Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K
The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leena Rahul Salunkhe
Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government
Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S
Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.
Phua, Kai Hong
The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618
Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana
This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…
RESULTS: Coverage and utilization for most of the antenatal care variables like minimum three antenatal visits, antenatal card availability, Tetanus Toxoid immunization and Iron Folic Acid consumption; intranatal care variables like accompanying of pregnant mothers for deliveries to institute by peripheral workers (RR [Relative Risk]=10.01; CI [Confidence Interval]=5.4-18 ; postnatal care variables like post-natal check-ups (RR=1.77; CI=1.54-2.03, and family planning (FP advices (RR=1.65; CI=1.47-1.86; and newborn care indicators like newborn check-ups (RR=1.86; CI=1.61-2.14, early breastfeeding initiation and birth registration were higher in rural areas compared to urban slums; but institutional delivery rate (RR=0.76; CI=0.68-0.84, use of FP methods (RR=0.58; CI=0.42-0.78 and prelacteal feed were better in urban slums. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights that maternal and newborn care services utilization are poorer in urban slums compared to rural areas in Gujarat requiring attention to strategize policies toward reducing these gaps. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 217-224
Digambar Abaji Chimankar
Full Text Available The present paper attempted to study the urbanization in India and condition of urban slums in terms of water, sanitation, electricity, garbage collection and health care, and education which are supposed to be basic minimum needs for the slum dwellers. India is going through the process of rapid urbanization because of industrialization like other third world countries. The percent of urbanization increase from 27.8 percent in 2001 to 31.1 percent in 2011 census. The increase in the percentage of population in urban areas is because of natural growth, rural to urban migration and the reclassification of village and towns. The share of the slum population in the total urban population of the country was 18.3 percent in 2001 while in 2011 it was 17.4 percent. The condition of urban slums in India is to be improved so as to make them better for living.
Khan, Ahad Mahmud; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina
Background Poor maternal mental health has a negative impact on child growth and development. The objective of the study was to find out the associated factors of maternal common mental disorders (CMD) in an urban slum area of Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from September to November 2013 among conveniently selected 264 mothers having under-five children at Kamrangirchar area of Dhaka. A structured questionnaire based on Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20)...
Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Khan, Aklimunnessa; Kraemer, Alexander; Mori, Mitsuru
Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15–59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488) and non-slum (= 5,667) groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8%) than non-slums (46.4%). Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P slums (44.6%). A similar pattern was found for bidis (slums = 11.4% and non-slums = 3.2%, P slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums and non-slums by multivariable logistic regressions. Other significant correlates of
Madhu, B; Srinath, K M; Chandresh, Swathi; Ashok, N C; Basavanagowdappa, H; Rama, H V
Community based cross sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Mysore. Data was collected between July and August 2011. Known diabetics residing in this area were included in the study. Socio-demographic information of diabetic patients, history, physicians advice and the extent of compliance of patients towards treatment were assessed. Descriptive statistics, like percentages were calculated. Study comprised of 104 patients. Mean fasting and post prandial blood glucose was 163±70mg/dl and 239±89mg/dl respectively. Common co-morbid conditions were hypertension and obesity. Key process indicators of care, indicated that adherence to medication advice was maximum and less than one fourth of them had an annual Hba1c and lipid profile examinations. To prevent long term complications associated with diabetes, doctors must adhere to the guidelines. There is a need to improve the health system, in terms of developing facilities to provide annual eye examination, annual lipid profile, urea, creatinine testing for diabetic patient. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nirgude, Abhay; Solanki, Mridula J; Shinde, Ratnendra R; Naik, Poonam
Background: Bar girls are unorganized, difficult to reach high-risk group, and an urban phenomenon. Objectives: To study the demographic profile and sexual behavior of bar girls. Materials and Methods: Study setting is an urban slum area situated in the northwest part of Mumbai. Study design is a community-based cross-sectional study. Study duration was from January 2003 to January 2005. Phase I: Identification of key informants was done. Phase II: Mapping of bar girls in the study area was done with the help of key informants. Sampling: Out of the estimated 800-1200 bar girls, 120 bar girls who were willing to participate in the study were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Confidentiality of names and locations was assured to both key informants and study subjects. Information was gathered about demographic profile, educational status, and their sexual behavior by conducting one to one interview with the use of predesigned, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Most of the bar girls were in the age group of 21–25 years 52 (43.3%). None of them were educated above secondary level. Most of the subjects belong to West Bengal state 58 (48.4%). Majority of the subjects 88 (73.3%) reported that they have ever practiced commercial sex, and money was the criteria of selection of customers 53 (60.22%). Condom usage was reported less with regular customer as compared with that of nonregular customers (χ2 = 6.02, P < 0.02). Conclusions: Need to emphasize condom use with each and every sexual act irrespective of type of customers. PMID:21687378
This is a study of parenting and child development in a slum area in a developing part of the world. The aims of the study were threefold. The first aim was to explore the physical and social contexts for parenting in a shantytown in Rio de Janeiro using an ecological perspective. The second aim was to examine parenting and subsequent child outcomes among a sample of families living in the shantytown. The third aim was to explore what factors contribute to differences among parents in how the...
Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.
The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.
Sri Yusnita Irda Sari
Full Text Available Diarrhea is a waterborne disease due to consumption of contaminated food/water. People in urban slum area have highest risk to get diarrhea because of poor hygiene and sanitation as well as limited access to uncontaminated water. This study aimed to identify contamination in watersources by Entamoeba Sp and helmint eggs (Anchylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria in one of urban slum area in Bandung municipality. Samples were taken from 123 watersources (74 tap water, 21 borehole, 22 dugwell and 6 spring water which was randomly selected in 10 RW along the Cikapundung river basin in Tamansari subdistrict during period of July-September 2015. Water samples were examined by PCR to detect Entamoeba Sp and microscopic identification for helminth eggs. 90 out of 123 samples were positive for Entamoeba Sp (59 tap water, 16 dugwell, 11 borehole and 4 spring water. Helminth egg of Ascaris lumbricoides was detected from unimproved common dugwell which had very high risk of contamination. Appropriate of water treatment prior to consumption is vastly important. Physical improvement to construct improved dugwell should be done to prevent contamination from helminth eggs in watersources.
Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J. C. N.; Foppen, J. W.; Muwanga, A.; Kulabako, R.
We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619 μS/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2 mmol/L), HCO3 (11 mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3 mmol/L; average of 2.23 mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2 mmol/L and 6 μmol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2 mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation
Khan, Afshin Alaf; Varan, Aiden Kennedy; Esteves-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Siddiqui, Mariam; Sultana, Shazia; Ali, Asad S; Zaidi, Anita K M; Omer, Saad B
Facilitators and barriers to influenza vaccination among pregnant women in the developing world are poorly understood, particularly in South Asia. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine among ethnically diverse low-income pregnant women in Pakistan. From May to August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women who visited health centers in urban slums in Karachi city. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine against socio-demographic factors, vaccination history, vaccine recommendation sources, and other factors. In an unvaccinated study population of 283 respondents, 87% were willing to accept the vaccine, if offered. All except two participants were aware of symptoms typically associated with influenza. Perceived vaccine safety, efficacy, and disease susceptibility were significantly associated with intention to accept influenza vaccine (p<0.05). Regardless of intention to accept influenza vaccine, 96% rated healthcare providers as highly reliable source of vaccine information. While a recommendation from a physician was critical for influenza vaccine acceptance, parents-in-law and husbands were often considered the primary decision-makers for pregnant women seeking healthcare including vaccination. Maternal influenza vaccination initiatives in South Asia should strongly consider counseling of key familial decision-makers and inclusion of healthcare providers to help implement new vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hacker, Kathryn P; Seto, Karen C; Costa, Federico; Corburn, Jason; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A
The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading.
In the diagnosis of contemporary threat to state stability, urbanization is inevitably included among the litany of emerging challenges. This study sets out to examine the relationship between urban slums and youth criminality in Calabar urban area of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve this objective, 400 respondents ...
Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women inhabiting urban slums are a "high risk" group with limited access to health facilities. Hazardous maternal health practices are rampant in slum areas. Barriers to utilization of health services are well documented. Slums in the same city may differ from one another in their health indicators and service utilization rates. The study examines whether hazardous maternal care practices exist in and whether there are differences in the utilization rates of health services in two different slums. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two urban slums of Aligarh city (Uttar Pradesh, India. House-to-house survey was conducted and 200 mothers having live births in the study period were interviewed. The outcome measures were utilization of antenatal care, natal care, postnatal care, and early infant feeding practices. Rates of hazardous health practices and reasons for these practices were elicited. Results: Hazardous maternal health practices were common. At least one antenatal visit was accepted by a little more than half the mothers, but delivery was predominantly home based carried out under unsafe conditions. Important barriers to utilization included family tradition, financial constraints, and rude behavior of health personnel in hospitals. Significant differences existed between the two slums. Conclusion: The fact that barriers to utilization at a local level may differ significantly between slums must be recognized, identified, and addressed in the district level planning for health. Empowerment of slum communities as one of the stakeholders can lend them a stronger voice and help improve access to services.
Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C
It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately
Hacker, KP; Seto, KC; Costa, F; Corburn, J; Reis, MG; Ko, AI; Diuk-Wasser, MA
Abstract Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. ...
Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.
Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality
Blessing U. Mberu
Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to
Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias
This paper presents an approach to automated identification of slum area change patterns in Hyderabad, India, using multi-year and multi-sensor very high resolution satellite imagery. It relies upon a lacunarity-based slum detection algorithm, combined with Canny- and LSD-based imagery pre-processing routines. This method outputs plausible and spatially explicit slum locations for the whole urban agglomeration of Hyderabad in years 2003 and 2010. The results indicate a considerable growth of area occupied by slums between these years and allow identification of trends in slum development in this urban agglomeration.
Khan, Ahad Mahmud; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina
Poor maternal mental health has a negative impact on child growth and development. The objective of the study was to find out the associated factors of maternal common mental disorders (CMD) in an urban slum area of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was carried out from September to November 2013 among conveniently selected 264 mothers having under-five children at Kamrangirchar area of Dhaka. A structured questionnaire based on Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) was used for data collection where a cut-off of 7 was considered to ascertain CMD. Majority of the mothers were housewives (89.8%), educated up to primary level (40.9%) and lived in nuclear families (83.0%) with low socioeconomic status (64.4%) and moderate household food insecurity (57.5%). The prevalence of maternal CMD was 46.2%. In bivariate analysis, the associated factors of CMD were higher maternal age ( p = 0.043), lower educational qualification ( p = 0.015), low socioeconomic status ( p = 0.004), household food insecurity ( p food insecurity ( p food insecure household (adjusted OR = 11.6, 95% CI 3.5-38.1), respectively, than food secure one. Underweight mothers had 2.5 times increased odds of experiencing CMD as compared with mothers who were not underweight (adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-5.0). The prevalence of maternal CMD was relatively higher than other developing countries studied so far. Household food insecurity and maternal under-nutrition were the associated factors of maternal CMD. Therefore, interventions to improve household food security and maternal nutrition can improve maternal CMD and thus make useful contributions to child growth and development.
Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi
Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks.
Unger, Alon; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Snyder, Robert E; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Mohr, Sharif; Costa, Vinícius B A; Melendez, Astrid X T O; Reis, Renato B; Santana, Francisco S; Riley, Lee W; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I
Low- and middle-income countries account for the majority of hypertension disease burden. However, little is known about the distribution of this illness within subpopulations of these countries, particularly among those who live in urban informal settlements. A cross-sectional hypertension survey was conducted in 2003 among 5649 adult residents of a slum settlement in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hypertension was defined as either an elevated arterial systolic (≥140 mmHg) or diastolic (≥90 mmHg) blood pressure. Sex-specific multivariable models of systolic blood pressure were constructed to identify factors associated with elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the population 18 years and older was 21% (1162/5649). Men had 1.2 times the risk of hypertension compared with women (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.05, 1.36). Increasing age and lack of any schooling, particularly for women, were also significantly associated with elevated blood pressure (p slum community was lower than reported frequencies in the non-slum population of Brazil and Salvador, yet both disease awareness and treatment frequency were low. Further research on hypertension and other chronic non-communicable diseases in slum populations is urgently needed to guide prevention and treatment efforts in this growing population.
Rooban, T; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K
Tobacco use is reported to be rampant in urban slums in developing countries. Demographical variations in tobacco use between males living in urban slums vs those living in non-slum areas in India has not been reported, and this study was undertaken to address this issue. Secondary data analysis of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) was undertaken to study demographical variations in tobacco use between urban slum dwellers and non-slum dwellers in eight Indian cities. Demographic determinants for use of smoking and chewing forms of tobacco in the two groups were analyzed. SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. The study population comprised 6887 (41.8%) males from slum areas and 9588 (58.2%) from non-slum areas of eight urban cities. Cigarette/beedi smoking was the commonest form of tobacco use among the study population. Pan masala use was the least common form of smokeless tobacco use, next only to snuff. There was a high statistical significance observed within the various demographic parameter studied in both the slum and non-slum dwelling males in study population. However, on studying the differences between the two groups, it was observed that statistical significance of P≤.001 was observed with age (15-49), secondary education, religion, household structure and marital status. The difference between the two groups in the mean number of cigarettes/beedis smoked was not statistically significant (P=.598). Male slum dwellers are a distinct urban population, whose health needs assessment requires a different approach than that for non-slum dwellers who often can afford the services that an urban Indian city can offer.
Anurogo, W.; Lubis, M. Z.; Pamungkas, D. S.; Hartono; Ibrahim, F. M.
