our way (Jean-Marie Bemtgen); (4) Polycity - Energy networks in sustainable cities An introduction (Ursula Pietzsch); (5) Energy efficient city - Successful examples in the European concerto initiative (Brigitte Bach); (6) Sustainable building and urban concepts in the Catalonian polycity project contributions to the polycity final conference 2010 (Nuria Pedrals); (7) Energy efficient buildings and renewable supply within the German polycity project (Ursula Eicker); (8) Energy efficient buildings and cities in the US (Thomas Spiegehalter); (9) Energy efficient communities - First results from an IEA collaboration project (Reinhard Jank); (10) The European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD) - Lessons learned (Eduardo Maldonado); (11) Passive house standard in Europe - State-of-the-art and challenges (Wolfgang Feist); (12) High efficiency non-residential buildings: Concepts, implementations and experiences from the UK (Levin Lomas); (13) This is how we can save our world (Franz Alt); (14) Green buildings and renewable heating and cooling concepts in China (Yanjun Dai); (15) Sustainable urban energy solutions for Asia (Brahmanand Mohanty); (16) Description of ''Parc de l'Alba'' polygeneration system: A large-scale trigeneration system with district heating within the Spanish polycity project (Francesc Figueras Bellot); (17) Improved building automation and control systems with hardware-in-the loop solutions (Martin Becker); (18) The Italian polycity project area: Arquata (Luigi Fazari); (19) Photovoltaic system integration: In rehabilitated urban structures: Experiences and performance results from the Italian polycity project in Turin (Franco

  17. Urban stormwater - greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Arora, Amarpreet

    2017-11-01

    Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water), urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage) and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water), and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment) both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  18. In-Service Training of Teachers in Multicultural Urban Schools: A Systematic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolai-Mays, Susanne; Davis, Jerry L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents seven guidelines for developing effective teacher in-service training programs. Describes a training model for multicultural urban schools which addresses these topics: instructional methods; curriculum; interpersonal relations in the classroom; classroom management and discipline; parent-teacher-student involvement; and multicultural…

  19. Park system concept for environmental sustainabilityin urban spatial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniaty, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Urban Park System is an integrated concept between nature system and urban life. The problems caused by urban population activity resulted in the need to increase the balance between two systems. Establishment of urban park system is a response to the need for resilience of urban space structures. As an ideal requirement it needs to be built integration between the ecological, social, economic, aesthetic aspects of urban landscape architecture. The methodology was developed based on an approach to issues affecting the conditions due to urban issues and its relation to the development efforts of urban park system; Observation of Jakarta problem was obtained based on published studies and data, literature, characteristic and potential analyzes, local physical, from limited field observations. Both are simple methods aimed to describe the nature of a condition as well as form characteristics of problems in controlling the development of region, to examine the causes and symptoms. This method try to assess an object study compared between the conditions before and after. The benefits of urban park system development will not only improve the urban environment, but the value of urban pride, identity and control urban growth in line with efforts to improve the balance between conservation and development. Integrated urban park system will enhance the multifunctional role, connectivity, habitability, durability, identity and investment.

  20. Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is

  1. Distributed intelligent urban environment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinsong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jie; Cong, Rigang

    2018-02-01

    The current environmental pollution and destruction have developed into a world-wide major social problem that threatens human survival and development. Environmental monitoring is the prerequisite and basis of environmental governance, but overall, the current environmental monitoring system is facing a series of problems. Based on the electrochemical sensor, this paper designs a small, low-cost, easy to layout urban environmental quality monitoring terminal, and multi-terminal constitutes a distributed network. The system has been small-scale demonstration applications and has confirmed that the system is suitable for large-scale promotion

  2. Virtual Exercise Training Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L.; Kim, H.; Benson, E.; Amonette, W. E.; Barrera, J.; Perera, J.; Rajulu, S.; Hanson, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.

  3. ICT INEQUALITIES IN THE SPANISH URBAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Armas QUINTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current Information Society cities enjoy a privileged position when it comes to transport and communication infrastructures. The post-industrial society has brought with it a notable change, changing from an economy based on the production of merchandise to another based on the production of services. The metropolitan areas act as key areas and markets for predominant sectors, such as finance and specialised services for business. In another way, big cities fulfil new roles in the global economy of the Information society, operating as command points in the world economy. They bring equipment together highly-qualified workers, they are big information and knowledge consumers and have been able to reinvent themselves, changing from industrial to cultural cities. They are, as well, ideal areas for big telecommunication companies and they are, for this reason, those who most benefit from information and communication technology. An important social area difference has then been introduced, with respect to other urban areas of lesser importance, or rather, with respect to rural areas that stay on the margin of the new technology revolution. In this context, it is right to ask what is happening in Spain. Why are ICT inequalities happening in Spain? Are there urban system differences before the arrival of the Information Society? Can it be said that Spanish urban areas are consolidated in the Information Society? In this article we try to outline the reality of the immersion the Information Society in the Spanish urban system, and, in the same way, bring to light a new idea of „Digital Divide‟, amongst those sectors of the population that make the most of all or a great part of the potential new technology offers and those that limit themselves to using the most basic functions, such as looking up information and using communication.

  4. Urban Short Range Interaction: An LVC Solution for Urban Operation Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, T; Krijnen, R.; Visschedijk, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Operations are an increasingly important part of military operations, both nationally and during expeditions. The complexity of the urban environment makes these operations difficult, and a key aspect of this complexity is the presence of local population. The individual soldier needs to

  5. Delivering Training for Highly Demanding Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew Lawrence; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette May; Coulson-Thomas, Colin Joseph; Ashurst, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of research covering the training requirements of organisations implementing highly demanding information systems (HDISs). The aim of this paper is to help in the understanding of appropriate training requirements for such systems. Design/methodology/approach: This research investigates the training delivery within a…

  6. Urban-Rural Differences in School Nurses' Asthma Training Needs and Access to Asthma Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Roberts, Courtney A; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Durbin, Kathy; Jones, Graceann Clyburn; North, Steve

    Few studies have examined school nurses preferences' for asthma training. Our purpose was to: 1) assess school nurses' perceived asthma training needs, 2) describe nurses' access to asthma educational resources, and 3) identify urban-rural differences in training needs and access to resources in southern states. A convenience sample of school nurses (n=162) from seven counties (two urban and five rural) in North Carolina and South Carolina completed an online, anonymous survey. Chi-square tests were used to examine urban-rural differences. Although most nurses (64%) had received asthma training within the last five years, urban nurses were more likely to have had asthma training than rural nurses (χ 2 =10.84, p=0.001). A majority of nurses (87%) indicated they would like to receive additional asthma training. Approximately half (45%) of nurses reported access to age-appropriate asthma education materials, but only 16% reported that their schools implemented asthma education programs. Urban nurses were more likely than rural nurses to have access to asthma education programs (χ 2 =4.10, p=0.04) and age-appropriate asthma education materials (χ 2 =8.86, p=0.003). Few schools are implementing asthma education programs. Rural nurses may be disadvantaged in terms of receiving asthma training and having access to asthma education programs and materials. Schools are an ideal setting for delivering age-appropriate asthma education. By providing school nurses with access to age-appropriate asthma education resources and additional asthma training, we can help them overcome several of the barriers that impede their ability to deliver asthma care to their students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Training Capability Data for Dismounted Soldier Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Virtual Squad Training System ( VSTS ). Like some of its predecessors, VSTS included a combination of man-wearable, tethered, and desktop interfaces...Simulator Bayonet w/Omni Directional Treadmill TRAC-WSMR Soldier Station Soldier Visualization Station V-IMTS SVS2-DI, DAGGERS, ASWETS VSTS Dismounted...Simulation, VSTS – Virtual Squad Training System 4 and microphone. The VSMM utilizes radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and hand sensors to

  8. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  9. Environmental Assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville, Indiana, October and November 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Ulberg, Amanda L.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2007-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville in Jennings County, Indiana, was completed during October and November 2005. As part of the Department of Defense Earth Science Program, the U.S. Geological Survey collected information about environmental conditions at the 825-acre former State of Indiana mental health facility prior to its conversion by the Indiana National Guard into an urban training center. The assessment was designed to investigate the type and extent of potential contamination associated with historical activities in selected areas of the facility.

  10. Differences between rural and urban primary care units in Turkey: Implications on residents′ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Yikilkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Family practice training takes place at primary care based training centers linked to Education and Research State Hospitals in Turkey. There is a discussion if these units are adequate to train primary care staff and if the patients of these units reflect the applicants of primary care. Aims: The aim of our study is to investigate the demographic characteristics, the effect of distance on primary care utilization, and most common diagnosis of the patients who applied to two different outpatient clinics: One urban and one rural. Settings and Design: Study was conducted from the electronic health records of the patients applied to outpatient clinics of Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital Department of Family Medicine between 1 January and 31 December 2009. Results: Total number of patients applied to both of the outpatient clinics was 34,632 [urban clinic: 16.506 (47.7%, rural clinic: 18.126 (52.3%]. Leading three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (URTI, general medical examination (GME, and hypertension (HT in the most common 10 diagnosis. Conclusion: In our study, the rural outpatient clinic is regarded as a primary care unit in the neighborhood of living area and the urban clinic as close to working environment. We found statistically meaningful differences in most common diagnosis, gender, age, and consultation time between the rural and urban clinics. According to our results, family practitioners′ field training should take place at different primary care units according to sociodemographic characteristics of each country.

  11. QoS-Aware Resource Allocation for Network Virtualization in an Integrated Train Ground Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit plays an increasingly important role in urbanization processes. Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC Systems, Passenger Information Systems (PIS, and Closed Circuit Television (CCTV are key applications of urban rail transit to ensure its normal operation. In existing urban rail transit systems, different applications are deployed with independent train ground communication systems. When the train ground communication systems are built repeatedly, limited wireless spectrum will be wasted, and the maintenance work will also become complicated. In this paper, we design a network virtualization based integrated train ground communication system, in which all the applications in urban rail transit can share the same physical infrastructure. In order to better satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS requirement of each application, this paper proposes a virtual resource allocation algorithm based on QoS guarantee, base station load balance, and application station fairness. Moreover, with the latest achievement of distributed convex optimization, we exploit a novel distributed optimization method based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM to solve the virtual resource allocation problem. Extensive simulation results indicate that the QoS of the designed integrated train ground communication system can be improved significantly using the proposed algorithm.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation system of intelligent urban growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Yan; Ren, Xiao-Bin

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid urbanization of the world, urban planning has become increasingly important and necessary to ensure people have access to equitable and sustainable homes, resources and jobs.This article is to talk about building an intelligent city evaluation system.First,using System Analysis Model(SAM) which concludes literature data analysis and stepwise regression analysis to describe intelligent growth scientifically and obtain the evaluation index. Then,using the improved entropy method to obtain the weight of the evaluation index.Afterwards, establishing a complete Smart Growth Comprehensive Evaluation Model(SGCEM).Finally,testing the correctness of the model.Choosing Otago(New Zealand )and Yumen(China) as research object by data mining and SGCEM model,then we get Yumen and Otago’s rational degree’s values are 0.3485 and 0.5376 respectively. It’s believed that the Otago’s smart level is higher,and it is found that the estimated value of rationality is consistent with the reality.

  13. Understanding the visual skills and strategies of train drivers in the urban rail environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naweed, Anjum; Balakrishnan, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growth of information in the urban rail environment, there is a need to better understand the ergonomics profile underpinning the visual behaviours in train drivers. The aim of this study was to examine the tasks and activities of urban/metropolitan passenger train drivers in order to better understand the nature of the visual demands in their task activities. Data were collected from 34 passenger train drivers in four different Australian states. The research approach used a novel participative ergonomics methodology that fused interviews and observations with generative tools. Data analysis was conducted thematically. Results suggested participants did not so much drive their trains, as manage the intensity of visually demanding work held in their environment. The density of this information and the opacity of the task, invoked an ergonomics profile more closely aligned with diagnostic and error detection than actual train regulation. The paper discusses the relative proportion of strategies corresponding with specific tasks, the visual-perceptual load in substantive activities, and the requisite visual skills behoving navigation in the urban rail environment. These findings provide the basis for developing measures of complexity to further specify the visual demands in passenger train driving.

  14. Quantifying Impacts of Urban Growth Potential on Army Training Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Capacity” ERDC/CERL TR-17-34 ii Abstract Building on previous studies of urban growth and population effects on U.S. military installations and...Bryan S. Green and the Director was Dr. David W. Pittman. ERDC/CERL TR-17-34 viii Unit Conversion Factors Multiply By To Obtain acres 4,046.873...combat team studies. CAA has developed an iterative process that builds on Military Value Anal- ysis (MVA) models that include a set of attributes that

  15. Web-based tree crown condition evaluation training tool for urban and community forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil Clark; Matthew Winn; Philip Araman

    2009-01-01

    Volunteers are getting involved more and more, particularly in monitoring applications within the context of urban and community forestry. Training numerous volunteers becomes a substantial task given the numbers of people, time available, and a multitude of other projects. Hundreds of different individuals may be involved in a single field season. These individuals...

  16. An urban energy performance evaluation system and its computer implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yuan, Guan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2017-12-15

    To improve the urban environment and effectively reflect and promote urban energy performance, an urban energy performance evaluation system was constructed, thereby strengthening urban environmental management capabilities. From the perspectives of internalization and externalization, a framework of evaluation indicators and key factors that determine urban energy performance and explore the reasons for differences in performance was proposed according to established theory and previous studies. Using the improved stochastic frontier analysis method, an urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model was built that brings performance evaluation and factor analysis into the same stage for study. According to data obtained for the Chinese provincial capitals from 2004 to 2013, the coefficients of the evaluation indicators and key factors were calculated by the urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model. These coefficients were then used to compile the program file. The urban energy performance evaluation system developed in this study was designed in three parts: a database, a distributed component server, and a human-machine interface. Its functions were designed as login, addition, edit, input, calculation, analysis, comparison, inquiry, and export. On the basis of these contents, an urban energy performance evaluation system was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2015. The system can effectively reflect the status of and any changes in urban energy performance. Beijing was considered as an example to conduct an empirical study, which further verified the applicability and convenience of this evaluation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Urban Teaching Cohort: Pre-Service Training to Support Mental Health in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Tammy; Dinnen, Hannah; Smith-Millman, Marissa K.; Dixon, Maressa; Flaspohler, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Supporting students' mental health needs is critical in high-poverty urban school districts where many students are at risk for mental health problems. Although teacher-student relationships are at the core of student mental health promotion in the classroom, many teacher preparation programmes do not adequately prepare pre-service teachers…

  18. Training Requirements and Training Delivery in the Total Army School System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, John

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes training requirements and school delivery of training in the Total Army School System, focusing on the system's ability to meet its training requirements in Reserve Component Training Institutions...

  19. Optimizing cooling systems in Egyptian arid urbans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, Ahmed A.; Khalil, Essam E.

    2006-01-01

    Present study is devoted to climatic and site oriented investigations that were carried out in a new rural development in the Upper-Egypt. Bioclimatic classifications considered Upper Egypt region, near Sudan border, as a Hot and Dry climatic region. [1]. that is affected by solar heat intensities that can reach 900 W/m2 for a period ranged from 5-to-7 hours per day with the presence of study storms. Cooling season extends up to eight months per year having Upper-day-bulb temperature ranged from 400 degree centigrade - to - 470 degree centigrade while Lower-dry-bulb-temperature ranged from 280 degree centigrade - to - 320 degree centigrade with the relative humidity ranged from 10%-to-37% RH. [2]. Site surveys and field experimental and analyses of the commonly used cooling systems were investigated, evaluated and optimized for optimum indoor comfort conditions at efficient energy efficiency. [3]. Extensive analyses were performed based on Psychrometric formulae to evaluate the impact of energy consumptions related to different cooling systems such as direct expansion, chilled water, and evaporative systems. the present study enables the critical investigations of the influence of arid outdoor conditions and the required indoor thermal parameters on the energy efficiencies of HVAC-system. This work; focuses on the suggestion of suitable system that should be implemented by local energy codes in these arid urban.(Author)

  20. Innovation of specialists's training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malach, A.

    1983-01-01

    Briefly described is the activity of the Centre for the Research of Instruction Methods and Aids and experiences gained by the centre presented. The Centre is oriented to the research and testing of instruction and training objectives and content (curricula, programmes, professiograms), new methods (methodologies of individual subjects) and educational technologies (teaching aids, simulators, microcomputer Hvezda 1). Research works are carried out also Dukovany nuclear power plant training centre. (B.S.)

  1. Urban Transportation Systems in Bogotá and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogotá and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems...

  2. Operationalizing sustainability in urban coastal systems: a system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

    2013-12-15

    We propose a system dynamics approach for Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) in urban coastal systems. A systematic analysis based on theoretical considerations, policy analysis and experts' knowledge is followed in order to define the concept of ESD. The principles underlying ESD feed the development of a System Dynamics Model (SDM) that connects the pollutant loads produced by urban systems' socioeconomic activities with the ecological condition of the coastal ecosystem that it is delineated in operational terms through key biological elements defined by the EU Water Framework Directive. The receiving waters of the Athens Metropolitan area, which bears the elements of typical high population density Mediterranean coastal city but which currently has also new dynamics induced by the ongoing financial crisis, are used as an experimental system for testing a system dynamics approach to apply the concept of ESD. Systems' thinking is employed to represent the complex relationships among the components of the system. Interconnections and dependencies that determine the potentials for achieving ESD are revealed. The proposed system dynamics analysis can facilitate decision makers to define paths of development that comply with the principles of ESD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Training Effectiveness Evaluation (TEE) of the Advanced Fire Fighting Training System. Focus on the Trained Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Curtis C.; And Others

    A training effectiveness evaluation of the Navy Advanced Fire Fighting Training System was conducted. This system incorporates simulated fires as well as curriculum materials and instruction. The fires are non-pollutant, computer controlled, and installed in a simulated shipboard environment. Two teams of 15 to 16 persons, with varying amounts of…

  4. Moving Towards a New Urban Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Mary L. Cadenasso; Jeannine Cavender-Bares; Daniel L. Childers; Nancy B. Grimm; Morgan Grove; Sarah E. Hobbie; Lucy R. Hutyra; G. Darrel Jenerette; Timon McPhearson; Diane E. Pataki; Steward T. A. Pickett; Richard V. Pouyat; Emma Rosi-Marshall; Benjamin L. Ruddell

    2016-01-01

    Research on urban ecosystems rapidly expanded in the 1990s and is now a central topic in ecosystem science. In this paper, we argue that there are two critical challenges for ecosystem science that are rooted in urban ecosystems: (1) predicting or explaining the assembly and function of novel communities and ecosystems under altered environmental conditions and (2)...

  5. An Evaluation of Training for Lay Providers in the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Promote Academic Achievement among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…

  6. Urban eco-efficiency and system dynamics modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hradil, P., Email: petr.hradil@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Assessment of urban development is generally based on static models of economic, social or environmental impacts. More advanced dynamic models have been used mostly for prediction of population and employment changes as well as for other macro-economic issues. This feasibility study was arranged to test the potential of system dynamic modelling in assessing eco-efficiency changes during urban development. (orig.)

  7. Features of monitoring system of physical state of urban bridges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Bilchenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract, the main features of urban bridge, structure are presented. The proposals concerning specialized management creation for exploitation, maintenance and reconstruction of bridges are developed. The essence of the new approach designed for the change of urban bridge structures physical state assessment system is stated.

  8. Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation of Quality of Cows' Raw Milk: A Case of Shambu, Fincha and Kombolcha Towns of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Keywords: Bacterial load Ethiopia Horro Guduru Peri-Urban Dairying Raw milk ...

  9. Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology (Technologie avancee d’entrainement au combat urbain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    For example, skills and drills (techniques) in an urban environment can be best trained or evaluated in a live environment, because other simulations...evidence as an AAR, and have the required skills to conduct an effective AAR. Some key 0 /C tasks are listed below. The precise tasks will be dependent...improvised “ Helpers ”, breaching material. Demo-Buildings and Showcases Detail of cut-away buildings, set-piece demonstrations and prepared rooms. STO

  10. Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag

  11. Training Requirements and Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cillan, T.F.; Hodgson, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    This is the software user's guide for the Training Requirements and Information Management System. This guide defines and describes the software operating procedures as they apply to the end user of the software program. This guide is intended as a reference tool for the user who already has an indepth knowledge of the Training Requirements and Information Management System functions and data reporting requirement.

  12. Linkages between the Urban Environment and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). Though urban areas are local in scale, human activity in urban environments has impacts at local, to global scale by changing atmospheric composition; impacting components of the water cycle; and modifying the carbon cycle 2nd ecosystems. For example, urban dwellers are undoubtedly familiar with "high" ozone pollution days, flash flooding in city streets, or heat stress on summer days. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s weather, oceans, and land work together and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. This paper highlights some of the major and current issues involving interactions between urban environments and the Earth's climate system. It also captures some of the most current thinking and findings of the authors and key experts in the field.

  13. TRAINING SYSTEM OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS: QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Romanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is development of innovative strategy of quality control training of engineers and skilled workers (hereinafter – future specialists in educational professional organizations on the principles of social partnership.Methods. Theoretic: theoretic and methodological analysis, polytheoretic synthesis, modeling. Empirical: research and generalization of the system, process and competence – based approaches experience, experiment, observation, surveys, expert evaluation, SWOT-analysis as a method of strategic planning which is to identify the internal and external factors (socio-cultural of the organization surrounding.Results. The strategy of the development of the process of quality control training in educational professional organizations and a predictive model of the system of quality control training for future engineers and workers have been created on the analysis and synthesis of a quantitative specification of the quality, the obtained experience and success in control training of future specialists in educational professional organizations in recent economic and educational conditions.Scientific novelty. There has been built a predicative model of quality control training of future specialists to meet modern standards and the principles of social partnership; the control algorithm of the learning process, developed in accordance with the standards (international of quality ISO in the implementation of the quality control systems of the process approach (matrix-based responsibility, competence and remit of those responsible for the education process in the educational organization, the «problem» terms and diagnostic tools for assessing the quality of professional training of future specialists. The perspective directions of innovation in the control of the quality of future professionals training have been determined; the parameters of a comprehensive analysis of the state of the system to ensure the

  14. Skills of novices early trained or traditionaly trained versus experienced drivers confronted to simulated urban accidents' scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Catherine; Damm, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent the over-representation of young drivers in car crashes, France instated an early driver training from the age of 16, but the positive effects of this opportunity have not yet been proven. Three groups of male drivers (12 subjects each) were confronted with some prototypical accident scenarios introduced in a simulated urban circuit. The first and second groups were composed of young drivers having less than one month of driving licence; twelve have had a traditional learning course, and twelve had followed, in addition to the initial course, an early driver training under the supervision of an adult. The third group was composed of experienced drivers. Strategies of the three groups were analyzed through their response time, speed and maneuvers. No difference appeared across groups regarding obstacle detection. But traditionally-trained drivers' position control was more conservative than the two others groups, which were more likely to involve efficient evasive action. The exposure gained during early training could thus increase the development of visuo-motor coordination and involve better skills in case of difficult situations. Others accidents' scenarios could be used to confront young drivers with difficult situations not commonly encountered in natural driving.

  15. Integrated Urban Wastewater System Data Network - Data network system : Diagnostic Report Cali, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unesco-IHE

    2008-01-01

    The pressure on the Urban Wastewater Systems (UWwS) increases as urbanization continues relentlessly and climate change appears to lead to more extreme rainfall events. These pressures have a negative effect on the efficiency of UWwS to reduce the urban pollution reaching water-receiving systems.

  16. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.

  17. REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAMS OF URBAN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Kovalskyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of sustainable development of the territory should be in a state of control and management. The system of urban monitoring of Ukraine does not fully provide information on the level of sustainable development of settlements and regions. Therefore, it is necessary to create systems for monitoring indicators of sustainable development of human settlements and regions. The objective of this study is to analyze the existing programs for stimulating sustainable development in European countries and to develop recommendations on the need to organize such systems in Ukraine and to improve the system of urban monitoring. The article describes such systems and programs: URBACT is a program for sharing best practices between cities by creating thematic networks. URBACT’s mission is to encourage cities to work together and develop integrated solutions to common urban problems, through networking, to learn from each other’s experiences and identify best practices in order to improve urban policies; URBAN AUDIT – a large set of statistical information. The main objective of the system is to provide objective and comparable statistical data on European cities; URBAN ATLAS – provides a pan-European comparison of urban land use data. The information is in the form of open geospatial data. The system is aimed at facilitating work on site planning and site accounting. It is necessary to adopt the best practices of implementing sustainable development technology and apply it in other countries that have chosen a model for their development – a model for sustainable development of the territory. The current system of town-planning monitoring in Ukraine needs to be improved and given a new task – to take into account indicators of sustainable development of the territories. This system is most suitable for this task, since urban monitoring already takes into account certain indicators in the form of spatial data.

  18. Pressure-Point Strategy: Leverages for Urban Systemic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katleen De Flander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability can be understood as a specific kind of problem framing that emphasizes the interconnectedness of different problems and scales and calls for new forms of problem handling that are much more process-oriented, reflexive and iterative in nature. Closely related with the notion of reflexive governance, we propose such an alternative strategy for societal problem handling and change management in the urban context. The strategy starts from stress states in the urban system(s and uses their initial momentum to encourage systemic change through intraventions—rather than interventions—at selected pressure points. This paper highlights the potential to evolve what has often been an intuitive practice, led by community or elected leaders with unique wisdom about functions and pressure points in their urban system, into a more accessible strategy for shaping socio-ecological transformation in urban practice.

  19. Tritium Systems Test Assembly operator training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstiens, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Proper operator training is needed to help ensure the safe operation of fusion facilities by personnel who are qualified to carry out their assigned responsibilities. Operators control and monitor the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) during normal, emergency, and maintenance phases. Their performance is critical both to operational safety, assuring no release of tritium to the atmosphere, and to the successful simulation of the fusion reaction progress. Through proper training we are helping assure that TSTA facility operators perform their assignments in a safe and efficient manner and that the operators maintain high levels of operational proficiency through continuing training, retraining, requalification, and recertification

  20. Decision process simulation in training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, K.S.; Serov, A.A.; Ajnutdinov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the approaches to arrangement of training process an automated trainning systems (ATS) based on actjve use of knowledge of experienced operators is presented. Problems of mathematical model simulatjon of decision process by people not having special knowledge in mathematics are considered. A language of solution tables based on indistinct tables is suggested to the used as a simulation language. The problem of automation of decision process simulation in ATS is solued

  1. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  2. The twilight of the training analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, Otto F

    2014-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews challenges to psychoanalysis at this time, including those derived from both external, societal origins and internal psychoanalytic problems. It focuses attention on serious conflicts around psychoanalytic education, and refers to the training analysis system as a central problem determining fundamental constraints on present-day psychoanalytic education. These constraints are examined in some detail, and the general advantages and disadvantages of the training analysis system are outlined. The effects of all these dynamics on the administrative organization of the American Psychoanalytic Association are explored, and a proposal for a fundamental reorganization of our educational system to resolve the correspondent problems is outlined.

  3. Electric system training with programmable controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    A power system simulator (PSS) for training system operators has been opened at the Pacific Gas and Electric Training Center at San Ramon, California. The simulator was designed as an instructional aid and is part of a larger, more comprehensive operating training facility. It has the capability of duplicating both routine and emergency situations for transmission and distribution lines, power plants, and substations. Modeled after nuclear plant simulators, the PSS utilizes state-of-the-art technology and is believed to be on the leading edge of power system simulators. The new operator training facility covers 10,000 ft/sup 2/ and is divided into four classrooms, two labs, three simulated dispatch centers, and various administrative offices. Ten full- and part-time instructors are on staff to train the over 900 system, power plant, agency, and trainee personnel. The simulator is considered the heart of the complex and covers over half of the available floor space. It is divided into two large rooms and further separated by the dispatch centers. The indoor room represents the high-voltage transmission and generating stations, the outdoor room is for both the lower-voltage distribution system and simulated physical equipment. In each room, full-size control boards (equipped with actual relay protection and automatic schemes) are arranged into various stations and lines

  4. Current research trend on urban sewerage system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    The research emphasis has always been on sewerage treatment technology in China, though urban drainage system has gained little attention. In the context of urban drainage system and the problem associated with rain, the focus is still mainly toward the simple “emissions”. While the relationship between conservation and utilization of rainwater resources and urban ecology are popular, the relationship between rainwater discharge and non-point source pollution are often neglected. The reasonable choice of sewerage system is dependent on the collection and discharge of urban sewerage, the applicability and economic benefits, along with the ability to meet the water quality requirements and environmental protection. This paper analyzes and summarizes the development of urban drainage system in china, and introduces different drainage forms. The choice of drainage system should be based on the overall planning of the city, environmental protection requirements, the local natural conditions and water conditions, urban sewerage and water quality, the original drainage facilities, and local climatic conditions. It must be comprehensive to meet the environmental protection requirements, through technical and economic comparison.

  5. Urban Water Innovation Network (UWIN): Transitioning Toward Sustainbale Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, M.

    2015-12-01

    City water systems are at risk of disruption from global social and environmental hazards, which could have deleterious effects on human health, property, and loss of critical infrastructure. The Urban Water Innovation Network (UWIN), a consortium of 14 academic institutions and other key partners across the U.S., is working to address challenges that threaten urban water systems across the nation. UWIN's mission is to create technological, institutional and management solutions to help communities increase the resilience of their water systems and enhance their preparedness for responding to water crisis. The network seeks solutions that achieve widespread adoption consistent with inclusive, equitable and sustainable urban development. The integrative and adaptive analysis framework of UWIN is presented. The framework identifies a toolbox of sustainable solutions by simultaneously minimizing pressures, enhancing resilience to extreme events, and maximizing cobenefits. The benefits of sustainable urban water solutions for linked urban ecosystems, economies, and arrangements for environmental justice and social equity, will be discussed. The network encompasses six U.S. regions with varying ecohydrologic and climatic regimes ranging from the coastal moist mid-latitude climates of the Mid-Atlantic to the subtropical semi-arid deserts of the Southwest. These regions also represent a wide spectrum of demographic, cultural, and policy settings. The opportunities for cross-site assessments that facilitate the exploration of locally appropriate solutions across regions undergoing various development trajectories will be discussed.

  6. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS, Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  7. Ultrasonic sensors in urban traffic driving-aid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  8. Involving Extension in Urban Food Systems: An Example from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Diekmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nationwide, Extension is increasingly involved in local food system work. In cities, initiatives to improve the local food system often include urban agriculture, which has attracted the attention of diverse stakeholders for its many potential social, health, economic, and environmental impacts. This article illustrates how Extension in the San Francisco Bay Area is developing urban agriculture programming and engaging in food-system-related partnerships. It also shares lessons learned from these efforts. In this metropolitan region, Extension practice aligns well with research findings on Extension involvement in local food systems, particularly with the emphasis on providing educational opportunities and resources adapted to unique needs of city residents and working collaboratively with community and government partners to facilitate broader food system change. The results of this case study will be useful for Extension personnel in designing and implementing programs related to urban food systems.

  9. MODELLING TEMPORAL SCHEDULE OF URBAN TRAINS USING AGENT-BASED SIMULATION AND NSGA2-BASED MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sahelgozin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing distances between locations of residence and services leads to a large number of daily commutes in urban areas. Developing subway systems has been taken into consideration of transportation managers as a response to this huge amount of travel demands. In developments of subway infrastructures, representing a temporal schedule for trains is an important task; because an appropriately designed timetable decreases Total passenger travel times, Total Operation Costs and Energy Consumption of trains. Since these variables are not positively correlated, subway scheduling is considered as a multi-criteria optimization problem. Therefore, proposing a proper solution for subway scheduling has been always a controversial issue. On the other hand, research on a phenomenon requires a summarized representation of the real world that is known as Model. In this study, it is attempted to model temporal schedule of urban trains that can be applied in Multi-Criteria Subway Schedule Optimization (MCSSO problems. At first, a conceptual framework is represented for MCSSO. Then, an agent-based simulation environment is implemented to perform Sensitivity Analysis (SA that is used to extract the interrelations between the framework components. These interrelations is then taken into account in order to construct the proposed model. In order to evaluate performance of the model in MCSSO problems, Tehran subway line no. 1 is considered as the case study. Results of the study show that the model was able to generate an acceptable distribution of Pareto-optimal solutions which are applicable in the real situations while solving a MCSSO is the goal. Also, the accuracy of the model in representing the operation of subway systems was significant.

  10. Development of European urban tourist systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Senta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between urban development and tourism is a significant process in Europe today. Development of tourism has caused many organizational changes in urban environment. In the middle of the 20th century cultural and historical heritage in the cities was impetus of development of tourism in European cities. Nowadays, in many European cities tourism is recognized as a mean of further economic development. Strategy of polycentricity, outlined in European spatial development perspective is supporting that process, too. Many tourist centres and metropolitan tourist areas have been developed. In the period from 1996. to 2007. number of visitors in European cultural capitals was growing continuously by rate of 25,6%. In the same period, the number of international tourist arrivals increased by rate of only 7%.

  11. A Review of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Considering the Climate Change and Urbanization Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and urbanization are converging to challenge city drainage infrastructure due to their adverse impacts on precipitation extremes and the environment of urban areas. Sustainable drainage systems have gained growing public interest in recent years, as a result of its positive effects on water quality and quantity issues and additional recreational amenities perceived in the urban landscape. This paper reviews recent progress in sustainable drainage development based on literature across different disciplinary fields. After presenting the key elements and criteria of sustainable drainage design, various devices and examples of sustainable drainage systems are introduced. The state-of-the-art model approaches and decision-aid tools for assessing the sustainable alternatives are discussed and compared. The paper further explores some limitations and difficulties in the application of the innovative solutions and suggests an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach for sustainable drainage design.