Spatial approach is one of the main approaches of geography, its analysis emphasizes the existence of space that serves to accommodate human activities. The dynamic development of the city area brings many impacts to the urban community’s own life patterns. The development of the city center which is the center of economic activity becomes the attraction for the community that can bring influence to the high flow of labor both from within the city itself and from outside the city area, thus causing the high flow of urbanization. Urbanization has caused an explosion in urban population and one implication is the occurrence of labor-clumping in major cities in Indonesia. Another impact of the high urbanization flow of cities is the problem of urban settlements. The more populations that come in the city, the worse the quality of the existing settlements in the city if not managed properly. This study aims to determine the location of slum areas in East Wara Sub-Districts using remote sensing technology tools and Geographic Information System (GIS). Parameters used to identify slum areas partially extracted using remote sensing data and for parameters that cannot be extracted using remote sensing data, information obtained from field surveys with information retrieval based on reference data. Analysis results for slum settlements taken from the parameters indicate that the East Wara Sub-District has the largest slum areas located in Pontap village. The village of Pontap has two classes of slums that are very shabby and slums. Slum classes are also in Surutangga Village. The result of the analysis shows that the slum settlement area has 46,324 Ha, which is only located in Pontap Village, whereas for the slum class are found in some villages of Pontap and Surutangga Urban Village, there are 37.797 Ha area. The class of slum settlement areas has the largest proportion of the area among other classes in East Wara Subdistrict. The class of slum settlement areas has an
Full Text Available Instead of looking at slums as strictly ‘urban problems’ requiring ‘urban solutions’, this paper attempts to build a structural link between growth of slums in urban areas and, what can be called, the ‘decay’ of the rural in India. It contends that uneven development of Indian cities with great spatial disparities – made evident by increasing number of slums – is related to uneven development between rural and urban areas. Thus, in order to grapple with the ‘enigma’ of slums, the political economy of rural areas – from where the migrants living in slums ‘originally’ belong – becomes the essential site to engage with. The paper foregrounds the need to study transformations in the rural domain in order to make sense of the growth of slums in cities. In a nutshell, the argument is that the ‘decay’ of the rural and the ‘swelling’ of the city are to be visualised in hyphenated terms since the rural-urban divide is at the heart of the ‘great urban divide’.
Julius Alexander McGee
Full Text Available This study examines how the relationship between urbanization (measured as the percentage of total population living in urban areas and the carbon intensity of well-being (CIWB (measured as a ratio of carbon dioxide emissions and life expectancy in most nations from 1960-2013 varies based on the economic context and whereabouts of a substantial portion of a nation's urban population. To accomplish this, we use the United Nations' (UN definition of slum households to identify developing countries that have substantial slum populations, and estimate a Prais-Winsten regression model with panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE, allowing for disturbances that are heteroskedastic and contemporaneously correlated across panels. Our findings indicate that the rate of increase in CIWB for countries without substantial slum populations begins to slow down at higher levels of urbanization, however, the association between urbanization and CIWB is much smaller in countries with substantial slum populations. Overall, while urbanization is associated with increases in CIWB, the relationship between urban development and CIWB is vastly different in developed nations without slums than in under-developed nations with slums.
Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.
Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility
Nolan, Laura B.
Half the population of low- and middle-income countries will live in urban areas by 2030, and poverty and inequality in these contexts is rising. Slum dwelling is one way in which to conceptualize and characterize urban deprivation but there are many definitions of what constitutes a slum. This paper presents four different slum definitions used in India alone, demonstrating that assessments of both the distribution and extent of urban deprivation depends on the way in which it is characterized, as does slum dwelling’s association with common child health indicators. Using data from India’s National Family and Health Survey from 2005–2006, two indictors of slum dwelling embedded in the survey and two constructed from the household questionnaire are compared using descriptive statistics and linear regression models of height- and weight-for-age z-scores. The results highlight a tension between international and local slum definitions, and underscore the importance of improving empirical representations of the dynamism of slum and city residents. PMID:26877568
Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health programmes in Kenya. ... These were hardly implemented in the projects, according to the data gathered. ... Conclusion: Land and income were big issues according to the responses.
Full Text Available This paper examines the sustainability of urban development through the livelihood conditions of slum dwellers in Bangladesh. The empirical data were collected through interview schedule and FGD from 97 respondents in two slum areas of Bangladesh. The respondents were selected purposively from the second largest city of Bangladesh namely, Chittagong. The results clearly indicate that there exist significant diversity and differences of sustainability indicators, particularly household and housing characteristics, health, drinking water, waste disposal system and security. More specifically, the finding shows that slum dwellers have been experiencing with a wide range of substandard, overcrowded and unhealthy housing conditions in one hand. On the other hand, they have scarce and insufficient health, sanitation, water and waste disposal services which are unswervingly impeding to sustainable development in urban areas. Although the majority of slum dwellers have access to electricity, they are still threatened by the insecurities of women, drug dealing, eviction and natural disaster. Therefore, the findings suggest a holistic approach to address the multi-faceted sustainability issues that affect the livelihoods of slum dwellers within the framework of context-driven development policy of the country. Keywords: Sustainability, Urban slum, Sustainable development, Chittagong city, Bangladesh
Arora, Shweta; Rasania, S K; Bachani, D; Gandhi, Asha; Chhabra, S K
Household and ambient air pollution are jointly responsible for about 7 million premature deaths annually. Women living in slums, with unhealthy environment, both indoors and outdoors, particularly those living close to industrial and/or vehicular pollution zones due to multiple sources of air pollution, are at the higher risk of having impaired lung function tests. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal lung functions and to identify the environmental risk factors associated with them among adult women of 18-59 years. A total of 550 women aged 18-59 years were approached in a representative urban slum. Five hundred consented to participate and 299 had prebronchodilator spirometry satisfying ATS standards. House visits to assess environmental conditions were conducted to determine their association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Chi-square test was used to test the association of risk factors with lung functions. ANOVA was used to test the association of mean values of FEV1 and FVC with age. Out of 299 participants with acceptable spirometric curves, 5% had reduced FEV1/FVC ratio than the normal and 26.8% and 17.4% had lower values than predicted for FVC and FEV1, respectively. Altered lung function was related to age, tobacco smoking, and history of respiratory disease. Both ambient and household air pollution have a deleterious pulmonary effect on long-term women residents of a representative urban slum in Delhi.
Rani, Alka; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Amarjeet
To estimate the prevalence, to compare the impact of dysmenorrhea on routine life among adolescent girls, to compare the practices and perceptions regarding Dysmenorrhea and to ascertain the reason for difference if any, a cross-sectional study was conducted in urban, rural and slum areas of Chandigarh, India. 300 girls in age group of 11-18 years, who had attained menarche were included in the study. A questionnaire including the Demographic and Family profile, menstrual history, Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea, Effect of pain on daily activities, Faces scale, Practices regarding Dysmenorrhea, Beliefs about menstruation was used. Analysis was done by percentage and chi square prevalance of dysmenorrhea was 61.33%. Sickness absenteeism due to dysmenorrhea was reported in 24.45% girls. Most common symptom experienced by the girls was stomach ache which was experienced by 139 girls; others symptoms experienced during menstruation were backache (107), and general body pain (80). Only 11.63% of the girls ever visited physician due to pain during menstruation. During menstruation only 10 girls use hot water bottle, 71 skip meal. Due to poor knowledge the practices were not optimal for pain management, which affected their school attendance. Formal as well as informal channels of communication, such as mothers and peers, need to be emphasized for the delivery of such information particularly linking instructions on menstrual hygiene to an expanded programme of health education in schools.
Sunita, Mohan; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Rogye, Ashwini; Sonawane, Manish; Gaonkar, Ravina; Srinivasan, Radhika; Natarajan, Sundaram; Stevens, Fred C J; Scherpbier, A J J A; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine
The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and enumerate history-based risk factors in the urban slums of Western India. The population-based study was conducted in seven wards of Mumbai urban slums, where we screened 6569 subjects of ≥ 40 years age, with a response rate of 98.4%, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects with T2DM underwent dilated 30° seven-field stereo-fundus-photography for DR severity grading based on modified Airlie House classification. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the correlation of DR with the history-based risk factors. The prevalence of DR in the general population of Mumbai urban slums was 1.41% (95% CI 0.59-2.23) and in the T2DM population it was 15.37% (95% CI 8.87-21.87). The positive associations with DR were the longer duration of DM (≥ 11 years: OR, 12.77; 95% CI 2.93-55.61) and male gender (OR, 2.05; 95% CI 1.08-3.89); increasing severity of retinopathy was also significantly associated with longer duration of DM (p Mumbai urban slums. Duration of DM and male gender were significantly associated with DR. The slums in Western India show the trends of urban lifestyle influences similar to the rest of urban India.
It will do so by funding an exploration of urban slums and human health in the region; a study of Ecohealth policy influence in Ecuador and Mexico; and an international ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.
Rashid, Sabina Faiz
The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4-5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak.
The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090
Elves A P Maciel
Full Text Available Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, is the cause of epidemics associated with high mortality in urban slum communities. Infection with pathogenic Leptospira occurs during environmental exposures and is traditionally associated with occupational risk activities. However, slum inhabitants reside in close proximity to environmental sources of contamination, suggesting that transmission during urban epidemics occurs in the household environment.A survey was performed to determine whether Leptospira infection clustered within households located in slum communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hospital-based surveillance identified 89 confirmed cases of leptospirosis during an outbreak. Serum samples were obtained from members of 22 households with index cases of leptospirosis and 52 control households located in the same slum communities. The presence of anti-Leptospira agglutinating antibodies was used as a marker for previous infection. In households with index cases, 22 (30% of 74 members had anti-Leptospira antibodies, whereas 16 (8% of 195 members from control households had anti-Leptospira antibodies. Highest titres were directed against L. interrogans serovars of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup in 95% and 100% of the subjects with agglutinating antibodies from case and control households, respectively. Residence in a household with an index case of leptospirosis was associated with increased risk (OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.13-13.12 of having had a Leptospira infection. Increased infection risk was found for all age groups who resided in a household with an index case, including children <15 years of age (P = 0.008.This study identified significant household clustering of Leptospira infection in slum communities where recurrent epidemics of leptospirosis occur. The findings support the hypothesis that the household environment is an important transmission determinant in the urban slum setting. Prevention therefore needs to target
Ndukwu, C I; Egbuonu, I; Ulasi, T O; Ebenebe, J C
Undernutrition remains the largest contributor to the global disease burden. Different factors affecting the nutritional status of children need to be studied to determine those to be targeted in a country like Nigeria, characterized by widespread poverty and inequitable distribution of wealth. This study was aimed at ascertaining the relationship between prevailing socioeconomic and environmental factors, and the nutritional status of children residing in a typical urban slum. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 788 children aged 6-12 years selected by stratified, multistage random sampling method from public primary schools in slum and non-slum areas of Onitsha was carried out. Their nutritional status was determined using anthropometric measures. The socioeconomic and environmental variables of interest were analyzed to determine their relationship with undernutrition in the children. Socioeconomic status was the major determinant of nutritional status in this study. Poor housing also affected the nutritional status of the slum children who were significantly from poorer families than those residing in non-slum areas (χ2 = 66.69, P = 0.000). This study highlights the need for an effective nutrition program targeted at school children in urban slums surrounded by factors predisposing them to undernutrition.
Heller, Lauren R
Upward trends in the relative proportions of slum residents in developing countries have led to widespread concern regarding the impact of slum residency on health behaviors. Measurement of these impacts requires recognizing that unobservable household characteristics that affect the location decision may also affect health care choices and outcomes. To address the potential for bias, this paper models the location decision and the household's demand for maternal and child health services simultaneously using a flexible, semi-parametric approach. It uses a unique urban data set from Bangladesh that incorporates sophisticated geographical mapping techniques to carefully delineate between slum and non-slum areas at a particular point in time. The results suggest that accounting for the endogenous location decision of a family substantially reduces bias in estimated marginal effects of slum residence on preventive care demand. While community infrastructure variables appear correlated with preventive care demand, the causal effect of the availability of primary health care facilities is indistinguishable from zero when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account. The findings suggest that improvements in community infrastructure in urban areas of developing countries are a more favorable health policy solution at the margin than the construction of additional health care facilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilmore, B.; Pouw, N.
Policymakers and industrial developers in Mumbai face the mounting social and spatial needs of a constantly increasing urban population. Slum dwellers account for up to half of the city’s inhabitants, and are the socioeconomic group most vulnerable to deficient and exclusive governance practices.
Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns in Ethiopia: Qualitative study. ... Reasons were found to be attributed to individual characteristics, perceived capacities of health facilities and friendliness of service providers and socio-cultural factors including socially sanctioned expectations at community ...
Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH
This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men
Andrew K. Jorgenson
Full Text Available We utilize first-difference panel regression analysis to assess the direct effect of urban slumprevalence on national level measures of under-5 mortality rates over the period 1990 to 2005.Utilizing data on 80 less developed countries, the results illustrate increasing urban slumprevalence over the period is a robust predictor of increasing child mortality rates. This effectobtains net the statistically significant influence of gross domestic product per capita, fertilityrate, and educational enrollment. Cross-sectional analyses for 2005 that include additionalcontrols provide further evidence of the mortality / urban slum relationship. The results confirmurban slum prevalence growth is an important contextual dynamic whereby the socialproduction of child mortality is enacted in the less developed countries.
Crocker-Buque, Tim; Mindra, Godwin; Duncan, Richard; Mounier-Jack, Sandra
In 2014, over half (54%) of the world's population lived in urban areas and this proportion will increase to 66% by 2050. This urbanizing trend has been accompanied by an increasing number of people living in urban poor communities and slums. Lower immunization coverage is found in poorer urban dwellers in many contexts. This study aims to identify factors associated with immunization coverage in poor urban areas and slums, and to identify interventions to improve coverage. We conducted a systematic review, searching Medline, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science and The Cochrane Database with broad search terms for studies published between 2000 and 2016. Of 4872 unique articles, 327 abstracts were screened, leading to 63 included studies: 44 considering factors and 20 evaluating interventions (one in both categories) in 16 low or middle-income countries. A wide range of socio-economic characteristics were associated with coverage in different contexts. Recent rural-urban migration had a universally negative effect. Parents commonly reported lack of awareness of immunization importance and difficulty accessing services as reasons for under-immunization of their children. Physical distance to clinics and aspects of service quality also impacted uptake. We found evidence of effectiveness for interventions involving multiple components, especially if they have been designed with community involvement. Outreach programmes were effective where physical distance was identified as a barrier. Some evidence was found for the effective use of SMS (text) messaging services, community-based education programmes and financial incentives, which warrant further evaluation. No interventions were identified that provided services to migrants from rural areas. Different factors affect immunization coverage in different urban poor and slum contexts. Immunization services should be designed in collaboration with slum-dwelling communities, considering the local context
Ajlouni, Musa T
The unplanned urbanization in Jordan has over time created many informal settlements "slums" around big cities as Amman, Zerka and Aqaba. The purpose of this study was to highlight the most common challenges related to social determinants of health in two selected slum areas in Amman and Aqaba and suggest policy directions and interventions to meet these challenges. In addition to a prestructured interview with all household heads living in the two slum sites, focus group meetings with a purposefully selected sample of 12 slum dwellers in each site were used to assess the structural and intermediary determinants of health as perceived by slum residents in the two study locations. The study found that slum residents in the two locations suffer from many challenges as severe poverty; unemployment; illiteracy and low education attainments; gender discrimination; insufficient and poor diet; social and official exclusion; unhealthy environment; lack of water supply, electricity and basic sanitation facilities; high prevalence of diseases; and insufficient and inappropriate health services. Specific policy directions to meet these challenges were recommended and grouped into three main clusters: social protection, social inclusion and empowerment. New plans and tools should be developed by local authorities in Jordan to understand, protect, include and empower those vulnerable people who are forced to live in these unhealthy and inhuman environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... defacement of the urban landscape in Nigeria. It recommends that Government and city planners should provide affordable land and low cost housing for the urban dwellers. This will enable people to own their property or rent as the case may be. Keywords: Urban Slum, Urban Landscape, Implication, Population, Growth
Jolly, Saira Parveen; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Afsana, Kaosar; Yunus, Fakir Md; Chowdhury, Ahmed M R
A continuous influx of poor people to urban slums poses a challenge to Bangladesh's health system as it has failed to tackle maternal morbidity and mortality. BRAC is the largest non-governmental organisation in Bangladesh. BRAC has been working to reduce maternal, neonatal and under-five children morbidity and mortality of slum dwellers in cities. BRAC has been doing this work for a decade through a programme called MANOSHI. This programme provides door-to-door services to its beneficiaries through community health workers (CHWs) and normal delivery service through its delivery and maternity centres. BRAC started the 'MANOSHI' programme in Narayanganj City Corporation during 2011 to address maternal, neonatal and child health problems facing slum dwellers. We investigated the existing maternal health-service indicators in the slums of Narayanganj City Corporation and compared the findings with a non-intervention area. This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012, in 47 slums of Narayanganj City Corporation as intervention and 10 slums of Narsingdi Sadar Municipality as comparison area. A total of 1206 married women, aged 15-49 years, with a pregnancy outcome in the previous year were included for interview. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and maternal health-care practices like use of contraceptive methods, antenatal care (ANC), delivery care, postnatal care (PNC) were collected through a structured questionnaire. The chi-square test, Student t test, Mann Whitney U-test, factor analysis and log-binominal test were performed by using STATA statistical software for analysing data. The activities of BRAC CHWs significantly improved four or more ANC (47% vs. 21%; pslums compared to comparison slums. Still, about half of the deliveries in both areas were attended at home by unskilled birth attendants, of which a very few received PNC within 48 hours after delivery. The poorest and illiterate women received fewer maternal health services
Renato B Reis
Full Text Available Leptospirosis has become an urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Efforts to identify interventions for urban leptospirosis have been hampered by the lack of population-based information on Leptospira transmission determinants. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection and identify risk factors for infection in the urban slum setting.We performed a community-based survey of 3,171 slum residents from Salvador, Brazil. Leptospira agglutinating antibodies were measured as a marker for prior infection. Poisson regression models evaluated the association between the presence of Leptospira antibodies and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys and indicators of socioeconomic status and exposures for individuals. Overall prevalence of Leptospira antibodies was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0-16.8. Households of subjects with Leptospira antibodies clustered in squatter areas at the bottom of valleys. The risk of acquiring Leptospira antibodies was associated with household environmental factors such as residence in flood-risk regions with open sewers (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.75 and proximity to accumulated refuse (1.43, 1.04-1.88, sighting rats (1.32, 1.10-1.58, and the presence of chickens (1.26, 1.05-1.51. Furthermore, low income and black race (1.25, 1.03-1.50 were independent risk factors. An increase of US$1 per day in per capita household income was associated with an 11% (95% CI 5%-18% decrease in infection risk.Deficiencies in the sanitation infrastructure where slum inhabitants reside were found to be environmental sources of Leptospira transmission. Even after controlling for environmental factors, differences in socioeconomic status contributed to the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that effective prevention of leptospirosis may need to address the social factors that produce unequal health outcomes among
Marghany, M.; Genderen, J. v.
This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.
Marghany, M; Genderen, J v
This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data
A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data
A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.
Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martín; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vallières, Annie; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E
To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for "roof"). Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m(2) modular house provided by TECHO. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity.
Katukiza, A. Y.; Ronteltap, M.; Niwagaba, C. B.; Kansiime, F.; Lens, P. N. L.
On-site sanitation provisions in urban slums rarely prioritise grey water management, yet it forms the largest fraction of wastewater. This study was carried out to characterise grey water and quantify its pollutant loads in Bwaise III (Uganda) and to provide data for grey water management in urban slums of developing countries. Samples were collected for analysis from ten representative households as well as from four tertiary drains and the main drainage channel for 7 months in two dry seasons. Grey water production was found to comprise 85 % of the domestic water consumption. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in the grey water generated by laundry, in the kitchen and in the bathroom was 9,225 ± 1,200 mg L-1, 71,250 ± 1,011 mg L-1 and 4,675 ± 750 mg L-1, while the BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) to COD ratio was 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.07, respectively. The maximum concentration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms was 2.05 9 107 cfu (100 mL)-1 and 1.75 9 108 cfu (100 mL)-1, respectively, in grey water from the bathroom, while that of Salmonella spp. was 7.32 9 106 cfu (100 mL)-1 from laundry. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the concentration of COD, total suspended solids, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, sodium adsorption ratio, oil and grease, and Salmonella spp. in grey water from laundry, bathroom and kitchen (p/0.05). The high loads of COD ([500 kg day-1), total suspended solids ([200 kg day-1), nutrients (8.3 kg TKN day-1 and 1.4 kg total phosphorus day-1) and microorganisms (106 to 109 cfu c-1 day-1) originating from grey water in Bwaise III show that grey water poses a threat to the environment and a risk to human health in urban slums. Therefore, there is a need to prioritise grey water treatment in urban slums of developing countries to achieve adequate sanitation.
Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Jensen, Ole B.
the physical and social living conditions in the cities, as well as discussing the actors and their interests behind these approaches. Thus the aim is to use the theory of planning dosctrine to investigate how Danish urban policy has changed historically, under different rationales and on behalf of different......The article explores the societal conditions under which the various approaches to Danish housing improvement and urban renewal have been exercised since the early part of the 20th century. In doing, so, the article analyses the specific approaches used by the Danish state in order to improve...... stakeholder interests and powers....
Kuffer, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Sliuzas, R.; Baud, I.S.A.
Many cities in the global South are facing the emergence and growth of highly dynamic slum areas, but often lack detailed information on these developments. Available statistical data are commonly aggregated to large, heterogeneous administrative units that are geographically meaningless for
Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David
Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…
This study investigates the generation, transport and fate of sanitation-related nutrients in groundwater and surface water in an urban slum area in sub-Saharan Africa. In excess, nutrients can cause eutrophication of downstream water bodies. The study argues that nitrogen-containing rains and
Caroline Ferraz Ignacio
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.
Full Text Available Abstract Background MANOSHI, an integrated community-based package of essential Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH services is being implemented by BRAC in the urban slums of Bangladesh since 2007. The objective of the formative research done during the inception phase was to understand the context and existing resources available in the slums, to reduce uncertainty about anticipated effects, and develop and refine the intervention components. Methods Data were collected during Jan-Sept 2007 in one of the earliest sites of programme intervention in the Dhaka metropolitan area. A conceptual framework guided data collection at different stages. Besides exploring slum characteristics, studies were done to map existing MNCH service providing facilities and providers, explore existing MNCH-related practices, and make an inventory of community networks/groups with a stake in MNCH service provision. Also, initial perception and expectations regarding the community delivery centres launched by the programme was explored. Transect walk, observation, pile sorting, informal and focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, case studies, network analysis and small quantitative surveys were done to collect data. Results Findings reveal that though there are various MNCH services and providers available in the slums, their capacity to provide rational and quality services is questionable. Community has superficial knowledge of MNCH care and services, but this is inadequate to facilitate the optimal survival of mothers and neonates. Due to economic hardships, the slum community mainly relies on cheap informal sector for health care. Cultural beliefs and practices also reinforce this behaviour including home delivery without skilled assistance. Men and women differed in their perception of pregnancy and delivery: men were more concerned with expenses while women expressed fear of the whole process, including delivering at hospitals. People expected 'one
Kamau, Njoroge; Njiru, Haron
Kenya has undergone rapid urbanization as people migrate to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This has given rise to informal settlements characterized by overcrowding, poor infrastructure, and inadequate social amenities. A cross-sectional study on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) status was carried out in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi. A random sample of 380 households was used. The average household size was five people, and 26% of the household heads had completed secondary or higher level of education. The main source of income (70%) was self-employment with 41% of the households living on less than 1.5 USD per day. The WASH situation in the urban slums is below the minimum standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). There is need to improve the situation by improving and installing basic infrastructure including water, sanitation, and solid waste collection.
Holly Anne Beistline
Full Text Available Introduction: Safe drinking water is scarce in Kolkata. Inadequate knowledge and poor practices of storing and cleaning drinking water can cause severe effects on the health of the population. There is a need to understand the current trend of attitudes and practices of individuals living in urban slums to reduce water-borne diseases and mortality. This limited convenience sample study attempted to explore and identify areas for further study regarding the barriers of clean water access in urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods: This pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in Kolkata, India during July 2014. Five urban slums were selected based on proximity and cooperation from the community. A sample of 50 women was taken, representing the five slums, with a sample of 10 women taken from each slum. Results: The majority (80% of the participants said they regularly have enough water available to meet the needs of their household. Fifty-two percent of subjects received their water for drinking from a tap, hand pump, or time pump. Thirty percent had water pumped into their homes, and 18% purchased their water from a water truck. Fourteen percent said they did not treat their water because it was too time consuming, 40% said it was too much work, and 34% said it was not needed. Ninety percent said they felt it was important to clean their water, almost half (48% thought their water was not clean, but only 42% used some method to clean their water. Many subjects (68% stated they knew how to clean their water, but 66% were unaware that visible dirt is not an indicator of illness-causing bacteria in water. Conclusions: More focus should be directed towards improving awareness and knowledge and changing attitudes, motivation, and perceived susceptibility to disease from water within slum communities in Kolkata, India.
Full Text Available Abstract Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness.
Harpham, T; Stephens, C
The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented.
Full Text Available Research question : What is the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among adults aged 20-60 years residing years residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati town, A.P.? Objective : To study the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors as well as its extent of diagnosis and management among adults aged 20-60 years residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati. Study design : Cross sectional. Study setting : Channa Reddy Colony (Urban slum area in Tirupati town, A.P. Study subjects : 1000 adults in the age group of 20-60 years (Males-500; Females-500 residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati town, A.P. Study variables : Age, sex, occupation, family history of hypertension, history of cerebrovascular/cardiovascular events, diabetes mellitus, saturated fat intake, intake of excess salt, smoking, alcohol intake and regular physical exercise. Outcome Variables : Number of hypertensives and mean blood pressure level estimations. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi--square tests, ′F′ ratios, ′t′ tests, Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results : The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 8.6%. Out of the 86 hypertensives, 72 (83.7% were aware of their hypertension; all of those aware were under treatment; among the treated, only 30 (41.7% had satisfactory control of their hypertension. Higher prevalence of hypertension was found with history of cerbrovascular/cardiovascular events (50.0%, diabetes mellitus (33.3%, family history of hypertension (23.3%, smoking (22.4%, age more than 50 years (22.2%, alcohol intake (20.0%, lack of physical exercise (15.8%, B.M.I.>25 (14.9%, male sex (9.6, non-vegetarian diet (8.8% and saturated fat intake (8.8%. The mean systolic as well as diastolic blood pressures were found to be higher among men, higher age groups, and in business occupation of the respondents. Conclusions : Despite treatment, most of the hypertensives had not achieved satisfactory control of blood
Thirthahalli, Chethana; Suryanarayana, S P; Sukumar, Gautham Melur; Bharath, Srikala; Rao, Girish N; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa
Depression among elderly is emerging as an important public health issue in developing countries like India. Published evidence regarding the magnitude and determinants of depression among elderly hailing from urban slum is currently limited. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess magnitude of the problem and identify factors associated with depression among the elderly in an urban slum. A cross-sectional study was done to cover total of 473 elderly persons from an urban slum in Bangalore, India. They were assessed for depression using Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 37.8 (95% CI = 33.43-42.16). Multivariate analysis revealed that unemployment (self or children) (odds ratio (OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-4.72), illness of self (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.45-3.21), female gender (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.19-2.89), conflicts in family (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.03-2.43), and marriage of children or grandchildren (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.02-2.68) as independent risk factors. Depression among elderly is an important health issue of this area. Psychological intervention need to be provided for all elderly persons especially at the time of being diagnosed with any kind of illness. Strategies should be targeted to the females. The stressful life events need to be identified and remedial actions taken. This facility should be made available to them at the primary level of health care. There is a need to include screening of depression in our national health programs.
Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I
The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13-11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06-7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28-6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21-6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71-0.84). Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control
Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases? Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel. Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.
Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.
Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is
Madise, Nyovani J; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu
In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nastiti, A.; Primasuri, W.A.; Setiani, B.; Sudradjat, A.; Latifah, I.; Roosmini, D.; Smits, A.J.M.; Meijerink, S.V.