  12. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs): Training Systems Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Training Systems Acquisition IDA Document D-4648 Log: H 12-001032 July 2012 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Background The Patriot system began because of the need to replace an aging and limited air defense system in the 1970s, the Nike -Hercules, and...simulation technology, embedded training and distributed learning (DoD Instruction 1322.26), and instrumentation systems that provide “anytime, anyplace

  13. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  14. Optimal energy management of urban rail systems: Key performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overall picture of urban rail energy use is provided. • Performance indicators are developed for urban rail system energy optimisation. • A multi-level methodology for assessing energy efficiency measures is presented. - Abstract: Urban rail systems are facing increasing pressure to minimise their energy consumption and thusly reduce their operational costs and environmental impact. However, given the complexity of such systems, this can only be effectively achieved through a holistic approach which considers the numerous interdependences between subsystems (i.e. vehicles, operations and infrastructure). Such an approach requires a comprehensive set of energy consumption-related Key Performance Indicators (KEPIs) that enable: a multilevel analysis of the actual energy performance of the system; an assessment of potential energy saving strategies; and the monitoring of the results of implemented measures. This paper proposes an original, complete list of KEPIs developed through a scientific approach validated by different stakeholders. It consists of a hierarchical list of 22 indicators divided into two levels: 10 key performance indicators, to ascertain the performance of the whole system and complete subsystems; and 12 performance indicators, to evaluate the performance of single units within subsystems, for example, a single rail vehicle or station. Additionally, the paper gives a brief insight into urban rail energy usage by providing an adequate context in which to understand the proposed KEPIs, together with a methodology describing their application when optimising the energy consumption of urban rail systems

  15. Voltage control on a train system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  16. Developing Efficient Urban Electrical Systems Using Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahagan, Michael

    2010-09-15

    Electric vehicles and battery storage will complicate utility operations and strain existing networks. One possible solution is the implementation of 'microgrids' autonomous electricity environments that operate within a larger electric utility grid and their 'controllers' Microgrids direct locally generated power to local demand, coordinate with centralized utility networks to meet additional demand, and pass excess supply to neighboring microgrids. This paper explains the evolution of microgrids. It details their design and operation. It also reviews their many benefits within urban settings, including minimizing customer costs while maximizing use of local generation from clean, renewable resources.

  17. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to develop automobile starting and lighting system maintenance training manual for technical college students. Research and Development (R and D) design was adopted for the study. The population of the study is 348, comprising of 76 auto-mechanics teachers, 36 automobile supervisors and ...

  18. A companion agent for automated training systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiël, E.F.T.; Lubbers, J.

    2007-01-01

    TNO Defence, Security & Safety has a long history of applied research in the area of automated simulator-based training by means of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). Traditionally, a CAI system does not enable a true dialogue between the learner and the virtual instructor. Most frequently, the

  19. Counter Trafficking System Development "Analysis Training Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dennis C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document will detail the training curriculum for the Counter-Trafficking System Development (CTSD) Analysis Modules and Lesson Plans are derived from the United States Military, Department of Energy doctrine and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Global Security (GS) S Program.

  20. Vulnerability Analysis of Urban Drainage Systems: Tree vs. Loop Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability analysis of urban drainage networks plays an important role in urban flood management. This study analyzes and compares the vulnerability of tree and loop systems under various rainfall events to structural failure represented by pipe blockage. Different pipe blockage scenarios, in which one of the pipes in an urban drainage network is assumed to be blocked individually, are constructed and their impacts on the network are simulated under different storm events. Furthermore, a vulnerability index is defined to measure the vulnerability of the drainage systems before and after the implementation of adaptation measures. The results obtained indicate that the tree systems have a relatively larger proportion of critical hydraulic pipes than the loop systems, thus the vulnerability of tree systems is substantially greater than that of the loop systems. Furthermore, the vulnerability index of tree systems is reduced after they are converted into a loop system with the implementation of adaptation measures. This paper provides an insight into the differences in the vulnerability of tree and loop systems, and provides more evidence for development of adaptation measures (e.g., tanks to reduce urban flooding.

  1. Development of cyber training system for nuclear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Taek; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Eui Jin; Lee, Han Young; Choi, Nan Young

    2002-02-01

    This report describes on technical contents related cyber training system construct on KAERI Nuclear Training Center, and on using cases of cyber education in domestic and foreign countries. Also realtime training system through the internet and cyber training management system for atomic fields is developed. All users including trainee, course managers and lecturers can use new technical for create new paradigm

  2. Urban Typologies: Towards an ORNL Urban Information System (UrbIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    KC, B.; King, A. W.; Sorokine, A.; Crow, M. C.; Devarakonda, R.; Hilbert, N. L.; Karthik, R.; Patlolla, D.; Surendran Nair, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban environments differ in a large number of key attributes; these include infrastructure, morphology, demography, and economic and social variables, among others. These attributes determine many urban properties such as energy and water consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, public health, sustainability, and vulnerability and resilience to climate change. Characterization of urban environments by a single property such as population size does not sufficiently capture this complexity. In addressing this multivariate complexity one typically faces such problems as disparate and scattered data, challenges of big data management, spatial searching, insufficient computational capacity for data-driven analysis and modelling, and the lack of tools to quickly visualize the data and compare the analytical results across different cities and regions. We have begun the development of an Urban Information System (UrbIS) to address these issues, one that embraces the multivariate "big data" of urban areas and their environments across the United States utilizing the Big Data as a Service (BDaaS) concept. With technological roots in High-performance Computing (HPC), BDaaS is based on the idea of outsourcing computations to different computing paradigms, scalable to super-computers. UrbIS aims to incorporate federated metadata search, integrated modeling and analysis, and geovisualization into a single seamless workflow. The system includes web-based 2D/3D visualization with an iGlobe interface, fast cloud-based and server-side data processing and analysis, and a metadata search engine based on the Mercury data search system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Results of analyses will be made available through web services. We are implementing UrbIS in ORNL's Compute and Data Environment for Science (CADES) and are leveraging ORNL experience in complex data and geospatial projects. The development of UrbIS is being guided by an investigation of

  3. Sustainable urban systems: Co-design and framing for transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert; Bai, Xuemei; Smith, Mark Stafford; Costanza, Robert; Griggs, David; Moglia, Magnus; Neuman, Michael; Newman, Peter; Newton, Peter; Norman, Barbara; Ryan, Chris; Schandl, Heinz; Steffen, Will; Tapper, Nigel; Thomson, Giles

    2018-02-01

    Rapid urbanisation generates risks and opportunities for sustainable development. Urban policy and decision makers are challenged by the complexity of cities as social-ecological-technical systems. Consequently there is an increasing need for collaborative knowledge development that supports a whole-of-system view, and transformational change at multiple scales. Such holistic urban approaches are rare in practice. A co-design process involving researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, has progressed such an approach in the Australian context, aiming to also contribute to international knowledge development and sharing. This process has generated three outputs: (1) a shared framework to support more systematic knowledge development and use, (2) identification of barriers that create a gap between stated urban goals and actual practice, and (3) identification of strategic focal areas to address this gap. Developing integrated strategies at broader urban scales is seen as the most pressing need. The knowledge framework adopts a systems perspective that incorporates the many urban trade-offs and synergies revealed by a systems view. Broader implications are drawn for policy and decision makers, for researchers and for a shared forward agenda.

  4. Development of NPP personnel training system in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarykin, V. [Operation Personnel Training Department, Khmelnitsky NPP, Training Center, Neteshin 30100, Khmelnitsky region (Ukraine)]. E-mail: tarykinv@ukr.net

    2005-07-01

    Modern personnel training and retraining system is a guarantee of NPPs safe reliable operation. Since the time when independence of Ukraine was proclaimed personnel training system was created directly at NPPs. This system is based on the latest legislation framework, developed subject to IAEA recommendations, gained international experience in the field of personnel training in view of increased demands to personnel qualification. Training Centers, formed at each plant, form one of the main components of NPP personnel training. Personnel training at Training Centers is performed in accordance with standard programmes. Simulator training base was created by joint efforts of specialists from the USA, Russia and Ukraine. Establishing manager training system and replacement reserves for National Nuclear Energy Generating Company 'ENERGOATOM' (NNEGC 'ENERGOATOM') managerial personnel, including training programme and training materials development, teacher selection and training, is under way. (author)

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  6. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-03-15

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  7. Prioritizing Training To Maximize Results: The 3 Box System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Considers fundamentals of effective training and focuses on the evaluation of training. Describes the 3 Box System, which provides a framework for discussing: (1) basic training needs and priorities; (2) added value training, including ROI (return on investment); evaluation; and (3) prioritizing training budgets. (LRW)

  8. Video game training and the reward system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training. PMID:25698962

  9. Video game training and the reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.

  10. Video Game Training and the Reward System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Lorenz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual towards playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training.Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG or control group (CG. Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was conducted using a non-video game related reward task.At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated.This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the ventral striatum in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.

  11. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.. Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.. Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track, the current athlete condition (HR, and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m; s-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  12. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments

  13. APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF URBAN TOURISM SYSTEM WITHIN URBAN DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia BĂDIŢĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The city is an area that has a complex functionality which is based on the utility of its zones that imprint a quality of life and a specificity to the place, but it is also based on the architectural aesthetics which determines a local lifestyle and a potential which can be exploited through tourist activities. The study aims to identify the characteristics of the urban tourism and the elements of an urban tourism system, which will be approached by identifying the city-breaker profile, the relation between turisticity and urbanity to determine the quality of places. These elements will be applied as a case study in Craiova, a mixed industrial and services economical profile city, with a low tourism function. This type of city has an urban tourism system which starts to take shape, and according to the theory of "overlapping cities" although there are many forms of tourism in a city (cultural, business, shopping, sports tourism, visiting relatives and friends and recreational tourism, Craiova focuses on the typology of the city for festivals, business, leisure and sport, as a strategy for the tourism sector development and for entering the tourism market of Romania.

  14. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  15. Construction Strategies of Social Security System for Wan-jiang Urban Belt’s Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate and practice exploration on social security of migrant workers were introduced.The political direction and security layer on social security for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt were analyzed:the first layer is to implement wage payment guarantee and employment injury insurance;the second layer is to emphasize serious disease insurance and endowment insurance;the third layer is unemployed insurance and social assistance.The primary strategy of building a social security system for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt was put up:wage payment guarantee system that is united in certain regions should be promoted;employment injury insurance system that is undertaken by enterprises should be built;a social health care system for serious diseases should be set up;multi-layers endowment insurance system for migrant workers should be created;vocational training and training in how to start a business should be built as well as the unemployment insurance system;social assistant system based on the basic cost of living allowances should be set up.

  16. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  17. PM2006: a highly scalable urban planning management information system--Case study: Suzhou Urban Planning Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changfeng; Liang, Song; Ruan, Yong; Huang, Jie

    2008-10-01

    During the urbanization process, when facing complex requirements of city development, ever-growing urban data, rapid development of planning business and increasing planning complexity, a scalable, extensible urban planning management information system is needed urgently. PM2006 is such a system that can deal with these problems. In response to the status and problems in urban planning, the scalability and extensibility of PM2006 are introduced which can be seen as business-oriented workflow extensibility, scalability of DLL-based architecture, flexibility on platforms of GIS and database, scalability of data updating and maintenance and so on. It is verified that PM2006 system has good extensibility and scalability which can meet the requirements of all levels of administrative divisions and can adapt to ever-growing changes in urban planning business. At the end of this paper, the application of PM2006 in Urban Planning Bureau of Suzhou city is described.

  18. Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

    2013-12-15

    Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comprehensive System for Monitoring Urban Accessibility in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Higinio; Gilart-Iglesias, Virgilio; Pérez-Del Hoyo, Raquel; Andújar-Montoya, María Dolores

    2017-08-09

    The present work discusses the possibilities offered by the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies with the aim of designing a system to dynamically obtain knowledge of accessibility issues in urban environments. This system is facilitated by technology to analyse the urban user experience and movement accessibility, which enabling accurate identification of urban barriers and monitoring its effectiveness over time. Therefore, the main purpose of the system is to meet the real needs and requirements of people with movement disabilities. The information obtained can be provided as a support service for decision-making to be used by city government, institutions, researchers, professionals and other individuals of society in general to improve the liveability and quality of the lives of citizens. The proposed system is a means of social awareness that makes the most vulnerable groups of citizens visible by involving them as active participants. To perform and implement the system, the latest communication and positioning technologies for smart sensing have been used, as well as the cloud computing paradigm. Finally, to validate the proposal, a case study has been presented using the university environment as a pre-deployment step in urban environments.

  20. Constructing Agent Model for Virtual Training Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yohei; Sugimoto, Yuki; Ishida, Toru

    Constructing highly realistic agents is essential if agents are to be employed in virtual training systems. In training for collaboration based on face-to-face interaction, the generation of emotional expressions is one key. In training for guidance based on one-to-many interaction such as direction giving for evacuations, emotional expressions must be supplemented by diverse agent behaviors to make the training realistic. To reproduce diverse behavior, we characterize agents by using a various combinations of operation rules instantiated by the user operating the agent. To accomplish this goal, we introduce a user modeling method based on participatory simulations. These simulations enable us to acquire information observed by each user in the simulation and the operating history. Using these data and the domain knowledge including known operation rules, we can generate an explanation for each behavior. Moreover, the application of hypothetical reasoning, which offers consistent selection of hypotheses, to the generation of explanations allows us to use otherwise incompatible operation rules as domain knowledge. In order to validate the proposed modeling method, we apply it to the acquisition of an evacuee's model in a fire-drill experiment. We successfully acquire a subject's model corresponding to the results of an interview with the subject.

  1. 49 CFR 236.825 - System, automatic train control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, automatic train control. 236.825 Section..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.825 System, automatic train control. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically...

  2. Institutional Framework for Collaborative Urban Planning in Afghanistan in view of the Transferring Process of International Urban Planning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmad Javid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of Afghanistan’s urban planning institutional change in certain historical periods, particular dilemmas within the current urban planning system and its gradual shift from totalitarian urban planning approaches practiced during 1960s - 1980s to a different form of planning being practiced by the current government. In addition, it will seek to analyze the ease and tension caused by the three recent phenomena that have emerged after the establishment of a new democratic government in Afghanistan since 2001, such as private sector-led urban development, international funding community’s and NGOs’ role in planning and the delegation of certain roles given to different tires of the government. Another purpose of this work is to analyze the collaboration among urban planning institutions, private sector, international funding community, NGOs and civil society within the current urban planning arena of Afghanistan and to identify the roles, responsibilities and functions of urban planning institutions in different levels of urban governance. Finally find out what possible and necessary institutional changes and framework are needed in order to foster grassroots based inter-institutional collaboration and partnership among various tires of government. The methodological approach to the research is based on qualitative data analysis. For the analysis purpose, government urban planning data and in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with Afghanistan’s urban planning officials were thematically used, which provided in-depth information about involved actors in urban planning and their roles and relationships.

  3. Urban Systems during Disasters: Factors for Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Wallace

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban neighborhoods form the basic functional unit of municipalities. Socioeconomically, they consist of social networks and interlocking layers of social networks. Old, stable neighborhoods are blessed with large social networks and dense interlocking layers. Both social control and social support depend on these complex structures of tight and loose ties. Public health and public order depend on these structures. They are the basis of resilience of both the neighborhood itself and of the municipality that is composed of neighborhoods. In New York City in the 1970s and later, domain shift occurred because of the disruption of the socioeconomic structure by the massive destruction of low-rental housing. A combined epidemic of building fires and landlord abandonment of buildings leveled a huge percentage of housing in poor neighborhoods and forced mass migration between neighborhoods. Social relationships that had existed between families and individuals for decades were destroyed. Community efficacy also greatly diminished. Drug use, violent crime, tuberculosis, and low-weight births were among the many public health and public order problems that soared in incidence consequent to the unraveling of the communities. These problems spilled out into the metropolitan region of dependent suburban counties. The ability of a municipality and its dependent suburban counties to weather a disaster such as an avian flu pandemic depends on the size of social networks in its neighborhoods and on the interconnection between the social networks. Diversity such as gained by social and economic integration influences the strength of the loose ties between social networks. Poor neighborhoods with extreme resilience conferred by a dense fabric of social networks must also maintain connections with mainstream political structure or they will fail to react to both good and bad impacts and communications.

  4. Urban Transportation Planning Short Course: Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This urban transportation pamphlet delves into the roles of policy groups and technical staffs in evaluating alternative transportation plans, evaluation criteria, systems to evaluate, and evaluation procedures. The introduction admits the importance of subjective, but informed, judgment as an effective tool in weighing alternative transportation…

  5. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  6. A Scanning scheimpflug lidar system developed for urban pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Guan, Peng; Mei, Liang

    2018-04-01

    A scanning Scheimpflug lidar system based on the Scheimpflug principle has been developed by employing a high power multimode 808 nm laser diode and a highly integrated CMOS sensor in Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Northern China. Atmospheric scanning measurements in urban area were performed for the studies of particle emission sources.

  7. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  8. Comparison of PV system design software packages for urban applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharakhani Siraki, Arbi; Pillay, Pragasen

    2010-09-15

    A large number of software packages are available for solar resource evaluation and PV system design. However, few of them are suitable for urban applications. In this paper a comparison has been made between two specifically designed solar tools known as the Ecotect 2010 and the PVsyst 5.05. Conclusions have been made for proper use of these packages based on their specifications and privileges. Moreover, the calculations have been repeated with HOMER software package (which is a generic tool) for the same location. The results suggest that a generic solar software tool should not be used for an urban application.

  9. Socio-Environmental Resilience and Complex Urban Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Brian; Petri, Aaron; Pan, Haozhi; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The increasing pressure of climate change has inspired two normative agendas; socio-technical transitions and socio-ecological resilience, both sharing a complex-systems epistemology (Gillard et al. 2016). Socio-technical solutions include a continuous, massive data gathering exercise now underway in urban places under the guise of developing a 'smart'(er) city. This has led to the creation of data-rich environments where large data sets have become central to monitoring and forming a response to anomalies. Some have argued that these kinds of data sets can help in planning for resilient cities (Norberg and Cumming 2008; Batty 2013). In this paper, we focus on a more nuanced, ecologically based, socio-environmental perspective of resilience planning that is often given less consideration. Here, we broadly discuss (and model) the tightly linked, mutually influenced, social and biophysical subsystems that are critical for understanding urban resilience. We argue for the need to incorporate these sub system linkages into the resilience planning lexicon through the integration of systems models and planning support systems. We make our case by first providing a context for urban resilience from a socio-ecological and planning perspective. We highlight the data needs for this type of resilient planning and compare it to currently collected data streams in various smart city efforts. This helps to define an approach for operationalizing socio-environmental resilience planning using robust systems models and planning support systems. For this, we draw from our experiences in coupling a spatio-temporal land use model (the Landuse Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM)) with water quality and quantity models in Stockholm Sweden. We describe the coupling of these systems models using a robust Planning Support System (PSS) structural framework. We use the coupled model simulations and PSS to analyze the connection between urban land use transformation (social) and water

  10. Geographical information systems (GIS), a great tool for urban silviculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaya Burbano, Leodan Andres; Sanchez Zapata, Robinson de Jesus; Morales Soto, Leon; Botero Fernandez, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    As a pilot phase, to acquire experience, define methodologies and determine the advantages of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for applying to urban silviculture and inventory, diagnosis, management plan and economic appraisal were made for the urban forest in the Magnolia neighborhood of the Envigado municipality, department of Antioquia, Colombia. for the management and analysis of the data collected in field, a database was designed using the software microsoft Access. The species inventoried were mapped digitally and the conditions there were analyzed using some tools and extensions of technological architecture ArcGIS 8.3 such as: characteristics, silviculture practices required, and environmental conflicts. It was determined that the GIS analysis of the urban forest conducted for a specific neighborhood can be a tool that permits environmental authorities and interested researchers to have agile and easy access to the information stored in it; it permits programming of required silviculture activities; it also permits having a general vision of the urban forest according to the infrastructure of the neighborhood, complemented by photographs of the area for improved illustration; it permits the inclusion or elimination of information in a rapid and simple manner, thus facilitating decision making with relation to management of the urban woodland and for comparison with other similar studies

  11. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Server application for automated management training system of NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, I.A.; Pribysh, P.I.; Karpej, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describer the server side of automated management training system. This system will increase the efficiency of planning and accounting training activities, simplifies the collecting the necessary documentation and analysis of the results. (authors)

  13. Institutional Framework for Collaborative Urban Planning in Afghanistan in view of the Transferring Process of International Urban Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Habib Ahmad Javid; Tetsuo Kidokoro

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Afghanistan’s urban planning institutional change in certain historical periods, particular dilemmas within the current urban planning system and its gradual shift from totalitarian urban planning approaches practiced during 1960s - 1980s to a different form of planning being practiced by the current government. In addition, it will seek to analyze the ease and tension caused by the three recent phenomena that have emerged after the establishment of a new ...

  14. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, Mathias; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willen, Dag; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  15. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  16. An ELM-Based Approach for Estimating Train Dwell Time in Urban Rail Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwell time estimation plays an important role in the operation of urban rail system. On this specific problem, a range of models based on either polynomial regression or microsimulation have been proposed. However, the generalization performance of polynomial regression models is limited and the accuracy of existing microsimulation models is unstable. In this paper, a new dwell time estimation model based on extreme learning machine (ELM is proposed. The underlying factors that may affect urban rail dwell time are analyzed first. Then, the relationships among different factors are extracted and modeled by ELM neural networks, on basis of which an overall estimation model is proposed. At last, a set of observed data from Beijing subway is used to illustrate the proposed method and verify its overall performance.

  17. Study on training of nuclear power system operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lifeng; Zhou Gang; Yu Lei

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy new requirements about operators of nuclear power system, which are brought up by development and changes of social environment, science and technology, we do research on and make analysis of the problem of operator training. This paper focuses on development and changes of operator training system and content, mentality training, application of new technology to training, feedback of experience and so on. Analysis showed that the content of operator training is also confronted with some new requirements. So we bring up the new requirements to the operator, such as mentality training, cognizance ability training, adaptability training of special environment and endurance training. Besides, it is important for perfecting operator cultivation mechanism and improving training effect to feed back experience and apply new technology. So the trainer must improve training content and cultivation mechanism continuously. (authors)

  18. Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E.; Rasmussen, S.

    1999-06-01

    This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.

  19. Performance indicators for the efficiency analysis of urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artina, S; Becciu, G; Maglionico, M; Paoletti, A; Sanfilippo, U

    2005-01-01

    Performance indicators implemented in a decision support system (DSS) for the technical, managerial and economic evaluation of urban drainage systems (UDS), called MOMA FD, are presented. Several kinds of information are collected and processed by MOMA FD to evaluate both present situation and future scenarios of development and enhancement. Particular interest is focused on the evaluation of the environmental impact, which is considered a very relevant factor in the decision making process to identify the priorities for UDS improvements.

  20. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  1. Modeling carbon emissions from urban traffic system using mobile monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Jian; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Rui; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive analyses of urban traffic carbon emissions are critical in achieving low-carbon transportation. This paper started from the architecture design of a carbon emission mobile monitoring system using multiple sets of equipment and collected the corresponding data about traffic flow, meteorological conditions, vehicular carbon emissions and driving characteristics on typical roads in Shanghai and Wuxi, Jiangsu province. Based on these data, the emission model MOVES was calibrated and used with various sensitivity and correlation evaluation indices to analyze the traffic carbon emissions at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels, respectively. The major factors that influence urban traffic carbon emissions were investigated, so that emission factors of CO, CO 2 and HC were calculated by taking representative passenger cars as a case study. As a result, the urban traffic carbon emissions were assessed quantitatively, and the total amounts of CO, CO 2 and HC emission from passenger cars in Shanghai were estimated as 76.95kt, 8271.91kt, and 2.13kt, respectively. Arterial roads were found as the primary line source, accounting for 50.49% carbon emissions. In additional to the overall major factors identified, the mobile monitoring system and carbon emission quantification method proposed in this study are of rather guiding significance for the further urban low-carbon transportation development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereo-based Collision Avoidance System for Urban Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi; Ishikawa, Naoto; Sasaki, Kazuyuki; Nakajima, Masato

    2002-11-01

    Numerous car accidents occur on urban road. However, researches done so far on driving assistance are subjecting highways whose environment is relatively simple and easy to handle, and new approach for urban settings is required. Our purpose is to extend its support to the following conditions in city traffic: the presence of obstacles such as pedestrians and telephone poles; the lane mark is not always drawn on a road; drivers may lack the sense of awareness of the lane mark. We propose a collision avoidance system, which can be applied to both highways and urban traffic environment. In our system, stereo cameras are set in front of a vehicle and the captured images are processed through a computer. We create a Projected Disparity Map (PDM) from stereo image pair, which is a disparity histogram taken along ordinate direction of obtained disparity image. When there is an obstacle in front, we can detect it by finding a peak appeared in the PDM. With a speed meter and a steering sensor, the stop distance and the radius of curvature of the self-vehicle are calculated, in order to set the observation-required area, which does not depend on lane marks, within a PDM. A danger level will be computed from the distance and the relative speed to the closest approaching object detected within the observation-required area. The method has been tested in urban traffic scenes and has shown to be effective for judging dangerous situation, and gives proper alarm to a driver.

  3. Battle Staff Training System II: Computer-Based Instruction Supporting the Force XXI Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wampler, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the methodology and lessons learned in the development of the Innovative Tools and Techniques for Brigade and Below Staff Training II - Battle Staff Training System II (ITTBBST-BSTS II...

  4. Integrated Quality Management System in Public Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Pašagić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Public urban traffic (PUT requirements are based on thespecific characteristics that dictate the requirements themselves.The problems faced by all the big cities regarding public urbantransport are very similar, and they range from unacceptabilityof the very organisational structure of the system facing the populationgrowth, limitations and congestions of the traffic routesloaded by an increasing number of automobiles, to the chroniclack of economic funds for the investments that would createthe necessary conditions for positive shifts. In PUT there aremany random parameters whose statistical laws are not easy todetermine and it is often the topic of research of various profilesof scientists. There is always the satisfaction, that is, the lack ofsatisfaction by the final user of the public urban transport andall the other involved groups. The result is that the potential usersof public urban transport give up and try to find other solutionsfor their transport needs, turning in principle to individualtraffic. Consequently, the number of passenger cars on the trafficroutes increases along with all the resulting negative effects.The complex systems of public urban transport facing the increasingrequirements to improve efficiency have to be subjectedto certain changes in order to achieve physical sustainability oftraffic at all, and to satisfy the environmental requirements thatoccur as counterbalance to the pollution of the urban area.With the aim of achieving optimal conditions for the qualityof service, and by introducing acceptable traffic solutionscombined with the integrated quality management systembased on the standards ISO 9001 and ISO 14000 high-qualityshifts are made possible. The integration of these standards resultsin the rational combining of the quality management systeminto a single efficient system, reflected in achieving high-quality traffic and transport service, improved informationflow, unique documentation, positive

  5. Mapping Typical Urban LULC from Landsat Imagery without Training Samples or Self-Defined Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use/land cover (LULC change is one of the most important indicators in understanding the interactions between humans and the environment. Traditionally, when LULC maps are produced yearly, most existing remote-sensing methods have to collect ground reference data annually, as the classifiers have to be trained individually in each corresponding year. This study presented a novel strategy to map LULC classes without training samples or assigning parameters. First of all, several novel indices were carefully selected from the index pool, which were able to highlight certain LULC very well. Following this, a common unsupervised classifier was employed to extract the LULC from the associated index image without assigning thresholds. Finally, a supervised classification was implemented with samples automatically collected from the unsupervised classification outputs. Results illustrated that the proposed method could achieve satisfactory performance, reaching similar accuracies to traditional approaches. Findings of this study demonstrate that the proposed strategy is a simple and effective alternative to mapping urban LULC. With the proposed strategy, the budget and time required for remote-sensing data processing could be reduced dramatically.

  6. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  7. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  8. A Two-Stage Queue Model to Optimize Layout of Urban Drainage System considering Extreme Rainstorms

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xinhua; Hu, Wenfa

    2017-01-01

    Extreme rainstorm is a main factor to cause urban floods when urban drainage system cannot discharge stormwater successfully. This paper investigates distribution feature of rainstorms and draining process of urban drainage systems and uses a two-stage single-counter queue method M/M/1→M/D/1 to model urban drainage system. The model emphasizes randomness of extreme rainstorms, fuzziness of draining process, and construction and operation cost of drainage system. Its two objectives are total c...

  9. A stochastic approach for automatic generation of urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möderl, M; Butler, D; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    Typically, performance evaluation of new developed methodologies is based on one or more case studies. The investigation of multiple real world case studies is tedious and time consuming. Moreover extrapolating conclusions from individual investigations to a general basis is arguable and sometimes even wrong. In this article a stochastic approach is presented to evaluate new developed methodologies on a broader basis. For the approach the Matlab-tool "Case Study Generator" is developed which generates a variety of different virtual urban drainage systems automatically using boundary conditions e.g. length of urban drainage system, slope of catchment surface, etc. as input. The layout of the sewer system is based on an adapted Galton-Watson branching process. The sub catchments are allocated considering a digital terrain model. Sewer system components are designed according to standard values. In total, 10,000 different virtual case studies of urban drainage system are generated and simulated. Consequently, simulation results are evaluated using a performance indicator for surface flooding. Comparison between results of the virtual and two real world case studies indicates the promise of the method. The novelty of the approach is that it is possible to get more general conclusions in contrast to traditional evaluations with few case studies.

  10. The implementation of biofiltration systems, rainwater tanks and urban irrigation in a single-layer urban canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, Matthias; Coutts, Andrew; Goehler, Maren; Broadbent, Ashley; Wouters, Hendrik; van Lipzig, Nicole; Gebert, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Urban vegetation is generally considered as a key tool to modify the urban energy balance through enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). Given that vegetation is most effective when it is healthy, stormwater harvesting and retention strategies (such as water sensitive urban design) could be used to support vegetation and promote ET. This study presents the implementation of a vegetated lined bio-filtration system (BFS) combined with a rainwater tank (RWT) and urban irrigation system in the single-layer urban canopy model Community Land Model-Urban. Runoff from roof and impervious road surface fractions is harvested and used to support an adequate soil moisture level for vegetation in the BFS. In a first stage, modelled soil moisture dynamics are evaluated and found reliable compared to observed soil moisture levels from biofiltration pits in Smith Street, Melbourne (Australia). Secondly, the impact of BFS, RWT and urban irrigation on ET is illustrated for a two-month period in 2012 using varying characteristics for all components. Results indicate that (i) a large amount of stormwater is potentially available for indoor and outdoor water demands, including irrigation of urban vegetation, (ii) ET from the BFS is an order of magnitude larger compared to the contributions from the impervious surfaces, even though the former only covers 10% of the surface fraction and (iii) attention should be paid to the cover fraction and soil texture of the BFS, size of the RWT and the surface fractions contributing to the collection of water in the RWT. Overall, this study reveals that this model development can effectuate future research with state-of-the-art urban climate models to further explore the benefits of vegetated biofiltration systems as a water sensitive urban design tool optimised with an urban irrigation system to maintain healthy vegetation.

  11. Energy Systems Training Programs and Certifications Survey White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thirumaran, Kiran [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guo, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Compressed air system, industrial refrigeration system, chilled water system, pump system, fan system, steam system, process heating system, and combined heat and power system are the major industrial energy systems. By helping enhance knowledge and skills of workforce, training and certification programs on these systems are essential to improve energy efficiency of manufacturing facilities. A literature survey of currently available training and certification programs on these systems was conducted.

  12. Study on the complex network characteristics of urban road system based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonghua; Chen, Zhenjie; Liu, Yongxue; Huang, Kang

    2007-06-01

    Urban road system is the basic bone of urban transportation and one of the most important factors that influent and controls the urban configuration. In this paper, an approach of modeling, analyzing and optimizing urban road system is described based on complex network theory and GIS technology. The urban road system is studied on three focuses: building the urban road network, modeling the computational procedures based on urban road networks and analyzing the urban road system of Changzhou City as the study case. The conclusion is that the urban road network is a scale-free network with small-world characteristic, and there is still space for development of the whole network as a small-world network, also the key road crosses should be kept expedite.

  13. Validation of Walking Trails for the Urban TrainingTM of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbillaga-Etxarri, Ane; Torrent-Pallicer, Jaume; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Barberan-Garcia, Anael; Delgado, Anna; Balcells, Eva; Rodríguez, Diego A.; Vilaró, Jordi; Vall-Casas, Pere; Irurtia, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accessible interventions to train patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are needed. We designed urban trails of different intensities (low, moderate and high) in different types of public spaces (boulevard, beach and park). We aimed to validate the trails’ design by assessing the physiological response to unsupervised walking trails of: (1) different intensities in COPD patients, and (2) same intensity from different public spaces in healthy adults. Methods On different days and under standardized conditions, 10 COPD patients walked the three intensity trails designed in a boulevard space, and 10 healthy subjects walked the three intensity trails in three different spaces. We measured physiological response and energy expenditure using a gas analyzer. We compared outcomes across trails intensity and/or spaces using mixed-effects linear regression. Results In COPD patients, physiological response and energy expenditure increased significantly according to the trails intensity: mean (SD) peak V˙O2 15.9 (3.5), 17.4 (4.7), and 17.7 (4.4) mL/min/kg (p-trend = 0.02), and MET-min 60 (23), 64 (26), 72 (31) (p-trendtrails, respectively. In healthy subjects there were no differences in physiological response to walking trails of the same intensity across different spaces. Conclusions We validated the trails design for the training of COPD patients by showing that the physiological response to and energy expenditure on unsupervised walking these trails increased according to the predefined trails’ intensity and did not change across trails of the same intensity in different public space. Walkable public spaces allow the design of trails that could be used for the training of COPD patients in the community. PMID:26766184

  14. Understanding Resilient Urban Futures: A Systemic Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Chapman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The resilience of cities in response to natural disasters and long-term climate change has emerged as a focus of academic and policy attention. In particular, how to understand the interconnectedness of urban and natural systems is a key issue. This paper introduces an urban model that can be used to evaluate city resilience outcomes under different policy scenarios. The model is the Wellington Integrated Land Use-Transport-Environment Model (WILUTE. It considers the city (i.e., Wellington as a complex system characterized by interactions between a variety of internal urban processes (social, economic and physical and the natural environment. It is focused on exploring the dynamic relations between human activities (the geographic distribution of housing and employment, infrastructure layout, traffic flows and energy consumption, environmental effects (carbon emissions, influences on local natural and ecological systems and potential natural disasters (e.g., inundation due to sea level rise and storm events faced under different policy scenarios. The model gives insights that are potentially useful for policy to enhance the city’s resilience, by modelling outcomes, such as the potential for reduction in transportation energy use, and changes in the vulnerability of the city’s housing stock and transport system to sea level rise.