Providing equal access among urban quintiles is the main challenge in urban water and sanitation sector. This paper tries to depict the choice and behavior regarding drinking water and sanitation of 127 slum households in Bandung Municipality. Issues explored using close-ended questionnaires are
Navegantes de Araújo, Wildo; Finkmoore, Brooke; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Reis, Renato B.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Hagan, José E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Costa, Federico
Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed risk activities such as cleaning open sewers had limited access to protective clothing such as boots (33%) or gloves (35%). Almost all respondents performed at least one activity to prevent household rat infestation, which often included use of an illegal poison. Our findings support the need for interventions targeted at the individual and household levels to reduce risk of leptospirosis until large-scale structural interventions are available to residents of urban slum communities. PMID:23269657
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes was described more than 2000 years ago. For the past 250 years, it has featured in the history of medicine. Since the discovery of insulin, work on diabetes at both cellular and clinical levels has expanded. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen dramatically in the developing countries over the past two decades. India with the highest absolute number of cases has become the diabetic capital of the world. Research question: What is the level of knowledge and awareness among adults regarding diabetes mellitus ? Objective: To study the level of knowledge and awareness regarding diabetes in adults of urban slum in Meerut. Study Design: Cross-sectional, Community-based study. Settings and Participants: Adults belonging to families of urban slum area of Multan nagar which also happens to be the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Subharti Medical College, Meerut. Sample Size: 400 young people aged above 25years, 220 respondents were males and 180 were females. Study Period: Feb 2011 to July 2011 Study Variables: A pre- designed, pre-tested, questionnaire was used after taking verbal consent. Questions consisted of age, sex, knowledge and awareness of diabetes i.e. whether ever heard of diabetes, causes, signs and symptoms, mode of diagnosis, complications, risk factors, mode of treatment, source of information regarding diabetes. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered and analyzed in MS Excel. For Socio-economic status, Modified Kuppuswamy classification was used. Results: 75% of the respondents had heard of diabetes. Half of the respondents were aware that it is a sugar disease. 35% of the respondents had the misconception that sugar (table sugar is a risk factor for diabetes. 90% of the respondents were not having any knowledge of signs or symptoms of diabetes. Friends and relatives were the highest sources of information followed by doctors. Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness among adults
Full Text Available Background: Making perinatal care accessible to women in marginalized periurban areas poses a public health problem. Many women do not utilize institutional care in spite of physical accessibility. Home-based care by traditional birth attendants (TBA is hazardous. Inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices are common. Many barriers to perinatal care can be overcome by social mobilization and capacity building at the community level. Objectives: To determine the existing perinatal practices in an urban slum and to identify barriers to utilization of health services by mothers. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting and Participants: The high-risk periurban areas of Nabi Nagar, Aligarh has a population of 40,000 living in 5,480 households. Mothers delivering babies in September 2007 were identified from records of social mobilization workers (Community Mobilization Coordinators or CMCs already working in an NGO in the area. A total of 92 mothers were interviewed at home. Current perinatal practices and reasons for utilizing or not utilizing health services were the topics of inquiry. Statistical Analysis: Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS 12. Results: Analyses revealed that 80.4% of mothers had received antenatal care. However, this did not translate into safe delivery practices as more than 60% of the women had home deliveries conducted by traditional untrained or trained birth attendants. Reasons for preferring home deliveries were mostly tradition (41.9% or related to economics (30.7%. A total of 56% of the deliveries were conducted in the squatting position and in 25% of the cases, the umbilical cord was cut using the edge of a broken cup. Although breast-feeding was universal, inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices were common. Prelacteal feeds were given to nearly 50% of the babies and feeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 8% of the cases. Several mothers had breastfeeding problems
Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony
The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. © 2016 APJPH.
Herbert, Mrudu; Riyaz Basha, S; Thangaraj, Selvi
The lack of community awareness about rabies control is a major issue that thwarts efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess community knowledge and attitudes about rabies, rabies prevention and stray dog control in an urban slum community and (2) to determine the factors that influence rabies awareness in urban slums. Using a systematic random sampling strategy, 185 participants were selected from 8 urban slums. The data were collected by direct interview using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. In the study population, 74.1% of the participants had heard about rabies, and 54.1% knew that rabies is a fatal disease. Only 33.5% of the interviewees felt that people in the community had a role to play in controlling the stray dog population. Gender, age and educational status were significantly associated with rabies awareness. Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The present study was carried out to analyze the growth pattern of preterm and IUGR infants from birth up to nine months of age. A longitudinal study was conducted in an urban slum of Chetla, Kolkata, India. Study population comprised of 36 low birth weight babies, out of which 13 were preterms and rest 23 were IUGR ...
Objective: To determine the health problems common among under-five children in a typical urban slum in Nigeria and assess the treatment patterns commonly offered to these children. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in May-July 2010. A cluster sampling technique was used to select ...
... question will lead to improvements in outcomes e.g. improving nutrition is likely to reduce the incidence of diseases. These problems though important are numerous, and it is unlikely that piecemeal solutions will be amply cost effective to achieve health of women in slums; rather these problems require parallel attention.
Choudhary, R; Sharma, Abhinav; Agarwal, Kishore S; Kumar, Amod; Sreenivas, V; Puliyel, Jacob M
Interventions on behalf of the marginalized in society can assume many formats. In an urban slum the Government of Delhi built one-room houses for some of the residents in what is termed a 'plot area'. Not all residents could be accommodated in the project and the remainder continued to live next door in shanty houses of the slum. Nineteen years later, young children who had migrated with their parents, have grown up and have children of their own. We looked at the development of the children living in the two types of accommodation. A total of 373 children were studied. All children (n = 200) between the ages of 3.5 and 5.5 years in a cluster of five residential blocks in the plot area were studied. As a control, children in two large clusters of shanty houses (n = 173) were also studied. For development assessment the Central Institute of Education (CIE) Test was performed. This is an Indian adaptation of the Standford-Binet Test. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine the factors that influenced IQ most. The mean IQ of the children in the plot area was 92.5 (s.d. 13.38) and in the shanty houses 89.5 (s.d. 12.9) (p = 0.05). Analysis showed that the most significant factors affecting IQ were malnutrition in the first 6 months of life and attendance of the child at pre-school. For nutrition in the first 6 months, there was no difference between the groups. For attendance at pre-school, 110 of 200 in the plot area and 47 of 173 in the shanty houses were attending pre-school (p < 0.01). We find that children living in the permanent houses had a significantly better IQ than those in shanty houses. A review of the literature did not reveal a comparable study.
Anand Mohan Dixit
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%. IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men. TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.
Anand Mohan Dixit
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%. IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men. TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.
Full Text Available Communities in urban slums face multiple risks to their health. These are shaped by intermediary and structural determinants. Gaining a clear understanding of these determinants is a prerequisite for developing interventions to reduce the health consequences of urban poverty. With 828 million people living in slum conditions, the need to find ways to reduce risks to health has never been greater. In many low income settings, the kitchen is the epicentre of activities and behaviours which either undermine or enhance health.We used qualitative methods of semi-structured interviews, observation and participatory workshops in two slum areas in Kathmandu, Nepal to gain women's perspectives on the health risks they faced in and around their kitchens. Twenty one women were interviewed and four participatory workshops with a total of 69 women were held. The women took photographs of their kitchens to trigger discussions.The main health conditions identified by the women were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease and burn injuries. Women clearly understood intermediary (psychosocial, material and behavioural determinants to these health conditions such as poor ventilation, cooking on open fires, over-crowding, lack of adequate child supervision. Women articulated the stress they experienced and clearly linked this to health conditions such as heart disease and uptake of smoking. They were also able to identify protective factors, particularly social capital. Subsequent analysis highlighted how female headed-households and those with disabilities had to contend with greater risks to health.Women living in slums are very aware of the intermediary determinants-material, behavioural and psycho-social, that increase their vulnerability to ill health. They are also able to identify protective factors, particularly social capital. It is only by understanding the determinants at all levels, not just the behavioural, that we will be able to identify
Jawhari, Badeia; Keenan, Louanne; Zakus, David; Ludwick, Dave; Isaac, Abraam; Saleh, Abdullah; Hayward, Robert
Rapid urbanization has led to the growth of urban slums and increased healthcare burdens for vulnerable populations. Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have the potential to improve continuity of care for slum residents, but their implementation is complicated by technical and non-technical limitations. This study sought practical insights about facilitators and barriers to EMR implementation in urban slum environments. Descriptive qualitative method was used to explore staff perceptions about a recent open-source EMR deployment in two primary care clinics in Kibera, Nairobi. Participants were interviewed using open-ended, semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used when exploring transcribed data. Three major themes - systems, software, and social considerations - emerged from content analysis, with sustainability concerns prevailing. Although participants reported many systems (e.g., power, network, Internet, hardware, interoperability) and software (e.g., data integrity, confidentiality, function) challenges, social factors (e.g., identity management, training, use incentives) appeared the most important impediments to sustainability. These findings are consistent with what others have reported, especially the importance of practical barriers to EMR deployments in resource-constrained settings. Other findings contribute unique insights about social determinants of EMR impact in slum settings, including the challenge of multiple-identity management and development of meaningful incentives to staff compliance. This study exposes front-line experiences with opportunities and shortcomings of EMR implementations in urban slum primary care clinics. Although the promise is great, there are a number of unique system, software and social challenges that EMR advocates should address before expecting sustainable EMR use in resource-constrained settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Mittal A; Ahluwalia S; Singh J
Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother′s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38...
Behera, Deepanjali; Bharat, Shalini; Chandrakant Gawde, Nilesh
To explore the context, experiences and pathways of seeking abortion care among married women in a minority dominated urban slum community in Mumbai city of India. A mixed-method study was conducted using a systematic random sampling method to select 282 respondents from the slum community. One fifth of these womenreported undergoing at least one induced abortion over past five years. A quantitative survey was conducted among these women (n = 57) using structured face-to-face interviews. Additionally, in-depths interviews involving 11 respondents, 2 community health workers and 2 key informants from the community were conducted for further exploration of qualitative data. The rate of induced abortion was 115.6 per 1000 pregnancies in the study area with an abortion ratio of 162.79 per 1000 live births. Frequent pregnancies with low birth spacing and abortions were reported among the women due to restricted contraception use based on religious beliefs. Limited supportfrom husband and family compelled the women to seek abortion services, mostly secretly, from private, unskilled providers and unregistered health facilities. Friends and neighbors were main sources of advice and link to abortion services. Lack of safe abortion facilities within accessible distance furtherintensifies the risk of unsafe abortions. Low contraception usage based on rigid cultural beliefs and scarcely accessible abortion services were the root causes of extensive unsafe abortions.Contraception awareness and counseling with involvement of influential community leaders as well as safe abortion services need to be strengthened to protect these deprived women from risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.
Full Text Available The burgeoning of slums in the developing world poses an urgent environmental threat due to insanitary conditions and rampant disposal of wastewater. To assess the potential environmental impacts, domestic wastewater from Ghana's biggest urban slum - Old Fadama was characterised throughout the dry and wet seasons. The study drew on a comprehensive assessment of the general sanitary conditions in the community to determine the sources of pollution and water quality monitoring. BOD5 levels of wastewater from the study area were 545.63±99.88mg/L and 645.94±331.43mg/L in the dry and wet seasons respectively whereas COD levels were 1100.45±167.16mg/L and 1415.12±722.83mg/L in the dry and wet seasons respectively. E-coli levels were 4±1x106CFU/100mL and 4200±2400 x106CFU/100mL in the dry and wet seasons respectively whereas total coliform levels also showed the same trend with 9±2106CFU/100mL and 16800±5100106CFU/100mL in the dry and wet seasons respectively. The study identifies that wastewater from this community has potential deleterious environmental implications due to high levels of nutrients, oxygen-demanding substances and faecal coliforms. Pollutants were identified to be emanating predominantly from open defecation and indiscriminate waste disposal. Efforts should thus be directed towards improving sanitary conditions viz. access to toilet facilities, waste disposal mechanisms and best management practices for wastewater.
Full Text Available Objective:To explore the context, experiences and pathways of seeking abortion care among married women in a minority dominated urban slum community in Mumbai city of India.Materials and methods:A mixed-method study was conducted using a systematic random sampling method to select 282 respondents from the slum community. One fifth of these womenreported undergoing at least one induced abortion over past five years. A quantitative survey was conducted among these women (n=57 using structured face-to-face interviews. Additionally, in-depths interviews involving 11 respondents, 2 community health workers and 2 key informants from the community were conducted for further exploration of qualitative data.Results:The rate of induced abortion was 115.6 per 1000 pregnancies in the study area with an abortion ratio of 162.79 per 1000 live births. Frequent pregnancies with low birth spacing and abortions were reported among the women due to restricted contraception use based on religious beliefs. Limited supportfrom husband and family compelled the women to seek abortion services, mostly secretly, from private, unskilled providers and unregistered health facilities. Friends and neighbors were main sources of advice and link to abortion services. Lack of safe abortion facilities within accessible distance furtherintensifies the risk of unsafe abortions.Conclusion:Low contraception usage based on rigid cultural beliefs and scarcely accessible abortion services were the root causes of extensive unsafe abortions.Contraception awareness and counseling with involvement of influential community leaders as well as safe abortion services need to be strengthened to protect these deprived women from risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.
Walker, R; Carvalho-Pereira, T; Serrano, S; Pedra, G; Hacker, K; Taylor, J; Minter, A; Pertile, A; Panti-May, A; Carvalho, M; Souza, F N; Nery, N; Rodrigues, G; Bahiense, T; Reis, M G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Begon, M; Costa, F
Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.
Marlow, Mariel A; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Sales, Carolina Maia Martins; Gomes, Teresa; Snyder, Robert E; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Riley, Lee W
To quantitatively assess disease burden due to tuberculosis between populations residing in and outside of urban informal settlements in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we compared disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), or "DALY-gap." Using the 2010 Brazilian census definition of informal settlements as aglomerados subnormais (AGSN), we allocated tuberculosis (TB) DALYs to AGSN vs non-AGSN census tracts based on geocoded addresses of TB cases reported to the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases in 2005 and 2010. DALYs were calculated based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease methodology. DALY-gap was calculated as the difference between age-adjusted DALYs/100,000 population between AGSN and non-AGSN. Total TB DALY in Rio in 2010 was 16,731 (266 DALYs/100,000). DALYs were higher in AGSN census tracts (306 vs 236 DALYs/100,000), yielding a DALY-gap of 70 DALYs/100,000. Attributable DALY fraction for living in an AGSN was 25.4%. DALY-gap was highest for males 40-59 years of age (501 DALYs/100,000) and in census tracts with <60% electricity (12,327 DALYs/100,000). DALY-gap comparison revealed spatial and quantitative differences in TB burden between slum vs non-slum census tracts that were not apparent using traditional measures of incidence and mortality. This metric could be applied to compare TB burden or burden for other diseases in mega-cities with large informal settlements for more targeted resource allocation and evaluation of intervention programs.