  15. Immersive Training Systems: Virtual Reality and Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psotka, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Describes virtual reality (VR) technology and VR research on education and training. Focuses on immersion as the key added value of VR, analyzes cognitive variables connected to immersion, how it is generated in synthetic environments and its benefits. Discusses value of tracked, immersive visual displays over nonimmersive simulations. Contains 78…

  16. How to Deal with Revolutions in Train Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nakamura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Train control systems ensure the safety of railways. This paper begins with a summary of the typical train control systems in Japan and Europe. Based on this summary, the author then raises the following question regarding current train control systems: What approach should be adopted in order to enhance the functionality, safety, and reliability of train control systems and assist in commercial operations on railways? Next, the author provides a desirable architecture that is likely to assist with the development of new train control systems based on current information and communication technologies. A new unified train control system (UTCS is proposed that is effective in enhancing the robustness and competitiveness of a train control system. The ultimate architecture of the UTCS will be only composed of essential elements such as point machines and level crossing control devices in the field. Finally, a processing method of the UTCS is discussed.

  17. Unmanned Aerial System Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Aerial System (UAS) Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device: Training Effectiveness Assessment (James & Miller, in press). 31 Technical ...Research Product 2018-05 Unmanned Aerial System Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device Development David R. James...for the Department of the Army by Northrop Grumman Corporation. Technical review by Thomas Rhett Graves, Ph.D., U.S. Army Research Institute

  18. Monitoring of health and demographic outcomes in poor urban settlements: evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques; Beguy, Donatien; Zulu, Eliya M; Ezeh, Alex C; Muindi, Kanyiva; Elung'ata, Patricia; Otsola, John K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2011-06-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements to provide a platform for investigating linkages between urban poverty, health, and demographic and other socioeconomic outcomes, and to facilitate the evaluation of interventions to improve the wellbeing of the urban poor. Data from the NUHDSS confirm the high level of population mobility in slum settlements, and also demonstrate that slum settlements are long-term homes for many people. Research and intervention programs should take account of the duality of slum residency. Consistent with the trends observed countrywide, the data show substantial improvements in measures of child mortality, while there has been limited decline in fertility in slum settlements. The NUHDSS experience has shown that it is feasible to set up and implement long-term health and demographic surveillance system in urban slum settlements and to generate vital data for guiding policy and actions aimed at improving the wellbeing of the urban poor.

  19. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO 2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO 2 -eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A comprehensive

  20. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso, E-mail: alaranda@unizar.es; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO{sub 2}-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A

  1. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  2. Development and utilization of simulator training replay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Noji, Kunio

    1998-01-01

    The BWR Operator Training Center Corporation (BTC) has introduced an advanced training system called the Simulator Training Replay System. The intention of introducing this system is to enhance the effectiveness of simulator training synthetically by means of; (i) sufficient analytical pre- and post-studies in the classroom, thus, enabling instructors to use the classroom as a means of explanation and discussion with an optimized system which is closely correlated with the full-scope simulator and (ii) sufficient practical operation training using a full-scope simulator without excessive suppression of time. With this system, operational data and video images during simulator training can be reproduced in the classroom. Instructors use this system with their trainees before and after simulator training for pre- and post-studies in the classroom. (author)

  3. GESAT: System for management and evaluation of training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjona, O.; Venegas, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Lopez, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describe the criteria considered to design the GESAT system, the elements considered to select the relational model, selection of the database language and the main features and possibilities of this system. GESAT allow the management of training programs based on the Systematic Approach to Training. Include the information related with all SAT phases, the results of the job analysis, training plans design, development of materials, training implementation, and the subsequent evaluation

  4. Case Study: Does training of private networks of Family Planning clinicians in urban Pakistan affect service utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine whether training of providers participating in franchise clinic networks is associated with increased Family Planning service use among low-income urban families in Pakistan. Methods The study uses 2001 survey data consisting of interviews with 1113 clinical and non-clinical providers working in public and private hospitals/clinics. Data analysis excludes non-clinical providers reducing sample size to 822. Variables for the analysis are divided into client volume, and training in family planning. Regression models are used to compute the association between training and service use in franchise versus private non-franchise clinics. Results In franchise clinic networks, staff are 6.5 times more likely to receive family planning training (P = 0.00) relative to private non-franchises. Service use was significantly associated with training (P = 0.00), franchise affiliation (P = 0.01), providers' years of family planning experience (P = 0.02) and the number of trained staff working at government owned clinics (P = 0.00). In this setting, nurses are significantly less likely to receive training compared to doctors (P = 0.00). Conclusions These findings suggest that franchises recruit and train various cadres of health workers and training maybe associated with increased service use through improvement in quality of services. PMID:21062460

  5. Case Study: Does training of private networks of Family Planning clinicians in urban Pakistan affect service utilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Asma M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether training of providers participating in franchise clinic networks is associated with increased Family Planning service use among low-income urban families in Pakistan. Methods The study uses 2001 survey data consisting of interviews with 1113 clinical and non-clinical providers working in public and private hospitals/clinics. Data analysis excludes non-clinical providers reducing sample size to 822. Variables for the analysis are divided into client volume, and training in family planning. Regression models are used to compute the association between training and service use in franchise versus private non-franchise clinics. Results In franchise clinic networks, staff are 6.5 times more likely to receive family planning training (P = 0.00 relative to private non-franchises. Service use was significantly associated with training (P = 0.00, franchise affiliation (P = 0.01, providers' years of family planning experience (P = 0.02 and the number of trained staff working at government owned clinics (P = 0.00. In this setting, nurses are significantly less likely to receive training compared to doctors (P = 0.00. Conclusions These findings suggest that franchises recruit and train various cadres of health workers and training maybe associated with increased service use through improvement in quality of services.

  6. Case Study: Does training of private networks of Family Planning clinicians in urban Pakistan affect service utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asma M

    2010-11-09

    To determine whether training of providers participating in franchise clinic networks is associated with increased Family Planning service use among low-income urban families in Pakistan. The study uses 2001 survey data consisting of interviews with 1113 clinical and non-clinical providers working in public and private hospitals/clinics. Data analysis excludes non-clinical providers reducing sample size to 822. Variables for the analysis are divided into client volume, and training in family planning. Regression models are used to compute the association between training and service use in franchise versus private non-franchise clinics. In franchise clinic networks, staff are 6.5 times more likely to receive family planning training (P = 0.00) relative to private non-franchises. Service use was significantly associated with training (P = 0.00), franchise affiliation (P = 0.01), providers' years of family planning experience (P = 0.02) and the number of trained staff working at government owned clinics (P = 0.00). In this setting, nurses are significantly less likely to receive training compared to doctors (P = 0.00). These findings suggest that franchises recruit and train various cadres of health workers and training maybe associated with increased service use through improvement in quality of services.

  7. ADVANCED DRIVER SAFETY SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE URBAN TYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna JEZIERSKA-KRUPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Power Team is currently working on the design of an urban electric vehicle designed to compete in the Shell Eco-marathon. One important aspect of this type of vehicle characteristics is it safety. The project of advanced driver assistance systems has included some proposals of such systems and the concept of their execution. The first concept, BLIS (Blind Spot Information System, is to build a system of informing a driver about vehicles appearing in the blind spot. The system constitutes a second concept, CDIS (Collision Detection and Information System, and it is designed to detect a vehicle collision and inform the team. Further systems are: DPMS (Dew Point Measurement System - a system which does not allow a situation, where the windows are fogged, OHRS (Overtaking Horn Reminder System - a system which checks overtaking and MSS (main supervision system - a supervisory system. These concepts are based on the assumption of the use of laser sensors, photoelectric, humidity and temperature, and other commercially available systems. The article presents a detailed description of driver assistance systems and virtual prototyping methodology for these systems, as well as the numerical results of the verification of one of the systems.

  8. Flood forecasting within urban drainage systems using NARX neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rjeily, Yves; Abbas, Oras; Sadek, Marwan; Shahrour, Isam; Hage Chehade, Fadi

    2017-11-01

    Urbanization activity and climate change increase the runoff volumes, and consequently the surcharge of the urban drainage systems (UDS). In addition, age and structural failures of these utilities limit their capacities, and thus generate hydraulic operation shortages, leading to flooding events. The large increase in floods within urban areas requires rapid actions from the UDS operators. The proactivity in taking the appropriate actions is a key element in applying efficient management and flood mitigation. Therefore, this work focuses on developing a flooding forecast system (FFS), able to alert in advance the UDS managers for possible flooding. For a forecasted storm event, a quick estimation of the water depth variation within critical manholes allows a reliable evaluation of the flood risk. The Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) neural network was chosen to develop the FFS as due to its calculation nature it is capable of relating water depth variation in manholes to rainfall intensities. The campus of the University of Lille is used as an experimental site to test and evaluate the FFS proposed in this paper.

  9. An integrated urban drainage system model for assessing renovation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J; Zhao, D

    2012-01-01

    Due to sustained economic growth in China over the last three decades, urbanization has been on a rapidly expanding track. In recent years, regional industrial relocations were also accelerated across the country from the east coast to the west inland. These changes have led to a large-scale redesign of urban infrastructures, including the drainage system. To help the reconstructed infrastructures towards a better sustainability, a tool is required for assessing the efficiency and environmental performance of different renovation schemes. This paper developed an integrated dynamic modeling tool, which consisted of three models for describing the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the receiving water body respectively. Three auxiliary modules were also incorporated to conceptualize the model, calibrate the simulations, and analyze the results. The developed integrated modeling tool was applied to a case study in Shenzhen City, which is one of the most dynamic cities and facing considerable challenges for environmental degradation. The renovation scheme proposed to improve the environmental performance of Shenzhen City's urban drainage system was modeled and evaluated. The simulation results supplied some suggestions for the further improvement of the renovation scheme.

  10. Urban underground logistics system in China: Opportunities or challenges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An urban underground logistics system (ULS is one important means of solving urban traffic problems that has unique advantages. Freight transportation in China requires a new transportation mode. Therefore, ULS has garnered increasing attention. However, to date, few scholars and practitioners have investigated ULS in China. Although ULS shows good development opportunities, it also faces great challenges. Based on the Macro-environment and situation analysis (PEST-SWOT model, which is a strategic analysis method that combines both SWOT and PEST to effectively identify advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and threats, this paper first uses PEST to analyze the macro-environment of ULS in China and identify its internal factors (i.e., advantages and disadvantages and external factors (i.e., opportunities and threats. Next, based on the SWOT framework, this paper proposes several development strategies and recommendations that provide a comprehensive and novel perspective to the study of ULS in China.

  11. Urban Systems and Energy Consumptions: A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available City transformations are also due to the development of new energy sources, which have influenced economy and lifestyles, as well as the physical and functional organization of urban systems. Cities are the key place where it is need to act for the achievement of strategic environmental objectives, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy saving. The hard resolution of these challenges depends on several factors: their multidimensional nature, the change of the economic and settlement development model, and also the complexity of the relationships between the elements that constitute the urban systems and that affect energy consumption. According to this awareness the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 has been developed: it is aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. With the goal of describing some of the results of the methodological phase of this project, this paper proposes a review of the major studies on the issue of energy consumption at the urban scale in the first section; in the second section the outcomes of the first phase of the development of the comprehension/interpretive model related to the identification of the set of physical/environmental variables at urban scale, that most affect the energy consumption, are described; the third makes a critical review of the reference scientific literature, characterised by a too sectoral approach, compared to the complexity of the topic.

  12. Survey on multisensory feedback virtual reality dental training systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Hou, J

    2016-11-01

    Compared with traditional dental training methods, virtual reality training systems integrated with multisensory feedback possess potentials advantages. However, there exist many technical challenges in developing a satisfactory simulator. In this manuscript, we systematically survey several current dental training systems to identify the gaps between the capabilities of these systems and the clinical training requirements. After briefly summarising the components, functions and unique features of each system, we discuss the technical challenges behind these systems including the software, hardware and user evaluation methods. Finally, the clinical requirements of an ideal dental training system are proposed. Future research/development areas are identified based on an analysis of the gaps between current systems and clinical training requirements. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. From Training to Learning in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Don; Murray, Peter A.; Burgess, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The information systems' literature outlines how training is a critical factor to successful Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementations. Yet, types of training are not discussed in the literature and there is little indication if existing training is effective and whether relevant contextual factors have been considered. Without…

  14. Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology Architecture (Architecture de technologie avancee pour l’entrainement au combat urbain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION AC/323(MSG-098)TP/740 www.sto.nato.int STO TECHNICAL...REPORT TR-MSG-098 Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology Architecture (Architecture de technologie avancée pour l’entraînement au combat urbain...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION AC/323(MSG-098)TP/740 www.sto.nato.int STO TECHNICAL

  15. Case Study: Does training of private networks of Family Planning clinicians in urban Pakistan affect service utilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Asma M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine whether training of providers participating in franchise clinic networks is associated with increased Family Planning service use among low-income urban families in Pakistan. Methods The study uses 2001 survey data consisting of interviews with 1113 clinical and non-clinical providers working in public and private hospitals/clinics. Data analysis excludes non-clinical providers reducing sample size to 822. Variables for the analysis are divided into client vol...

  16. Urban Environmental Education for Global Transformation Initiatives - Integrating Information and Communication Systems for Urban Sustainability in 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Urban population of developing countries is predicted to rise from one third in 1990 to over 50% by 2025. In 1950 the world's total urban population was 734 million, of whom 448 million were living in developed countries and remaining 286 were in developing region. The total population on earth is predicted to increase by more than one billion people within the next 15 years, reaching 8.5 billion in 2030, and to increase further to 9.7 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Looking at the ever increasing urbanization.In 2016, an estimated 54.5 per cent of the world's populations inhabited in urban region. By 2030, urban areas are projected to shelter 60 per cent of people worldwide and one in every three people will live in cities with at least half a million inhabitants.On the basis of these figures and other global trends, it would appear that Africa and Asia will have the highest share of world's urban growth in next 25 years, resulting consideration rise of large number of metropolitan cities and towns. Therefore issues related to urban climate change will be important for socio economic development for urban transformation through environmental sustainability.The information and communication systems plays an important role in achieving the social sustainability through environmental sustainability for urban transformation. This presentation aims to start the Global initiatives on the problem identifications in environment education for global transformation, education for socio-economic and environmental sustainability due to urbanization in 2050 to investigate problems related to social-economic risks and management issues resulting from urbanization to aid mitigation planning in globalized world and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable solutions in environment learning.The presentation aims to assess the potential of information and communication technology for environment education,both within different

  17. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  18. Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization

  19. Phantom-based interactive simulation system for dental treatment training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Kee, Bundit; Riener, Robert; Frey, Martin; Pröll, Thomas; Burgkart, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interactive simulation system for dental treatment training. The system comprises a virtual reality environment and a force-torque measuring device to enhance the capabilities of a passive phantom of tooth anatomy in dental treatment training processes. The measuring device is connected to the phantom, and provides essential input data for generating the graphic animations of physical behaviors such as drilling and bleeding. The animation methods of those physical behaviors are also presented. This system is not only able to enhance interactivity and accessibility of the training system compared to conventional methods but it also provides possibilities of recording, evaluating, and verifying the training results.

  20. Does Context Matter? An Analysis of Training in Multicultural Assessment, Consultation, and Intervention between School Psychologists in Urban and Rural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Markeda; Looser, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent of training in multicultural assessment, intervention, and consultation of school psychologists in urban and rural contexts. Although there is greater cultural and sociodemographic diversity in urban settings as compared to rural settings, it is unknown whether school psychologists in urban…

  1. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location

  2. Urban fuel demand in Ethiopia: an almost‐ideal demand system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the opportunities for reducing the pressure of urban centers on rural forest areas, using a dataset of 350 urban households in Tigrai in northern Ethiopia. We applied an almost‐ideal demand system to fuels. The results suggest that reducing the pressure of urban centers on local forests cannot be ...

  3. Approach to training the trainer at the Bell System Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housley, E.A.; Stevenson, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The major activity of the Bell System Training Center is to develop and deliver technical training. Experts in various technical areas are selected as course developers or instructors, usually on rotational assignments. Through a series of workshops, described in this paper, combined with coaching, use of job aids and working with more experienced peers, they become competent developers or instructors. There may be similarities between the mission of the Bell System Training Center and other contexts where criticality of job performance and technical subject matter are training characteristics

  4. A dispersion modelling system for urban air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Nordlund, G.; Rantakrans, E.; Valkama, I.

    1998-10-01

    An Urban Dispersion Modelling system UDM-FMI, developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute is described in the report. The modelling system includes a multiple source Gaussian plume model and a meteorological pre-processing model. The dispersion model is an integrated urban scale model, taking into account of all source categories (point, line, area and volume sources). It includes a treatment of chemical transformation (for NO{sub 2}) wet and dry deposition (for SO{sub 2}) plume rise, downwash phenomena and dispersion of inert particles. The model allows also for the influence of a finite mixing height. The model structure is mainly based on the state-of-the-art methodology. The system also computes statistical parameters from the time series, which can be compared to air quality guidelines. The relevant meteorological parameters for the dispersion model are evaluated using data produced by a meteorological pre-processor. The model is based mainly on the energy budget method. Results of national investigations have been used for evaluating climate-dependent parameters. The model utilises the synoptic meteorological observations, radiation records and aerological sounding observations. The model results include the hourly time series of the relevant atmospheric turbulence 51 refs.

  5. Managing urban energy system: A case of Suzhou in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Managing urban energy system is vital for energy conservation and CO 2 reduction. Integrating energy input-output model with carbon emission pinch analysis, we propose a framework for managing urban energy system. This framework could analyze current energy demands and CO 2 emissions, predict their future possibilities and optimize energy mix of key sectors under CO 2 emission constraints. Key sectors are identified by the energy input-output table from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Moreover, taking Suzhou, a typical manufacturing center and export-oriented city in China, as a case example, energy metabolism of Suzhou in 2020 is predicted using energy input-output model. And three sectors named Coking, Smelting and pressing of metals and Production and supply of electric power are identified to have big effects on CO 2 emissions. Subsequently, energy mix of three identified key sectors is optimized under CO 2 emission constraints by the carbon emission pinch analysis. According to the results, clean energy sources will occupy a great position in Suzhou's future energy demands. And the reuse of wastes as energy sources should be limited to achieve CO 2 mitigation targets. Finally, policy implications of results and future work are discussed. - Research highlights: → We construct a framework for sustainable energy system management. → We apply the framework in a typical manufacturing center named Suzhou in China. → Key sectors for CO 2 emissions are identified, and energy mix is optimized. → Policy implications of results and future work are discussed.

  6. A Role of the Parasympathetic Nervous System in Cognitive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Heffner, Kathi L; Ren, Ping; Tadin, Duje

    2017-01-01

    Vision-based speed of processing (VSOP) training can result in broad cognitive improvements in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). What remains unknown, however, is what neurophysiological mechanisms account for the observed training effect. Much of the work in this area has focused on the central nervous system, neglecting the fact that the peripheral system can contributes to changes of the central nervous system and vice versa. We examined the prospective relationship between an adaptive parasympathetic nervous system response to cognitive stimuli and VSOP training-induced plasticity. Twenty-one participants with aMCI (10 for VSOP training, and 11 for mental leisure activities (MLA) control) were enrolled. We assessed high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) during training sessions, and striatum-related neural networks and cognition at baseline and post-training. Compared to MLA, the VSOP group showed a significant U-shaped pattern of HF-HRV response during training, as well as decreases in connectivity strength between bilateral striatal and prefrontal regions. These two effects were associated with training-induced improvements in both the trained (attention and processing speed) and transferred (working memory) cognitive domains. This work provides novel support for interactions between the central and the peripheral nervous systems in relation to cognitive training, and motivates further studies to elucidate the causality of the observed link. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F; Black, Kevin J

    2015-12-04

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an "off-the-shelf" automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use.

  8. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  9. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p<.05 was found with parity and birth interval from last birth.  But the association of anaemia with ethnicity, education and other factors like gestational age (trimester was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  10. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es), a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED'electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity fro...

  11. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es) ,a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED' electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity f...

  12. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Devedasan, Narayanan; Mishra, Arima; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes and other chronic conditions.

  13. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. METHODS: We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULT: There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes

  14. Parent-Mediated Intervention Training Delivered Remotely for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Living Outside of Urban Areas: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Dave; Cordier, Reinie; Vaz, Sharmila; Lee, Hoe C

    2017-08-14

    Parent training programs for families living outside of urban areas can be used to improve the social behavior and communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no review has been conducted to investigate these programs. The aim of this study was to (1) systematically review the existing evidence presented by studies on parent-mediated intervention training, delivered remotely for parents having children with ASD and living outside of urban areas; (2) provide an overview of current parent training interventions used with this population; (3) and provide an overview of the method of delivery of the parent training interventions used with this population. Guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement, we conducted a comprehensive review across 5 electronic databases (CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, PsycINFO, and Pubmed) on July 4, 2016, searching for studies investigating parent-mediated intervention training for families living outside of urban centers who have a child diagnosed with ASD. Two independent researchers reviewed the articles for inclusion, and assessment of methodological quality was based on the Kmet appraisal checklist. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria, including 2 prepost cohort studies, 3 multiple baseline studies, and 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Interventions included mostly self-guided websites: with and without therapist assistance (n=6), with training videos, written training manuals, and videoconferencing. Post intervention, studies reported significant improvements (P<.05) in parent knowledge (n=4), parent intervention fidelity (n=6), and improvements in children's social behavior and communication skills (n=3). A high risk of bias existed within all of the studies because of a range of factors including small sample sizes, limited use of standardized outcome measures, and a lack of control groups to negate confounding factors. There is

  15. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Urban and rural educational system disparities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Roberta STANEF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex multidimensional and multidisciplinary issue of the educational system in more details and to deal with conceptions, methodological approaches and the acquired knowledge, focused particularly on Romanian educational system.The mean of the paper is to present the complex issue of regional and territorial disparities in Romania. The educational system in Romania is at a crossroad. Initiated important reforms in the sector after the last 21 years – including changing the curriculum, student assessment, teacher training, funding and management module – will be continued to improve outcomes in education.

  17. Sustainability, resilience and governance of an urban food system: a case study of peri-urban Wuhan

    OpenAIRE

    Dolley, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    While it is clear that urban food systems need to be made resilient so that broader sustainability\\ud goals can be maintained over time, it has been a matter of debate as to how resilience should be\\ud conceptualised when applied to social-ecological systems. Through a case study of peri-urban\\ud Wuhan, this research develops and applies a resilience based conceptual framework for periurban\\ud food systems analysis in order to explore the potential for an enhanced understanding of\\ud resilien...

  18. STUDENT PREDICTION SYSTEM FOR PLACEMENT TRAINING USING FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Rathore

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proposed student prediction system is most vital approach which may be used to differentiate the student data/information on the basis of the student performance. Managing placement and training records in any larger organization is quite difficult as the student number are high; in such condition differentiation and classification on different categories becomes tedious. Proposed fuzzy inference system will classify the student data with ease and will be helpful to many educational organizations. There are lots of classification algorithms and statistical base technique which may be taken as good assets for classify the student data set in the education field. In this paper, Fuzzy Inference system has been applied to predict student performance which will help to identify performance of the students and also provides an opportunity to improve to performance. For instance, here we will classify the student’s data set for placement and non-placement classes.

  19. The vocational education and training system in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia; Wiborg, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of developments in vocational education and training systems in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the UK and the US.......Analysis of developments in vocational education and training systems in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the UK and the US....

  20. An Instructional Systems Approach or FAA Student Centered Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy has been using a systems approach as part of its training program since 1969. This booklet describes the general characteristics of an instructional system and explains the steps the FAA goes through in implementing the approach. These steps are: 1) recognize a need for training, 2) specify the…

  1. An Intelligent System for Aggression De-escalation Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Gerritsen, C.; de Man, J.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence techniques are increasingly being used to develop smart training applications for professionals in various domains. This paper presents an intelligent training system that enables professionals in the public domain to practice their aggression de-escalation skills. The system

  2. Virtual reality negotiation training system with virtual cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, D.; Burger, F.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    A number of negotiation training systems have been developed to improve people’s performance in negotiation. They mainly focus on the skills development, and less on negotiation understanding and improving self-efficacy. We propose a virtual reality negotiation training system that exposes users to

  3. Client application for automated management training system of NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribysh, P.I.; Poplavskij, I.A.; Karpej, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the client side of automated management training system. This system will optimize the speed of the organization and quality of the training plan; reduce the time of collecting the necessary documentation and facilitate the analysis of the results. (authors)

  4. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  5. Computerized system controls Canadian training facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingwall, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Petroleum Industry Training Service (PITS), a non-profit organization headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, has earned a reputation as the most sophisticated training organization of its kind. Backed by such resources as the $25-million Nisku Training Center, located on a 38-acre site near Edmonton, PITS provides present and future petroleum engineers/operators/administrators with on-the-job experience in every facet of oil/gas processing. Nearly 3,000 students attend the Nisku training facility each year. Courses range in length from one day to six months, on topics as diverse as petroleum engineering, field production, drilling and well service, safety, environmental impact and management. Designed to teach skills needed at all levels, the courses fulfill an important educational need for firms with both new hires and seasoned personnel. PITS certificates are well-recognized by industry and government agencies

  6. Education system and teacher training in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPO

    personal life making him a good social being. Therefore ... which offer training to those who later become primary and upper primary school teachers is a pass .... be this develops the necessary patience and service oriented attitude which are.

  7. The Topological Analysis of Urban Transit System as a Small-World Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaosheng Yang; Huxing Zhou; Peng Gao; Hong Chen; Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a topological analysis of urban transit system based on a functional representation network constructed from the urban transit system in Beijing. The representation gives a functional view on nodes named a transit line. Statistical measures are computed and introduced in complex network analysis. It shows that the urban transit system forms small-world networks and exhibits properties different from random networks and regular networks. Furthermore, the topological propert...

  8. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard......, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community...

  9. Urbanism, climate change and health: systems approaches to governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Synnott, Emma S; Holliday, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Effective action on climate change health impacts and vulnerability will require systems approaches and integrated policy and planning responses from a range of government agencies. Similar responses are needed to address other complex problems, such as the obesity epidemic. Local government, with its focus on the governance of place, will have a key role in responding to these convergent agendas. Industry can also be part of the solution - indeed it must be, because it has a lead role in relevant sectors. Understanding the co-benefits for health of climate mitigation actions will strengthen the case for early action. There is a need for improved decision support tools to inform urban governance. These tools should be based on a systems approach and should incorporate a spatial perspective.

  10. Training and Technical Assistance for Small Systems Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides water and wastewater system staff and private well owners with training and tools to enhance system operations and management practices, and support EPA’s continuing efforts to protect public health and promote sustainability.

  11. System-wide Benchmark Simulation Model for integrated analysis of urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, R.; Flores-Alsina, X.; Gernaey, K. V.

    Interactions between different components (sewer, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and river) of an urban wastewater system (UWS) are widely recognized (Benedetti et al., 2013). This has resulted in an increasing interest in the modelling of the UWS. System-wide models take into account the inte...

  12. System for the quality assurance of personnel training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rjona, Orison; Venegas, Maria del C.; Rodriguez, Lazaro; Lopez, Miguel A.; Armenteros, Ana L.

    1999-01-01

    In this work are described the fundamental possibilities and characteristics of a software that allows to carry out the management and automatic evaluation of all data gotten during jobs analysis and design, development, implementation and evaluation of personnel training programs of nuclear and radioactive installations and risk industries. The system that is introduced, GESAT, proportion a tool of centralized managerial control of training data and the obtaining of the quality objectives of each installation in the training of their personnel. GESAT includes all phases of SAT method (Systematic Approach to Training). It constitutes the necessary practical support for the elaboration, implementation and evaluation of training programs, allowing the establishment of restrictions and controls and avoiding inconsistencies in the process. It offers the possibility of automatic evaluation that identify fundamental deficiencies in the planning and implementation of training programs. This evaluation facilitates the systematic feed back and the continuous improvement of the training programs.(author)

  13. Contamination of Detained Sediment in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonie Allen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a key water pollution remediation measure used to achieve stormwater quality improvement in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS. The level of contamination of detained sediment within SuDS assets is not well documented, with published investigations limited to specific contaminant occurrence in ponds, wetlands or infiltration devices (bioretention cells and generally focused on solute or suspended sediment. Guidance on contamination threshold levels and potential deposited sediment contamination information is not included in current UK SuDS design or maintenance guidance, primarily due to a lack of evidence and understanding. There is a need to understand possible deposited sediment contamination levels in SuDS, specifically in relation to sediment removal maintenance activities and potential impact on receiving waterways of conveyed sediment. Thus, the objective of the research presented herein was to identify what major elements and trace metals were observable in (the investigated SuDS assets detained sediment, the concentration of these major elements and trace metals and whether they met/surpassed ecotoxicity or contaminated land thresholds. The research presented here provides evidence of investigated SuDS sediment major element and trace metal levels to help inform guidance and maintenance needs, and presents a new methodology to identify the general cause (anthropocentric land use and extent of detained SuDS fine urban sediment contamination through use of a contamination matrix.

  14. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  15. Daily urban systems in function of the spatial organisation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of theoretical discussion, this paper makes a brief analysis of relevant methodological steps for determination of Daily Urban Systems and the approach for their spatial-functional representation. The potential of using Daily Urban Systems as instruments for regional planning and regional development has been indicated. A model for determining Daily Urban Systems in Serbia has been proposed according to our socio-economic conditions. The experience thus far in reference to research of demographic, spatial and functional components of Daily Urban Systems demonstrates that for definition of their spatial and temporal manifestation and continuity models, the most relevant indicators are those which relate to distribution and functional specialization of work centers and places of living, and those which relate to quantitative-qualitative characteristics of daily migrants. Daily Urban Systems of Serbia have been developed under the conditions of continuous redistribution of population from rural to urban settlements and more or less synchronized processes of deagrarisation, deindustrialisation and urbanization with general socioeconomic flows. According to the dynamics of development in functions of work, living, education, service activities and public-social facilities in the urban regions, there have been formed Daily Urban Systems with appropriate hierarchy. The paper presents results of the latest research of Daily Urban Systems in Serbia, driven by scientific and appreciative reasons (preparation of the Regional spatial plans for municipalities of Južno pomoravlje and for Timočka krajina, and determination of the nodal systems in Zlatibor county. Daily Urban Systems, especially their regional role and implication, are proposed for instruments of rational spatial-functional organization of Serbia. According to the relevant theoretical-methodological approach and presented empirical evidence, the model of Daily Urban Systems

  16. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  17. An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Jörg; Diers, Martin; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2014-09-01

    Mirror training and movement imagery have been demonstrated to be effective in treating several clinical conditions, such as phantom limb pain, stroke-induced hemiparesis, and complex regional pain syndrome. This article presents an augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror and imagery treatment approaches for hand training. A head-mounted display equipped with cameras captures one hand held in front of the body, mirrors this hand, and displays it in real time in a set of four different training tasks: (1) flexing fingers in a predefined sequence, (2) moving the hand into a posture fitting into a silhouette template, (3) driving a "Snake" video game with the index finger, and (4) grasping and moving a virtual ball. The system records task performance and transfers these data to a central server via the Internet, allowing monitoring of training progress. We evaluated the system by having 7 healthy participants train with it over the course of ten sessions of 15-min duration. No technical problems emerged during this time. Performance indicators showed that the system achieves a good balance between relatively easy and more challenging tasks and that participants improved significantly over the training sessions. This suggests that the system is well suited to maintain motivation in patients, especially when it is used for a prolonged period of time.

  18. A model library for simulation and benchmarking of integrated urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, R.; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Kroll, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a freely distributed, open-source toolbox to predict the behaviour of urban wastewater systems (UWS). The proposed library is used to develop a system-wide Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM-UWS) for evaluating (local/global) control strategies in urban wastewater systems (UWS...

  19. Holistic Analysis of the Urban Water Systems in Greater Cincinnati Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water and wastewater systems with two utilities in Greater Cincinnati region were evaluated as a case study to elucidates a bigger picture of a typical centralized urban water system. Two different integrated assessment metrics were used to analyze the same system. LCA an...

  20. An interactive videodisc system for training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Classification (DOE/OC), Brookhaven National Laboratory/Technical Support Organization (BNL/TSO) has prepared a level-three interactive-laserdisc program for the training of authorized classifiers in the Department of Energy. This training programs consists of six modules presented in several formats. The material is presented in a highly interactive manner with various tests to reinforce and evaluate the trainee's progress in learning the material. A lengthy qualification test is presented at the end of the educational material. The various instructional techniques of scenario presentation, ''talking heads'', graphics, textual material and combinations of the above are used to assure that the training material attracts the trainee's interests and motivates him to understand and use the material. The state-of-the-art interactive laser videodisc with its storage capacity, speed flexibility, and superior training capacity was the logical choice for the training of Authorized Classifiers in the Department of Energy

  1. A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

    2012-01-01

    Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.

  2. Air Cushion Vehicle Operator Training System (ACVOTS) Problem Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Appendix A - Discussion of Fundemental Training Analysis Requirements. Appendix B - Data Sources. 9 SECTION II APPROACHES TO TRAINING PRESENT ASSAULT CRAFT...the training system is worth the investment of time and resources required to produce that output. A unique feature which distinguishes ISD from more...when they have been considered in the context of making alternative investment decisions. Investments in technology for certain long high-flow

  3. Computer Directed Training System (CDTS), User’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    lessons, together with an estimate of the time required for completion. a. BSCOl0. This lesson in BASIC ( Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code...A2-8 FIGURESj Figure A2-1. Training Systems Manager and Training Monitors Responsibility Flowchart ...training at the site. Therefore, the TSM must be knowledgeable in the various tasks required. Figure A2-1 illustrates the position in the flowchart . These

  4. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  5. Study on a Footwork Training and Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the sport science fields, for a long time there are various attempts to explore more advanced technology in order to collect kinds of information concerned during athletes training and matches. In the paper, a footwork training and testing system has been developed by adopting the advanced technology of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. The system is comprised of some wireless senor nodes and gateways, system control software and so on. By means of the system, the daily footwork training methods and modes will be simulated to automatically guide the training of the athletes, at the same time the training data concerned will be automatically recorded, including moving velocity, moving frequency and success average, moving exercise duration and so on, and it is facilitate to evaluate digitally the training and testing effects for coaches and athletes. The system will bring about an auxiliary means in sport science training and research, make coaches and researchers have more options for the technical and information forms, and provide the technology foundation for synchronizing and intermingling the training and testing smoothly.