Bauza, Valerie; Ocharo, R M; Nguyen, Thanh H; Guest, Jeremy S
AbstractDiarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 children aged 3 months to 5 years old in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya, to assess the relationship between caregiver-reported soil ingestion and child diarrhea. Diarrhea was significantly associated with soil ingestion (adjusted odds ratio = 9.9, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-47.5). Soil samples from locations near each household were also collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli and a human-associated Bacteroides fecal marker (HF183). Escherichia coli was detected in 100% of soil samples (mean 5.5 log colony forming units E. coli per gram of dry soil) and the Bacteroides fecal marker HF183 was detected in 93% of soil samples. These findings suggest that soil ingestion may be an important transmission pathway for diarrheal disease in urban slum settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25 years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. Methods We used the ‘ingredient approach’ to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called ‘friction cost approach’ to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. Results In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Conclusion Although CHWs
Arvind Kumar Singh
Full Text Available Background : The increasing proportion of elderly persons is contributing to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. The residents of urban slums are more vulnerable due to poverty and lack of access to health care. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes in elderly persons in an urban slum and to assess their awareness, treatment and control of this condition. Materials and Methods : All persons aged 60 years and above, residing in an urban slum of Delhi, were included in this cross-sectional community- based study. Data were collected on sociodemographic variables. The participants′ awareness and treatment of diabetes was recorded. Their fasting blood sugar was estimated using an automated glucometer. Diabetes was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was ≥126 mg/dL, or if the participant was taking treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting blood glucose was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was 110-125 mg/dL. Results: Among the 474 participants studied, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 18.8% (95% CI 15.3-21.5. It decreased with increasing age, and was higher among women. The prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 19.8% (95% CI 16.3-23.7. It was higher among women. One-third of the diabetic participants were aware of their condition; two-thirds of these were on treatment and three-fourths of those on treatment had controlled fasting blood sugar level. The awareness, treatment and control were better among women. Conclusions : Diabetes is common among elderly persons in urban slums. Its magnitude and low awareness warrant effective public health interventions for their treatment and control.
Akullian, Adam; Ng'eno, Eric; Matheson, Alastair I; Cosmas, Leonard; Macharia, Daniel; Fields, Barry; Bigogo, Godfrey; Mugoh, Maina; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L; Wakefield, Jonathan; Montgomery, Joel M
Enteric fever due to Salmonella Typhi (typhoid fever) occurs in urban areas with poor sanitation. While direct fecal-oral transmission is thought to be the predominant mode of transmission, recent evidence suggests that indirect environmental transmission may also contribute to disease spread. Data from a population-based infectious disease surveillance system (28,000 individuals followed biweekly) were used to map the spatial pattern of typhoid fever in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi Kenya, between 2010-2011. Spatial modeling was used to test whether variations in topography and accumulation of surface water explain the geographic patterns of risk. Among children less than ten years of age, risk of typhoid fever was geographically heterogeneous across the study area (p = 0.016) and was positively associated with lower elevation, OR = 1.87, 95% CI (1.36-2.57), p typhoid fever did not vary geographically or with elevation among individuals more than ten years of age [corrected]. Our results provide evidence of indirect, environmental transmission of typhoid fever among children, a group with high exposure to fecal pathogens in the environment. Spatially targeting sanitation interventions may decrease enteric fever transmission.
Full Text Available Enteric fever due to Salmonella Typhi (typhoid fever occurs in urban areas with poor sanitation. While direct fecal-oral transmission is thought to be the predominant mode of transmission, recent evidence suggests that indirect environmental transmission may also contribute to disease spread.Data from a population-based infectious disease surveillance system (28,000 individuals followed biweekly were used to map the spatial pattern of typhoid fever in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi Kenya, between 2010-2011. Spatial modeling was used to test whether variations in topography and accumulation of surface water explain the geographic patterns of risk.Among children less than ten years of age, risk of typhoid fever was geographically heterogeneous across the study area (p = 0.016 and was positively associated with lower elevation, OR = 1.87, 95% CI (1.36-2.57, p <0.001. In contrast, the risk of typhoid fever did not vary geographically or with elevation among individuals more than ten years of age [corrected].Our results provide evidence of indirect, environmental transmission of typhoid fever among children, a group with high exposure to fecal pathogens in the environment. Spatially targeting sanitation interventions may decrease enteric fever transmission.
Rakesh N Patil
Full Text Available Aim: Study of the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in children aged 5 to 14 years in a health post area of an urban slum. Objectives: (1 To study frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in the study population, (2 To study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and psychiatric morbidity. Settings and Design: The present study was conducted in one of the five health posts of an urban slum, which is a field practice area of the teaching medical institute. It was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Sample size was estimated by using 20% as a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity which was obtained from previous studies done in developing countries. Household was used as a sampling unit and systematic random sampling method was used for selecting household. Total 257 children aged 5 to 14 years were included in the study. A pre-designed, semi-structured diagnostic interview schedule based on DSM-IV criteria was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests of significance used were Chi-square and Logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in this study was 14.8%. Non-organic enuresis, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Conduct disorder, and Mental retardation were identified as the common mental health problems. Conclusions: Factors like nuclear family, parents not living together, large family size, and positive family history of psychiatric disorder were associated with psychiatric morbidity in children.
Full Text Available Background: For sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, it is necessary to consume adequately iodized salt on a regular basis and optimal iodine nutrition can be achieved through universal salt iodization. Objective: To assess the extent of use of adequately iodized salt in the urban slums of Cuttack. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random multi-stage cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional study involving 336 households and 33 retail shops selected randomly from 11 slums of Cuttack was conducted in 2005. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to obtain relevant information and salt iodine was estimated qualitatively by using a spot testing kit and quantitatively using the iodometric titration method. Statistical Analysis: Proportion, Chi-square test. Results: Only 60.1% of the households in urban slums of Cuttack were using adequately iodized salt i.e., the iodine level in the salt was ≥15 ppm. Iodine deficiency was significantly marked in sample salts collected from katcha houses as compared with salts collected from pucca houses. Households with low financial status were using noniodized/inadequately-iodized salt. Both crystalline and refined salts were sold at all retail shops. Crystalline salts collected from all retailers had an iodine content < 15 ppm and refined salts collected from one retailer had iodine content < 15 ppm. About 48.5% of salt samples collected from retail shops were adequately iodized. Conclusion: In the urban slums of Cuttack, retailers were selling crystalline salts, which were inadequately iodized- this would be a setback in the progress towards eliminating IDD.
Kikuti, Mariana; Cunha, Geraldo M; Paploski, Igor A D; Kasper, Amelia M; Silva, Monaise M O; Tavares, Aline S; Cruz, Jaqueline S; Queiroz, Tássia L; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Santana, Perla M; Lima, Helena C A V; Calcagno, Juan; Takahashi, Daniele; Gonçalves, André H O; Araújo, Josélio M G; Gauthier, Kristine; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Kitron, Uriel; Ko, Albert I; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ribeiro, Guilherme S
Few studies of dengue have shown group-level associations between demographic, socioeconomic, or geographic characteristics and the spatial distribution of dengue within small urban areas. This study aimed to examine whether specific characteristics of an urban slum community were associated with the risk of dengue disease. From 01/2009 to 12/2010, we conducted enhanced, community-based surveillance in the only public emergency unit in a slum in Salvador, Brazil to identify acute febrile illness (AFI) patients with laboratory evidence of dengue infection. Patient households were geocoded within census tracts (CTs). Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical data were obtained from the 2010 national census. Associations between CTs characteristics and the spatial risk of both dengue and non-dengue AFI were assessed by Poisson log-normal and conditional auto-regressive models (CAR). We identified 651 (22.0%) dengue cases among 2,962 AFI patients. Estimated risk of symptomatic dengue was 21.3 and 70.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All the four dengue serotypes were identified, but DENV2 predominated (DENV1: 8.1%; DENV2: 90.7%; DENV3: 0.4%; DENV4: 0.8%). Multivariable CAR regression analysis showed increased dengue risk in CTs with poorer inhabitants (RR: 1.02 for each percent increase in the frequency of families earning ≤1 times the minimum wage; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and decreased risk in CTs located farther from the health unit (RR: 0.87 for each 100 meter increase; 95% CI: 0.80-0.94). The same CTs characteristics were also associated with non-dengue AFI risk. This study highlights the large burden of symptomatic dengue on individuals living in urban slums in Brazil. Lower neighborhood socioeconomic status was independently associated with increased risk of dengue, indicating that within slum communities with high levels of absolute poverty, factors associated with the social gradient influence dengue transmission. In addition, poor
Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anemia is a major public health problem worldwide particularly in developing countries among women of reproductive age. WHO Hemoglobin Color Scale is easy, quick and handy technique to estimate hemoglobin level at field. Objective: To find out prevalence of anemia using WHO hemoglobin color scale among the females of reproductive age group. To find out the most common signs and symptoms associated with anemia. To find out the causes associated with anemia among females. Material& Methods: A cross sectional study with written informed consent was conducted in 400 females of an urban slum area of Indore city. Females were selected using systematic random sampling method. All the females of reproductive age group were included in study. Level of hemoglobin was obtaining using WHO Hemoglobin color scale. A questionnaire was used during interpersonal interview of all the anemic females which was followed by clinical examination to assess signs and symptoms associated with anemia. The data was analyzed using Microsoft office excel sheet. Results: 61% of females of reproductive age group were found to be anemic by hemoglobin color scale. 54 % complained of frequent headache, 50 % of difficulty in breathing during normal work and 49.18% of reduced appetite. Conclusion: Anemia is found more in females of reproductive age group in urban slum. Most common symptoms associated with anemia are frequent headache, difficulty in breathing, weakness throughout day.
Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anemia is a major public health problem worldwide particularly in developing countries among women of reproductive age. WHO Hemoglobin Color Scale is easy, quick and handy technique to estimate hemoglobin level at field. Objective: To find out prevalence of anemia using WHO hemoglobin color scale among the females of reproductive age group. To find out the most common signs and symptoms associated with anemia. To find out the causes associated with anemia among females. Material& Methods: A cross sectional study with written informed consent was conducted in 400 females of an urban slum area of Indore city. Females were selected using systematic random sampling method. All the females of reproductive age group were included in study. Level of hemoglobin was obtaining using WHO Hemoglobin color scale. A questionnaire was used during interpersonal interview of all the anemic females which was followed by clinical examination to assess signs and symptoms associated with anemia. The data was analyzed using Microsoft office excel sheet. Results: 61% of females of reproductive age group were found to be anemic by hemoglobin color scale. 54 % complained of frequent headache, 50 % of difficulty in breathing during normal work and 49.18% of reduced appetite. Conclusion: Anemia is found more in females of reproductive age group in urban slum. Most common
Rashid, Sabina Faiz
Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of implementation of various programs and policies to curb the population of India, the population growth of India continues to be high in the count of large size of population (58% of total population in the reproductive age group and high fertilit y rate due to unmet need for contraception. OBJECTIVES: To know the knowledge and practice of various contraceptives among the eligible couples. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A cross sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of UHTC, Gaudapali whic h is an urban slum, Sambalpur. The data was collected by interview of the female partners of the eligible couple by house to house visit using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: Total of 212 marries women of the reproductive age group participated in th e study, most of the couples (96% had knowledge about some contraceptive. Majority of them (69% considered those methods to be quite safe & effective and easy to use. Major source of information (39% was from health care workers. Only 62% of the couples had practiced the contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The increased use of contraceptive requires IEC activity and continuous motivation among the male partner of the couple
Ayllón, Tania; Câmara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Morone, Fernanda Cristina; Gonçalves, Larissa da Silva; Saito Monteiro de Barros, Fábio; Brasil, Patrícia; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Honório, Nildimar Alves
Aedes albopictus, originally considered as a secondary vector for arbovirus transmission, especially in areas where this species co-exist with Aedes aegypti, has been described in most regions of the world. Dispersion and domiciliation of Ae. albopictus in a complex of densely urbanized slums in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, was evidenced. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that 1) Ae. albopictus distribution in urban slums is negatively related to distance from vegetation, and 2) these vectors have taken on a domestic life style with a portion of the population feeding, ovipositing, and resting indoors. To do this, we developed an integrated surveillance proposal, aiming to detect the presence and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. The study, based on a febrile syndrome surveillance system in a cohort of infants living in the slum complex, was performed on a weekly basis between February 2014 and April 2017. A total of 8,418 adult mosquitoes (3,052 Ae. aegypti, 44 Ae. albopictus, 16 Ae. scapularis, 4 Ae. fluviatilis and 5,302 Culex quinquefasciatus) were collected by direct aspiration and 46,047 Aedes spp. eggs were collected by oviposition traps. The Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, was aspirated in its adult form (n = 44), and immature forms of this species (n = 12) were identified from the eggs collected by the ovitraps. In most collection sites, co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was observed. Key-sites, such as junkyards, thrift stores, factories, tire repair shops and garages, had the higher abundance of Ae. albopictus, followed by schools and households. We collected Ae. albopictus at up to 400 meters to the nearest vegetation cover. The log transformed (n+1) number of females Ae. albopictus captured at each collection point was inversely related to the distance to the nearest vegetation border. These results show that Ae. albopictus, a competent vector for important arboviruses and more commonly found in areas with higher
Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries and the condition is worse in slums. In order to provide effective preventive and management strategies, it is important to identify factors associated with the disease. This study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of diarrhea in children under five years of age in urban slums. Methods: Parents of all children under five years from the urban slums of Tansen municipality, Palpa, Nepal were interviewed using a standardized pretested questionnaire and proforma. Parental variables, environmental factors, and presence of diarrhea in those children in past three months were collected by trained enumerators and the data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS-10. Results: A total of 450 under five years children were enrolled in the study. There were 216 (48% male and 234 (52% female children with F:M ratio of 1.08:1. Occurrence of diarrhea was lower if the children were breast-fed for more than six months, well-nourished, used fountain water for drinking, or used boiled or treated water. Similarly, diarrhea prevalence was lower if father had a regular job, daily income in the family was more than one US dollar, there was a toilet in the house, practice of hand washing was followed before feeding or preparing food, or there was no child suffering from diarrhea in the neighborhood. Conclusion: There are a few variables that are significantly related to diarrhea in children under five years of age. In order to decrease the diarrheal episodes in children in the slums of the developing countries, priority could be given in the improvement of those variables.