  6. Preparing for the Proven Inevitable: An Urban Operations Training Strategy for America’s Joint Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    training sites • Dedicated MILCON foreign sites • Abandoned foreign towns • Privately owned “ boutique shoot houses” • Private security-firm training...various surroundings. The customer base for these “ boutique ” shoot houses is primarily wealthy civilians spending leisure time. We identified two of...Both projects are collocated with major resort hotels . ____________ 47 See David Crane, “Valhalla Training Center LLC: The Future of Tactical Training

  7. The potential role of waste biomass in the future urban electricity system

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yu; Werf, van der, Edwin; Ierland, van, Ekko C.; Keesman, Karel J.

    2017-01-01

    The share of intermittent renewable electricity (IRE) in the future urban electricity system is expected to increase significantly. Sufficient back-up capacity is needed in the period when IRE output is low. Bioenergy is both dispatchable and carbon-neutral, and can hence be a promising option to back up IRE. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of urban waste biomass in backing up IRE in an urban electricity system. An urban electricity system model is developed to project...

  8. Designing and implementing a regional urban modeling system using the SLEUTH cellular urban model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Claire A.; Goetz, Scott J.; Donato, David I.; Claggett, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fine-scale (30 meter resolution) regional land cover modeling system, based on the SLEUTH cellular automata model, that was developed for a 257000 km2 area comprising the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin in the eastern United States. As part of this effort, we developed a new version of the SLEUTH model (SLEUTH-3r), which introduces new functionality and fit metrics that substantially increase the performance and applicability of the model. In addition, we developed methods that expand the capability of SLEUTH to incorporate economic, cultural and policy information, opening up new avenues for the integration of SLEUTH with other land-change models. SLEUTH-3r is also more computationally efficient (by a factor of 5) and uses less memory (reduced 65%) than the original software. With the new version of SLEUTH, we were able to achieve high accuracies at both the aggregate level of 15 sub-regional modeling units and at finer scales. We present forecasts to 2030 of urban development under a current trends scenario across the entire Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, and three alternative scenarios for a sub-region within the Chesapeake Bay watershed to illustrate the new ability of SLEUTH-3r to generate forecasts across a broad range of conditions.

  9. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Dóra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  10. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  11. The Impact of PMIS Training: Patterns of Benefit Realization in Project Management Information Systems Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCarty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of project, program, and portfolio management software toolsets can be enhanced through training. Little is known about the realization of positive, beneficial outcomes and Project Management Information System (PMIS training. This research seeks to improve understanding of project management software toolset training practices and outcomes. This study examines the prevalence, effectiveness, and impact-per-hour efficiency of training in real-world organizations. We further explore relationships between individual and organizational characteristics and training outcomes. Formulae for estimating training costs are derived using regression modeling. Surveys were collected from 1,021 active professionals and analyzed using quantitative methods. Research participants were practitioners recruited by eight different companies, industry groups, and professional organizations within the PMIS community. The findings of this research indicate significant differences in utilization, efficacy, and efficiency of PMIS training in practice. The outcomes and methodologies of this study are being incorporated into ongoing research that focuses on improving PMIS training delivery, evaluation, and planning. The outcomes of this research may result in more effective, efficient, and economical PMIS training that is better tailored to the unique needs of each organization.

  12. 75 FR 2597 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... qualification and certification of locomotive engineers, and negotiated rules for roadway worker protection, led... which was breached, releasing about 60 tons of chlorine gas. The train engineer and eight other people...) American Chemistry Council (ACC) American Public Transportation Association (APTA) American Short Line and...

  13. Introducing a feedback training system for guided home rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disselhorst-Klug Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the number of people requiring orthopaedic intervention is growing, individualized physiotherapeutic rehabilitation and adequate postoperative care becomes increasingly relevant. The chances of improvement in the patients condition is directly related to the performance and consistency of the physiotherapeutic exercises. In this paper a smart, cost-effective and easy to use Feedback Training System for home rehabilitation based on standard resistive elements is introduced. This ensures high accuracy of the exercises performed and offers guidance and control to the patient by offering direct feedback about the performance of the movements. 46 patients were recruited and performed standard physiotherapeutic training to evaluate the system. The results show a significant increase in the patient's ability to reproduce even simple physiotherapeutic exercises when being supported by the Feedback Training System. Thus physiotherapeutic training can be extended into the home environment whilst ensuring a high quality of training.

  14. Introducing a feedback training system for guided home rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Fabian; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine

    2010-01-15

    As the number of people requiring orthopaedic intervention is growing, individualized physiotherapeutic rehabilitation and adequate postoperative care becomes increasingly relevant. The chances of improvement in the patients condition is directly related to the performance and consistency of the physiotherapeutic exercises.In this paper a smart, cost-effective and easy to use Feedback Training System for home rehabilitation based on standard resistive elements is introduced. This ensures high accuracy of the exercises performed and offers guidance and control to the patient by offering direct feedback about the performance of the movements.46 patients were recruited and performed standard physiotherapeutic training to evaluate the system. The results show a significant increase in the patient's ability to reproduce even simple physiotherapeutic exercises when being supported by the Feedback Training System. Thus physiotherapeutic training can be extended into the home environment whilst ensuring a high quality of training.

  15. Astro. A multimedia System for training of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garate Abenza, M.; Mercade Seijas, O.; Munoz, J.F.; Ruiz-Andino, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    ASTRO is an integrated software package used to train system operators and is directly applicable to all types of power-generation plant operator training. The following are its salient characteristics: - Installed in work stations with multimedia capabilities a user-friendly interface - Covers various types of instruction on theory, procedure and maintenance allowing the execution of trainee-customized courses. - Includes all the phases of the teaching-learning task: compilation or creation and adaptation of course design information, execution and evaluation. - Combines the capabilities of traditional teaching tools, focusing basically on theoretical training, with the power of necessary real-time simulators for the assimilation of operation and maintenance procedures. Moreover, it provides the capacity to extract information instantly from the simulated system, without existing the simulation process. - It is run on inexpensive platforms (work stations) as compared to the traditional system of simulator training or training at site. (Author)

  16. Institutional interventions in complex urban systems: Coping with boundary issues in urban planning projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verweij (Stefan); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); H. Geerlings (Harry)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Urban planning projects are planned and organized through arrangements between actors. These arrangements are institutional interventions: they intervene in the institutional landscape as existing organizational boundaries are (temporarily) redrawn. Such boundary

  17. The training system for technical personnel of producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, E.

    1980-01-01

    The training system of BBC Mannheim for technical personnel is divided in different activities, according to the different target groups and tenors. Different departments take care of this activities, which supply one another. Problem, training activities and methods are described. (orig.) [de

  18. Training Sessions Provide Working Knowledge of National Animal Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included…

  19. Lidar system for air-pollution monitoring over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Irina V.; Shcheglov, Djolinard A.; Molodtsov, Nikolai A.

    1997-05-01

    The atmospheric environmental situation over the urban area of a large city is determined by a complex combination of anthropogenic pollution and meteorological factors. The efficient way to provide three-dimensional mapping of gaseous pollutants over wide areas is utilization of lidar systems employing tunable narrowband transmitters. The paper presented describes activity of RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in the field of lidar atmospheric monitoring. The project 'mobile remote sensing system based on tunable laser transmitter for environmental monitoring' is developed under financial support of International Scientific and Technology Center (Moscow). The objective of the project is design, construction and field testing of a DIAL-technique system. The lidar transmitter consists of an excimer laser pumping dye laser, BBO crystal frequency doubler, and scanning flat mirror. Sulfur dioxide and atomic mercury have been selected as pollutants for field tests of the lidar system under development. A recent large increase in Moscow traffic stimulated taking into consideration also the remote sensing of lower troposphere ozone because of the photochemical smog problem. The status of the project is briefly discussed. The current activity includes also collecting of environmental data relevant to lidar remote sensing. Main attention is paid to pollutant concentration levels over Moscow city and Moscow district areas.

  20. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of population system, constant movements of the individuals between the groups as a respond to the signals of urboenvironment significant changes. The "urban" variant of the population system organization turns out to be opposite to that of the same species in the non-urban habitats. After formation of the urban types by the species and successful developing of the town, the urban population becomes separated from the maternal local population and begins to exist independently in the urban landscape. The variety of adaptation aberrations in ecology, behavior, and mode of life of urban birds is the population system stability function in the urban landscape and is not a results of individual selection. It is shown that the urbanization process of the species goes firstly on the population level being the system structure transformation developed by the species towards the most stable state in the town (city) territory. Only after the appearance of stable urban population, the urban individuals show the rapid growth of different changes in ecology, behavior, mode of life that was traditionally described by naturalists as species adaptation to the

  1. Methodological foundations of the modern training system of skilled handballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Tyshchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the direction of training handball team in the annual Ukrainian Superleague macrocycles game seasons in years 2006-2013. Material: in the experiment took part 125 participated highly qualified handballers. The analysis of more than 50 references on multi-year training athletes is conducted. Results: confirmed advisability of constructing the training process handball qualifications based on the structural components of the preparation. According to the requirements of the system approach presented technology of preparation are disclosed management methodology training process in terms of long-term training. Conclusions: it is necessary to compile and optimize long-term training program handball qualifications; raise the level of preparedness of the various parties in strict accordance with the objective laws of the formation of their constituents, and calendar events, to consider specific features of the occurrence of adaptive reactions in improving the various components of sportsmanship.

  2. Perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana: Implications for health sector staff internal migration control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Beyere, Christopher B; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, Prudence P

    2017-01-01

    The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70% of the estimated 27 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32% of the national health sector workforce works. Moreover, the rural-urban disparities in the density of health tutors (staff responsible for pre-service training of health professionals) are enormous. This paper explores perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana. This is a descriptive qualitative study conducted in the Greater Accra and Northern regions of Ghana. The Study used the deductive thematic and sub-thematic analysis approaches. Five health training institutions were randomly sampled, and 72 tutors engaged in separate focus group discussions with an average size of 14 participants per group in each training institution. Perceived rural-urban disparities among health tutors were found in the payment of extra duty allowances; school infrastructure including libraries and internet connectivity; staff accommodation; and opportunities for scholarships and higher education. Health tutors in rural areas generally expressed more frustration with these work conditions than those in urban areas. There is the need to initiate and sustain work incentives that promote motivation of rural health tutors to control ongoing rural-urban migration of qualified staff. It is recommended the following incentives be prioritized to promote retention of qualified health tutors in rural health training schools: payment of research, book and rural allowances; early promotion of rural staff; prioritizing rural tutors for scholarships, and introduction of national best health tutor awards.

  3. Urban Transit System Microbial Communities Differ by Surface Type and Interaction with Humans and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tiffany; Joice, Regina; Vallarino, Jose; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Hartmann, Erica M; Shafquat, Afrah; DuLong, Casey; Baranowski, Catherine; Gevers, Dirk; Green, Jessica L; Morgan, Xochitl C; Spengler, John D; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Public transit systems are ideal for studying the urban microbiome and interindividual community transfer. In this study, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile microbial communities on multiple transit surfaces across train lines and stations in the Boston metropolitan transit system. The greatest determinant of microbial community structure was the transit surface type. In contrast, little variation was observed between geographically distinct train lines and stations serving different demographics. All surfaces were dominated by human skin and oral commensals such as Propionibacterium , Corynebacterium , Staphylococcus , and Streptococcus . The detected taxa not associated with humans included generalists from alphaproteobacteria, which were especially abundant on outdoor touchscreens. Shotgun metagenomics further identified viral and eukaryotic microbes, including Propionibacterium phage and Malassezia globosa . Functional profiling showed that Propionibacterium acnes pathways such as propionate production and porphyrin synthesis were enriched on train holding surfaces (holds), while electron transport chain components for aerobic respiration were enriched on touchscreens and seats. Lastly, the transit environment was not found to be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Our results suggest that microbial communities on transit surfaces are maintained from a metapopulation of human skin commensals and environmental generalists, with enrichments corresponding to local interactions with the human body and environmental exposures. IMPORTANCE Mass transit environments, specifically, urban subways, are distinct microbial environments with high occupant densities, diversities, and turnovers, and they are thus especially relevant to public health. Despite this, only three culture-independent subway studies have been performed, all since 2013 and all with widely differing designs and conclusions. In this study, we

  4. Optoelectronics applications in multimedia shooting training systems: SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowski, Tomasz; Hlosta, Pawel; Stepniak, Slawomir; Swiderski, Waldemar

    2017-10-01

    Multimedia shooting training systems are increasingly being used in the training of security staff and uniformed services. An advanced practicing-training system SPARTAN for simulation of small arms shooting has been designed and manufactured by Autocomp Management Ltd. and Military Institute of Armament Technology for the Polish Ministry of National Defence. SPARTAN is a stationary device designed to teach, monitor and evaluate the targeting of small arms and to prepare soldiers for: • firing the live ammunition at open ranges for combat targets and silhouettes • detection, classification and engagement of real targets upon different terrains, weather conditions and periods during the day • team work as a squad during the mission by using different types of arms • suitable reactions in untypical scenarios. Placed in any room the training set consists of: • the projection system that generates realistic 3D imaging of the battlefield (such as combat shooting range) in high-resolution • system that tracks weapons aiming points • sound system which delivers realistic mapping of acoustic surroundings • operator station with which the training is conducted and controlled • central processing unit based on PC computers equipped with specialist software realizing individual system functions • units of smart weapons equipped with radio communication modules, injection laser diodes and pneumatic reloading system. The system make possible training by firing in dynamic scenarios, using combat weapons and live ammunition against visible targets moving on a screen. The use of infrared camera for detecting the position of impact of a projectile.

  5. Evaluation of the Stress Resilience Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    burnout were assessed before and after an eight week training period. Significant improvement in overall stress was observed; however, there were no...significantly based on location, role, and mission. Regardless of cause, the accumulation of stress over time can lead to burnout (Taris, LeBlanc, Schaufeli...such as hospital floor nurses (28%). 5.4 Post-Traumatic Stress The PTSD Checklist, military version (PCL-M) results indicated that 1 participant (4

  6. Public Transportation Based Dynamic Urban Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ-PEÑA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and results of a mobile sensor based opportunistic urban pollution monitoring network that uses public transportation buses as platforms for its deployment. This work is an extended and improved version of the paper presented to the IDAACS’09 conference. It reports some aspects of the implementation of a single pollution sensor based sensing node prototype which was used for testing an opportunistic communications network and which was reported in depth elsewhere. More emphasis is given to the description of the basic sensing unit and its modular conversion into a sensing system able to acquire data on several pollutants as well as temperature, humidity and geo-location information. The software architecture developed around it in order to process the huge amounts of data the system produces is also described. The different prototypes were tested on the public transportation system of the city of Vigo and on multiple test runs around the city of A Coruña in the north-west of Spain producing very promising results.

  7. Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course: Table of Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag

  8. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  9. Training Requirements and Information Management System. Software user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cillan, T.F.; Hodgson, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    This is the software user`s guide for the Training Requirements and Information Management System. This guide defines and describes the software operating procedures as they apply to the end user of the software program. This guide is intended as a reference tool for the user who already has an indepth knowledge of the Training Requirements and Information Management System functions and data reporting requirement.

  10. Nuclear power plant personnel training process management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjona Vazquez, Orison; Venegas Bernal, Maria del Carmen; Armeteros Lopez, Ana L.

    1996-01-01

    The system in charge the management of the training process personnel from a nuclear power plant was designed taking into account all the requirements stated in the training guide for nuclear power plant personnel and their evaluation, which were prepared by the IAEA in 1995 in order to implement the SAT in the training programs for nuclear plant personnel. In the preparations of formats and elements that shape the system, account has been taken of the views expressed in such a guide, in some other bibliography that was consulted, and in the authors own opinion mainly with regard to those issues which the guide does not go deeper into

  11. Development of a totally integrated severe accident training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Young; Kim, Dong Ha

    2006-01-01

    Recently KAERI has developed the severe accident management guidance to establish the Korea standard severe accident management system. On the other hand the PC-based severe accident training simulator SATS has been developed, which uses the MELCOR code as the simulation engine. The simulator SATS graphically displays and simulates the severe accidents with interactive user commands. Especially the control capability of SATS could make a severe accident training course more interesting and effective. In this paper we will describe the development and functions of the electrical guidance module, HyperKAMG, and the SATS-HyperKAMG linkage system designed for a totally integrated and automated severe accident training. (author)

  12. Trip optimization system and method for a train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Shaffer, Glenn Robert; Houpt, Paul Kenneth; Movsichoff, Bernardo Adrian; Chan, David So Keung

    2017-08-15

    A system for operating a train having one or more locomotive consists with each locomotive consist comprising one or more locomotives, the system including a locator element to determine a location of the train, a track characterization element to provide information about a track, a sensor for measuring an operating condition of the locomotive consist, a processor operable to receive information from the locator element, the track characterizing element, and the sensor, and an algorithm embodied within the processor having access to the information to create a trip plan that optimizes performance of the locomotive consist in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the train.

  13. Urban ecological systems: scientific foundations and a decade of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, S T A; Cadenasso, M L; Grove, J M; Boone, Christopher G; Groffman, Peter M; Irwin, Elena; Kaushal, Sujay S; Marshall, Victoria; McGrath, Brian P; Nilon, C H; Pouyat, R V; Szlavecz, Katalin; Troy, Austin; Warren, Paige

    2011-03-01

    Urban ecological studies, including focus on cities, suburbs, and exurbs, while having deep roots in the early to mid 20th century, have burgeoned in the last several decades. We use the state factor approach to highlight the role of important aspects of climate, substrate, organisms, relief, and time in differentiating urban from non-urban areas, and for determining heterogeneity within spatially extensive metropolitan areas. In addition to reviewing key findings relevant to each state factor, we note the emergence of tentative "urban syndromes" concerning soils, streams, wildlife and plants, and homogenization of certain ecosystem functions, such as soil organic carbon dynamics. We note the utility of the ecosystem approach, the human ecosystem framework, and watersheds as integrative tools to tie information about multiple state factors together. The organismal component of urban complexes includes the social organization of the human population, and we review key modes by which human populations within urban areas are differentiated, and how such differentiation affects environmentally relevant actions. Emerging syntheses in land change science and ecological urban design are also summarized. The multifaceted frameworks and the growing urban knowledge base do however identify some pressing research needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Virtual Reality Simulator Systems in Robotic Surgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Alberto; Gheza, Federico; Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo

    2018-06-01

    The number of robotic surgical procedures has been increasing worldwide. It is important to maximize the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgical training and safely reduce the time needed for trainees to reach proficiency. The use of preliminary lab training in robotic skills is a good strategy for the rapid acquisition of further, standardized robotic skills. Such training can be done either by using a simulator or by exercises in a dry or wet lab. While the use of an actual robotic surgical system for training may be problematic (high cost, lack of availability), virtual reality (VR) simulators can overcome many of these obstacles. However, there is still a lack of standardization. Although VR training systems have improved, they cannot yet replace experience in a wet lab. In particular, simulated scenarios are not yet close enough to a real operative experience. Indeed, there is a difference between technical skills (i.e., mechanical ability to perform a simulated task) and surgical competence (i.e., ability to perform a real surgical operation). Thus, while a VR simulator can replace a dry lab, it cannot yet replace training in a wet lab or operative training in actual patients. However, in the near future, it is expected that VR surgical simulators will be able to provide total reality simulation and replace training in a wet lab. More research is needed to produce more wide-ranging, trans-specialty robotic curricula.

  15. Training and Maintaining System-Wide Reliability in Outcome Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Melanie A; Urajnik, Diana J; Moore, Julia E

    2014-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) is widely used for outcome management, for providing real time client and program level data, and the monitoring of evidence-based practices. Methods of reliability training and the assessment of rater drift are critical for service decision-making within organizations and systems of care. We assessed two approaches for CAFAS training: external technical assistance and internal technical assistance. To this end, we sampled 315 practitioners trained by external technical assistance approach from 2,344 Ontario practitioners who had achieved reliability on the CAFAS. To assess the internal technical assistance approach as a reliable alternative training method, 140 practitioners trained internally were selected from the same pool of certified raters. Reliabilities were high for both practitioners trained by external technical assistance and internal technical assistance approaches (.909-.995, .915-.997, respectively). 1 and 3-year estimates showed some drift on several scales. High and consistent reliabilities over time and training method has implications for CAFAS training of behavioral health care practitioners, and the maintenance of CAFAS as a global outcome management tool in systems of care.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Urban Systems in China during Rapid Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of urban hierarchy and the role of cities of different sizes have drawn considerable scholarly interests and societal concerns. This paper analyzes the evolution and underlying mechanisms of urban hierarchy in China during the recent period of rapid urbanization. By comparing scale changes of seven types of cities (megacity, large city, Type I big city, Type II big city, medium-sized city, type I small city and type II small city, we find that allometry is the main characteristic of urban hierarchical evolution in China. We also test the validity of Zipf’s law and Gibrat’s law, which broaden the scope of existing studies by including county-level cities. We find that urban hierarchical distribution is lognormal, rather than Pareto. The result also shows that city size growth rates are constant across cities of different types. For better understanding of the mechanisms of urban hierarchical formation, we measure the optimal city size and resource allocation by the Pareto optimality criterion and non-parametric frontier method. The main findings are as follows: (1 scale efficiency is still at a relatively low level among the seven types of cities; (2 the economic efficiency of megacities and large cities is overestimated when compared to economic-environmental efficiency. Hence, this paper has two policy implications: (1 to correct factor market (land, labor and infrastructure investment distortions among different types of cities for the improvement of efficiency; (2 to strengthen rural property rights to improve social equity, as well as land use intensity.

  17. Developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitola, J.P. [Unicom Thermal Technologies, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In two year`s time, Unicorn Thermal Technologies has grown into one of the largest district cooling systems of 25,000 tons with a 1996 plan to grow to 40,000 tons. This growth is attributed to the development and implementation of a marketing and sales plan based on thorough market research and innovative marketing and sales strategies, and the consistent implementation of those strategies. The beginning of the sales effort was focused around the company`s first district cooling facility, However, it quickly grew into a much broader vision as market acceptance increased. Although the district energy industry has often based its message on being a low cost energy provider, market research and early sales experience indicated that customers choose district cooling as a value added service. As customers began to reserve capacity in the first plant, the idea that district cooling is a value added service and not a commodity energy product was continually reinforced through marketing communications. Although this analysis is a review of developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market, it purposely avoids a long winded discussion of head to head competition.

  18. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  19. A Virtual Reality Dance Training System Using Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…

  20. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Masuda, Takahiro; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  1. OPTIMAL TRAINING POLICY FOR PROMOTION - STOCHASTIC MODELS OF MANPOWER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.S. Yadavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal planning of manpower training programmes in a manpower system with two grades is discussed. The planning of manpower training within a given organization involves a trade-off between training costs and expected return. These planning problems are examined through models that reflect the random nature of manpower movement in two grades. To be specific, the system consists of two grades, grade 1 and grade 2. Any number of persons in grade 2 can be sent for training and after the completion of training, they will stay in grade 2 and will be given promotion as and when vacancies arise in grade 1. Vacancies arise in grade 1 only by wastage. A person in grade 1 can leave the system with probability p. Vacancies are filled with persons in grade 2 who have completed the training. It is assumed that there is a perfect passing rate and that the sizes of both grades are fixed. Assuming that the planning horizon is finite and is T, the underlying stochastic process is identified as a finite state Markov chain and using dynamic programming, a policy is evolved to determine how many persons should be sent for training at any time k so as to minimize the total expected cost for the entire planning period T.

  2. Virtual-Reality training system for nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    At the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, the virtual reality (VR) training system is under development for providing a practical training environment to implement experience-oriented and interactive lessons on nuclear security for wide range of participants in human resource development assistance program mainly to Asian emerging nuclear-power countries. This system electrically recreates and visualizes nuclear facilities and training conditions in stereoscopic (3D) view on a large-scale display (CAVE system) as virtual reality training facility (VR facility) and it provides training participants with effective environments to learn installation and layout of security equipment in the facility testing and verifying visually the protection performances under various situations such as changes in day-night lighting and weather conditions, which may lead to practical exercise in the design and evaluation of the physical protection system. This paper introduces basic concept of the system and outline of training programs as well as featured aspects in using the VR technology for the nuclear security. (author)

  3. A knowledge based system for training radiation emergency response personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Peter, T.U.; Natarajan, A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the important aspects of radiation emergency preparedness is to impart training to emergency handling staff. Mock exercises are generally used for this purpose. But practical considerations limit the frequency of such exercises. A suitably designed computer software can be effectively used to impart training. With the advent of low cost personal computers, the frequency with which the training programme can be conducted is unlimited. A computer software with monotonic behaviour is inadequate for such training. It is necessary to provide human like tutoring capabilities. With the advances in knowledge based computer systems, it is possible to develop such a system. These systems have the capability of providing individualized training. This paper describes the development of such a system for training and evaluation of agencies associated with the management of radiation emergency. It also discusses the utility of the software as a general purpose tutor. The details required for the preparation of data files and knowledge base files are included. It uses a student model based on performance measures. The software is developed in C under MS-DOS. It uses a rule based expert system shell developed in C. The features of this shell are briefly described. (author). 5 refs

  4. Data analysis of inertial sensor for train positioning detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Train positioning detection information is fundamental for high-speed railroad inspection, making it possible to simultaneously determine the status and evaluate the integrity of railroad equipment. This paper presents the results of measurements and an analysis of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) used as a positioning detection sensors. Acceleration and angular rate measurements from the IMU were analyzed in the amplitude and frequency domains, with a discussion on vibration and train motions. Using these results and GPS information, the positioning detection of a Korean tilting train express was performed from Naju station to Illo station on the Honam-line. The results of a synchronized analysis of sensor measurements and train motion can help in the design of a train location detection system and improve the positioning detection performance.

  5. The Appreciative System of Urban ICT Policies: An Analysis of Perceptions of Urban Policy Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Blankshtain, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2004-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important tool to promote a variety of public goals and policies. In the past years much attention has been given to the expected social benefits from deploying ICTs in different urban fields (transportation, education, public

  6. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chun Huang; Yu-Hui Chen; Ya-Hui Chen; Chi-Fang Wang; Ming-Che Hu

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban a...

  7. Expert systems for plant operations training and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.; Lazar, P.M.; Schmidt, R.V.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The project described in this paper explored the use of expert systems for plant operations training and assistance. Three computer technologies were reviewed: computer-aided instruction, expert systems, and expert training systems (ETS). The technology of CAI has been developed since the early 1960s, and a wide range of applications are available commercially today. Expert systems have been developed primarily as job performance aids, and the number of commercial applications is increasing. A fully developed ETS has models of the trainer and trainee, in addition to a knowledge base

  8. Proposal for Holistic Assessment of Urban System Resilience to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, David; Kilar, Vojko; Rus, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    Urban system is a complex mix of interdependent components and dynamic interactions between them that enable it to function effectively. Resilience of urban system indicates the ability of a system to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner. In the relevant literature, most studies consider individual components separately. On the other hand, the purpose of this paper is to assess the urban system as a whole, considering all relevant components and their interactions. The goal is a study of possibilities for holistic evaluation of urban system resilience to natural disasters. Findings from the preliminary study are presented: (i) the definition of urban system and categorization of its components, (ii) a set of attributes of individual components with impact on disaster resilience of the entire system and (iii) review of different methods and approaches for resilience assessment. Based on literature review and extensive preliminary studies a new conceptual framework for urban resilience assessment is proposed. In the presented paper, a conceptual model of urban system by abstraction of its components as nodes (buildings), patches - specific nodes with spatial properties (open space), links (infrastructures) and base layer (community) is created. In the suggested model, each component is defined by its own quantitative attributes, which have been identified to have an important impact on the urban system resilience to natural disasters. System is presented as a mathematical graph model. Natural disaster is considered an external factor that affects the existing system and leads to some system distortion. In further analyses, mathematical simulation of various natural disasters scenarios is going to be carried out, followed by comparison of the system functionality before and after the accident. Various properties of the system (accessibility, transition, complexity etc.) are going to be analysed with

  9. Hydration status and fluid intake of urban, underprivileged South African male adolescent soccer players during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reno Eron; Kassier, Susanna Maria; Biggs, Chara

    2015-01-01

    Poor hydration compromises performance and heightens the risk of heat stress which adolescents are particularly susceptible to as they produce comparatively larger amount of metabolic heat during exercise. This study determined the hydration status and fluid intake of socio-economically disadvantaged, male adolescent soccer players during training. A pilot study was conducted among 79 soccer players (mean age 15.9 ± 0.8 years; mean BMI 20.2 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). Hydration status was determined before and after two training sessions, using both urine specific gravity and percent loss of body weight. The type and amount of fluid consumed was assessed during training. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the players' knowledge regarding fluid and carbohydrate requirements for soccer training. Players were at risk of developing heat illness during six of the 14 training sessions (60 - 90 minutes in length). Although on average players were slightly dehydrated (1.023 ± 0.006 g/ml) before and after (1.024 ± 0.007 g/ml) training, some were extremely dehydrated before (24%) and after (27%) training. Conversely some were extremely hyperhydrated before (3%) and after training (6%). The mean percent loss of body weight was 0.7 ± 0.7%. The majority did not consume fluid during the first (57.0%) and second (70.9%) training sessions. An average of 216.0 ± 140.0 ml of fluid was consumed during both training sessions. The majority (41.8%) consumed water, while a few (5.1%) consumed pure fruit juice. More than 90% stated that water was the most appropriate fluid to consume before, during and after training. Very few (5.0%) correctly stated that carbohydrate should be consumed before, during and after training. Approximately a quarter were severely dehydrated. Many did not drink or drank insufficient amounts. The players' beliefs regarding the importance of fluid and carbohydrate consumption did not correspond with their practices. A

  10. An analysis of the medical specialty training system in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, José-Manuel; Infante, Alberto; de Aguiar, Adriana Cavalcanti; Carbajo, Pilar

    2015-06-02

    In this paper, we analyse the medical specialty training system in Spain (the so-called "residency system"). In order to do so, we a) summarize its historical evolution; b) describe the five major architectural pillars on which the system is currently based; c) analyse the special contract of the specialist-in-training; d) discuss the three major challenges for the medical specialist training future: the evolution and expansion of the residency system to other health professions, the issue of grouping specialties with a common core trunk and the continuity of the learning process; and e) draw four conclusions that may be relevant for those who are in the process of developing or revising their own medical specialization systems.

  11. Web-based home rehabilitation gaming system for balance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Kachmar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, most systems for virtual rehabilitation and motor training require quite complex and expensive hardware and can be used only in clinical settings. Now, a low-cost rehabilitation game training system has been developed for patients with movement disorders; it is suitable for home use under the distant supervision of a therapist. It consists of a patient-side application installed on a home computer and the virtual rehabilitation Game Server in the Internet. System can work with different input gaming devices connected through USB or Bluetooth, such as a Nintendo Wii balance board, a Nintendo Wii remote, a MS Kinect sensor, and custom made rehabilitation gaming devices based on a joystick. The same games can be used with all training devices. Assessment of the Home Rehabilitation Gaming System for balance training was performed on six patients with Cerebral Palsy, who went through daily training sessions for two weeks. Preliminary results showed balance improvement in patients with Cerebral Palsy after they had completed home training courses. Further studies are needed to establish medical requirements and evidence length.

  12. Multicriteria Decisions in Urban Energy System Planning: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajot, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.cajot@alumni.epfl.ch [European Institute for Energy Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering Group, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mirakyan, Atom [Energy Economics and Planning Department, Lahmeyer International, Bad Vilbel (Germany); Koch, Andreas [European Institute for Energy Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Maréchal, François [Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering Group, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-05-30

    Urban energy system planning (UESP) is a topic of growing concern for cities in deregulated energy markets, which plan to decrease energy demand, reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy sources. UESP being a highly multisectoral and multi-actor task, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are frequently used in the decision processes. These methods may provide support in organizing and identifying solutions to problems with conflicting objectives. However, knowing which method to use is generally not straightforward, as the appropriateness of a method or combination of methods depends on the decision problem’s context. Therefore, this article reviewed scientific papers to characterize and analyze MCDA problems and methods in the context of UESP. The review systematically explores issues such as the scope of the problems, the alternatives and criteria considered, the expected decision outcomes, the decision analysis methods and the rationales for selecting and combining them, and the role of values in driving the decision problems. The final outcome is a synthesis of the data and insights obtained, which may help potential users identify appropriate decision analysis methods based on given problem characteristics.

  13. Multicriteria Decisions in Urban Energy System Planning: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajot, Sébastien; Mirakyan, Atom; Koch, Andreas; Maréchal, François

    2017-01-01

    Urban energy system planning (UESP) is a topic of growing concern for cities in deregulated energy markets, which plan to decrease energy demand, reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy sources. UESP being a highly multisectoral and multi-actor task, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are frequently used in the decision processes. These methods may provide support in organizing and identifying solutions to problems with conflicting objectives. However, knowing which method to use is generally not straightforward, as the appropriateness of a method or combination of methods depends on the decision problem’s context. Therefore, this article reviewed scientific papers to characterize and analyze MCDA problems and methods in the context of UESP. The review systematically explores issues such as the scope of the problems, the alternatives and criteria considered, the expected decision outcomes, the decision analysis methods and the rationales for selecting and combining them, and the role of values in driving the decision problems. The final outcome is a synthesis of the data and insights obtained, which may help potential users identify appropriate decision analysis methods based on given problem characteristics.

  14. Environmental Accounting for the Urban Water System: Past, Present and Future - Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern urban water system (UWS), or the provision of supply, sanitation and drainage services in an urban context, represents the ever-evolving physical manifestation of society’s propensity to solve pressing water problems. While solutions generally entail immediate be...