For long now, the urban child has been considered to be more likely than his/her rural counterpart in being able to realize the dream of fully participating in school. This observation has mainly been attributed to what is commonly known as the "urban advantage." This "urban advantage" is associated with increased access to…
Chen, Jiangzhuo; Chu, Shuyu; Chungbaek, Youngyun; Khan, Maleq; Kuhlman, Christopher; Marathe, Achla; Mortveit, Henning; Vullikanti, Anil; Xie, Dawen
Objectives This research studies the impact of influenza epidemic in the slum and non-slum areas of Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India, by taking proper account of slum demographics and residents’ activities, using a highly resolved social contact network of the 13.8 million residents of Delhi. Methods An SEIR model is used to simulate the spread of influenza on two different synthetic social contact networks of Delhi, one where slums and non-slums are treated the same in terms of their demographics and daily sets of activities and the other, where slum and non-slum regions have different attributes. Results Differences between the epidemic outcomes on the two networks are large. Time-to-peak infection is overestimated by several weeks, and the cumulative infection rate and peak infection rate are underestimated by 10–50%, when slum attributes are ignored. Conclusions Slum populations have a significant effect on influenza transmission in urban areas. Improper specification of slums in large urban regions results in underestimation of infections in the entire population and hence will lead to misguided interventions by policy planners. PMID:27687898
Aboderin, Isabella; Nanyonjo, Agnes
Debate on the burden of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in lower and middle income countries is intensifying; yet, little knowledge so far exists on patterns and impacts of such conditions among general or older adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence, potential predictors, and sequelae of MSK among older adults residing in two low resource informal urban settlements or "slums" in Nairobi Kenya. Data on older adults aged 60 years and over from two unrelated cross-sectional surveys on the older slum populations are used: a 2006/7 survey on the social, health, and overall well-being of older people (sample N = 831), and a 2016 survey on realities and impacts of long-term care and social protection for older adults (sample n = 1026). Uni and multivariate regressions on the 2006/7 data are employed to examine relationships of back pain and symptoms of arthritis with sex, age, wealth, unemployment, diagnoses of hypertension, and diabetes; and with indicators of subjective well-being and functional ability. Descriptive frequencies and chi-squared tests of association are used on 2016 data to identify the overall prevalence and locations of activity limiting MSK pain, and sex differences in these. Prevalence of past month back pain and past 2 week symptoms of arthritis was 44% and 42.6%, respectively. Respective prevalence of past month activity limiting back pain and joint pain was 13.9% and 22.7%. A total of 42.6% of slum residents with a current health problem report MSK as the most severe problem. In multivariate regressions, female sex, unemployment, and diagnosis of hypertension are predictive of back pain and symptoms of arthritis. Both conditions are associated with raised odds of having lower quality of life, poorer life satisfaction, and depressive symptoms, and with mobility impairments and self-care difficulties. MSK conditions are salient, and a likely key cause of impaired subjective well
Full Text Available Introduction: Not many studies have been conducted regarding contraceptive practices in the slums of Lucknow. This study will be helpful in the assessing the current scenario of prevalence of contraceptive use and various bio-social characteristics that can affect the contraceptive use by the women residing in urban slums of Lucknow. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of contraceptives and its practices among married women in urban slums of Lucknow district. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Based on thirty cluster sampling technique, thirty urban slums were selected. Total 600 married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years were interviewed in the period of one year from August 2010 to August 2011. Data was collected through preformed and pretested schedule and analysis was done using chi squared test and multiple logistic regression through SPSS 17.0 software. Results: It was found that 99.2 percent married women had the knowledge of contraceptives but its use was only 46.7 percent. Most commonly used contraceptive was condom. Among women who had ever used contraceptives, about 56.3 percent women were current users. Fear of side effects/ health concern was the main reason for discontinuing contraceptive use. Conclusions: Though knowledge of contraceptives among women residing in urban slums of Lucknow was good but contraceptive use was far lagging behind.
Begum, Shahina; Donta, Balaiah; Nair, Saritha; Prakasam, C.P.
Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98)] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96)] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence. PMID:26205021
Shubha Davalagi B
Full Text Available Background: The largest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception is found among those in their first year after childbirth; concentrating efforts to reduce unmet need among these women could have additionally bigger impact on increasing contraceptive use than concentrating on any other group. Aims & Objectives: To know the knowledge & practices of post – partum contraception among mothers in urban slums. Material & Methods: Cross sectional study conducted in urban slums for duration of six months. Study population included mothers in extended post – partum period residing in urban slums. Mothers were interviewed using pre – tested, semi – structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS v 22.0 and, chi square test and logistic regression analysis was employed. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the mothers in our study were in the age group of 20-24 years (46%. Mean age was 21.6 ± 3.1years. Majority of the mothers (56% were Hindus. Mean age of marriage observed was 18.2±2.1years. In the present study, majority (76% had knowledge of post – partum contraceptive methods, but only 17% of the mothers were using contraception. Unmet need for post – partum contraception was found among 49% of mothers. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware, the practice of family planning was very low among post-partum mothers. The study highlights the impact of socio cultural factors like religion, caste, number of living children, duration of marriage and ANC service utilization on post – partum contraception usage among mothers.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence.
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Abbas, Safdar; Safdar, Rabia
Child marriage (women who were married as children in urban slums of Lahore, Pakistan. Women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were married prior to 18 years, for at least 5 years were recruited from most populous slum areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Themes for the interview guide were developed using published literature and everyday observations of the researchers. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers in Urdu language and were translated into English. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, analyzed and categorized into themes. All 19 participants were married between 11 and 17 years. Most respondents were uneducated, poor and were working as housemaids. Majority of participants experienced verbal abuse, and threatened, attempted and completed physical violence by their husbands. A sizeable number of women reported unwanted sexual encounters by their husbands. Family affairs particularly issues with in-laws, poor house management, lack of proper care of children, bringing insufficient dowry, financial problems, an act against the will of husband, and inability to give birth to a male child were some of the reasons narrated by the participants which led to IPV against women. Women married as children are vulnerable to IPV. Concerted efforts are needed from all sectors of society including academia, public health experts, policy makers and civil society to end the child marriage practice in Pakistan.
Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa
Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116
Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; ... still women in urban settings do not use available maternal health services. Especially ... health services, safe water supplies, poor sanitation and .... selected cities are confined to crowded places, lack of.
About 32% of the Indian population presently resides in towns and cities, and national and state governments are intent on increasing that number. Based on the past experience of most of the developed world, urbanization is considered integral to modernization and progress. However, India’s
Archambault, C.; Laat, J. de; Zulu, E.M.
An estimated 30–70% of Nairobi’s population lives in informal settlements with very poor access to basic services, yet children are notably absent from the informal settlements. This paper combines qualitative research with three micro data sets and finds that the presence of urban basic services
Rapid urbanisation in the 20th century has been accompanied by the development of slums. Nearly one-third of the world's population and more than 60% of urban populations in the least developed countries live in slums, including hundreds of millions of children. Slums are areas of broad social and health disadvantage to children and their families due to extreme poverty, overcrowding, poor water and sanitation, substandard housing, limited access to basic health and education services, and other hardships (eg, high unemployment, violence). Despite the magnitude of this problem, very little is known about the potential impact of slum life on the health of children and adolescents. Statistics that show improved mortality and health outcomes in cities are based on aggregated data and may miss important intraurban disparities. Limited but consistent evidence suggests higher infant and under-five years mortality for children residing in slums compared with non-slum areas. Children suffer from higher rates of diarrhoeal and respiratory illness, malnutrition and have lower vaccination rates. Mothers residing in slums are more poorly educated and less likely to receive antenatal care and skilled birth assistance. Adolescents have earlier sexual debut and higher rates of HIV, and adopt risky behaviours influenced by their social environment. We also know little about the consequences of this form of early childhood on long-term health-related behaviour (eg, diet and exercise) and non-communicable disease outcomes, such as obesity, heart disease and mental illness. Further attention to understanding and addressing child health in slum settings is an important priority for paediatricians and those committed to child health worldwide.
Wong, Joshua M; Nyachieo, Dhillon O; Benzekri, Noelle A; Cosmas, Leonard; Ondari, Daniel; Yekta, Shahla; Montgomery, Joel M; Williamson, John M; Breiman, Robert F
Ninety-five percent of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, longitudinal household-level studies have not been done in urban slum settings, where overcrowding and unsafe cook stoves may increase likelihood of injury. Using a prospective, population-based disease surveillance system in the urban slum of Kibera in Kenya, we examined the incidence of household-level burns of all severities from 2006-2011. Of approximately 28,500 enrolled individuals (6000 households), we identified 3072 burns. The overall incidence was 27.9/1000 person-years-of-observation. Children slums rapidly increases in many African countries, characterizing and addressing the rising burden of burns is likely to become a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Shannon, Harry S; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H
This study aimed to (i) examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii) identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15-49 years) and their children (0-59 months). Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15-1.57) irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16-1.23). The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies.
Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate of Uttar Pradesh is 2.7 with annual growth rate of 16.5. Age specific marital fertility rate (ASMFR in Uttar Pradesh is highest in the age group of 20-24 years (383.9 followed by 15-19 years (271.0 age group. Use of contraceptives is also very low in this most productive age group. Among the Young married women in the age group of 15-24 years the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is only 27.75% which is quite low than the target CPR of 60%. State level data presents a grim picture of contraceptive use in the slum areas in comparison to non-slum areas. This slum population is the most vulnerable section of our society. Aims & Objectives: i To assess the prevalence of non-use of contraceptives among young married women living in urban slums. ii To understand the reasons for non-use of contraceptives among young married women. iii To explore the factors influencing non-use of contraceptive among young married women. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the urban slums of Lucknow. Out of the eight Nagar-Nigam zones in Lucknow, one Urban-Primary Health Centre was selected randomly from each zone. From each Urban- Primary Health Centre, 2 slums were selected randomly. In selected slum, all the households were visited until at least 33 young married women (15-24 years were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to obtain the desired sample size of 535. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: Current use of contraceptives was found to be 33.8 % and almost two-thirds (66.2% of the participants were not using any form of contraceptive method. The important reasons for non-use of contraception were embarrassment / hesitancy / shyness regarding family planning, lack of knowledge about the contraceptive method or place of availability of services, opposition to contraceptive use by husband or family members and women’s desire to get pregnant. About one third of the women had no
Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge of mothers about recognition of danger signs and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn child in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods : A cross- sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results : Study findings showed that Majority (76.9% of the mothers said that if the baby was very cold to touch or running temperature is a danger sign during newborn period followed by absence of sucking (68.9% in previously sucking newborn as danger sign. Majority (71.9% of the mothers consulted local doctor for any problem during neonatal period. Only 12 percent of the mothers approached Govt. doctor for the treatment . It was observed that Hing was given by 86.2 percent mothers in case of stomachache. 82.8 percent mothers had given salt and sugar solutions in the case of diarrhoea . Conclusion: In majority of cases correct knowledge and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge of mothers about recognition of danger signs and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn child in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods : A cross- sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results : Study findings showed that Majority (76.9% of the mothers said that if the baby was very cold to touch or running temperature is a danger sign during newborn period followed by absence of sucking (68.9% in previously sucking newborn as danger sign. Majority (71.9% of the mothers consulted local doctor for any problem during neonatal period. Only 12 percent of the mothers approached Govt. doctor for the treatment . It was observed that Hing was given by 86.2 percent mothers in case of stomachache. 82.8 percent mothers had given salt and sugar solutions in the case of diarrhoea\t. Conclusion: In majority of cases correct knowledge and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.
Joshi, Ashish; Prasad, Satish; Kasav, Jyoti B; Segan, Mehak; Singh, Awnish K
Access to improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene is one of the prime concerns around the globe. This study aimed at assessing water and sanitation hygiene-related attitude and practices, and quality of water in urban slums of south Delhi, India. This pilot cross sectional study was performed during July 2013 across four urban slums of South Delhi. A convenient sample of 40 participants was enrolled. A modified version of previously validated questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographics, existing water and sanitation facilities and water treatment practices. Water quality testing was additionally performed using hydrogen sulphide (H2S) vials. Average age of participants was 36 years (SD=10). 83% of the participants perceived gastrointestinal tract infection as the most important health problem. 75% of the participants did not use any method for drinking water treatment. 45% of the participants consumed water from privately-owned tube well/ bore well. Water shortage lasted two days or more (50%) at a stretch with severe scarcity occurring twice a year (40%). Females aged 15 years and above were largely responsible (93%) for fetching water from water source. 45% of the participants had toilets within their households. 53% of drinking water samples collected from storage containers showed positive bacteriological contamination. There is an urgent need to develop family centered educational programs that would enhance awareness about water treatment methods that are cost effective and easily accessible.
Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay
Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297
Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year. Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens.
K G Makade
Full Text Available Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational study was carried out in the field practice area of an Urban Health Training Centre of a teaching hospital in Mumbai. Results:A sample of 342 women was taken by random sampling. Questionnaire was administered in the local language.It was found that illiteracy, marriage before 18 years of age and low socioeconomic status,are significantly associated with more than 3living children.Out of these, socioeconomic status of the family had the greatest influence on bearing of the total number of children, followed by the age of women at marriage and then educational status of the women. Conclusion:Improvement in education, socioeconomic status and increasing the age at marriage can prove to be very effective for the control of population.
N. Rangaswamy (Nimmi); P.A. Arora (Payal)
textabstractThe wild and the everyday point at once to twinned aspects of life and, in this article, to a technological imaginary drawing upon the use of the mobile internet in urban slums of India. The article responds to the rather untethered way, from the point of view of state regulation, in
Neervoort, F.; Von Rosenstiel, I.; Bongers, K.; Demetriades, M.; Shacola, M.; Wolffers, I.N.
To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding
Mutiso, Victoria N.; Musyimi, Christine W.; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Ndetei, David M.