  15. Closing the life cycle of phosphorus in an urban food system: the case Almere (NL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.; Jansma, J.E.; Sukkel, W.; Reuler, van H.; Vermeulen, T.; Visser, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to explore the possibilities of a local food system and its effects on the nutrient cycle, a desk study was executed for the urban region Almere, a Dutch city located in the Flevo Polder with about 200,000 inhabitants. This desk study takes this urban perspective as starting point in the

  16. Learning-Focused Leadership and Leadership Support: Meaning and Practice in Urban Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Michael S.; Copland, Michael A.; Honig, Meredith I.; Plecki, Margaret L.; Portin, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesizes what has been learned about how leaders in urban systems focus their leadership on the improvement of learning, and what it takes to support their leadership in these settings. The report brings together findings from three sub-study strands, concerned with efforts in seven urban districts to: a) invest staffing and other…

  17. The Complexities of Systems Change in Creating Equity for Students with Disabilities in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Smith, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the complexities of urban school improvement and systems change through the lens of educational equity policy initiatives. The authors situate urban schools within a critical context where contested identity politics, sociopolitical agendas, and economic stratification marginalize culturally and linguistically diverse…

  18. Demystifying governance and its role for transitions in urban social–ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Muñoz-Erickson; L.K. Campbell; D.L. Childers; J.M. Grove; D.M. Iwaniec; S.T.A. Pickett; Michelle Romolini; Erika S. Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    Governance is key to sustainable urban transitions. Governance is a system of social, power, and decision-making processes that acts as a key driver of resource allocation and use, yet ecologists even urban ecologists–seldom consider governance concepts in their work. Transitions to more sustainable futures are becoming increasingly important to the management of many...

  19. Developing Scientific Index System of Urban Master Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Master plan is the fundamental basis for urban construction and administration, an important public policy of the govern-ments, as well as an overall, comprehen-sive, and strategic task related to politics, economy,

  20. Training young rural women to find urban jobs in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... But not everyone has equal access to these jobs. ... Researchers supported by IDRC evaluate a training program to ... in Bangladesh's Daily Star Equip youth with skills to accelerate growth ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  1. Generation method of synthetic training data for mobile OCR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Yulia S.; Gayer, Alexander V.; Sheshkus, Alexander V.

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses one of the fundamental problems of machine learning - training data acquiring. Obtaining enough natural training data is rather difficult and expensive. In last years usage of synthetic images has become more beneficial as it allows to save human time and also to provide a huge number of images which otherwise would be difficult to obtain. However, for successful learning on artificial dataset one should try to reduce the gap between natural and synthetic data distributions. In this paper we describe an algorithm which allows to create artificial training datasets for OCR systems using russian passport as a case study.

  2. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Tao; Li Keping

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation. In the proposed CA model, the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules. The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow. A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced, but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.

  3. Technological sequence of creating components of the training system of the future officers to the management of physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkhovy O.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to determine constructive ways of sequence of constructing components of the training system of the future officers to carry out official questions of managing the physical training in the process of the further military career. The structural logic circuit of the interconnections stages of optimum cycle management and technological sequence of constructing the components of the training system of the future officers to the management of physical training, which provides: definition of requirements to the typical problems of professional activities on the issues of the leadership, organization and conducting of physical training, the creation of the phased system model cadets training, training of the curriculum discipline ″Physical education, special physical training and sport″; model creation and definition of criteria of the integral evaluation of the readiness of the future officers to the management of physical training was determined through the analysis more than thirty documentary and scientific literature.

  4. Collaborative autonomous systems in models of urban logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Serna, Martín Darío; Serna Uran, Conrado Augusto; Alvarez Uribe, Karla Cristina; Arango Serna, Martín Darío

    2012-01-01

    Cities growth and along with them the exchange and distribution of goods and services has led in recent years to a greater increasing interest for the optimization of logistic processes carried out in urban areas. In this article, the main approaches and solutions which have been proposed from academic research will be described, focusing mainly on collaborative autonomic logistics, which is offered as an attractive solution to the urban goods distribution problems in complex cities.

  5. Training Center for Industrial Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Yezhov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the application of embedded microcontrollers and industrial controllers with built-in operating systems.With the development of embedded operating systems and technology of open standard IEC 61131-3 product developer can write their own program management and support staff – to modernize management program.

  6. Family Systems Training for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabrew, Hiran

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate whether a workshop on family systems delivered to medical students could improve participants' understanding of families from a systemic point of view and help them recognise and address systemic issues that may be affecting their patients. Fifth year (senior) medical students ( n = 36) from the University of Auckland participated in a 90-min workshop about family systems. Pre- and post-workshop, self-reported measures of knowledge and confidence were completed and qualitative feedback was also obtained from participants. The workshop was well received and its interactive and role-play based nature were particularly appreciated. Participants reported gains in all explored areas of knowledge and understanding, suggesting that the workshop met its desired aims. This workshop is an educationally effective and expedient way to equip medical students with some knowledge and understanding about family systems. It may benefit their future work with individual patients and families.

  7. Cost benefit risk - a concept for management of integrated urban wastewater systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Mikkel B.; Rauch, W.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Urban wastewater systems should be evaluated and analysed from an integrated point of view, taking all parts of the system, that is sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving waters into consideration. Risk and parameter uncertainties are aspects that hardly ever have been addressed...... in the evaluation and design of urban wastewater systems. In this paper we present and discuss a probabilistic approach for evaluation of the performance of urban wastewater systems. Risk analysis together with the traditional cost-benefit analysis is a special variant of multi-criteria analysis that seeks to find...... the most feasible improvement alternative for an urban wastewater system. The most feasible alternative in this context is the alternative that has the best performance, meaning that the alternative has the lowest sum of costs, benefits and risks. The sum is expressed as the Net Present Cost (NPC). To use...

  8. Carboy Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These training vary from web-based cyber security training for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors

  9. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  10. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  11. Effects of Climate Change and Urban Development on Army Training Capabilities: Firing Ranges and Maneuver Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    investments in the development of off-post housing, shopping facilities, dining facilities ( restaurants ), and other busi- nesses that provide...Regional Urban Growth model (RUG) (Westervelt 2011), the ERDC TR-16-1 35 Landuse Evolution and Impact Assessment Model (LEAM) (Deal 2004), and the U.S...Land Use Scenarios JCSG Joint Cross-Service Group KBDI Keetch-Byram Drought Index LEAM Land-use Evolution and impact Assessment Model MAC Maneuver

  12. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Galani (Malatsi); P. Yu (Ping); G.W.C. Paas (Fred); P. Chandler (Paul)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design

  13. A study on maintenance reliability allocation of urban transit brake system using hybrid neuro-genetic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Chul Ho; Kim, Hyun Jun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Suh, Myung Won; Chu, Yul

    2007-01-01

    For reasonable establishing of maintenance strategies, safety security and cost limitation must be considered at the same time. In this paper, the concept of system reliability introduces and optimizes as the key of reasonable maintenance strategies. This study aims at optimizing component's reliability that satisfies the target reliability of brake system in the urban transit. First of all, constructed reliability evaluation system is used to predict and analyze reliability. This data is used for the optimization. To identify component reliability in a system, a method is presented in this paper which uses hybrid neuro-genetic technique. Feed-forward multi-layer neural networks trained by back propagation are used to find out the relationship between component reliability (input) and system reliability (output) of a structural system. The inverse problem can be formulated by using neural network. Genetic algorithm is used to find the minimum square error. Finally, this paper presents reasonable maintenance cycle of urban transit brake system by using optimal system reliability

  14. Management and supervisory training: Changing the culture/system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    Professional development training courses, and a unique promoting appraisal system have been combined in the form of a training matrix and are being used as a culture change agent. This training and system modification is currently being implemented within the Nuclear Materials Processing Division of the Savannah River Site. It is designed to help solve the systems problems of managers and supervisors while enabling subordinates to develop themselves professionally, and starts with a promoting appraisal between a manager and a subordinate. These easy to apply appraisals are becoming an integral part of the business system, and result in giving a manager greater control over business change and greater influence over the work each employee accomplishes

  15. Urban gray vs. urban green vs. soil protection — Development of a systemic solution to soil sealing management on the example of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Martina, E-mail: m.artmann@ioer.de

    2016-07-15

    Managing urban soil sealing is a difficult venture due to its spatial heterogeneity and embedding in a socio-ecological system. A systemic solution is needed to tackle its spatial, ecological and social sub-systems. This study develops a guideline for urban actors to find a systemic solution to soil sealing management based on two case studies in Germany: Munich and Leipzig. Legal-planning, informal-planning, economic-fiscal, co-operative and informational responses were evaluated by indicators to proof which strategy considers the spatial complexity of urban soil sealing (systemic spatial efficiency) and, while considering spatial complexity, to assess what the key management areas for action are to reduce the ecological impacts by urban soil sealing (ecological impact efficiency) and to support an efficient implementation by urban actors (social implementation efficiency). Results suggest framing the systemic solution to soil sealing management through a cross-scale, legal-planning development strategy embedded in higher European policies. Within the socio-ecological system, the key management area for action should focus on the protection of green infrastructure being of high value for actors from the European to local scales. Further efforts are necessary to establish a systemic monitoring concept to optimize socio-ecological benefits and avoid trade-offs such as between urban infill development and urban green protection. This place-based study can be regarded as a stepping stone on how to develop systemic strategies by considering different spatial sub-targets and socio-ecological systems. - Highlights: • Urban soil sealing management is spatially complex. • The legal-planning strategy supports a systemic sealing management. • Urban green infrastructure protection should be in the management focus. • Soil protection requires policies from higher levels of government. • A systemic urban soil sealing monitoring concept is needed.

  16. Urban gray vs. urban green vs. soil protection — Development of a systemic solution to soil sealing management on the example of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artmann, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Managing urban soil sealing is a difficult venture due to its spatial heterogeneity and embedding in a socio-ecological system. A systemic solution is needed to tackle its spatial, ecological and social sub-systems. This study develops a guideline for urban actors to find a systemic solution to soil sealing management based on two case studies in Germany: Munich and Leipzig. Legal-planning, informal-planning, economic-fiscal, co-operative and informational responses were evaluated by indicators to proof which strategy considers the spatial complexity of urban soil sealing (systemic spatial efficiency) and, while considering spatial complexity, to assess what the key management areas for action are to reduce the ecological impacts by urban soil sealing (ecological impact efficiency) and to support an efficient implementation by urban actors (social implementation efficiency). Results suggest framing the systemic solution to soil sealing management through a cross-scale, legal-planning development strategy embedded in higher European policies. Within the socio-ecological system, the key management area for action should focus on the protection of green infrastructure being of high value for actors from the European to local scales. Further efforts are necessary to establish a systemic monitoring concept to optimize socio-ecological benefits and avoid trade-offs such as between urban infill development and urban green protection. This place-based study can be regarded as a stepping stone on how to develop systemic strategies by considering different spatial sub-targets and socio-ecological systems. - Highlights: • Urban soil sealing management is spatially complex. • The legal-planning strategy supports a systemic sealing management. • Urban green infrastructure protection should be in the management focus. • Soil protection requires policies from higher levels of government. • A systemic urban soil sealing monitoring concept is needed.

  17. Observing Human-induced Linkages between Urbanization and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world s population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters atmospheric composition; impacts components of the water cycle; and modifies the carbon cycle and ecosystems. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. The goal of the 2003 AGU Union session Human-induced climate variations on urban areas: From observations to modeling was to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results on observing and modeling components of the urban environment with the intent of sampling our current stand and discussing future direction on this topic. Herein, a summary and discussion of the observations component of the session are presented.

  18. The envisaged dual system of vocational education and training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to assess the potential of the envisaged dual system of vocational education and training in South Africa from a comparative perspective, namely, the German prototype and the many attempts to transplant this to other countries. The dual system in Germany is outlined and assessed, followed by ...

  19. Lateral dynamic interaction analysis of a train girder pier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H.; Guo, W. W.; Wu, X.; Pi, Y. L.; Bradford, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    A dynamic model of a coupled train-girder-pier system is developed in this paper. Each vehicle in a train is modeled with 27 degrees-of-freedom for a 4-axle passenger coach or freight car, and 31 for a 6-axle locomotive. The bridge model is applicable to straight and curved bridges. The centrifugal forces of moving vehicles on curved bridges are considered in both the vehicle model and the bridge model. The dynamic interaction between the bridge and train is realized through an assumed wheel-hunting movement. A case study is performed for a test train traversing two straight and two curved multi-span bridges with high piers. The histories of the train traversing the bridges are simulated and the dynamic responses of the piers and the train vehicles are calculated. A field experiment is carried out to verify the results of the analysis, by which the lateral resonant train speed inducing the peak pier-top amplitudes and some other observations are validated.

  20. Expert system aided operator's mental activities training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.; Macko, J.; Mosny, J.; Gese, A.

    1994-01-01

    The operator's mental activity is the most important part of his work. A processing of a large amount of the information by the operator is possible only if he/she possesses appropriate cognitive skills. To facilitate the novice's acquisition of the experienced operator's cognitive skills of the decision-making process a special type of the expert system was developed. The cognitive engineering's models and problem-solving methodology constitutes the basis of this expert system. The article gives an account of the prototype of the mentioned expert system developed to aid the whole mental activity of the nuclear power plant operator during his decision-making process. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  1. Computer-enhanced laparoscopic training system (CELTS): bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylopoulos, N; Cotin, S; Maithel, S K; Ottensmeye, M; Jackson, P G; Bardsley, R S; Neumann, P F; Rattner, D W; Dawson, S L

    2004-05-01

    There is a large and growing gap between the need for better surgical training methodologies and the systems currently available for such training. In an effort to bridge this gap and overcome the disadvantages of the training simulators now in use, we developed the Computer-Enhanced Laparoscopic Training System (CELTS). CELTS is a computer-based system capable of tracking the motion of laparoscopic instruments and providing feedback about performance in real time. CELTS consists of a mechanical interface, a customizable set of tasks, and an Internet-based software interface. The special cognitive and psychomotor skills a laparoscopic surgeon should master were explicitly defined and transformed into quantitative metrics based on kinematics analysis theory. A single global standardized and task-independent scoring system utilizing a z-score statistic was developed. Validation exercises were performed. The scoring system clearly revealed a gap between experts and trainees, irrespective of the task performed; none of the trainees obtained a score above the threshold that distinguishes the two groups. Moreover, CELTS provided educational feedback by identifying the key factors that contributed to the overall score. Among the defined metrics, depth perception, smoothness of motion, instrument orientation, and the outcome of the task are major indicators of performance and key parameters that distinguish experts from trainees. Time and path length alone, which are the most commonly used metrics in currently available systems, are not considered good indicators of performance. CELTS is a novel and standardized skills trainer that combines the advantages of computer simulation with the features of the traditional and popular training boxes. CELTS can easily be used with a wide array of tasks and ensures comparability across different training conditions. This report further shows that a set of appropriate and clinically relevant performance metrics can be defined and a

  2. A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa, E-mail: ainhoag@yahoo.com [Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Donnelly, Alison, E-mail: donnelac@tcd.ie [Centre for the Environment, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Jones, Mike, E-mail: mike.jones@tcd.ie [Discipline of Botany, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Chrysoulakis, Nektarios, E-mail: zedd2@iacm.forth.gr [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (Greece); Lopes, Myriam, E-mail: myr@ua.pt [Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento and CESAM, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-15

    Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black

  3. A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Ainhoa; Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Lopes, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: ► Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. ► European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. ► Decision support system enables incorporating scientific

  4. Optimization study on multiple train formation scheme of urban rail transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaomei; Ding, Yong; Wen, Xin

    2018-05-01

    The new organization method, represented by the mixed operation of multi-marshalling trains, can adapt to the characteristics of the uneven distribution of passenger flow, but the research on this aspect is still not perfect enough. This paper introduced the passenger sharing rate and congestion penalty coefficient with different train formations. On this basis, this paper established an optimization model with the minimum passenger cost and operation cost as objective, and operation frequency and passenger demand as constraint. The ideal point method is used to solve this model. Compared with the fixed marshalling operation model, the overall cost of this scheme saves 9.24% and 4.43% respectively. This result not only validates the validity of the model, but also illustrate the advantages of the multiple train formations scheme.

  5. The Dutch vocational education and training system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch educational system is highly stratified from secondary education onwards3, and this also applies to MBO. Each MBO course can be followed in two different learning pathways, called the vocationally educating learning pathway (beroepsopleidende leerweg: BOL) and the vocationally guiding

  6. Intelligent Instructional Systems in Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank

    Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…

  7. Implementation and Evaluation of a Pilot Training to Improve Transgender Competency Among Medical Staff in an Urban Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pollard-Thomas, Paula; Pagano, William; Levitt, Nathan; Lopez, Evelyn I; Golub, Sarit A; Radix, Asa E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transgender individuals (TGI), who identify their gender as different from their sex assigned at birth, continue facing widespread discrimination and mistreatment within the healthcare system. Providers often lack expertise in adequate transgender (TG) care due to limited specialized training. In response to these inadequacies, and to increase evidence-based interventions effecting TG-affirmative healthcare, we implemented and evaluated a structural-level intervention in the form of a comprehensive Provider Training Program (PTP) in TG health within a New York City-based outpatient clinic serving primarily individuals of color and of low socioeconomic status. This pilot intervention aimed to increase medical staff knowledge of TG health and needs, and to support positive attitudes toward TGI. Methods: Three 2-h training sessions were delivered to 35 clinic staff across 4 months by two of the authors experienced in TG competency training; the training sessions included TG-related identity and barriers to healthcare issues, TG-specialized care, and creating TG-affirmative environments, medical forms, and billing procedures. We evaluated changes through pre-post intervention surveys by trainees. Results: Compared to pre-training scores, post-training scores indicated significant (1) decreases in negative attitudes toward TGI and increases in TG-related clinical skills, (2) increases in staff's awareness of transphobic practices, and (3) increases in self-reported readiness to serve TGI. The clinic increased its representation of general LGBT-related images in the waiting areas, and the staff provided highly positive training evaluations. Conclusion: This PTP in TG health shows promise in leading to changes in provider attitudes and competence, as well as clinic systems, especially with its incorporation in continuing education endeavors, which can, in turn, contribute to health disparities reductions among TG groups.

  8. An intention driven hand functions task training robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, K Y; Ho, S K; Pang, P K; Hu, X L; Tam, W K; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Chen, P N; Chen, M

    2010-01-01

    A novel design of a hand functions task training robotic system was developed for the stroke rehabilitation. It detects the intention of hand opening or hand closing from the stroke person using the electromyography (EMG) signals measured from the hemiplegic side. This training system consists of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module. Each hand robot has 5 individual finger assemblies capable to drive 2 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of each finger at the same time. Powered by the linear actuator, the finger assembly achieves 55 degree range of motion (ROM) at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint and 65 degree range of motion (ROM) at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. Each finger assembly can also be adjusted to fit for different finger length. With this task training system, stroke subject can open and close their impaired hand using their own intention to carry out some of the daily living tasks.

  9. Neural network training by Kalman filtering in process system monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1996-03-01

    Kalman filtering approach for neural network training is described. Its extended form is used as an adaptive filter in a nonlinear environment of the form a feedforward neural network. Kalman filtering approach generally provides fast training as well as avoiding excessive learning which results in enhanced generalization capability. The network is used in a process monitoring application where the inputs are measurement signals. Since the measurement errors are also modelled in Kalman filter the approach yields accurate training with the implication of accurate neural network model representing the input and output relationships in the application. As the process of concern is a dynamic system, the input source of information to neural network is time dependent so that the training algorithm presents an adaptive form for real-time operation for the monitoring task. (orig.)

  10. Developing Collective Training for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlach, Paula J.; Priest, Heather; Martin, Glenn A.; Saffold, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The projected use of small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS) in military operations will produce training requirements which go beyond current capabilities. The paper describes the development of prototype training procedures and accompanying research simulations to address this need. We initially constructed a testbed to develop simulation-based training for an SUAS operator equipped with a simulated vertical-lift and land SUAS. However, the required training will go beyond merely training an operator how to pilot an SUAS. In addition to tactics, techniques, and procedures for employment of SUASs, collective training methods must be trained. Moreover, the leader of a unit equipped with SUAS will need to learn how to plan missions which incorporate the SUAS, and take into account air space and frequency management considerations. The demands of the task require the leader to allocate personnel to the SUAS mission, communicate and coordinate with those personnel during the mission, and make use of the information provided. To help address these training issues, we expanded our research testbed to include a command and control node (C2 node), to enable communications between a leader and the SUAS operator. In addition, we added a virtual environment in which dismounted infantry missions can be conducted. This virtual environment provides the opportunity for interactions among human-controlled avatars and non-player characters (NPCs), plus authoring tools to construct scenarios. Using these NPCs, a collective exercise involving friendly, enemy, and civilian personnel can be conducted without the need for a human role-player for every entity. We will describe the results of our first experiment, which examined the ability of players to negotiate use of the C2 node and the virtual environment at the same time, in order to see if this is a feasible combination of tools for training development.

  11. Video game training and the reward system

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, R.; Gleich, T.; Gallinat, J.; Kühn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors ...

  12. Food systems: New-Ruralism versus New-Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Van Acker, Veronique; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Witlox, Frank

    2012-08-30

    There is a growing debate on whether agricultural land in urban fringes should be maintained or converted to other uses. While 'pro-ruralists' believe agricultural land conversion can threaten food security and cause rural-urban migration, 'pro-urbanists' find it a necessary change for transition from a primitive agricultural-based community to an advanced industrial-based society which has the capacity to create mass productions. New-Ruralists follow an agricultural-based development approach that promotes small-medium farming and acknowledges rural lifestyle while New-Urbanists give a priority to large industrial-based sectors and encourage urban lifestyle. Given the unlike concerns of different societies, the paper concludes that the approaches might have different priorities in the less developed, developing, and developed world. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  14. Assessment of the urban water system with an open, reproducible process applied to Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water systems convey complex environmental and man-made flows. The relationships among water flows and networked storages remains difficult to comprehensively evaluate. Such evaluation is important, however, as interventions are designed (e.g, conservation measures, green...

  15. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : traffic system data test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the traffic system data test plan for the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA projects focus on reducing congestion by employi...

  16. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : transit system data test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing transit system data for the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) National Evaluation under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA...

  17. In-Service Performance and Costs of Methods to Control Urban Rail System Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    This study evaluates the acoustic and economic effectiveness of five methods of controlling wheel/rail noise and vibration on urban rail transit systems, namely: rail grinding, wheel truing, resilient wheels, ring-damped wheels, and welded vs. jointe...

  18. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy B. Grimm; J. Morgan Grove; Steward T.A. Pickett; Charles L. Redman

    2000-01-01

    Urban ecological systems present multiple challenges to ecologists—pervasive human impact and extreme heterogeneity of cities, and the need to integrate social and ecological approaches, concepts, and theory.

  19. Ecological relationship analysis of the urban metabolic system of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengsheng; Zhang Yan; Yang Zhifeng; Liu Hong; Zhang Jinyun

    2012-01-01

    Cities can be modelled as giant organisms, with their own metabolic processes, and can therefore be studied using the same tools used for biological metabolic systems. The complicated distribution of compartments within these systems and the functional relationships among them define the system's network structure. Taking Beijing as an example, we divided the city's internal system into metabolic compartments, then used ecological network analysis to calculate a comprehensive utility matrix for the flows between compartments within Beijing's metabolic system from 1998 to 2007 and to identify the corresponding functional relationships among the system's compartments. Our results show how ecological network analysis, utility analysis, and relationship analysis can be used to discover the implied ecological relationships within a metabolic system, thereby providing insights into the system's internal metabolic processes. Such analyses provide scientific support for urban ecological management. - Highlights: ► Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by treating cities as superorganisms. ► We developed an ecological network model for an urban system. ► We studied the system's network relationships using ecological network analysis. ► We developed indices for judging the system's synergism and degree of stability. - Using Beijing as an example of an urban superorganism, we used ecological network analysis to describe the ecological relationships among the urban metabolic system's compartments.

  20. A virtual reality assessment and training system for unilateral neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, Jaehun; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Deog Young; Chang, Won Hyek; Shin, Dong Ik; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2004-12-01

    Patients with unilateral neglect have problems reporting, responding, or orienting to novel or meaningful stimuli that is presented to the side opposite to that of a brain lesion. This creates a serous problem in regards to daily living activities. However, the established methods for assessing and training of unilateral neglect patients have several deficits. Recently, virtual reality (VR) technologies have been used as an assessment and treatment tool for rehabilitation. Hence, this study designed a VR system to assess and train unilateral neglect patients. In addition, the suitability and feasibility of our VR system for unilateral neglect patients was verified.

  1. Past, present, and future design of urban drainage systems with focus on Danish experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    over time? Based on an analysis of the underlying key drivers of changes that are expected to affect urban drainage systems the current problems and their predicted development over time are presented. One key issue is management of risk and uncertainties and therefore a framework for design......Climate change will influence the water cycle substantially, and extreme precipitation will become more frequent in many regions in the years to come. How should this fact be incorporated into design of urban drainage systems, if at all? And how important is climate change compared to other changes...... and analysis of urban structures in light of present and future uncertainties is presented....

  2. Introduction of virtual reality system into education and training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Satoru; Inada, Kuninobu; Matsushima, Akihito; Koba, Ryoji; Teramoto, Hiroaki; Yamasaki, Naomi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    A Virtual Reality System was introduced into the Education and Training Course. This system covers a 2 hr lesson in the safe handling of radioisotopes. Students took this course with great interest. Questionnaires revealed that they learned how to handle radioisotopes safely. Some students, however, did not understand the meaning of the experiments, because they did not know the kind of radiation from radioisotopes used. It was suggested that the system combined with an effective lecture would have a greater effect. (author)

  3. The nutrition/excretion system of urban areas: socioecological regimes and transitions.

    OpenAIRE

    Esculier , Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows.The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we...

  4. Performance measurement system for training simulators. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhold, G. Jr.; Roth, D.R.

    1978-05-01

    In the first project phase, the project team has designed, installed, and test run on the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant training simulator a performance measurement system capable of automatic recording of statistical information on operator actions and plant response. Key plant variables and operator actions were monitored and analyzed by the simulator computer for a selected set of four operating and casualty drills. The project has the following objectives: (1) To provide an empirical data base for statistical analysis of operator reliability and for allocation of safety and control functions between operators and automated controls; (2) To develop a method for evaluation of the effectiveness of control room designs and operating procedures; and (3) To develop a system for scoring aspects of operator performance to assist in training evaluations and to support operator selection research. The performance measurement system has shown potential for meeting the research objectives. However, the cost of training simulator time is high; to keep research program costs reasonable, the measurement system is being designed to be an integral part of operator training programs. In the pilot implementation, participating instructors judged the measurement system to be a valuable and objective extension of their abilities to monitor trainee performance

  5. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. Changes of the spatial organization, utilization and structure of cities, as well as of social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" on urban system Ćuprija-Jagodina-Paraćin at section Belgrade-Nis have been analysed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The guidances and options of urban systems and urban centres development policies in trans-European transport corridor, as well as possibilities to improve our planning system have been given. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  6. Enhancing future resilience in urban drainage system: Green versus grey infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Guo, Hao; Zeng, Siyu

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, the concept transition from fail-safe to safe-to-fail makes the application of resilience analysis popular in urban drainage systems (UDSs) with various implications and quantifications. However, most existing definitions of UDSs resilience are confined to the severity of flooding, while uncertainties from climate change and urbanization are not considered. In this research, we take into account the functional variety, topological complexity, and disturbance randomness of UDSs and define a new formula of resilience based on three parts of system severity, i.e. social severity affected by urban flooding, environmental severity caused by sewer overflow, and technological severity considering the safe operation of downstream facilities. A case study in Kunming, China is designed to compare the effect of green and grey infrastructure strategies on the enhancement of system resilience together with their costs. Different system configurations with green roofs, permeable pavement and storage tanks are compared by scenario analysis with full consideration of future uncertainties induced by urbanization and climate change. The research contributes to the development of sustainability assessment of urban drainage system with consideration of the resilience of green and grey infrastructure under future change. Finding the response measures with high adaptation across a variety of future scenarios is crucial to establish sustainable urban drainage system in a long term. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Arithmetic Training Does Not Improve Approximate Number System Acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lindskog

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Approximate Number System (ANS is thought to support non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitudes in humans. Recently much debate has focused on the causal direction for an observed relation between ANS acuity and arithmetic fluency. Here we investigate if arithmetic training can improve ANS acuity. We show with an experimental training study consisting of six 45-minute training sessions that although feedback during arithmetic training improves arithmetic performance substantially, it does not influence ANS acuity. Hence, we find no support for a causal link where symbolic arithmetic training influences the ANS acuity. Further, although short-term number memory is likely involved in arithmetic tasks we did not find that short-term memory capacity for numbers, measured by a digit-span test, was effected by arithmetic training. This suggests that the improvement in arithmetic fluency may have occurred independent of short-term memory efficiency, but rather due to long-term memory processes and/or mental calculation strategy development. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. A multimedia streaming system for urban rail environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    using the Wi-Fi Direct connectivity and data exchange is coordinated by using the Peer-to-Peer Streaming Peer Protocol. This work presents the solution and evaluates it in the scope of urban rail deployment. Network emulation tests are used to analyze the factors impacting the number of concurrent users...

  9. THE CONCEPT OF IC IN REGIONAL AND URBAN SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA NOWICKA-SKOWRON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human capital and structural capital constitute the primary assets of every organisation and more and more every territory: on urban, local, regional, national and global levels. Business practice confirms the need of developing basic organisational features that would result in creating a unique corporate image. It turns out that an individual character of a company facilitates its winning competitive advantage.

  10. For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The 20th century has witnessed a massive growth in urban populations. ... Toronto, Canada, where he directs the Centre for Studies in Food Security. ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network ... partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and resilience in hot spot regions.

  11. For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As well, hunger and malnutrition are on the increase worldwide, as the ... community-supported agriculture and cooperation between urban and rural populations. ... la conférence d'une journée intitulée The Global Need for Formal Child Care.

  12. Transforming Food Systems through Food Sovereignty: An Australian Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Federico; Dyball, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on La Via Campesina's definition of food sovereignty and its potential for reconceptualising food as a basic human right within the dominant Australian food discourse. We argue that the educative value that emerges from urban food production in Australia stems from the action of growing food and its capacity to transform…

  13. Training programs for the systems approach to nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In support of United States Government (USG) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear security programs, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has advocated and practiced a risk-based, systematic approach to nuclear security. The risk equation has been developed and implemented as the basis for a performance-based methodology for the design and evaluation of physical protection systems against a design basis threat (DBT) for theft and sabotage of nuclear and/or radiological materials. Integrated systems must include technology, people, and the man-machine interface. A critical aspect of the human element is training on the systems-approach for all the stakeholders in nuclear security. Current training courses and workshops have been very beneficial but are still rather limited in scope. SNL has developed two primary international classes - the international training course on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials, and the design basis threat methodology workshop. SNL is also completing the development of three new courses that will be offered and presented in the near term. They are vital area identification methodology focused on nuclear power plants to aid in their protection against radiological sabotage, insider threat analysis methodology and protection schemes, and security foundations for competent authority and facility operator stakeholders who are not security professionals. In the long term, we envision a comprehensive nuclear security curriculum that spans policy and technology, regulators and operators, introductory and expert levels, classroom and laboratory/field, and local and offsite training options. This training curriculum will be developed in concert with a nuclear security series of guidance documents that is expected to be forthcoming from the IAEA. It is important to note that while appropriate implementation of systems based on such training and documentation can improve the risk reduction, such a

  14. The urban transition and the evolution of the medical care delivery system in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, P L; Bohland, J; Shumsky, N L

    1983-01-01

    This essay traces the evolution of the American urban medical care delivery system and examines the implications in terms of social and spatial variations in accessibility to medical care. It is suggested that the foundations of the present medical care delivery system were laid during the urban transformation which took place in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when changes in the division of labor, specialization, the role of the family, urban transportation technology and attitudes to social protectionism interacted with changes in science, medical technology and professional organization to produce radical changes in both the settings used to provide medical care and their relative accessibility to different sub-groups of the population. The medical care delivery system is thus interpreted largely as a product of the overall dynamic of urbanization rather than of scientific discovery, medical technology and the influence of key medical practitioners and professional organizations.

  15. Analysis of Train Suspension System Using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaSastry, DVA; Ramana, K. V.; Mohan Rao, N.; Siva Kumar, SVR; Priyanka, T. G. L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with introducing MR dampers to the Train Suspension System for improving the ride comfort of the passengers. This type of suspension system comes under Semi-active suspension system which utilizes the properties of MR fluid to damp the vibrations. In case of high speed trains, the coach body is subjected to vibrations due to vertical displacement, yaw and pitch movements. When the body receives these disturbances from the ground,the transmission of vibrations to the passenger increases which affect the ride comfort. In this work, the equations of motion of suspension system are developed for both conventional passive system and semi-active system and are modelled in Matlab/Simulink and analysis has been carried out. The passive suspension system analysis shows that it is taking more time to damp the vibrations and at the same time the transmissibility of vibrations is more.Introducing MR dampers,vertical and angular displacements of the body are computed and compared. The results show that the introduction of MR dampers into the train suspension system improves ride comfort.

  16. Exploring the diversity of urban and peri-urban agricultural systems in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa: An attempt towards a regional typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, L.C.; Abdulkadir, A.; Amadou, H.; Sangare, S.; Schlecht, E.

    2011-01-01

    Developing appropriate and innovative technologies and policies to respond to the challenges that urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) faces in West Africa requires a better understanding of the existing production systems. Although there is an increasing recognition of the importance of UPA in

  17. Current trauma care system and trauma care training in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Yang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma is a life-threatening “modern disease”. The outcomes could only be optimized by cost-efficient and prompt trauma care, which embarks on the improvement of essential capacities and conceptual revolution in addition to the disruptive innovation of the trauma care system. According to experiences from the developed countries, systematic trauma care training is the cornerstone of the generalization and the improvement on the trauma care, such as the Advance Trauma Life Support (ATLS. Currently, the pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS has been one of the essential elements of infrastructure of health services in China, which is also fundamental to the trauma care system. Hereby, the China Trauma Care Training (CTCT with independent intellectual property rights has been initiated and launched by the Chinese Trauma Surgeon Association to extend the up-to-date concepts and techniques in the field of trauma care as well to reinforce the generally well-accepted standardized protocols in the practices. This article reviews the current status of the trauma care system as well as the trauma care training. Keywords: Trauma care system, Trauma care training, China

  18. SAFARI: An Environment for Creating Tutoring Systems in Industrial Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecsei, J.; Frasson, C.

    Safari is a cooperative project involving four Quebec universities, two industrial partners (Virtual Prototypes, Inc., providing the VAPS software package, and Novasys, Inc., a consulting firm specializing in artificial intelligence and training), and government. VAPS (Virtual Applications Prototyping System) is a commercial interface-building and…

  19. A Prototype HTML Training System for Graphic Communication Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runquist, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    This design research demonstrates a prototype content management system capable of training graphic communication students in the creation of basic HTML web pages. The prototype serve as a method of helping students learn basic HTML structure and commands earlier in their academic careers. Exposure to the concepts of web page creation early in…

  20. Training Paraprofessionals to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Glenn Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Based on Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS training is typically presented in a group format and later…

  1. Training system for engineers at KEK and a personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujiie, Norihiko

    2005-01-01

    I describe the history of a training system for engineers at KEK, and shortly summarize an article on 'the superior engineer' written by Mr. KELLEY of Bell Laboratories. Finally, I give a personal opinion about an ideal engineering method at KEK, in response to decreasing manpower over the next 10 years. (author)

  2. Training in Japan: The Use of Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Mina; Keller, John M.

    This study investigated the kinds of training conducted in Japanese companies and the degree to which instructional systems design (ISD) is implemented. A random sample of 12 Japanese companies in the banking, automobile manufacturing, electrical machinery, wholesale stores, insurance and securities, and transportation industries were surveyed; a…

  3. Description of training activities and re-training system for nuclear professionals at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambrich, I.; Trampus, P.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear power units of Paks, Hungary, have always been operated by Hungarian personnel, from the very beginning. The operator staff of unit 1 acquired its knowledge primarily outside of the country, but since 1983 the overall training process has been run entirely in Hungary, in Paks. This report gives details of present system of training programme in Hungary. The system of training for professionals builds up in vertically linked modules and is job oriented. It begins with theoretical training, followed by programmed on-the-job training which must successfully be finished before a release onto in-company or authority licensing exams for individual job performance

  4. Carboy Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, Daniel [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These training vary from web-based cyber security training for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  5. Urban Planning and Management Information Systems Analysis and Design Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wang

    Based on the analysis of existing relevant systems on the basis of inadequate, after a detailed investigation and research, urban planning and management information system will be designed for three-tier structure system, under the LAN using C/S mode architecture. Related functions for the system designed in accordance with the requirements of the architecture design of the functional relationships between the modules. Analysis of the relevant interface and design, data storage solutions proposed. The design for small and medium urban planning information system provides a viable building program.

  6. Urban Livestock Keeping in the City of Nairobi: Diversity of Production Systems, Supply Chains, and Their Disease Management and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Pablo; Fèvre, Eric M; Muinde, Patrick; Murungi, Maurice K; Kiambi, Stella; Akoko, James; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors. Supply chain flow diagrams and thematic analysis of the data was done. Results of the study show a large variability of livestock keeping in Nairobi. The majority were small scale with: Supply chain analysis indicated that most dairy farmers sold milk directly to consumers due to "lack of trust" of these in traders. Broiler and pig farmers sold mainly to traders but are dependent on few large dominating companies for their replacement or distribution of products. Selling directly to retailers or consumers (including own consumption), with backyard slaughtering, were important chains for small-scale pig, sheep and goat, and indigenous chicken keepers. Important disease risk practices identified were associated with consumption of dead and sick animals, with underground network of brokers operating for ruminant products. Qualified trained health managers were used mainly by dairy farmers, and large commercial poultry and pig farmers, while use of unqualified health managers or no treatment were common in small-scale farming. Control of urban livestock keepers was reported difficult due to their "feeling of being outlaws," "lack of trust" in government, "inaccessibility" in informal settlements, "lack of government funding," or "understaffing." Findings are useful for designing policies to help to control urban livestock production and

  7. Virtual-reality education and training system for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Miyatake, H.; Kawakami, T.

    2002-01-01

    In order to break the mannerism in the education and training method for radiation protection introduction of virtual reality system to the chalkface has been discussed in addition to the usual lecture and video system in the subcommittee established in JRIAS (Japan Radioisotope Association), and the leading model has been installed in Osaka University. It consists of a main server and 3 clients with a software for virtual reality. With this system the trainee could go into the virtual laboratory and handle the radioisotope. In that case he could also experience various accidents such as trivial failure in the experiments, serious hazard, fire, earthquake, etc., which are difficult to suffer in the real laboratory. Hence those who have experienced such a training could come to act rapidly up against any sudden accidents and also the virtual reality system would result decrease in unnecessary radioactive wastes

  8. Virtual-reality education and training system for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Miyatake, H.; Kawakami, T. [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    In order to break the mannerism in the education and training method for radiation protection introduction of virtual reality system to the chalkface has been discussed in addition to the usual lecture and video system in the subcommittee established in JRIAS (Japan Radioisotope Association), and the leading model has been installed in Osaka University. It consists of a main server and 3 clients with a software for virtual reality. With this system the trainee could go into the virtual laboratory and handle the radioisotope. In that case he could also experience various accidents such as trivial failure in the experiments, serious hazard, fire, earthquake, etc., which are difficult to suffer in the real laboratory. Hence those who have experienced such a training could come to act rapidly up against any sudden accidents and also the virtual reality system would result decrease in unnecessary radioactive wastes.

  9. New Train Run Monitoring system: Getting the most out of an ERTMS level 2 Signalling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Troels; Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    . Rail Net Denmark is currently implementing ERTMS Level 2 signalling systems on the entire long distance network and a CBTC signalling system on the Copenhagen Suburban network. It is unlikely, that the current RDS will be able to function in this environment and especially be capable of taking...... advantage of the additional data delivered by the new systems. The conceptual design of a new RDS has consequently been underway since the start of the signalling program. The vision is to create an automatic system that delivers “perfect train run histories” with a cause for every time loss. The future...... ERTMS Traffic Management System will include a rescheduler: Every time a train leaves its path, a rescheduling is triggered and the train receives a new timetable. As a part of this process, other trains may also be rescheduled. A concept for converting this information into the “perfect train run...

  10. 78 FR 979 - Petition for Positive Train Control Safety Plan Approval and System Certification of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...] Petition for Positive Train Control Safety Plan Approval and System Certification of the Electronic Train... the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for Positive Train Control (PTC) Safety Plan (PTCSP) approval and system certification of the Electronic Train Management System (ETMS) as required by 49 U.S.C...

  11. The Effect of Online Systems Analysis Training on Aerospace Industry Business Performance: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Erlan

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace companies needed additional research on technology-based training to verify expectations when enhancing human capital through online systems analysis training. The research for online systems analysis training provided aerospace companies a means to verify expectations for systems analysis technology-based training on business…

  12. Construction of Urban Design Support System using Cloud Computing Type Virtual Reality and Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenhan, Lei; Shunta, Shimizu; Natuska, Ota; Yuji, Ito; Yuesong, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes a design support system based on cloud-computing type virtual reality (cloud-based VR) for urban planning and urban design. A platform for Cloud-based VR technology, i.e. a VR-Cloud server, is used to open a VR dataset to public collaboration over the Internet. The digital attributes representing the design scheme of design concepts includes the land use zone, building regulations, urban design style, and other design details of architectural design, landscape, and traf...

  13. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de, I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions w...

  14. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  15. : Urban design, urban project, urban art, urban composition ... a question of vocabulary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinson , Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Actes à paraître; International audience; The term "urbanism" of Pierre Clerget (1910) put the mess in the practice and the formations in France. Urban planning is thus, on the academic level, a coexistence of disciplinary approaches, which does not help to a multidisciplinary urban training. Thinking about "urban design", after beautifull city, urban composition, or alongside the urban project and other territorial approaches can help to see more clearly in town planning.; Le terme « urbanis...

  16. Rural-Urban Interdependence in Food Systems in Nsukka Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    by influencing the decision to migrate, remain in the rural area, or provide urban services in ..... (dried cassava) processing machines, vehicles, corrugated iron houses. A final .... It can also influence learning and adoption rates of new ..... 18.3. 8 . Palm tree. Small. 46.7. 73.3. Medium. 51.7. 3.3. Large. 1.7. None. 0.0. 23.3 ...

  17. Industrial application of a graphics computer-based training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Graphics Computer Based Training (GCBT) roles include drilling, tutoring, simulation and problem solving. Of these, Commonwealth Edison uses mainly tutoring, simulation and problem solving. These roles are not separate in any particular program. They are integrated to provide tutoring and part-task simulation, part-task simulation and problem solving, or problem solving tutoring. Commonwealth's Graphics Computer Based Training program was a result of over a year's worth of research and planning. The keys to the program are it's flexibility and control. Flexibility is maintained through stand alone units capable of program authoring and modification for plant/site specific users. Yet, the system has the capability to support up to 31 terminals with a 40 mb hard disk drive. Control of the GCBT program is accomplished through establishment of development priorities and a central development facility (Commonwealth Edison's Production Training Center)

  18. A global analysis approach for investigating structural resilience in urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugume, Seith N; Gomez, Diego E; Fu, Guangtao; Farmani, Raziyeh; Butler, David

    2015-09-15

    Building resilience in urban drainage systems requires consideration of a wide range of threats that contribute to urban flooding. Existing hydraulic reliability based approaches have focused on quantifying functional failure caused by extreme rainfall or increase in dry weather flows that lead to hydraulic overloading of the system. Such approaches however, do not fully explore the full system failure scenario space due to exclusion of crucial threats such as equipment malfunction, pipe collapse and blockage that can also lead to urban flooding. In this research, a new analytical approach based on global resilience analysis is investigated and applied to systematically evaluate the performance of an urban drainage system when subjected to a wide range of structural failure scenarios resulting from random cumulative link failure. Link failure envelopes, which represent the resulting loss of system functionality (impacts) are determined by computing the upper and lower limits of the simulation results for total flood volume (failure magnitude) and average flood duration (failure duration) at each link failure level. A new resilience index that combines the failure magnitude and duration into a single metric is applied to quantify system residual functionality at each considered link failure level. With this approach, resilience has been tested and characterised for an existing urban drainage system in Kampala city, Uganda. In addition, the effectiveness of potential adaptation strategies in enhancing its resilience to cumulative link failure has been tested. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. A brief history and the possible future of urban energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, Paul; Keirstead, James

    2012-01-01

    Modern cities depend on energy systems to deliver a range of services such as heating, cooling, lighting, mobility, communications, and so on. This article examines how these urban energy systems came to be, tracing the major transitions from the earliest settlements through to today's fossil-fuelled cities. The underlying theme is “increasing efficiency under constraints” with each transition marked by increasing energy efficiency in service provision, increasing per capita energy use, increasing complexity in the energy system's structure, with innovations driven by a strategic view of the overall system, and accompanied by wider changes in technology and society. In developed countries, the future of urban energy systems is likely to continue many of these trends, with increased efficiency being driven by the constraints of climate change and rising fuel prices. Both supply and demand side technologies are discussed as potential solutions to these issues, with different impacts on the urban environment and its citizens. However in developing countries, rising urban populations and access to basic energy services will drive the next transition. - Highlights: ► Urban energy system transitions in history are reviewed. ► Common features include increased per capita energy use, growing system complexity, and technological innovation. ► Future transitions will be shaped by the constraints of climate change, rising fuel prices, and urbanisation. ► Long-term sustainability depends on ability to innovate rapidly; opportunities exist on supply and demand sides.

  20. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Ye Tian; Dongping Li

    2012-01-01

    Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS) often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs). By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constru...

  1. Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage systems: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Willems, P.; Olsson, J.

    2013-01-01

    A review is made of current methods for assessing future changes in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic-induced climate change. The review concludes that in spite of significant advances there are still many limitations in our understanding of...... drainage infrastructure considering climate change impacts and co-optimizing these with other objectives will become ever more important to keep our cities habitable into the future. © IWA Publishing 2013....

  2. Intelligent control of a planning system for astronaut training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J; Chen, G

    1999-07-01

    This work intends to design, analyze and solve, from the systems control perspective, a complex, dynamic, and multiconstrained planning system for generating training plans for crew members of the NASA-led International Space Station. Various intelligent planning systems have been developed within the framework of artificial intelligence. These planning systems generally lack a rigorous mathematical formalism to allow a reliable and flexible methodology for their design, modeling, and performance analysis in a dynamical, time-critical, and multiconstrained environment. Formulating the planning problem in the domain of discrete-event systems under a unified framework such that it can be modeled, designed, and analyzed as a control system will provide a self-contained theory for such planning systems. This will also provide a means to certify various planning systems for operations in the dynamical and complex environments in space. The work presented here completes the design, development, and analysis of an intricate, large-scale, and representative mathematical formulation for intelligent control of a real planning system for Space Station crew training. This planning system has been tested and used at NASA-Johnson Space Center.

  3. Microsurgery simulation training system and set up: An essential system to complement every training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Dhalia; Haram, Nadine; Moustaki, Margarita; Chow, Whitney; Saour, Samer; Mohanna, Pari Naz

    2017-07-01

    Microsurgical techniques are essential in plastic surgery; however, inconsistent training practices, acquiring these skills can be difficult. To address this, we designed a standardised laboratory-based microsurgical training programme, which allows trainees to develop their dexterity, visuospatial ability, operative flow and judgement as separate components. Thirty trainees completed an initial microsurgical anastomosis on a chicken femoral artery, assessed using the structured assessment of microsurgical skills (SAMS) method. The study group (n = 18) then completed a 3-month training programme, while the control group (n = 19) did not. A final anastomosis was completed by all trainees (n = 30). The study group had a significant improvement in the microsurgical technique, assessed using the SAMS score, when the initial and final scores were compared (Mean: 24 SAMS initial versus 49 SAMS final) (p group had a significantly lower rate of improvement (Mean: 23 SAMS initial versus 25 SAMS final). There was a significant difference between the final SAMS score of the study group and that of senior surgeons (Mean: 49 study final SAMS versus 58 senior SAMS). This validated programme is a safe, cost-effective and flexible method of allowing trainees to develop microsurgical skills in a non-pressurized environment. In addition, the objectified skills allow trainers to assess the trainees' level of proficiency before operating on patients. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A wireless breathing-training support system for kinesitherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, Hiroki; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new wireless breathing-training support system for kinesitherapy. The system consists of an optical sensor, an accelerometer, a microcontroller, a Bluetooth module and a laptop computer. The optical sensor, which is attached to the patient's chest, measures chest circumference. The low frequency components of circumference are mainly generated by breathing. The optical sensor outputs the circumference as serial digital data. The accelerometer measures the dynamic acceleration force produced by exercise, such as walking. The microcontroller sequentially samples this force. The acceleration force and chest circumference are sent sequentially via Bluetooth to a physical therapist's laptop computer, which receives and stores the data. The computer simultaneously displays these data so that the physical therapist can monitor the patient's breathing and acceleration waveforms and give instructions to the patient in real time during exercise. Moreover, the system enables a quantitative training evaluation and calculation the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.

  5. ‘Smart food city’: conceptual relations between smart city planning, urban food systems and innovation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maye, Damian

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual link between smart city planning and urban food systems research in terms of governance and innovation. The ‘smart city’ concept is linked to an urban research agenda which seeks to embed advances in technology and data collection into the infrastructures of urban environments. Through this neoliberal framework, market-led and technological solutions to city governance and development are prioritised. The urban food movement has a different trajectory compared...

  6. Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lombardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts.

  7. EDUCATION SYSTEMS AND ACADEMIC SATISFACTION: A Study on Rural and Urban Students of Traditional Vs Open Education System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi SINGH,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A satisfaction and dissatisfaction level within an individual influences the motivation level and his/her performance throughout the life. When an individual is satisfied with his/her work, he/she gets pleasure and feels motivated. Obtaining satisfaction from their education system is very important for students as this will lead to better learning possibilities. This paper aims to compare the level of academic satisfaction among the students of Traditional Education System and Open Education System. This paper also investigates academic satisfaction of urban and rural based students and comparing them over traditional (Urban: 110; Rural: 90, and open (Urban: 80; Rural: 71 education system. Statistical tests demonstrate that there is significant difference in the level of academic satisfaction among the students of Open Education System (OES and Traditional Education System (TES.

  8. Development of plant status display system for on-site educational training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Okamoto, Hisatake; Tsunoda, Ryohei; Watanabe, Takao; Masuko, Jiro.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to make easy the comprehension of the facility and dynamics of nuclear power plants. This report describes the tendency and future position of how the educational training system should be, and furthermore describes the experiment. Main results are as follows. 1. The present status and the future tendency of educational training system for nuclear power plant operators. CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) system has following characteristics. (1) It is easy to introduce plant specific characteristics to the educational training. (2) It is easy to execute the detailed training for the compensation of the full-scale simulator. 2. Plant status display system for on-site educational training system. The fundamental function of the system is as follows. (1) It has 2 CRT displays and voice output devices. (2) It has easy manupulation type of man-machine interface. (3) It has the function for the evaluation of the training results. 3. The effectiveness of this system. The effectiveness evaluation test has been carried out by using this system actually. (1) This system has been proved to be essentially effective and some improvements for the future utilization has been pointed out. (2) It should be faster when the CRT displayes are changed, and it should have the explanation function when the plant transients are displayed. (author)

  9. Training digital divide seniors to use a telehealth system: a remote training approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Albert M; Kaufman, David R; Starren, Justin

    2006-01-01

    As the use of health information technologies continues to proliferate amongst seniors, many of whom lack computer experience, there is a need to develop effective training approaches to foster basic competencies. This paper describes the REmote Patient Education in a Telemedicine Environment (REPETE) system, a component of the IDEATel telemedicine architecture. The REPETE architecture supports simultaneous visual and audio teaching modes over low bandwidth connections. This paper presents an in-depth qualitative analysis of two patients being trained to use the IDEATel patient web portal. The results indicate that this method of instruction was useful in facilitating patients' use of the web application. However, the observations suggest that there is learning curve for the trainer to use the resources effectively to establish common ground and foster competencies in the patient.

  10. National training course on radiation safety, Its insertion in the cuban system of education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, Netor; Hernadez Saiz, Alejandro; Calli Fernadez, Ernesto; Perez Reyes, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene has been organizing, since more than ten years, the national training course on Radiation Safety, taking into account the particular needs of the Country in this area. The curriculum of the course, after some years of improvements, is showed and some aspects related to its design and insertion in the national system of education and training in Radiation Safety are discussed. The maintenance of an updated database of participants has demonstrated to be a very useful tool for dissemination of knowledge in Radiation Safety and for a continuously improvement of the imparted courses and offered services. The importance of the participation of the Regulatory Authority in the Course, from its organization phase, is also stressed

  11. Dynamic Coupling Analysis of Urbanization and Water Resource Utilization Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While urbanization brings economic and social benefits, it also causes water pollution and other environmental ecological problems. This paper provides a theoretical framework to quantitatively analyze the dynamic relationship between water resource utilization and the process of urbanization. Using data from Jiangsu province, we first construct indices to evaluate urbanization and water resource utilization. We then adopt an entropy model to examine the correlation between urbanization and water resource utilization. In addition, we introduce a dynamic coupling model to analyze and predict the coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization. Our analyses show that pairing with rising urbanization during 2002–2014, the overall index of water resource utilization in Jiangsu province has experienced a “decline -rise-decline” trend. Specifically, after the index of water resource utilization reached its lowest point in 2004, it gradually began to rise. Water resource utilization reached its highest value in 2010. The coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization was relatively low in 2002 and 2003 varying between −90° and 0°. It has been rising since then. Out-of-sample forecasts indicate that the coupling degree will reach its highest value of 74.799° in 2016, then will start to gradually decline. Jiangsu province was chosen as our studied area because it is one of the selected pilot provinces for China’s economic reform and social development. The analysis of the relationship between provincial water resource utilization and urbanization is essential to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these two systems. It also serves as an important input for developing national policies for sustainable urbanization and water resource management.

  12. Guideways for high speed magnetically levitated train systems - TRANSRAPID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkner, H [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany); Grossert, E [IBF Dr. Falkner GmbH, Braunschweig/Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is a rapid train system designed for speeds ranging from 300 to 500 km/h, using new no-contact levitation, guidance and propulsion system technologies, which will soon be used for an actual operational line. On the Transrapid Test Facility in Emsland (TVE), suitibility studies have been carried out since 1984. In 1989, work began on the plans for a reference line. Different guideway constructions, designed for the actual operational line are discussed in the following article. (orig.)

  13. Tank waste remediation system dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POHTO, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units operated by TWRS are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (including 204-AR Waste Transfer Building), the 600 Area Purgewater Storage and the Effluent Treatment Facility. TSD Units undergoing closure are: the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System, 207-A South Retention Basin, and the 216-B-63 Trench

  14. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental...... medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios...... on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations...

  15. A Two-Stage Queue Model to Optimize Layout of Urban Drainage System considering Extreme Rainstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainstorm is a main factor to cause urban floods when urban drainage system cannot discharge stormwater successfully. This paper investigates distribution feature of rainstorms and draining process of urban drainage systems and uses a two-stage single-counter queue method M/M/1→M/D/1 to model urban drainage system. The model emphasizes randomness of extreme rainstorms, fuzziness of draining process, and construction and operation cost of drainage system. Its two objectives are total cost of construction and operation and overall sojourn time of stormwater. An improved genetic algorithm is redesigned to solve this complex nondeterministic problem, which incorporates with stochastic and fuzzy characteristics in whole drainage process. A numerical example in Shanghai illustrates how to implement the model, and comparisons with alternative algorithms show its performance in computational flexibility and efficiency. Discussions on sensitivity of four main parameters, that is, quantity of pump stations, drainage pipe diameter, rainstorm precipitation intensity, and confidence levels, are also presented to provide guidance for designing urban drainage system.

  16. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Moon, H.J.; Kim, T.I.; Kim, H.W.; Han, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. -- Highlights: •Urban extensive green roof systems have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff. •These systems are improve runoff mitigation and decentralized urban water management. •These systems have a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. •The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52. -- Extensive green-roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to mitigate urban runoff

  17. Innovative approach for achieving of sustainable urban water supply system by using of solar photovoltaic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Margeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes and analyses new and innovative concept for possible integration of solar photovoltaic (PV energy in urban water supply system (UWSS. Proposed system consists of PV generator and invertor, pump station and water reservoir. System is sized in such a manner that every his part is sized separately and after this integrated into a whole. This integration is desirable for several reasons, where the most important is the achievement of the objectives of sustainable living in urban areas i.e. achieving of sustainable urban water supply system. The biggest technological challenge associated with the use of solar, wind and other intermittent renewable energy sources RES is the realization of economically and environmentally friendly electric energy storage (EES. The paper elaborates the use of water reservoires in UWSS as EES. The proposed solution is still more expensive than the traditional and is economically acceptable today in the cases of isolated urban water system and special situations. Wider application will depend on the future trends of energy prices, construction costs of PV generators and needs for CO2 reduction by urban water infrastructure.

  18. Evaluation of the 3d Urban Modelling Capabilities in Geographical Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, A. O.; Seker, D. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) Technology, which provides successful solutions to basic spatial problems, is currently widely used in 3 dimensional (3D) modeling of physical reality with its developing visualization tools. The modeling of large and complicated phenomenon is a challenging problem in terms of computer graphics currently in use. However, it is possible to visualize that phenomenon in 3D by using computer systems. 3D models are used in developing computer games, military training, urban planning, tourism and etc. The use of 3D models for planning and management of urban areas is very popular issue of city administrations. In this context, 3D City models are produced and used for various purposes. However the requirements of the models vary depending on the type and scope of the application. While a high level visualization, where photorealistic visualization techniques are widely used, is required for touristy and recreational purposes, an abstract visualization of the physical reality is generally sufficient for the communication of the thematic information. The visual variables, which are the principle components of cartographic visualization, such as: color, shape, pattern, orientation, size, position, and saturation are used for communicating the thematic information. These kinds of 3D city models are called as abstract models. Standardization of technologies used for 3D modeling is now available by the use of CityGML. CityGML implements several novel concepts to support interoperability, consistency and functionality. For example it supports different Levels-of-Detail (LoD), which may arise from independent data collection processes and are used for efficient visualization and efficient data analysis. In one CityGML data set, the same object may be represented in different LoD simultaneously, enabling the analysis and visualization of the same object with regard to different degrees of resolution. Furthermore, two CityGML data sets

  19. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  20. The Effects of Domestic Energy Consumption on Urban Development Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryazdi, M. D.; Homaei, N.; Arjmand, A.

    2018-05-01

    In developed countries, people have learned to follow efficient consumption patterns, while in developing countries, such as Iran, these patterns are not well executed. A large amount of energy is almost consumed in buildings and houses and though the consumption patterns varies in different societies, various energy policies are required to meet the consumption challenges. So far, several papers and more than ten case studies have worked on the relationship between domestic energy consumption and urban development, however these researches did not analyzed the impact of energy consumption on urban development. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the interactions between the energy consumption and urban development by using system dynamics as the most widely used methods for complex problems. The proposed approach demonstrates the interactions using causal loop and flow diagrams and finally, suitable strategies will be proposed for urban development through simulations of different scenarios.

  1. Closing the nutrient loops in (peri) urban farming systems through composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    waste management practices in developing countries and ensure sustainable crop production via the biotransformation of urban waste into a high-quality soil amendment. First, I aimed at determining the causes for the limited use of organic amendments in small-scale urban farming systems. I interviewed...... 220 urban farmers in Ethiopia and found that competition for agricultural waste between fuel, feed and soil amendment is a major cause for the limited use of organic amendments. I demonstrated that allocation of agricultural waste for soil amendment is linked with farmers’ livelihood strategies. I...... also studied variation in compost demand among different farmer groups, and the socio-economic variables which explained these variations. Gaseous losses of ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur during composting of nitrogen-rich urban waste. Several technologies could reduce these losses...

  2. Advanced Materials, Technologies, and Complex Systems Analyses: Emerging Opportunities to Enhance Urban Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Li, Qilin; Buono, Regina M; Chen, Wei; Daigger, Glen; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Elimelech, Menachem; Huang, Xia; Jiang, Guibin; Kim, Jae-Hong; Logan, Bruce E; Sedlak, David L; Westerhoff, Paul; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2017-09-19

    Innovation in urban water systems is required to address the increasing demand for clean water due to population growth and aggravated water stress caused by water pollution, aging infrastructure, and climate change. Advances in materials science, modular water treatment technologies, and complex systems analyses, coupled with the drive to minimize the energy and environmental footprints of cities, provide new opportunities to ensure a resilient and safe water supply. We present a vision for enhancing efficiency and resiliency of urban water systems and discuss approaches and research needs for overcoming associated implementation challenges.

  3. Evaluation of the WRF-Urban Modeling System Coupled to Noah and Noah-MP Land Surface Models Over a Semiarid Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Francisco; Zhang, Yizhou; Barlage, Michael; Chen, Fei; Mahalov, Alex; Miao, Shiguang

    2018-03-01

    We have augmented the existing capabilities of the integrated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-urban modeling system by coupling three urban canopy models (UCMs) available in the WRF model with the new community Noah with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP) land surface model (LSM). The WRF-urban modeling system's performance has been evaluated by conducting six numerical experiments at high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal grid spacing) during a 15 day clear-sky summertime period for a semiarid urban environment. To assess the relative importance of representing urban surfaces, three different urban parameterizations are used with the Noah and Noah-MP LSMs, respectively, over the two major cities of Arizona: Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrate that Noah-MP reproduces somewhat better than Noah the daily evolution of surface skin temperature and near-surface air temperature (especially nighttime temperature) and wind speed. Concerning the urban areas, bulk urban parameterization overestimates nighttime 2 m air temperature compared to the single-layer and multilayer UCMs that reproduce more accurately the daily evolution of near-surface air temperature. Regarding near-surface wind speed, only the multilayer UCM was able to reproduce realistically the daily evolution of wind speed, although maximum winds were slightly overestimated, while both the single-layer and bulk urban parameterizations overestimated wind speed considerably. Based on these results, this paper demonstrates that the new community Noah-MP LSM coupled to an UCM is a promising physics-based predictive modeling tool for urban applications.

  4. LHC train control system for autonomous inspections and measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Di Castro, Mario; Baiguera Tambutti, Maria Laura; Gilardoni, Simone; Losito, Roberto; Lunghi, Giacomo; Masi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Intelligent robotic systems are becoming essential for inspection and measurements in harsh environments, such as the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) accelerators complex. Aiming at increasing safety and machine availability, robots can help to perform repetitive or dangerous tasks, reducing the risk for the personnel as the exposure to radiation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel at CERN has been equipped with fail-safe trains on monorail able to perform autonomously d...

  5. Energy consumption of magnetic-levitation train systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, W J

    1981-11-01

    In transport, interest is at present being directed to the energy consumption of the various systems. The 'maglev' system is not yet in practical transport use, so that many characteristics of the system have still to be proven. Calculations show, however, that the 'maglev' train system can meet or even exceed the high requirements familiar to us from the conventional railway. Among the assumptions made with respect to speed, acceleration, distance between halts and capacity utilization it can be shown by calculation that the 'maglev' system is more economical in energy consumption than most existing passenger transport systems. A final judgement on the still existing uncertainties with respect to the traction resistance curve and the motor efficiency can only be made after the experimental 'maglev' layout now being built in Emsland has gone into operation.

  6. Zero Emission Mobility Systems in Cities. Inductive Recharge System Planning in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maternini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, “Sustainable” and “Smart” mobility became concepts of fundamental importance and led national government to adopt programmes and measures aimed at reducing the carbon emissions of private and commercial vehicles. The final goal is to pursue the EU objectives of reducing the greenhouse gases emission in transportation sector. The progressive electrification of the circulating vehicles represents a possible solution to the air pollution relating problems. A recent innovative research field, which could significantly contribute to the diffusion of the electric vehicles, consists of the inductive recharge systems for electric vehicles. This technology could also bring to considerably environmental and logistic advantages, especially in urban areas. Starting from the analysis of the main ongoing experimentations of these innovative systems in the world, the present paper proposes a possible application of the inductive recharge technology to the public transport vehicles, through the presentation of the case study of Brescia.

  7. Evaluation of a new method for assessing resilience in urban aquatic social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Moores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban aquatic social-ecological systems (SESs comprise socio-technical elements, the built environment and its management, and natural elements (water bodies that provide ecosystem services. Changed hydrology, poor stormwater quality, and the modification of water bodies associated with urban development brings challenges for maintaining ecosystem services provision in an urban aquatic SES. Water sensitive urban design (WSUD has emerged as a form of development that aims to better support the provision of ecosystem services. Resilience concepts provide a basis for discriminating between WSUD and conventional development approaches. Building on an existing decision support system, a new, preliminary method for assessing resilience based on the combination of the socio-technical capacity (STC and natural capacity (NC of urban aquatic SESs has been developed. The STC score reflects a multicriteria assessment of the characteristics of stormwater infrastructure and management. The NC score reflects an assessment of the state and trajectory of biophysical attributes of the system associated with the provision of ecosystem services. By modeling a series of future urban development scenarios in Auckland, New Zealand, the method has been shown to discriminate between scenario outcomes within constraints associated with the biophysical and built characteristics modeled. Results are consistent with key concepts of resilience theory: outcomes are grouped in regimes and exhibit hysteresis, with the ability of WSUD to improve the state of the system strongly influenced by the presence of legacy effects. The method provides a source of additional, valuable information that complements other indicators by providing a snapshot of the interaction of catchment management effort and outcomes and indicating the likely future state of the SES. Recognizing that the method is limited to providing a relative assessment of resilience and adopts certain simplistic

  8. Train-to-Ground communications of a Train Control and Monitoring Systems: A simulation platform modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaziz, Maha; Yan, Ying; Kassab, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    wireless technologies, e.g. Wi-Fi and LTE. Different T2G scenarios are defined in order to evaluate the performances of the Mobile Communication Gateway (managing train communications) and Quality of Services (QoS) offered to TCMS applications in the context of various environments (regular train lines......Under the SAFE4RAIL project, we are developing a simulation platform based on a discrete-events network simulator. This platform models the Train-to-Ground (T2G) link in the framework of a system-level simulation of Train Control Management System (TCMS). The modelled T2G link is based on existing...

  9. Training programs for the systems approach to nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Doris E.

    2005-01-01

    In support of the US Government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Security Programmes, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has advocated and practiced a risk-based, systematic approach to nuclear security. The risk equation has been implemented as the basis for a performance methodology for the design and evaluation of Physical Protection Systems against a Design Basis Threat (DBT) for theft or sabotage of nuclear and/or radiological materials. Since integrated systems must include people as well as technology and the man-machine interface, a critical aspect of the human element is to train all stakeholders in nuclear security on the systems approach. Current training courses have been beneficial but are still limited in scope. SNL has developed two primary international courses and is completing development of three new courses that will be offered and presented in the near term. In the long-term, SNL envisions establishing a comprehensive nuclear security training curriculum that will be developed along with a series of forthcoming IAEA Nuclear Security Series guidance documents.

  10. Robust Economic Control Decision Method of Uncertain System on Urban Domestic Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kebai; Ma, Tianyi; Wei, Guo

    2018-03-31

    As China quickly urbanizes, urban domestic water generally presents the circumstances of both rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. A robust economic control decision method for dynamic uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. It is developed based on the internal model principle and pole allocation method, and it is applied to an urban domestic water supply system with rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. To achieve this goal, first a multiplicative model is used to describe the urban domestic water demand. Then, a capital stock and a labor stock are selected as the state vector, and the investment and labor are designed as the control vector. Next, the compensator subsystem is devised in light of the internal model principle. Finally, by using the state feedback control strategy and pole allocation method, the multivariable robust economic control decision method is implemented. The implementation with this model can accomplish the urban domestic water supply control goal, with the robustness for the variation of parameters. The methodology presented in this study may be applied to the water management system in other parts of the world, provided all data used in this study are available. The robust control decision method in this paper is also applicable to deal with tracking control problems as well as stabilization control problems of other general dynamic uncertain systems.

  11. Sustainable Urban (re-Development with Building Integrated Energy, Water and Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Goo Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction and service of urban infrastructure systems and buildings involves immense resource consumption. Cities are responsible for the largest component of global energy, water, and food consumption as well as related sewage and organic waste production. Due to ongoing global urbanization, in which the largest sector of the global population lives in cities which are already built, global level strategies need to be developed that facilitate both the sustainable construction of new cities and the re-development of existing urban environments. A very promising approach in this regard is the decentralization and building integration of environmentally sound infrastructure systems for integrated resource management. This paper discusses such new and innovative building services engineering systems, which could contribute to increased energy efficiency, resource productivity, and urban resilience. Applied research and development projects in Germany, which are based on integrated system approaches for the integrated and environmentally sound management of energy, water and organic waste, are used as examples. The findings are especially promising and can be used to stimulate further research and development, including economical aspects which are crucial for sustainable urban (re-development.

  12. Green-blue multifunctional infrastructure : An urban landscape system design new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzniecow Bacchin, T.; Ashley, R.; Sijmons, D.F.; Zevenbergen, C.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cities exhibit unique and ever-changing spatial layouts formed by nested natural and socio-economic systems, sub-systems and components resulting from exchange, interaction, and interdependency processes. In this context, managing surface water in urban areas requires new approaches that integrate

  13. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical...

  14. Application of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems to ecosystem-based urban natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohui Zhang; George Ball; Eve Halper

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated system to support urban natural resource management. With the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS), the paper emphasizes the methodology of integrating information technology and a scientific basis to support ecosystem-based management. First, a systematic integration framework is developed and...

  15. Analysis on the Chinese Urban Sustainable Development Demands for the Management Plan of Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵历男

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes the demands of the sustainable development and Chinese urban environmental protection for the management plan of intelligent transportation systems. The article also comments on how to work out the management plan of intelligent transportation systems with China's own characteristics.

  16. ICUD-0471 Weather radar rainfall for design of urban storm water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Wright, D. B.; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2017-01-01

    Long continuous series of high-resolution radar rainfall series provides valuable information on spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, which can be used in design of urban drainage systems. In design of especially large drainage systems with complex flow patterns (and potentially surface ...

  17. Development of geoinformation zoning model of urban territories for use in urban cadaster systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Вікторович Горковчук

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of zoning spatial resources is explored. Geoinformation mode of geospatial zoning data on the basis of object-relational database management system is developed. Developed zoning model is tested in the environment of open-source database management system PostgreSQL. Applied SQL-function for automatic creation of build conditions and restrictions of land development is implemented

  18. Crew Scheduling Considering both Crew Duty Time Difference and Cost on Urban Rail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail crew scheduling problem is to allocate train services to crews based on a given train timetable while satisfying all the operational and contractual requirements. In this paper, we present a new mathematical programming model with the aim of minimizing both the related costs of crew duty and the variance of duty time spreads. In addition to iincorporating the commonly encountered crew scheduling constraints, it also takes into consideration the constraint of arranging crews having a meal in the specific meal period of one day rather than after a minimum continual service time. The proposed model is solved by an ant colony algorithm which is built based on the construction of ant travel network and the design of ant travel path choosing strategy. The performances of the model and the algorithm are evaluated by conducting case study on Changsha urban rail. The results indicate that the proposed method can obtain a satisfactory crew schedule for urban rails with a relatively small computational time.

  19. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  20. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one...... environmental medium. In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is “wrapped around” a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: a reference scenario...... and a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense...

  1. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drai......An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored...... and their uncertainty contributed to further improving the performance of drainage systems. The results of this paper will contribute to the wider usage of global RTC methods in the management of urban drainage networks....

  2. Purpose and benefit of control system training for operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimoch, E.; Luedeke, A.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of accelerators is ever increasing and today it is typical that a large number of feedback loops are implemented, based on sophisticated models which describe the underlying physics. Despite this increased complexity the machine operators must still effectively monitor and supervise the desired behavior of the accelerator. This is not alone sufficient; additionally, the correct operation of the control system must also be verified. This is not always easy since the structure, design, and performance of the control system is usually not visualized and is often hidden to the operator. To better deal with this situation operators need some knowledge of the control system in order to react properly in the case of problems. In fact operators need mental models of the control system to recognize fault states and react appropriate to errors and misbehavior of both, the accelerator and the control system itself. Mental models gained only on infrequent experience can be imprecise or plain wrong in worst case. Control system training can provide a foundation to build better mental models and therefore help to enhance operator responses and machine availability. For a refinement of the mental model repeated experience is needed. This can be provided by training sessions at the real accelerator

  3. The Evolution of River–Lake and Urban Compound Systems: A Case Study in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization takes up a lot of wetlands, profoundly changing the natural connection of surrounding river–lake systems, all the while causing serious damage to the environment of connected catchments. Urban systems and river–lake systems are not isolated and static, there is a relation between them which is constantly changing. Based on the idea of system research, the urban system is simplified into four subsystems: environment, infrastructure, social, and economic. These four components interact together, influencing the river–lake system to form a compound system. This paper aims to reflect the features and evolution laws of the compound system, by building a Collaborative Development Model to study the changing of the compound system in Wuhan, China over a 10-year period. The results show that by implementing the Donghu Lake Ecological River Network Engineering Project, the damaged river–lake system in Wuhan showed some improvement. However, in order to improve the sustainability of the compound system in Wuhan, the status of the river–lake system, social system and environment system, which are still comparatively substandard, should be constantly improved. The Collaborative Development Model could also be used in other cities and regions, to provide the basis for sustainable development.

  4. Structural change in a system of urban places: the 20th-century evolution of Hungary's urban settlement network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovanyi, G

    1986-02-01

    A review of urban change in Hungary in the twentieth century is presented. Both the traditional approach to studying urban change, involving changes in the percentage of those residing in urban areas, and the newly developed approach, focusing on regional aspects of urbanization, are used in the analysis. "In sharp contrast to most European countries Hungary is shown to evidence continued centralization of urban development, but the recent experience of Budapest and other indicators are said to portend future decentralization." (summary in FRE, GER) excerpt

  5. Design and Realization of Ship Fire Simulation Training System Based on Unity3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ye; Feng, Chen; Wenqiang, Wang; Kai, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Ship fire training is a very important training to ensure the safety of the ship, but limited by the characteristics of the ship itself, it is difficult to carry out fire training on the ship. This paper proposes to introduce a virtual reality technology to build a set of ship fire simulation training system, used to improve the quality of training, reduce training costs. First, the system design ideas are elaborated, and the system architecture diagram is given. Then, the key technologies in the process of system implementation are analyzed. Finally, the system examples are built and tested.

  6. Primary care training and the evolving healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoralo, Lauren A; Callahan, Kathryn; Stark, Rachel; DeCherrie, Linda V

    2012-01-01

    With growing numbers of patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations, and the potential implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the provision of primary care in the United States is expanding and changing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create more primary-care physicians and to train physicians to practice in this environment. In this article, we review the impact that the changing US healthcare system has on trainees, strategies to recruit and retain medical students and residents into primary-care internal medicine, and the preparation of trainees to work in the changing healthcare system. Recruitment methods for medical students include early preclinical exposure to patients in the primary-care setting, enhanced longitudinal patient experiences in clinical clerkships, and primary-care tracks. Recruitment methods for residents include enhanced ambulatory-care training and primary-care programs. Financial-incentive programs such as loan forgiveness may encourage trainees to enter primary care. Retaining residents in primary-care careers may be encouraged via focused postgraduate fellowships or continuing medical education to prepare primary-care physicians as both teachers and practitioners in the changing environment. Finally, to prepare primary-care trainees to effectively and efficiently practice within the changing system, educators should consider shifting ambulatory training to community-based practices, encouraging resident participation in team-based care, providing interprofessional educational experiences, and involving trainees in quality-improvement initiatives. Medical educators in primary care must think innovatively and collaboratively to effectively recruit and train the future generation of primary-care physicians. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  7. Improving urban district heating systems and assessing the efficiency of the energy usage therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. E.; Sharapov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes issues in connection with improving urban district heating systems from combined heat power plants (CHPs), to propose the ways for improving the reliability and the efficiency of the energy usage (often referred to as “energy efficiency”) in such systems. The main direction of such urban district heating systems improvement suggests transition to combined heating systems that include structural elements of both centralized and decentralized systems. Such systems provide the basic part of thermal power via highly efficient methods for extracting thermal power plants turbines steam, while peak loads are covered by decentralized peak thermal power sources to be mounted at consumers’ locations, with the peak sources being also reserve thermal power sources. The methodology was developed for assessing energy efficiency of the combined district heating systems, implemented as a computer software product capable of comparatively calculating saving on reference fuel for the system.

  8. Systems Engineering Management Training at Naval Air Systems Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebel, James

    2000-01-01

    Within the past few years, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) has undergone several major changes including an engineering reorganization from a matrix organization to an Integrated Program Team/Competency Aligned Organization (IPT/CAO...

  9. Evaluation of alternative public transportation systems in Izmit urban transportation via axiomatic design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen AKMAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world and in our country, most of urban transportation is performed by public transportation. Public transportation is a system which provides transportation easiness and opportunity to people, not to vehicles. Therefore, giving priority to public transportation system is necessary in organizing urban transportation. In this study, in order to reduce traffic intensity and to facilitate passenger transportation in Izmit urban transportation, It is tried to determine appropriate public transportation system. For this, firstly, alternatives which could be used for public transportation were determined. These alternatives are metro, metrobus, tram, light rail system and monorail. Afterwards, the variables affecting decision making about public transportation were determined. These variables are cost, transportation line features, vehicle characteristics, sensitivity to environment and customer satisfaction. Lastly, most appropriate public transportation system is proposed by using the axiomatic design method. As a result, light trail system and metrobus are determined as the most appropriate alternatives for Izmit public transportation system.Keywords: Urban transportation, Multi criteria decision making, Axiomatic design

  10. Emergent nested systems a theory of understanding and influencing complex systems as well as case studies in urban systems

    CERN Document Server

    Walloth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a theory as well as methods to understand and to purposively influence complex systems. It suggests a theory of complex systems as nested systems, i. e. systems that enclose other systems and that are simultaneously enclosed by even other systems. According to the theory presented, each enclosing system emerges through time from the generative activities of the systems they enclose. Systems are nested and often emerge unplanned, and every system of high dynamics is enclosed by a system of slower dynamics. An understanding of systems with faster dynamics, which are always guided by systems of slower dynamics, opens up not only new ways to understanding systems, but also to effectively influence them. The aim and subject of this book is to lay out these thoughts and explain their relevance to the purposive development of complex systems, which are exemplified in case studies from an urban system. The interested reader, who is not required to be familiar with system-theoretical concepts or wit...

  11. Toward an integrated theory of spatial morphology and resilient urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Marcus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We take the first step in the development of a new field of research with the aim of merging spatial morphology and resilience science. This involves a revisiting and reunderstanding of the meaning of sustainable urban form. We briefly describe the fields of resilience science and spatial morphology. Drawing on a selected set of propositions in both fields, we put urban form in the context of the adaptive renewal cycle, a dynamic framework model used in resilience science to capture the dynamics of complex adaptive systems, of which urban systems are prime examples. We discuss the insights generated in this endeavor, dealing with some key morphological aspects in relation to four key attributes of resilience, i.e., "change," "diversity," "self-organization," and "learning." We discuss and relate these to urban form and other social variables, with special attention paid to the "backloop phase" of the adaptive renewal cycle. We conclude by postulating ways in which resilience thinking could contribute to the development of a new research frontier for addressing designs for resilient urban social-ecological systems, and end by proposing three strategic areas of research in such a field.

  12. System dynamics modeling of the impact of Internet-of-Things on intelligent urban transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Urban transportation systems are at the cusp of a major transformation that capitalizes on the proliferation of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), autonomous and cooperative vehicular and intelligent roadway technologies, advanced traffic management systems, and big data analytics. The benefits of these smart-transportation technologies were investigated using System Dynamics modeling, with particular emphasis towards vehicle sharing, intelligent highway systems, and smart-parking solutions. The m...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Deletic, Ana; Fowdar, Harsha; Fu, Guangtao; Kleidorfer, Manfred; McCarthy, David; Steen Mikkelsen, Peter; Rauch, Wolfgang; Sweetapple, Chris; Vezzaro, Luca; Yuan, Zhiguo; Willems, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, reviews the state-of-the-art and modelling tools developed recently to understand and manage GHG emissions from IUDS. Further, open problems and research gaps are discussed and a framework for handling GHG emissions from IUDSs is presented. The literature review reveals that there is a need to strengthen already available mathematical models for IUDS to take GHG into account.

  14. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrot Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature concerning the characteristics of sediments from SDS, with a particular focus on heavy metals in sediments deposited in the urban catchment area.

  15. Expert System Development for Urban Fire Hazard Assessment. Study Case: Kendari City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taridala, S.; Yudono, A.; Ramli, M. I.; Akil, A.

    2017-08-01

    Kendari City is a coastal urban region with the smallest area as well as the largest population in Southeast Sulawesi. Fires in Kendari City had rather frequently occurred and caused numerous material losses. This study aims to develop a model of urban fire risk and fire station site assessment. The model is developed using Expert Systems with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The high risk of fire area is the area which of high building density with combustible material, not crossed by arterial nor collector road. The fire station site should be appropriately close by high risk of fire area, located on arterial road and near with potential water resource.

  16. A novel balance training system using multimodal biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Oh, Min-Kyun; Choi, Hye Young; Yoon, Jungwon

    2016-04-22

    A biofeedback-based balance training system can be used to provide the compromised sensory information to subjects in order to retrain their sensorimotor function. In this study, the design and evaluation of the low-cost, intuitive biofeedback system developed at Gyeongsang National University is extended to provide multimodal biofeedback for balance training by utilization of visual and haptic modalities. The system consists of a smartphone attached to the waist of the subject to provide information about tilt of the torso, a personal computer running a purpose built software to process the smartphone data and provide visual biofeedback to the subject by means of a dedicated monitor and a dedicated Phantom Omni(®) device for haptic biofeedback. For experimental verification of the system, eleven healthy young participants performed balance tasks assuming two distinct postures for 30 s each while acquiring torso tilt. The postures used were the one foot stance and the tandem Romberg stance. For both the postures, the subjects stood on a foam platform which provided a certain amount of ground instability. Post-experiment data analysis was performed using MATLAB(®) to analyze reduction in body sway. Analysis parameters based on the projection of trunk tilt information were calculated in order to ascertain the reduction in body sway and improvements in postural control. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no statistically significant interactions between postures and biofeedback. Post-hoc analysis revealed statistically significant reduction in body sway on provision of biofeedback. Subjects exhibited maximum body sway during no biofeedback trial, followed by either haptic or visual biofeedback and in most of the trials the multimodal biofeedback of visual and haptic together resulted in minimization of body sway, thus indicating that the multimodal biofeedback system worked well to provide significant (p biofeedback system can offer more customized training

  17. New measuring and protection system at VR-1 training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.; Jurickova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution describes the new measuring and protection system of the VR-1 training reactor. The measuring and protection system upgrade is an integral part of the reactor I and C upgrade. The new measuring and protection system of the VR-1 reactor consists of the operational power measuring and the independent power protection systems. Both systems measure the reactor power and power rate, initiate safety action if safety limits are exceeded and send data (power, power rate, status, etc.) to the reactor control system. The operational power measuring system is a full power range system that receives signal from a fission chamber. The signal is evaluated according to the reactor power either in the pulse or current mode. The current mode utilizes the DC current and Campbell techniques. The new independent power protection system operates in the two highest reactor power decades. It receives signals from a boron chamber and evaluates it in the pulse mode. Both systems are computer based. The operational power measuring and independent power protection systems are diverse - different types and location of chambers, completely different hardware, software algorithms for the power and power rate calculations, software development tools and teems for the software manufacturing. (author)

  18. A flexible simulator for training an early fault diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsiletti, M.; Santinelli, A.; Zuenkov, M.; Poletykin, A.

    1997-01-01

    An early fault diagnostic system has been developed addressed to timely trouble shooting in process plants during any operational modes. The theory of this diagnostic system is related with the usage of learning methods for automatic generation of knowledge bases. This approach enables the conversion of ''cause→effect'' relations into ''effect→possible-causes'' ones. The diagnostic rules are derived from the operation of a plant simulator according to a specific procedure. Flexibility, accuracy and high speed are the major characteristics of the training simulator, used to generate the diagnostic knowledge base. The simulator structure is very flexible, being based on LEGO code but allowing the use of practically any kind of FORTRAN routines (recently also ACSL macros has been introduced) as plant modules: this permits, when needed, a very accurate description of the malfunctions the diagnostic system should ''known''. The high speed is useful to shorten the ''learning'' phase of the diagnostic system. The feasibility of the overall system has been assessed, using as reference plant the conventional Sampierdarena (Italy) power station, that is a combined cycle plant dedicated to produce both electrical and heat power. The hardware configuration of this prototype system was made up of a network of a Hewlett-Packard workstation and a Digital VAX-Station. The paper illustrates the basic structure of the simulator used for this diagnostic system training purpose, as well as the theoretical background on which the diagnostic system is based. Some evidence of the effectiveness of the concept through the application to Sampierdarena 40 MW cogeneration plant is reported. Finally an outline of an ongoing application to a WWER-1000 plant is given; the operating system is, in this case, UNIX. (author)

  19. Scaling laws and indications of self-organized criticality in urban systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang; Zhou Yixing

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of urban systems has been considered to exhibit some form of self-organized criticality (SOC) in the literature. This paper provides further mathematical foundations and empirical evidences to support the supposition. The hierarchical structure of systems of cities can be formulated as three exponential functions: the number law, the population size law, and the area law. These laws are identical in form to the Horton-Strahler laws of rivers and Gutenberg-Richter laws of earthquakes. From the exponential functions, three indications of SOC are also derived: the frequency-spectrum relation indicting the 1/f noise, the power laws indicating the fractal structure, and the Zipf's law indicating the rank-size distribution. These mathematical models form a set of scaling laws for urban systems, as demonstrated in the empirical study of the system of cities in China. The fact that the scaling laws of urban systems bear an analogy to those on rivers and earthquakes lends further support to the notion of possible SOC in urban systems

  20. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  1. Using Systems Thinking to train future leaders in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Anne; Frost, Laura J

    2017-07-09

    Systems Thinking provides a useful set of concepts and tools that can be used to train students to be effective and innovative global health leaders in an ever-changing and often chaotic world. This paper describes an experiential, multi-disciplinary curriculum that uses Systems Thinking to frame and analyse global health policies and practices. The curriculum uses case studies and hands-on activities to deepen students' understanding of the following concepts: complex adaptive systems, dynamic complexity, inter-relationships, feedback loops, policy resistance, mental models, boundary critique, leverage points, and multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral, and multi-stakeholder thinking and action. A sample of Systems Thinking tools for analysing global health policies and practices are also introduced.

  2. RS-485 Bus Design of a Missile Simulation Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a missile simulation training system with one-master and multi-slaves distributed system structure, a universal controller is necessary due to the system composed with several controllers. In this research, the designed controllers communicate with each other and upper control computer through RS-485 field bus. RS-485 bus including interface circuits, transmission protocol, Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC method and upper control test software is designed and proposed. The universal controller adopting the designed RS-485 interface circuits is connected through twisted-pair and makes the simulation system, then the controller is tested in line. The results show that the RS-485 bus communicates effectively using the protocol and CRC method, data transmission rates reaches 115.2 kbps, and has a good stability.

  3. Socio-economic characterization of integrated cropping systems in urban and peri-urban agriculture of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ur Rehman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisalabad city is surrounded by agricultural lands, where farmers are growing vegetables, grain crops, and fodder for auto-consumption and local marketing. To study the socioeconomic impact and resource use in these urban and peri-urban agricultural production (UPA systems, a baseline survey was conducted during 2009–2010. A total of 140 households were selected using a stratified sampling method and interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that 96 % of the households rely on agriculture as their main occupation. Thirty percent of the households were owners of the land and the rest cultivated either rented or sharecropped land. Most of the families (70 % were headed by a member with primary education, and only 10 % of the household head had a secondary school certificate. Irrigationwater was obtained from waste water (37 %, canals (27 %, and mixed alternative sources (36 %. A total of 35 species were cultivated in the UPA systems of which were 65% vegetables, 15% grain and fodder crops, and 5% medicinal plants. Fifty-nine percent of the households cultivated wheat, mostly for auto-consumption. The 51 % of the respondents grew cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. and gourds (Cucurbitaceae in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. Group marketing was uncommon and most of the farmers sold their produce at the farm gate (45 % and on local markets (43 %. Seeds and fertilizers were available from commission agents and dealers on a credit basis with the obligation to pay by harvested produce. A major problem reported by the UPA farmers of Faisalabad was the scarcity of high quality irrigation water, especially during the hot dry summer months, in addition to lacking adequate quantities of mineral fertilizers and other inputs during sowing time. Half of the respondents estimated their daily income to be less than 1.25 US$ and spent almost half of it on food. Monthly average household income and expenses were 334 and 237 US

  4. Effective e-Training: Using a Course Management System and e-Learning Tools to Train Library Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Andrew; Teetor, Travis Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the University of Arizona Libraries implemented an online training program to effectively train Access Services staff and student employees at a large academic research library. This article discusses the program, which was built using a course management system (D2L) and various e-Learning software applications (Articulate…

  5. Sustainable urban rail systems: Strategies and technologies for optimal management of regenerative braking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, Arturo; Palacin, Roberto; Batty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of principal regenerative braking strategies and technologies for urban rail. • Different energy storage technologies are assessed for use in urban rail. • Optimising timetables is a preferential measure to improve energy efficiency. • Energy storage systems improve efficiency and reliability of urban rail systems. • Reversible substations allow for a complete recovery of braking energy. - Abstract: In a society characterised by increasing rates of urbanisation and growing concerns about environmental issues like climate change, urban rail transport plays a key role in contributing to sustainable development. However, in order to retain its inherent advantages in terms of energy consumption per transport capacity and to address the rising costs of energy, important energy efficiency measures have to be implemented. Given that numerous and frequent stops are a significant characteristic of urban rail, recuperation of braking energy offers a great potential to reduce energy consumption in urban rail systems. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available strategies and technologies for recovery and management of braking energy in urban rail, covering timetable optimisation, on-board and wayside Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) and reversible substations. For each measure, an assessment of their main advantages and disadvantages is provided alongside a list of the most relevant scientific studies and demonstration projects. This study concludes that optimising timetables is a preferential measure to increase the benefits of regenerative braking in any urban rail system. Likewise, it has been observed that ESSs are a viable solution to reuse regenerative energy with voltage stabilisation and energy saving purposes. Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors has been identified as the most suitable technology for ESSs in general, although high specific power batteries such as Li-ion may become a practical option for on

  6. A model for predicting the potential diffusion of solar energy systems in complex urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Gennusa, Maria; Lascari, Giovanni; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca; Sorrentino, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The necessity to reduce greenhouse gases emission produced by energy building consumptions and to cut the energy bill (mainly due to the use of fossil sources) leads to the employment of renewable energy sources in new planned scenarios. In particular, more and more often municipal energy and environmental plans pay great attention to the possibilities of employment of the solar technologies at urban scale. Solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) systems are, by far, the most suitable tools to be utilized in urban areas. Obviously, the proper adoption of such systems in buildings does call for the availability of calculation methods suitable to provide the actual level of exploitation of solar energy in urban layouts. In this work, a procedure for evaluating the geographical energy potential of building roofs in urban areas is proposed; in particular, the amount of surface on the roof that could be used for the installation of systems able to capture solar radiation for the energy production is investigated. The proposed procedure is based on the use of the GIS technology and 3D cartography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is assessed by means of an application to the town of Palermo (Italy). - Highlights: → The GIS techniques allow to analyze various future scenarios about urban planning. → We propose a procedure for assessing the extension of superficial urban areas useable for the installation of solar systems. → This procedure allow to compile a scale of priority of intervention. → The cost for financing such interventions is compared to the penalty to pay for not achieving the Kyoto goals.

  7. Evaluatiopn of Strategies for Modifying Urban Storm Water Drainage System Using Risk-based Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahsa soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate modification of existing urban storm water drainage networks may help reduce network inundation and flood-borne pollution risks. It will, therefore, be necessary to analyze the risks associated with water quantity and quality during urban flooding before any reconstruction strategies can be identified that are adaptable to, or compatible with, urban sustainable development strategies. In this paper, three network modification strategies are evaluated against the three criteria of network inundation at different sections, flood pollution risks, and modification plan costs. The modification strategies evaluated include the conventional approach of increasing conduit dimensions as well as the two novels swale and bio-retention systems. The strategies are then prioritised using a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case study of urban storm water drainage systems in the Golestan City in Tehran Province for which a hydrological and hydraulic simulation model has been developed using the SWMM software. The results show that the swale system is the best strategy with an approximate cost of 20 billion Rials (almost US$ 6 million. Compared to the existing system in operation, the proposed system will be capable of reducing 59% of the quantitative risk of flooding (inundation and 26% of the water quality risk (pollution loads.

  8. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes, mainly urbanization and climatic change, leads to increased runoff and peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to reduce potential damage and inconvenience. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the conveyance capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. Contemporary practice is to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in the climate- and the urban environment, this approach is no longer appropriate, and explicit consideration of gradual changes during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and responses over the analysis period. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  9. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  11. Training for Adaptibility and Transfer on Digital Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaab, Brooke

    2001-01-01

    .... This research compared training digital skills to entry-level, enlisted soldiers by the conventional method to training by a constructivist method The constructivist method actively engages soldiers...

  12. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  13. THE ARCHITECTURE OF MULTI-COMPONENT DISTRIBUTED HYBRID EXPERT TRAINING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оleh Shevchuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the design of a multi-component architecture of distributed hybrid expert training system that can be used for the study of knowledge base of both internal and external expert systems and artificial intelligence systems that are distributed on Internet servers and other computer networks. Expert training system is based on three groups of basic principles: cybernetic, reflecting experience of previous research of systems of artificial intelligence, expert training systems; pedagogical, determining the principles, on which pedagogical design and use of expert training systems are based; psychological, determining preconditious and understanding of pupils psychics, on which the processes of design and use of expert training systems in professional training of future specialists are based.It accounts for the efficient training through the distributed knowledge via the Internet, which greatly increases the didactic capabilities of the system.

  14. Deterioration and optimal rehabilitation modelling for urban water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Pipe failures in water distribution systems can have a serious impact and hence it’s important to maintain the condition and integrity of the distribution system. This book presents a whole-life cost optimisation model for the rehabilitation of water distribution systems. It combines a pipe breakage

  15. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical University of Denmark has tested the DGNB-UD system in two experimental design projects for similar locations to find out how it can be used in the early-phase design process. This paper describes these ...

  16. Nuclear power plant training simulator system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.W.; Converse, R.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described for simulating the real-time dynamic operation of a full scope nuclear powered electrical generating plant for operator training utilizing apparatus that includes a control console with plant component control devices and indicating devices for monitoring plant operation. A general purpose digital computer calculates the dynamic simulation data for operating the indicating devices in accordance with the operation of the control devices. The functions for synchronization and calculation are arranged in a priority structure so as to insure an execution order that provides a maximum overlap of data exchange and simulation calculations. (Official Gazette)

  17. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Nondestructive Testing Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. K.; Koh, S. N. [Joong Ang Inspection Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. K.; Shim, Y. J. [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing

  18. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Nondestructive Testing Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Koh, S. N.; Kim, M. K.; Shim, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing

  19. European Train Control System: A Case Study in Formal Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, André; Quesel, Jan-David

    Complex physical systems have several degrees of freedom. They only work correctly when their control parameters obey corresponding constraints. Based on the informal specification of the European Train Control System (ETCS), we design a controller for its cooperation protocol. For its free parameters, we successively identify constraints that are required to ensure collision freedom. We formally prove the parameter constraints to be sharp by characterizing them equivalently in terms of reachability properties of the hybrid system dynamics. Using our deductive verification tool KeYmaera, we formally verify controllability, safety, liveness, and reactivity properties of the ETCS protocol that entail collision freedom. We prove that the ETCS protocol remains correct even in the presence of perturbation by disturbances in the dynamics. We verify that safety is preserved when a PI controlled speed supervision is used.

  20. Assessment of the service performance of drainage system and transformation of pipeline network based on urban combined sewer system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, due to global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events occur to the city at an increasing frequency. Waterlogging is common because of heavy rains. In this case, the urban drainage system can no longer meet the original design requirements, resulting in traffic jams and even paralysis and post a threat to urban safety. Therefore, it provides a necessary foundation for urban drainage planning and design to accurately assess the capacity of the drainage system and correctly simulate the transport effect of drainage network and the carrying capacity of drainage facilities. This study adopts InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) to present the two combined sewer drainage systems in Yangpu District, Shanghai (China). The model can assist the design of the drainage system. Model calibration is performed based on the historical rainfall events. The calibrated model is used for the assessment of the outlet drainage and pipe loads for the storm scenario currently existing or possibly occurring in the future. The study found that the simulation and analysis results of the drainage system model were reliable. They could fully reflect the service performance of the drainage system in the study area and provide decision-making support for regional flood control and transformation of pipeline network.

  1. The potential role of waste biomass in the future urban electricity system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yu; Werf, van der Edwin; Ierland, van Ekko C.; Keesman, Karel J.

    2017-01-01

    The share of intermittent renewable electricity (IRE) in the future urban electricity system is expected to increase significantly. Sufficient back-up capacity is needed in the period when IRE output is low. Bioenergy is both dispatchable and carbon-neutral, and can hence be a promising option to

  2. Measuring Crowdedness between Adjacent Stations in an Urban Metro System: a Chinese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban metro system has been widely appreciated as the most important component in urban infrastructures. It plays a critical role in promoting urban social and economic development, and particularly in reducing the urban traffic congestion. However, there are various inherent problems with operating metro systems, which typically involve the crowdedness both at stations and inside vehicles. Both policymakers and academic researchers in China have paid little attention to the crowdedness between metro stations. In order to solve the problem of crowdedness, it is necessary to develop a method to evaluate the level of crowdedness. This work establishes a model to measure the crowdedness between adjacent stations in a metro system based on the load factor principle, passenger standing density, and other factors such as the metro operation schedule and estimations of passenger flows. The Chongqing Metro Line 3 in China is used as a case study to demonstrate the application of the evaluation model. The case study reveals that the model introduced in this study can assist with assessing the crowdedness level between adjacent stations in a metro line. The model is an effective tool for helping the metro management and administration understand the level of crowdedness, apply proper methods to mitigate the crowdedness, and thus improve the quality of the service for those utilizing the metro system.

  3. Electre III method in assessment of variants of integrated urban public transport system in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna SOLECKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.

  4. Redistribution, Growth, and Inclusion : The Development of the Urban Housing System in China, 1949-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains the development of the urban housing system in China from 1949 to 2011 with an emphasis on the factors driving housing inequality in each policy period. We argue that the logic underpinning the housing policy had shifted from socialist redistribution to the stimulation of growth

  5. Understanding and Managing Staff Development in an Urban School System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip; And Others

    A study is reported that examined the way staff development functions in schools, the effects of staff development, and the interaction between staff development and other activities and conditions in school systems. The study took place in a large urban school district (in the Southeast) that is heavily committed to and involved in staff…

  6. Multi-agent control of urban transportation networks and of hybrid systems with limited information sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing efficient methods for control of large-scale systems by employing state-of-the-art control methods and optimization techniques. This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, we address dynamic traffic routing for urban transportation networks. In the second

  7. Optimization of Urban Wastewater Systems using Model Based Design and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Quintero, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this research a considerable amount of scientific evidence had been collected which leads to the conclusion that the urban wastewater components should be designed as one integrated system, if the protection of the receiving waters is to be achieved cost-effectively. Even more, there is a need

  8. Urban Livestock Keeping in the City of Nairobi: Diversity of Production Systems, Supply Chains, and Their Disease Management and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alarcon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors. Supply chain flow diagrams and thematic analysis of the data was done. Results of the study show a large variability of livestock keeping in Nairobi. The majority were small scale with: <5 dairy cows, 1–6 dairy goats, <10 small ruminants, <20 pigs, 200–500 broilers, 300–500 layers, <10 indigenous chickens, or <20 rabbits. Beef keeping was mainly described as a “by the way” system or done by traders to fatten animals for 3 month. Supply chain analysis indicated that most dairy farmers sold milk directly to consumers due to “lack of trust” of these in traders. Broiler and pig farmers sold mainly to traders but are dependent on few large dominating companies for their replacement or distribution of products. Selling directly to retailers or consumers (including own consumption, with backyard slaughtering, were important chains for small-scale pig, sheep and goat, and indigenous chicken keepers. Important disease risk practices identified were associated with consumption of dead and sick animals, with underground network of brokers operating for ruminant products. Qualified trained health managers were used mainly by dairy farmers, and large commercial poultry and pig farmers, while use of unqualified health managers or no treatment were common in small-scale farming. Control of urban livestock

  9. Improvement of urban passenger transport ticketing systems by deploying intelligent transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jakubauskas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main advantages and disadvantages of conventional and intelligent ticketing systems and possible positive outcomes when introducing intelligent transport solutions – namely smart cards or e‑ticketing instead of conventional ones (paper tickets and magnetic cards are analysed in the paper. Two ideas of creating an intelligent ticketing system in an urban public transport are scrutinized. The first is electronic ticket and related equipment, the second – e-ticket and functional areas of it. In the article analysis has also been made on practical outcomes related with introduction of smart cards and e-ticketing. Practical tests and trials as well as a subsequent implementation of electronic tickets have proved unchallenged advantages of contactless smart cards against the contact ones. Nevertheless, a new age of modern technologies calls even for more effective solutions – namely virtual-ticketing systems that might be achieved through introduction of mobile technologies. Therefore, the main focus in the paper is made on the analysis of e-ticket.

  10. From Global Sustainability to Inclusive Education: Understanding urban children's ideas about the food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Koch, Pamela D.; Contento, Isobel R.; Hagiwara, Sumi

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report our findings from a qualitative study intended to develop our understandings of: what high-poverty urban children understand and believe about food and food systems; and how such children transform and use that knowledge in their everyday lives (i.e. how do they express their scientific literacies including content understandings, process understandings, habits of mind in these content areas). This qualitative study is part of a larger study focused on understanding and developing science and nutritional literacies among high-poverty urban fourth-grade through sixth-grade students and their teachers and caregivers.

  11. Adaption to Extreme Rainfall with Open Urban Drainage System: An Integrated Hydrological Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-01-01

    with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas....... The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental...

  12. Designed technological systems: the cases of urban transportation in Copenhagen and Bogotá

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    accomplished in two different parts of the planet: in the city of Bogotá, in Colombia, the first mass bus rapid transit system was designed, built and put into operation becoming the most visible icon of a great urban transformation of the 7 million inhabitants metropolis; in the city of Copenhagen, in Denmark...... is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences in the life of cities and citizens. Thus a problem that is often outlined in technical terms...

  13. Heating and cogenerative systems in urban settlements and industry. Symposium proceedings - Book 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the symposium is to present cogeneration systems for energy production and the district heating systems normally connected to them. Nowadays, it is the most exploited topic with the most potential in the field of energy in general. The reason for this is the expansion of the implementation of natural gas, ecological limitations imposed upon the local and global polluters and the need for such energy sources in the power systems. Divided into topical wholes it is analysed potential sources of heat, transport system, distribution and regulation of the delivered energy to the consumers, manners of rational use of heat in the urban settlements and manners of ownership transformation of heat supplying systems of the urban settlements. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris. PMID:23429581

  15. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-02-21

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  16. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban areas. The production systems use less labor, pesticide, water, and nutrition. However, food production of plant factories has many challenges including higher energy demand, energy costs, and installation costs of artificially controlled technologies. In the research, stochastic optimization model and linear complementarity models are formulated to conduct optimal and equilibrium food–energy analysis of plant factory production. A case study of plant factories in the Taiwanese market is presented.

  17. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  18. Heating and co-generative systems in urban settlements and industry. Symposium proceedings - Book 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the symposium is to present cogeneration systems for energy production and the district heating systems normally connected to them. Nowadays, it is the most exploited topic with the most potential in the field of energy in general. The reason for this is the expansion of the implementation of natural gas, ecological limitations imposed upon the local and global polluters and the need for such energy sources in the power systems. Divided into topical wholes it is analysed potential sources of heat, transport system, distribution and regulation of the delivered energy to the consumers, manners of rational use of heat in the urban settlements and manners of ownership transformation of heat supplying systems of the urban settlements. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. 2015 Plan. Project 6: urban and rural distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The main development trends of distribution systems in 2015 Plan is studied, with the data of market continuity, costs and evolution of the physique system. Some factors that will influence the evolution of the distribution systems are presented and the impacts of economic view are discussed. The strategic lines that will give direction for the distribution expansion, including the energy conservation are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  20. PARCEL DELIVERY IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT USING UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS: A VISION PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anbaroğlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This vision paper addresses the challenges and explores the avenue of solutions regarding the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS for transporting parcels in urban areas. We have already witnessed companies’ delivering parcels using UAS in rural areas, but the challenge of utilizing them for an urban environment is eminent. Nevertheless, the increasing research on the various aspects of UAS, including their battery life, resistance to harsh weather conditions and sensing its environment foresee their common usage in the logistics industry, especially in an urban environment. In addition, the increasing trend on 3D city modelling offer new directions regarding realistic as well as light 3D city models that are easy to modify and distribute. Utilizing UAS for transporting parcels in an urban environment would be a disruptive technological achievement as our roads will be less congested which would lead to less air pollution as well as wasted money and time. In addition, parcels could potentially be delivered much faster. This paper argues, with the support of the state-of-the-art research, that UASs will be used for transporting parcels in an urban environment in the coming decades.

  1. A Decision Support Information System for Urban Landscape Management Using Thermal Infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Howell, Burgess F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we describe efforts to use remote sensing data within the purview of an information support system, to assess urban thermal landscape characteristics as a means for developing more robust models of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. We also present a rationale on how we have successfully translated the results from the study of urban thermal heating and cooling regimes as identified from remote sensing data, to decision-makers, planners, government officials, and the public at large in several US cities to facilitate better understanding of how the UHI affects air quality. Additionally, through the assessment of the spatial distribution of urban thermal landscape characteristics using remote sensing data, it is possible to develop strategies to mitigate the UHI that hopefully will in turn, drive down ozone levels and improve overall urban air quality. Four US cities have been the foci for intensive analysis as part of our studies: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. The remote sensing data for each of these cities has been used to generate a number of products for use by "stakeholder" working groups to convey information on what the effects are of the UHI and what measures can be taken to mitigate it. In turn, these data products are used to both educate and inform policy-makers, planners, and the general public about what kinds of UHI mitigation strategies are available.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Modelling the Economy-Society-Ecology System in Urbanization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization has become a key part of social and economic progress in the 21st Century, but achieving healthy and safe urban development has a long way to go for many developed and developing countries. Urbanization has been recognized as a complex ecosystem which is affected by economic, social, and ecological factors. With this in mind, this paper looks at many factors to first evaluate based on the matter-element (ME method and then model an Economy-Society-Ecology (ESE subsystem using a hybrid method by a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP, and then by using the entropy method (EM to determine the relevant index weights. To avoid subjectivity when defining the model’s boundaries, the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS is introduced. Then, a coupling coordination degree model focusing on the degree of coordination in the ESE subsystem is established. Panel data collected from 2003 to 2012 for Chengdu, China, is then simulated to analyze the development process. The results show that: (1 The quality of urbanization continues to improve and the phasic features are presented; (2 The sensitivity analysis of subsystem weight shown that it had less effect on the coupling coordinated system; (3 The coordination in the ESE subsystem has also improved. However, the development rate of the economic subsystem is greater than that of the societal and ecological subsystem. The approach used here therefore, is shown to provide a promising basis for policy-making to support healthy urban development.

  3. Parcel Delivery in AN Urban Environment Using Unmanned Aerial Systems: a Vision Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbaroğlu, B.

    2017-11-01

    This vision paper addresses the challenges and explores the avenue of solutions regarding the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for transporting parcels in urban areas. We have already witnessed companies' delivering parcels using UAS in rural areas, but the challenge of utilizing them for an urban environment is eminent. Nevertheless, the increasing research on the various aspects of UAS, including their battery life, resistance to harsh weather conditions and sensing its environment foresee their common usage in the logistics industry, especially in an urban environment. In addition, the increasing trend on 3D city modelling offer new directions regarding realistic as well as light 3D city models that are easy to modify and distribute. Utilizing UAS for transporting parcels in an urban environment would be a disruptive technological achievement as our roads will be less congested which would lead to less air pollution as well as wasted money and time. In addition, parcels could potentially be delivered much faster. This paper argues, with the support of the state-of-the-art research, that UASs will be used for transporting parcels in an urban environment in the coming decades.

  4. A Model for Urban Environment and Resource Planning Based on Green GDP Accounting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment and resources are currently on course that is unsustainable in the long run due to excessive human pursuit of economic goals. Thus, it is very important to develop a model to analyse the relationship between urban economic development and environmental resource protection during the process of rapid urbanisation. This paper proposed a model to identify the key factors in urban environment and resource regulation based on a green GDP accounting system, which consisted of four parts: economy, society, resource, and environment. In this model, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method and a modified Pearl curve model were combined to allow for dynamic evaluation, with higher green GDP value as the planning target. The model was applied to the environmental and resource planning problem of Wuyishan City, and the results showed that energy use was a key factor that influenced the urban environment and resource development. Biodiversity and air quality were the most sensitive factors that influenced the value of green GDP in the city. According to the analysis, the urban environment and resource planning could be improved for promoting sustainable development in Wuyishan City.

  5. Development of Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS of Urban Road Network Using HDM-4 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Chopra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS for four road sections of urban road network (Patiala, Punjab, India using Highway Development and Management (HDM-4 model. The HDM-4 provides a deterministic approach in data input and process data of existing road condition, traffic volume and pavement composition to predict road deterioration as per the urban road conditions in terms of International Roughness Index (IRI value. This study presents the use of HDM-4 model for the computation of optimum Maintenance and Rehabilitation (M&R strategy for each road section and comparative study of scheduled and condition responsive M&R strategies. The results of present study will be useful for gaining better support for decision-makers for adequate and timely fund allocations for preservation of the urban road network.

  6. Geometric validation of a mobile laser scanning system for urban applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Haiyan; Li, Jonathan; Yu, Yongtao; Liu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) technologies have been actively studied and implemented over the past decade, as their application fields are rapidly expanding and extending beyond conventional topographic mapping. Trimble's MX-8, as one of the MLS systems in the current market, generates rich survey-grade laser and image data for urban surveying. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether Trimble MX-8 MLS data satisfies the accuracy requirements of urban surveying. According to the formula of geo-referencing, accuracies of navigation solution and laser scanner determines the accuracy of the collected LiDAR point clouds. Two test sites were selected to test the performance of Trimble MX-8. Those extensive tests confirm that Trimble MX-8 offers a very promising tool to survey complex urban areas.

  7. ACADEMIC MOTIVATION AMONG URBAN & RURAL STUDENTS: A Study on Traditional Vs Open Education System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi SINGH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education today is being viewed as a tool to achieve prosperity and high living standards. It is thus looked upon as a service to the society and a powerful weapon to change the society for its betterment. Motivation plays a crucial role in learning. Motivation energizes the behavior of the individual. It also directs the behavior towards specific goals. It helps in acquisition of knowledge, develops social qualities, increases initiation of persistence in activities, leads to improved performance and develops a sense of discipline in the individual. This paper aims to compare Open Education System and Traditional Education System with respect to Academic Motivation of students towards the two types of education systems. This paper also tries to compare the academic motivation of rural and urban based students. It has been found in this paper that there is significant different in Academic Motivation among students of the two types of education systems. The significant difference in academic motivation has also been found in urban and rural based students, compared between the two systems. The paper has also forwarded some suggestions which may be considered by the policy makers and administrators of OES to help increase the academic motivation of students of OES.Academic Motivation, Traditional Education System, Open Education System, Higher Education System, Rural based students, and Urban based students

  8. Meeting Skills Needs in a Market-Based Training System: A Study of Employer Perceptions and Responses to Training Challenges in the Australian Transport and Logistics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekara, Victor O.; Snell, Darryn; Chhetri, Prem; Manzoni, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are adopting market-based training systems to address industry skills needs. This paper examines the marketisation of Australia's training system and the implications for training provision and outcomes in the Transport and Logistics industry. Drawing on qualitative interviews from industry employers and training providers, we…

  9. Cadastral Systems Re-engineering in Urban Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The land administration system is supposed to consist of value adding processes in which several actors interact in a workflow which creates new or transfers parcels. This workflow is associated with transaction costs, part of which can be employed for maintenance of the cadastral information system. This article presents ...

  10. Considering the ways biocultural diversity helps enforce the urban green infrastructure in times of urban transformation : System dynamics and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierikko, Kati; Elands, Birgit; Niemelä, Jari; Andersson, Erik; Buijs, Arjen; Fischer, Leonie Katharina; Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Kowarik, Ingo; Luz, Ana Catarina; Olafsson Stahl, Anton; Száraz, Luca; van der Jagt, Sander; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, biocultural diversity (BCD) has been researched in non-western and indigenous societies. Recently, it has also been applied in urbanized and industrialized societies, in particular for the planning and management of urban green infrastructure (UGI). Diversity in human and biological

  11. National Implications for Urban School Systems: Strategic Planning in the Human Resource Management Department in a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clarence; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses several key ongoing issues in a large urban school district. Literature focuses on what make a large urban school district effective in Human Resource Management. The effectiveness is addressed through recruitment and retention practices. A comparison of the school district with current research is the main approach to the…

  12. Validating Stormwater system simulations in Edmonton Using MIKE URBAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, M.

    2016-12-01

    Many municipalities use chloramination to disinfect drinking water so as to avert the production of the disinfection by-products (DBPs) that result from conventional chlorination processes and the consequential public health risks. However, the long-lasting monochloramine disinfectant (NH2Cl) can pose a significant risk to the environment. As, it can be introduced into stormwater sewers and thus freshwater sources. This study was intended to investigate decay of NH2Cl in stormwater networks starting by building a stormwater model and validating its hydraulic and hydrologic computations, and then modelling water quality in the storm sewers. The presented work here is only the first stage of this study. The 30th Avenue basin in Edmonton was chosen as a case study, because it has various land-use types including commercial, industrial, residential and parks. The City of Edmonton has already built a MIKE-URBAN stormwater model for modelling floods. However, this model was built to the trunk level where only the main drainage features were presented. Also, this model was not calibrated and known to consistently compute pipe flows higher than the observed values; not to the benefit of studying water quality. So the first goal was to complete modelling and updating the real stormwater network. Then, available GIS Data was used to calculate different catchment properties such as slope, length and imperviousness. To calibrate and validate this model, data of two temporary pipe flow monitoring stations was used along with records of two other permanent stations available for eight consecutive summer seasons. The effect of various hydrological parameters on model results was investigated. It was found that model results were affected by the ratio of impervious areas. The catchment length was tested, however calculated, because it is approximate representation of the catchment shape. Surface roughness coefficients were calibrated using. Consequently, computed flows at the two

  13. Environmental Impacts of Promoting New Public Transport Systems in Urban Mobility: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ortego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban mobility is highly dependent on private vehicles causing pollution, traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The tram has become one of the most relevant public transport modes in those cities which need to reduce the private vehicle dependency. However, the implementation of this kind of infrastructure must be done carefully to avoid unsuccessful route designs which make the system unfeasible to operate. With the aim of analysing the impact that a tram can cause in a city, an original methodology has been developed, which takes into account the effect of the new transport system implementation on three subimpacts: traffic, public bus and outskirts neighbourhoods. This methodology uses different data sources from urban traffic, environmental and energy systems. The methodology has been applied to the city of Zaragoza (Spain with a current population of around 700,000 inhabitants. The main results found were that tram line 1 saves 6% of the annual final energy consumption of urban mobility, urban traffic has decreased by 7.7% in the city as a whole and by 39.7% for streets close to the tramway.

  14. Designing Sustainable Systems for Urban Freight Distribution through techniques of Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muerza, V.; Larrode, E.; Moreno- Jimenez, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis and selection of the parameters that have a major influence on the optimization of the urban freight distribution system by using sustainable means of transport, such as electric vehicles. In addition, a procedure has been be studied to identify the alternatives that may exist to establish the best system for urban freight distribution, which suits the stage that is considered using the most appropriate means of transportation available. To do this, it has been used the Analytic Hierarchy Process, one of the tools of multicriteria decision analysis. In order to establish an adequate planning of an urban freight distribution system using electric vehicles three hypotheses are necessary: (i) it is necessary to establish the strategic planning of the distribution process by defining the relative importance of the strategic objectives of the process of distribution of goods in the urban environment, both economically and technically and in social and environmental terms; (ii) it must be established the operational planning that allows the achievement of the strategic objectives with the most optimized allocation of available resources; and (iii) to determine the optimal architecture of the vehicle that best suits the operating conditions in which it will work and ensures optimum energy efficiency in operation. (Author)

  15. Validation, verification and evaluation of a Train to Train Distance Measurement System by means of Colored Petri Nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Haifeng; Liu, Jieyu; Schnieder, Eckehard

    2017-01-01

    Validation, verification and evaluation are necessary processes to assure the safety and functionality of a system before its application in practice. This paper presents a Train to Train Distance Measurement System (TTDMS), which can provide distance information independently from existing onboard equipment. Afterwards, we proposed a new process using Colored Petri Nets to verify the TTDMS system functional safety, as well as to evaluate the system performance. Three main contributions are carried out in the paper: Firstly, this paper proposes a formalized TTDMS model, and the model correctness is validated using state space analysis and simulation-based verification. Secondly, corresponding checking queries are proposed for the purpose of functional safety verification. Further, the TTDMS performance is evaluated by applying parameters in the formal model. Thirdly, the reliability of a functional prototype TTDMS is estimated. It is found that the procedure can cooperate with the system development, and both formal and simulation-based verifications are performed. Using our process to evaluate and verify a system is easier to read and more reliable compared to executable code and mathematical methods. - Highlights: • A new Train to Train Distance Measurement System. • New approach verifying system functional safety and evaluating system performance by means of CPN. • System formalization using the system property concept. • Verification of system functional safety using state space analysis. • Evaluation of system performance applying simulation-based analysis.

  16. Can terraced pond wetland systems improve urban watershed water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ho, M.; Flanagan, N. E.; Richardson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Properly built constructed wetlands are a more economic and efficient way of wastewater treatment compared with traditional methods, although their mechanisms are far from completely understood. As part of the Stream and Wetland Assessment Management Park (SWAMP), which is aimed to improve the water quality of downstream and thereby enhance watershed ecosystem services, a terraced three-pond wetland system was created near Duke University in 2014. This project is expected to promote the retention and settling of pollutants and sediment before runoffs enter downstream flow. The goal of this study is to examine: (1) whether a terraced pond wetland system improves water quality, during both baseline (low flow) and storm events (high flow), which increases pollutant inputs; and (2) how this system functions to remove pollutants, namely what components of this system (plant, soil or water) increase or decrease the level of pollutants. By analyzing a dataset consisting of more than four-year monthly samplings from Pond 1 (first pond in the system) and Pond 3 (last pond in the system), we found that the pond system has reduced total suspended solids (TSS) but only when elevated inputs occur. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is closely related to temperature and macrophytes growth; whereas acidity (pH), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) did not show retention in the early stages of the system development. This system reaches its optimum for reducing TSS at the second pond, but the third pond has important effects on DO, pH, TN and TP. A monitoring in 2017 shows this pond system significantly reduces TSS while increasing dissolved oxygen and neutralizing pH after a storm event; although greater variations incurred within the system as time progresses after storm, overall retention function remained valid. Retention of the pollutants is primarily accomplished by the settling process, which occurs in stilled waterbody of the ponds and by the filtration of macrophytes. We

  17. Framework for Intelligent Teaching and Training Systems -- A Study of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf von Malotky, Nikolaj Troels; Martens, Alke

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Tutoring System are state of the art in eLearning since the late 1980s. The earliest system have been developed in teams of psychologists and computer scientists, with the goal to investigate learning processes and, later on with the goal to intelligently support teaching and training with computers. Over the years, the eLearning hype…

  18. Transformative governance of urban social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central aspect of adaptive governance is a learning process that can help communities achieve environmental objectives. Adaptive governance is a framework for managing social-ecological systems, and is the precursor to transformative governance. Adaptive governance accounts for...

  19. Cadastral Systems Re-engineering in Urban Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-16

    Nov 16, 2015 ... 1Geomatics Department, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, ... cadastral information system of all municipalities in Zimbabwe with .... various levels of government, private, non-governmental sector and.

  20. A model for radionuclide Migration in Urban Environment and Drainage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Gallego, E.; Jimenez, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Model for Radionuclide Migration in Urban Environment and Drainage Systems aims to estimate the discharge of radioactivity removed by natural or forced decontamination into the receiving waters from the drainage system, as well as the radioactivity joined with the sludge produced in treatments plants, whose various applications can mean a potential hazard. This model, built in Powersim, is included in the MOIRA system, a project whose main aim is the evaluation of the situation after a radioactive contamination of the aquatic ecosystems and the estimation of optimal remedial strategies to restore the contaminated waters. Powersim is an easy-to-use software package which simulates dynamic processes. Two sub-models compose the global model: one, simulating the evolution of Cs-137 in urban areas, and the other, the behaviour of this radionuclide, once it ha entered the drainage systems, with the various existing alternatives of waste water treatment in Europe. (Author) 8 refs

  1. Simple simulation training system for short-wave radio station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xianglin; Shao, Zhichao; Tu, Jianhua; Qu, Fuqi

    2018-04-01

    The short-wave radio station is a most important transmission equipment of our signal corps, but in the actual teaching process, which exist the phenomenon of fewer equipment and more students, making the students' short-wave radio operation and practice time is very limited. In order to solve the above problems, to carry out shortwave radio simple simulation training system development is very necessary. This project is developed by combining hardware and software to simulate the voice communication operation and signal principle of shortwave radio station, and can test the signal flow of shortwave radio station. The test results indicate that this system is simple operation, human-machine interface friendly and can improve teaching more efficiency.

  2. Quality management system of Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurellier, R.; Akchay, S.; Zararsiz, S.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Technical competence and national/international acceptance of independency of laboratories is ensured by going through accreditations. It provides decreasing the risk of a slowdown in international trade due to unnecessary repetition of testing and analyses. It also eliminates the cost of additional experiments and analyses. Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM) has performed intensive studies to establish an effective and well-functioning QMS (Quality Management System) by full accordance with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, since the begining of 2006. Laboratories, especially serving to public health studies and important trade duties require urgent accreditation. In this regard, SANAEM has established a quality management system and performed accreditation studies

  3. How many doctors should we train for Sri Lanka? System dynamics modelling for training needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, D

    2017-12-26

    Over the years, Sri Lanka has achieved remarkable health gains for the money spent on health. Currently about 1450 doctors enter the health system annually. While some advocate opening up of new medical schools to address an apparent shortage of doctors in the country, others argue against it. To identify the number of doctors Sri Lanka need. System dynamics, an analytical modelling approach and a methodology for studying complex feedback systems was used. Two sub models of “need” and “supply” were developed and simulated for a period of 15 years from 2017 to 2032 At present the doctor to population ratio is 1:671 and 91% of the need has been met. This study shows that currently there is a shortage of doctors in the country. However, the supply will match the need by 2025/26. Increasing the number of doctors, will result in oversupply of doctors towards the latter part of the next decade. There is no acute necessity to open up new Medical Schools. However comprehensive health workforce analysis needs to be done once in 5 years and the number of doctors to be trained, decided accordingly.

  4. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined...

  5. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrot Nicole; Wojciechowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS) is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature c...

  6. Optimal design and real time control of the integrated urban run-off system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Rauch, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    Traditional design of urban run-off systems is based on fixed rules with respect to the points of demarcation between the three systems involved: the sewer system, the treatment plant and the receiving water. An alternative to fixed rules is to model the total system. There is still uncertainty...... and evaluation of competing alternatives for design. However, the complexity of these systems is such that the parameters associated with pollution are hardly identifiable on the basis of reasonable monitoring programmes. The empirical-iterative approach: structures are built on simplified assumptions...

  7. Comparative Study on Urban Planning Inspection System in the UK and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The urban-rural planning inspector system of China is hierarchical supervision over local governments from the Central Government in respect of town and country development. The comparative analysis on planning inspection system of the UK may provide experience in seeking solutions to the problems occurring in the system of China. The planning inspector system of China can be improved in six aspects such as establishing the legal status, setting up the planning inspection agency, completing the personnel management system, enhancing the legal binding force, building the internal and external supervision channel, supplementing the relieve function, and establishing the coordination mechanism of various internal supervisions.

  8. Using virtual reality in simulation training system of radiation reconnaissance by vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shuijun

    2007-01-01

    The article introduced the Virtual Reality and development tools. It put forward the component and the characteristic feature of the simulation training system. It opens up prospects for chemical defense military training. (author)

  9. Integration of cabs and hired cars in urban transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer,

    1984-01-01

    Integrating taxis and limousine services into the public transit system has become a major goal in designing new forms of public transportation. Expanding the spectrum of possible use for these vehicles - for both scheduled and on-demand service - requires, first of all, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the current state of affairs in this area. Administrative, organizational, technical, and legal issues as well as the respective traffic patterns had to be investigated. This investigation was to find out if, and in what ways, taxis and limousine services could actually be incorporated into the public transit system. In addition, the results were interpreted against the background of experiments and tentative models for regular, scheduled and supplementary public transit. As a result, we developed a generalized concept for integrating the two systems and proposed possible forms of service, organization, and financial calculation. Included were legal issues and comments on contractual relations between the partners.

  10. Qualification, certification and training systems of a Japanese nuclear power plant supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshijima, S.; Tomita, J.; Yoneda, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Training and indoctrination of personnel are very important for performing quality assurance activities in nuclear power plants. The paper presents policies, procedures and practices with regard to a training system for site construction workers, a training system for plant operation personnel at a special facility, and services and activities for operating plants. The training system for site workers and technicians offers basic training for all workers, and special training and qualification for field welders, cable-termination workers and non-destructive examination personnel. In addition to the qualification system for field welders applied by the regulatory body, a privat-company qualification system exists. Also, a training centre for BWR operators has been established. This facility has a simulator duplicating the main control room of an actual plant and a computer-assisted instruction system. Standard training courses, short-term basic courses, re-training courses, group training courses and special training courses are held at the training centre. Finally, the services and activities performed by Toshiba Corporation for operating plants are described. These activities of the plant supplier aim at keeping up and further enhancing the safety and reliability of operating plants and mainly consist of: (1) collection and evaluation of plant operation data, with re-evaluation and improvement of systems and components; (2) development of new maintenance techniques; (3) development of measures for reducing annual outage periods; and (4) plant emergency preparedness. (author)

  11. Dependability analysis of the data communication system in train control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Communication based train control (CBTC) system is based on mobile communication and overcomes fixed blocks in order to increase track utilization and train safety. The data communication system (DCS) between trains and wayside equipment is a crucial factor for the safe and efficient operation of CBTC system. The dependability under various transmission conditions needs to be modeled and evaluated. In this paper,a stochastic reward net (SRN) model for DCS based IEEE 802.11 standard was developed,which captures all relevant failure and failure recovery behavior system aspects in a concise way. We compared the reliability,availability for DCS with and without access point (AP) and antenna redundant configuration. We also quantitatively evaluated and compared the frame loss probability for three DCS configurations with different train velocities and train numbers in one radio cell. Fixed-point iteration was adopted to simplify the analysis. Numerical results showed the significant improvement of the reliability,availability and the frame loss probability index for the full redundant configuration.

  12. Accident Management System Based on Vehicular Network for an Intelligent Transportation System in Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusor Rafid Bahar Al-Mayouf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As cities across the world grow and the mobility of populations increases, there has also been a corresponding increase in the number of vehicles on roads. The result of this has been a proliferation of challenges for authorities with regard to road traffic management. A consequence of this has been congestion of traffic, more accidents, and pollution. Accidents are a still major cause of death, despite the development of sophisticated systems for traffic management and other technologies linked with vehicles. Hence, it is necessary that a common system for accident management is developed. For instance, traffic congestion in most urban areas can be alleviated by the real-time planning of routes. However, the designing of an efficient route planning algorithm to attain a globally optimal vehicle control is still a challenge that needs to be solved, especially when the unique preferences of drivers are considered. The aim of this paper is to establish an accident management system that makes use of vehicular ad hoc networks coupled with systems that employ cellular technology in public transport. This system ensures the possibility of real-time communication among vehicles, ambulances, hospitals, roadside units, and central servers. In addition, the accident management system is able to lessen the amount of time required to alert an ambulance that it is required at an accident scene by using a multihop optimal forwarding algorithm. Moreover, an optimal route planning algorithm (ORPA is proposed in this system to improve the aggregate spatial use of a road network, at the same time bringing down the travel cost of operating a vehicle. This can reduce the incidence of vehicles being stuck on congested roads. Simulations are performed to evaluate ORPA, and the results are compared with existing algorithms. The evaluation results provided evidence that ORPA outperformed others in terms of average ambulance speed and travelling time. Finally, our

  13. Health financing and integration of urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Zhang, Luying; Yuan, Shasha; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zhiruo

    2017-11-07

    China is in the process of integrating the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) and the urban residents' basic medical insurance system (URBMI) into the urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance system (URRBMI). However, how to integrate the financing policies of NCMS and URBMI has not been described in detail. This paper attempts to illustrate the differences between the financing mechanisms of NCMS and URBMI, to analyze financing inequity between urban and rural residents and to identify financing mechanisms for integrating urban and rural residents' medical insurance systems. Financing data for NCMS and URBMI (from 2008 to 2015) was collected from the China health statistics yearbook, the China health and family planning statistics yearbook, the National Handbook of NCMS Information, the China human resources and social security statistics yearbook, and the China social security yearbook. "Ability to pay" was introduced to measure inequity in health financing. Individual contributions to NCMS and URBMI as a function of per capita disposable income was used to analyze equity in health financing between rural and urban residents. URBMI had a financing mechanism that was similar to that used by NCMS in that public finance accounted for more than three quarters of the pooling funds. The scale of financing for NCMS was less than 5% of the per capita net income of rural residents and less than 2% of the per capita disposable income of urban residents for URBMI. Individual contributions to the NCMS and URBMI funds were less than 1% of their disposable and net incomes. Inequity in health financing between urban and rural residents in China was not improved as expected with the introduction of NCMS and URBMI. The role of the central government and local governments in financing NCMS and URBMI was oscillating in the past decade. The scale of financing for URRBMI is insufficient for the increasing demands for medical services from the insured. The pooling fund

  14. PROJECT CI-NERGY: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED ENERGY URBAN PLANNING SYSTEM FROM A DATA MODELLING AND SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Agugiaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing urbanisation, its related environmental impacts, and social inequalities in cities are challenges requiring a holistic urban planning perspective that takes into account the different aspects of sustainable development. One crucial point is to reconcile urban planning with environmental targets, which include decreasing energy demand and CO2 emissions, and increasing the share of renewable energy. Within this context, the project CI-NERGY aims to develop urban energy modelling, simulation and optimisation methods and tools to support decision making in urban planning. However, there are several barriers to the implementation of such tools, such as: fragmentation of involved disciplines, different stakeholders, multiplicity of scales in a city and extreme heterogeneity of data regarding all the processes to be addressed. Project CI-NERGY aims, among other goals, at overcoming these barriers, and focuses on two case study cities, Geneva in Switzerland and Vienna in Austria. In particular, project CI-NERGY faces several challenges starting with different cities, heterogeneous data sources and simulation tools, diverse user groups and their individual needs. This paper describes the experiences gathered during the project. After giving a brief overview of the project, the two case study cities, Geneva and Vienna, are briefly presented, and the focus shifts then on overall system architecture of the project, ranging from urban data modelling topics to the implementation of a Service-Oriented Architecture. Some of the challenges faced, the solutions found, as well some plans for future improvements are described and commented.

  15. Čačak and its daily urban system: 1st part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Srboljub Đ.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to its functional capacity and the range of convergent and divergent gravitational influences, Čačak belongs to the group of macroregional centers of Serbia, with spatially and demographically strongly expressed and branchy urban system. In this article, we have analyzed daily convergent and divergent areas of labor force only, while other segments of urban system of Čačak will be treated in our forthcoming articles. Every day 10011 people travel toward Čačak, as well as from the city toward surroundings, to work or study. In the convergent daily gravitation, 8537 commuters take place (6592 workers or 77.2%, and 1945 schoolchildren and students or 22.8%, of which workers traveling from 166 settlements situated in the city surrounding. Divergent daily urban influence of Čačak has significantly smaller mass - 1474 commuters (1089 workers or 73.9%, and 385 pupils and students or 26.1%, as well as less settlements toward which distribution workers of commuters is distributed (91 settlements. Daily urban area of labor force of Čačak is wider and demographically more expressed comparing to the same area of pupils and students.

  16. Smart system for safe and optimal soil investigation in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alqadad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges and difficulties experienced during soil investigation in urban areas using drilling machines and soil sampling. The focus is on the consequences of a lack of data on the subsoil profile and presence of utilities, which could cause major accidents with severe economic and social losses, resulting in constriction activities being delayed and urban services being disrupted. This paper describes certain accidents related to soil investigation in Qatar and their consequences, as well as the lessons learned from these accidents. In order to meet the challenges of soil investigation in urban areas, this paper presents a solution based on smart technology, which includes: (i a geotechnical information system with update data concerning the soil profile, soil surface, utilities locations, and water table level; (ii tools for data management, analysis, and visualization; and (iii a user interface that allows authorities, companies, and citizens to access authorized data via a graphic interface, update data, and send messages and alerts in the case of any incident occurring. Finally, the paper presents a promising perspective for the development of smart drilling devices, which record data related to the functioning of a drilling machine and transmit data to the smart soil investigation system. Keywords: Soil investigation, Smart, Urban area, Drill borehole, GIS, Underground utility

  17. A Decision Support System for Plant Optimization in Urban Areas with Diversified Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyi Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine is an important factor which limits the choice of urban plant species, especially in environments with high-density buildings. In practice, plant selection and configuration is a key step of landscape architecture, which has relied on an experience-based qualitative approach. However, the rationality and efficiency of this need to be improved. To maintain the diversity of plant species and to ensure their ecological adaptability (solar radiation in the context of sustainable development, we developed the Urban Plants Decision Support System (UP-DSS for assisting plant selection in urban areas with diversified solar radiation. Our methodology mainly consists of the solar radiation model and calibration, the urban plant database, and information retrieval model. The structure of UP-DSS is also presented at the end of the methodology section, which is based on the platform of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Microsoft Excel. An application of UP-DSS is demonstrated in a residential area of Wuhan, China. The results show that UP-DSS can provide a very scientific and stable tool for the adaptive planning of shade-tolerant plants and photoperiod-sensitive plants, meanwhile, it also provides a specific plant species and the appropriate types of plant community for user decision-making according to different sunshine radiation conditions and the designer’s preferences.

  18. CO2 Outgassing from an Urbanized River System Fueled by Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae Kyung; Jin, Hyojin; Begum, Most Shirina; Kang, Namgoo; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2017-09-19

    Continuous underway measurements were combined with a basin-scale survey to examine human impacts on CO 2 outgassing in a highly urbanized river system in Korea. While the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) was measured at 15 sites using syringe equilibration, 3 cruises employing an equilibrator were done along a 30 km transect in the Seoul metropolitan area. The basin-scale survey revealed longitudinal increases in surface water pCO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the downstream reach. Downstream increases in pCO 2 , DOC, fluorescence index, and inorganic N and P reflected disproportionately large contributions from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents carried by major urban tributaries. Cruise transects exhibited strong localized peaks of pCO 2 up to 13 000 μatm and 13 CO 2 enrichment along the confluences of tributaries at an average flow, whereas CO 2 pulses were dampened by increased flow during the monsoon period. Fluctuations in pCO 2 along the eutrophic reach downstream of the confluences reflected environmental controls on the balance between photosynthesis, biodegradation, and outgassing. The results underscore WWTP effluents as an anthropogenic source of nutrients, DOC, and CO 2 and their influences on algal blooms and associated C dynamics in eutrophic urbanized river systems, warranting further research on urbanization-induced perturbations to riverine metabolic processes and carbon fluxes.

  19. Critical parameters in the design of urban soakaway systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of the hydraulic characteristics of subsurface soils in the performance of septicsoakaway systems is studied to achieve a very realistic design. In-situ infiltration tests were conducted on three marked horizons between 0 and 400 cm below the ground surface. Soil samples taken from the same locations were ...

  20. Chatbots as Conversational Recommender Systems in Urban Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherbaev, Pavel; Psyllidis, Achilleas; Bozzon, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the vision of chatbots that facilitate the interaction between citizens and policy-makers at the city scale. We report the results of a co-design session attended by more than 60 participants. We give an outlook of how some challenges associated with such chatbot systems could be addressed in the future.