Purpose: This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. Methods: A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and
Full Text Available Introduction: India has the highest prevalence of low birth weight babies. Geographical variation and level of physical activity can influence diet diversity and maternal nutritional status which in turn influences the birth weight of the neonate. Mumbai is a large city comprising of slums in suburbs depicting diet diversity amongst populations. Aim: To study the maternal diet diversity, physical activity and its effect on birth weight of the neonates in urban slums of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A six month follow-up study was carried out in three maternity homes representing different geographical areas of Western, Central and Southern Mumbai. A total number of 131 pregnant women were selected using simple random sampling. Final sample size was n=121 after follow-up loss of 9 and 1 miscarriage. Maternal anthropometric, socio-demographic, physical activity and diet diversity data was collected using structured questionnaires through personal interview after taking written informed consent. Birth weight of the neonate was recorded. Chi-Square, Correlation, ANOVA was used to test the significance. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Nineteen (15.7% were low birth weight (LBW infants, 102 (84.3% had normal weight. There was a significant association between place of Antenatal Clinic (ANC visit and diet diversity score and its subsequent effect on birth weight (p<0.05. Geographic variation had an impact on diet diversity scores which in turn affected the birth weight of neonates. Women who delivered low birth weight babies were more involved in household domestic activities (p<0.05 compared to those women who delivered normal weight babies. Conclusion: Diet diversity and physical activity influence the birth weight of neonates across different geographic locations. Despite of ample interventions available to prevent maternal malnutrition, the incidence of LBW was not decreased. Thus, this issue needs to be addressed at
Aziz, A.; Mayo, S.M.
Urbanization put immense pressure on urban infrastructure and services. Burdened with unrelenting pressure, the founded areas of Lahore have now been converted into slums. Poor services, urban infrastructure and dilapidated building have made lives of the resident miserable. A significant proportion of the people is living in dangerous buildings which could be declared unfit for habitation under section 34 of Punjab Local Government Ordinance 2001 (PLGO 2001). The paper attempts to highlight situations of two founded areas of Lahore namely, Icchra and Sanda in comparison with slums areas to grade living standards of the people. Actions under PLGO 2001 and urban renewal programs are suggested to revitalize such areas. (author)
The Bundigugyo district outbreak followed but was detected late as a new virus. The subsequent outbreaks in the districts of Luwero district (2011, 2012) and Kibaale (2012) were limited to rural areas. Methods: Detailed records of the outbreak presentation, cases, and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. Each outbreak ...
Jagajeevan Babu Geddam
Full Text Available Migration of tribal population to urban areas may increase the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. In this study an attempt was made to explore the risk factors influencing cardio vascular disease, hypertension and Type 2 diabetes among the tribal migrants living in urban areas. A population based cross sectional study was carried out on tribal migrants (n=138 men, n=137 women aged ≥30 years of low economic status, living in an urban slum (Kondapur of Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Blood lipids, glucose, homocysteine, glycated Haemoglobin, blood pressure and nutritional biochemical markers such as serum albumin, serum protein, Vitamin-D and haemoglobin were examined in a subsample of tribal migrants. The prevalence of overweight in men and women was 35.3% and 32.4% while general obesity was 14.3% and 24.3% respectively. In addition, high concentration of total cholesterol, low density lipo proteins (LDL, triglycerides, homocysteine and glycosylated haemoglobin in the study population was also observed. Duration of stay had no significant association with overweight and obesity. Majority of tribal migrants did not meet at least 50% of RDI of micro-nutrients such as iron (80-84%, vitamin A (81-83% and riboflavin (67-84%. Similar finding was observed with food groups such as leafy vegetables (84-91%, milk and milk products. However, the consumption of fat and protein was found to be ≥70% of RDA indicating transition in diet pattern. The present study shows urban life style and diets may predispose to higher incidence of diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease among tribal migrants living in urban areas.
Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.
Andrew G Schneider
Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality globally, primarily in residents of urban slums. While contact with contaminated water plays a critical role in the transmission of leptospirosis, little is known about the distribution and abundance of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in soil and the potential contribution of this source to human infection.We collected soil samples (n = 70 from three sites within an urban slum community endemic for leptospirosis in Salvador, Brazil. Using qPCR of Leptospira genes lipl32 and 16S rRNA, we quantified the pathogenic Leptospira load in each soil sample. lipl32 qPCR detected pathogenic Leptospira in 22 (31% of 70 samples, though the median concentration among positive samples was low (median = 6 GEq/g; range: 4-4.31×102 GEq/g. We also observed heterogeneity in the distribution of pathogenic Leptospira at the fine spatial scale. However, when using 16S rRNA qPCR, we detected a higher proportion of Leptospira-positive samples (86% and higher bacterial concentrations (median: 4.16×102 GEq/g; range: 4-2.58×104 GEq/g. Sequencing of the qPCR amplicons and qPCR analysis with all type Leptospira species revealed that the 16S rRNA qPCR detected not only pathogenic Leptospira but also intermediate species, although both methods excluded saprophytic Leptospira. No significant associations were identified between the presence of pathogenic Leptospira DNA and environmental characteristics (vegetation, rat activity, distance to an open sewer or a house, or soil clay content, though samples with higher soil moisture content showed higher prevalences.This is the first study to successfully quantify the burden of pathogenic Leptospira in soil from an endemic region. Our results support the hypothesis that soil may be an under-recognized environmental reservoir contributing to transmission of pathogenic Leptospira in urban slums. Consequently, the role of soil should be
Rawal, Lal B; Biswas, Tuhin; Khandker, Nusrat Nausheen; Saha, Shekhar Ranjan; Bidat Chowdhury, Mohammed Mahiul; Khan, Abdullah Nurus Salam; Chowdhury, Enamul Hasib; Renzaho, Andre
Despite one-third of the urban population in Bangladesh living in urban slums and at increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), little is known about the NCD risk profile of this at-risk population. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of the NCD risk factors and the association of NCD risk factors with socio-demographic factors among the adults of urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult slum dwellers (aged 25 and above) residing in three purposively selected urban slums of Dhaka for at least six months preceding the survey. The risk factors assessed were- currently smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, hypertension and body mass index (BMI). Information on self-reported diabetes was also taken. A total of 507 participants (252 females; 49.7%) were interviewed and their physical measures were taken using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument. The overall prevalence of NCD risk factors was: 36.0% (95% CI: 31.82-40.41) for smoking; 95.60% (95% CI: 93.60-97.40) for insufficient fruit and vegetable intake; 15.30% (95% CI:12.12-18.71) for low physical activity;13.70% (95% CI: 10.71-16.92) for hypertension; 22.70% (95% CI: 19.31-26.02) for overweight or obesity; and 5.00% (95%: 3.20-7.00) for self-reported diabetes. In the logistic regression model, the clustering of three or more NCD risk factors was positively associated with younger age groups (p = 0.02), no formal education (p slum adults. These findings are important to support the formulation and implementation of NCD-related polices and plan of actions that recognize urban slum populations in Bangladesh as a priority sub-population.
Full Text Available A cross â€" sectional study among 512 children in age group 0-15 years was carried out in an urban slum of Pune during Aug.84 to Feb. 85. The prevalence rate of Pediculus humanus capitis among the study population was found to be 35.15 percent. The prevalence was found to increase with age. Girls were affected more than boys. Living in nuclear families, schooling and possession of long hair were found to have significant association with the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The quality of personal hygiene per se did not alter the prevalence of head louse infestation.
Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O.; Ssempebwa, John C.
Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices. PMID:27066081
Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O; Ssempebwa, John C
Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.
Vats, S; Chandra, M; Gupta, S K; Vashist, P; Gogoi, M
Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7) Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant (P < 0.001), when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%). Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028). Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4%) were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001), and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041) and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028) of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78), between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81), and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170). Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority. PMID:18579991
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7 Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant ( P < 0.001, when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%. Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028. Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4% were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001, and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041 and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028 of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78, between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81, and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170. Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority.
Bele, Samir D; Bodhare, Trupti N; Valsangkar, Sameer; Saraf, Abhay
Although mental health research in India has gained momentum in recent years and several epidemiological studies have begun to quantify psychiatric morbidities, there are few community-based epidemiological studies focusing specifically on prevalence and associated risk factors of emotional and behavioral disorders among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh among 370 children selected by simple random sampling. Strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) was used to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorder. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the social predictors of the condition, health-seeking behavior, and its impact on educational status of the children. Maternal depression was evaluated using patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9). Eighty-three (22.43%) children had an abnormal score on at least one domain of SDQ. Logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender (odds ration (OR) = 5.51), under-nutrition (OR = 2.74), low socioeconomic status (OR = 3.73), nuclear family (OR = 1.89), working status of the mother (OR = 2.71), younger age of the mother at the birth of the child (OR = 3.09), disciplinary method (OR = 2.31), financial problem at home (OR = 13.32), alcoholic father (OR = 11.65), conflicts in family (OR = 7.29), and depression among mother (OR = 3.95) were significant predictors. There was a significant impact on educational performance (p = 0.008) and parents had little awareness regarding the condition. The high frequency of emotional and behavioral problems, its impact on educational performance of the children, associated adverse social factors, poor knowledge, and treatment-seeking behavior of the parents in an urban slum warrants immediate attention. The interrelation of all these factors can be utilized to plan a continuum of comprehensive services that focus on prevention, early identification, and effective intervention strategies with
Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A
Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.
Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on
Rashid, Sabina Faiz
In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women's human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on 'universal human rights' are often removed from the reality of adolescent women's everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women's understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and 'rights' exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married
Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay
Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use
Full Text Available Background: Urban population growth in developing countries especially in India is at a rapid pace in the past few decades. Growth of urban population is always accompanied by the growth of population in urban slums, which poses threat to the health of urban population, particularly, the health of the children. Objective: The present study aims to study whether the slum dwelling affects the child morbidity, low weight at birth, infant mortality, child malnutrition and anemia. Methods: Until NFHS-3, there was paucity of data on slums to analyze for a larger area and compare it with non-slum population. However, NFHS-3 provides data from slums in eight cities and is used for the present study. The child health aspects considered here are: prevalence of diarrhea among children, prevalence of fever among children, prevalence of cough among children, infant death, low birth weight, malnutrition among children and anemia among children. Results: Slum children belong to lower socioeconomic strata than children from non-slum areas. Children living in slum areas are 1.3 times, 1.5 times and 1.2 times more likely to suffer from diarrhea, cough and fever respectively than children living in non-slum areas. Multivariate results also showed that slum children have higher odds for low weight at birth (1.4 times and child anemia (1.2 times compared to non-slum children. Conclusion: Slum dwelling children are at a disadvantageous side in terms of child morbidity, anemia and weight at the time of birth.
Okware, Sam I; Omaswa, Francis; Talisuna, Ambrose; Amandua, Jacinto; Amone, Jackson; Onek, Paul; Opio, Alex; Wamala, Joseph; Lubwama, Julius; Luswa, Lukwago; Kagwa, Paul; Tylleskar, Thorkild
Five outbreaks of ebola occurred in Uganda between 2000-2012. The outbreaks were quickly contained in rural areas. However, the Gulu outbreak in 2000 was the largest and complex due to insurgency. It invaded Gulu municipality and the slum- like camps of the internally displaced persons (IDPs). The Bundigugyo district outbreak followed but was detected late as a new virus. The subsequent outbreaks in the districts of Luwero district (2011, 2012) and Kibaale (2012) were limited to rural areas. Detailed records of the outbreak presentation, cases, and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. Each outbreak was described and the outcomes examined for the different scenarios. Early detection and action provided the best outcomes and results. The ideal scenario occurred in the Luwero outbreak during which only a single case was observed. Rural outbreaks were easier to contain. The community imposed quarantine prevented the spread of ebola following introduction into Masindi district. The outbreak was confined to the extended family of the index case and only one case developed in the general population. However, the outbreak invasion of the town slum areas escalated the spread of infection in Gulu municipality. Community mobilization and leadership was vital in supporting early case detection and isolations well as contact tracing and public education. Palliative care improved survival. Focusing on treatment and not just quarantine should be emphasized as it also enhanced public trust and health seeking behavior. Early detection and action provided the best scenario for outbreak containment. Community mobilization and leadership was vital in supporting outbreak control. International collaboration was essential in supporting and augmenting the national efforts.
Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Oti, Samuel; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine
The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the co-occurrence of the common NCD risk factors, particularly in an urban slum setting in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the prevalence of co-occurrence of the four common NCDs risk factors among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. This analysis was based on the data collected as part of a cross-sectional survey to assess linkages among socio-economic status, perceived personal risk, and risk factors for cardiovascular and NCDs in a population of slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2008-2009. A total of 5,190 study subjects were included in the analysis. After selecting relevant variables for common NCD risk factors, we computed the prevalence of all possible combinations of the four common NCD risk factors. The analysis was disaggregated by relevant background variables. The weighted prevalences of unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, and tobacco use were found to be 57.2, 14.4, 10.1, and 12.4%, respectively. Nearly 72% of the study participants had at least one of the four NCD risk factors. About 52% of the study population had any one of the four NCD risk factors. About one-fifth (19.8%) had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Close to one in six individuals (17.6%) had two NCD risk factors, while only 2.2% had three or four NCD risk factors. One out of five of people in the urban slum settings of Nairobi had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Both comprehensive and differentiated approaches are needed for effective NCD prevention and control in these settings.
Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…
Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir
In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5-6 days/week, but close by 4-5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. Published by Oxford University Press in association
Deuba, Keshab; Mainali, Anustha; Alvesson, Helle M; Karki, Deepak K
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an urgent public health priority. It is a neglected issue in women's health, especially in urban slums in Nepal and globally. This study was designed to better understand the IPV experienced by young pregnant women in urban slums of the Kathmandu Valley, as well as to identify their coping strategies, care and support seeking behaviours. Womens' views on ways to prevent IPV were also addressed. 20 young pregnant women from 13 urban slums in the Kathmandu valley were recruited purposively for this qualitative study, based on pre-defined criteria. In-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed, with qualitative content analysis used to analyse the transcripts. 14 respondents were survivors of violence in urban slums. Their intimate partner(s) committed most of the violent acts. These young pregnant women were more likely to experience different forms of violence (psychological, physical and sexual) if they refused to have sex, gave birth to a girl, or if their husband had alcohol use disorder. The identification of foetal gender also increased the experience of physical violence at the prenatal stage. Interference from in-laws prevented further escalation of physical abuse. The most common coping strategy adopted to avoid violence among these women was to tolerate and accept the husbands' abuse because of economic dependence. Violence survivors sought informal support from their close family members. Women suggested multiple short and long term actions to reduce intimate partner violence such as female education, economic independence of young women, banning identification of foetal gender during pregnancy and establishing separate institutions within their community to handle violence against young pregnant women. Diversity in the design and implementation of culturally and socially acceptable interventions might be effective in addressing violence against young pregnant women in humanitarian settings such as urban slums. These
S C Saxena
Full Text Available Objective To assess the nutritional profile amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur. Study Design Door to door survey by collecting relevent information from head of household on a pretested questionaire. Study UnitEach of household having any child in the age group less than 6 years. Study Area The study was conducted in Katari slum area of Kalyanpur, Kanpur. Study Variable Grades of PCM as per recommendation of nutrition sub-committee of paediatrics (ICMR-1972 Statistical analysis:- By chi-square test of significance. Results The highest percentage of PCM was observed amongst 0-1 year and boys of single families whose parents were illiterate and unemployed or labourers belonging mainly to lower socio-economic class. Conclusions:- To reduce childhood mortality with reference to PCM, die literacy status of parents especially of mothers should be increased and social reform measures to be taken for engaging them in some income generating jobs/business, agriculture etc.
S C Saxena
Full Text Available Objective To assess the nutritional profile amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur.Study Design Door to door survey by collecting relevent information from head of household on a pretested questionaire. Study UnitEach of household having any child in the age group less than 6 years.Study Area The study was conducted in Katari slum area of Kalyanpur, Kanpur.Study Variable Grades of PCM as per recommendation of nutrition sub-committee of paediatrics (ICMR-1972 Statistical analysis:- By chi-square test of significance.Results The highest percentage of PCM was observed amongst 0-1 year and boys of single families whose parents were illiterate and unemployed or labourers belonging mainly to lower socio-economic class.Conclusions:- To reduce childhood mortality with reference to PCM, die literacy status of parents especially of mothers should be increased and social reform measures to be taken for engaging them in some income generating jobs/business, agriculture etc.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother′s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38% had low weight for age whereas 222 (46.06% had low height for age. Both kinds of malnutrition were common in females than in males. Prevalence of malnutrition was more where mother′s age was less than 20 years. Children of educated mothers were better nourished as compared to illiterate ones. Conclusion: Maternal factors significantly affect a child′s nutritional status, thus encouraging the improvement in the social status of women so as to have healthy children and thereby a healthy future.
Housne Ara Begum
Full Text Available Bangladesh has one of the highest maternal mortality rates (MMR in the world. The estimated lifetime risk of dying from pregnancy and childbirth related causes in Bangladesh is about 100 times higher compare to developed countries. However, utilization of maternal health care services (MHCS is notably low. This study examines the socio-economic determinants of utilization of MHCS in some slum areas of Dhaka city. The overall utilization was 86.3% of women; however, utilization of different sorts of MHCS was very low, i.e., the mean utilization was found to be 2.25 out of 5 MHCS. Indicator wise, ANC, TT, institutional delivery, delivery assistance by health professional and PNC were received by 61.3%, 80.4%, 12.6%, 33.2% and 55.4% of women respectively. Variation was observed with different socio-economic variables. Multiple regression model could explain 38% of variance (P<0.001. Among the significant determinants, order of last birth negatively explained the most variance (15.2%. Similarly, distance between home and clinic was found to affect the utilization negatively. Besides, some respondents’ socio economic variables had a significant positive effect on MHCS utilization. To reduce maternal mortality in disadvantaged women in slum areas, this study might suggest a few pointers while considering formulation of policies and planning. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(2: 44-48
The urban population in India is one of the largest in the world. Its unprecedented growth has resulted in a large section of the population living in abject poverty in overcrowded slums. There have been limited efforts to capture the health of people in urban slums. In the present study, we have used data collected during the National Family Health Survey-3 to provide a national representation of women's reproductive health in the slum population in India. We examined a sample of 4,827 women in the age group of 15-49 years to assess the association of the variable slum with selected reproductive health services. We have also tried to identify the sociodemographic factors that influence the utilization of these services among women in the slum communities. All analyses were stratified by slum/non-slum residence, and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the strength of association between key reproductive health services and relevant sociodemographic factors. We found that less than half of the women from the slum areas were currently using any contraceptive methods, and discontinuation rate was higher among these women. Sterilization was the most common method of contraception (25%). Use of contraceptives depended on the age, level of education, parity, and the knowledge of contraceptive methods (p women, the proportion of deliveries conducted by skilled attendants was low, and the percentage of home deliveries was high. The use of skilled delivery care was found to be significantly associated with age, level of education, economic status, parity, and prior antenatal visits (p women from slum areas depended on the government facilities for reproductive health services. Our findings suggest that significant differences in reproductive health outcomes exist among women from slum and non-slum communities in India. Efforts to progress towards the health MDGs and other national or international health targets may not be achieved without a focus on the
El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher
Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…
Praburam P. M
Full Text Available Introduction: Growth faltering is a common health issue in the developing countries. At times we are unable to attribute this growth faltering to lack of adequate nutrients in food or ongoing disease conditions alone. With this study we aim to assess the possibility of the existence of subclinical malabsorption in children with undernutrition. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on a sample of 161 children from a birth cohort of 377 children who were under follow up from birth for health and disease in three of the urban slums of Vellore. The prevalence of small intestinal enteropathy, as assessed by a 5 hour urinary d-xylose excretion test, was compared between undernourished and well-nourished children. Correlation between undernutrition, d-xylose malabsorption and previous documented illnesses including viral, bacterial or parasitic infections/ infestations was also studied. Results: Xylose test result was abnormal in 41% (25 of 61 of undernourished children as against 26% (26 of 100 of well-nourished children, with p value of 0.047 and Odds ratio of 1.976 with 95% confidence interval between 1.003 and 3.895. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant association between undernutrition and small intestinal enteropathy.
Ngongo, Carrie Jane; Mathingau, Florence Alice; Burke, Heather; Brieger, William; Frick, Kevin; Chapman, Kimberly; Breiman, Robert
Ownership of household durable assets can be a useful proxy for determining relative socio-economic status in a community, but the assets that should be measured are not always unambiguous. Often the selection of asset variables has been ad hoc or not well explained in the literature. Although the benefits of conducting focus groups to design surveys are widely recognized, the use of focus groups to adapt community-specific asset indices has not previously been reported in Kenya. This article describes how focus group discussions can allow communities to express how residents value assets and distinguish relative wealth. Focus group discussions were conducted within the informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants identified assets that distinguish between the poorest and the least poor in their community. They considered whether they would move away from the slum if they had the opportunity, and many would not, citing reasons ranging from loyalty to the community to greater living expenses on the outside. Local perceptions of relative poverty and mobility provide insight into how quality of life in this setting can be assessed and potentially improved. Moreover, a qualitative approach can lead to the adaptation of a community asset index for use in further research.
Full Text Available Background: Utilization of family planning methods, their side effects and the factors influencing their uses. Aims: To study the family planning practices/methods among the married women of reproductive age (15- 45yrs. Study Design: Community-based study. Study Subjects: The Women of reproductive age groups (15-45yrs adopting family planning methods & those residing in urban slums of, Lucknow. Sample size: 540, Study Period : July 2009 to July 2011. Sampling Technique: thirty cluster sampling. Result: The acceptance of family planning methods both temporary and permanent methods increased with level of literacy of women. About 53.40 % adopted I.U.C.D, 38.83% O.C pills & only 7.77% of their partners used condoms. 66.6% have undergone laparoscopic & 33.4% mini-lap sterilization. Vasectomy was not done for even a single partner. More number of illiterate and primary educated accepted permanent method after 3 or more children than higher educated who accepted it after 1 or 2 children. Among acceptors of permanent methods, total 70.27 % were experiencing side effects and among temporary method users, it accounted 23.30%. Conclusions: Acceptance in family planning is associated with increasing age, nuclear family & level of literacy. IUCD is the most accepted one among all the temporary methods. Vasectomy and newer contraceptives were not at all used.
Shukla, A; Kumar, S; Ory, F G
The Indo-Dutch Environmental & Sanitary Engineering Project under the Ganga action Plan in Kanpur and Mirzapur is being executed within the Indo-Dutch bilateral development cooperation framework. The project aims to integrate physical, social and health related improvements. It is expected that the development approach and methodology can be replicated in other urban settlements in India. The project is being supplemented by a training and institutional strengthening programme to facilitate the transfer of new technologies and improvement of operation and maintenance of the new facilities. The project is also aimed at the improvement of the living conditions of the population, by installing drinking water and drainage systems. A socio-economic unit in the project supports the technical interventions by enhancing the community to participate in project activities. The Occupational Health Programme in Jajmau, an industrial slum of Kanpur, aims to improve the working conditions of tannery workers. Four hundred and ninety-seven tannery workers and 80 employees not engaged in leather work, from 20 tanneries, were interviewed and underwent physical examination. The mean age of tannery workers was 32 years, about half of them recently migrated to Kanpur. The majority of the workers are illiterate, have temporary jobs and 85% have a monthly income between 300 and 600 Rs. Occupational morbidity was 28.2%. Regular meetings with tannery owners, the training of tannery workers in first aid, and support for the installation of safety and health councils in tanneries are the main programme activities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Ogbudebe, Chidubem L; Izuogu, Sam; Abu, Charity E
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide, with a disproportionate number of those affected living in slum areas. We assessed the magnitude of pulmonary cases among tuberculosis patients in an urban slum in southeast Nigeria, their demographic and clinical characteristics and any associations with treatment outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients registered under the National TB Programme (NTP) from 1 January to 31 December 2012 was carried out. Data were extracted from TB treatment cards and registers. Of 647 new TB patients registered, 555 (85.8%) were pulmonary TB (PTB) with a mean age of 34.5years, and a male/female ratio of 1.3. Among these, 468 (84.3%) were smear-positive, while 87 (15.7%) were smear-negative cases. Twenty-one (3.8%) were children younger than 15years old. TB/HIV co-infection rate was 16.9%; 57.4% received antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 88.3% received cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT). Female patients were significantly younger compared to male patients (p=0.003), had higher proportions of smear-negative TB (p=0.001) and HIV-positive status (p⩽0.001). Treatment success rate was 88.5% among smear-positive patients and 79.3% among smear-negative patients. More patients with smear-negative TB were lost to follow up compared with smear-positive TB patients (p<0.02). HIV co-infection was associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.4, p⩽0.001). Among them, those who received ART had better outcomes. The study revealed high proportion of PTB, mostly smear-positive TB with HIV-associated outcomes and underlines the need to ensure early TB diagnosis and improved access to HIV care for HIV co-infected patients in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
José E Hagan
Full Text Available Rat-borne leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease in urban slum settlements for which there are no adequate control measures. The challenge in elucidating risk factors and informing approaches for prevention is the complex and heterogeneous environment within slums, which vary at fine spatial scales and influence transmission of the bacterial agent.We performed a prospective study of 2,003 slum residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil during a four-year period (2003-2007 and used a spatiotemporal modelling approach to delineate the dynamics of leptospiral transmission. Household interviews and Geographical Information System surveys were performed annually to evaluate risk exposures and environmental transmission sources. We completed annual serosurveys to ascertain leptospiral infection based on serological evidence. Among the 1,730 (86% individuals who completed at least one year of follow-up, the infection rate was 35.4 (95% CI, 30.7-40.6 per 1,000 annual follow-up events. Male gender, illiteracy, and age were independently associated with infection risk. Environmental risk factors included rat infestation (OR 1.46, 95% CI, 1.00-2.16, contact with mud (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17-2.17 and lower household elevation (OR 0.92 per 10m increase in elevation, 95% CI 0.82-1.04. The spatial distribution of infection risk was highly heterogeneous and varied across small scales. Fixed effects in the spatiotemporal model accounted for the majority of the spatial variation in risk, but there was a significant residual component that was best explained by the spatial random effect. Although infection risk varied between years, the spatial distribution of risk associated with fixed and random effects did not vary temporally. Specific "hot-spots" consistently had higher transmission risk during study years.The risk for leptospiral infection in urban slums is determined in large part by structural features, both social and environmental. Our findings
Hagan, José E; Moraga, Paula; Costa, Federico; Capian, Nicolas; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Wunder, Elsio A; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Reis, Renato B; Nery, Nivison; Santana, Francisco S; Fraga, Deborah; Dos Santos, Balbino L; Santos, Andréia C; Queiroz, Adriano; Tassinari, Wagner; Carvalho, Marilia S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Diggle, Peter J; Ko, Albert I
Rat-borne leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease in urban slum settlements for which there are no adequate control measures. The challenge in elucidating risk factors and informing approaches for prevention is the complex and heterogeneous environment within slums, which vary at fine spatial scales and influence transmission of the bacterial agent. We performed a prospective study of 2,003 slum residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil during a four-year period (2003-2007) and used a spatiotemporal modelling approach to delineate the dynamics of leptospiral transmission. Household interviews and Geographical Information System surveys were performed annually to evaluate risk exposures and environmental transmission sources. We completed annual serosurveys to ascertain leptospiral infection based on serological evidence. Among the 1,730 (86%) individuals who completed at least one year of follow-up, the infection rate was 35.4 (95% CI, 30.7-40.6) per 1,000 annual follow-up events. Male gender, illiteracy, and age were independently associated with infection risk. Environmental risk factors included rat infestation (OR 1.46, 95% CI, 1.00-2.16), contact with mud (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17-2.17) and lower household elevation (OR 0.92 per 10m increase in elevation, 95% CI 0.82-1.04). The spatial distribution of infection risk was highly heterogeneous and varied across small scales. Fixed effects in the spatiotemporal model accounted for the majority of the spatial variation in risk, but there was a significant residual component that was best explained by the spatial random effect. Although infection risk varied between years, the spatial distribution of risk associated with fixed and random effects did not vary temporally. Specific "hot-spots" consistently had higher transmission risk during study years. The risk for leptospiral infection in urban slums is determined in large part by structural features, both social and environmental. Our findings indicate that
Bhattachan, Balkrishna; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadhur; Tandukar, Sarmila; Dhoubhadel, Bhim Gopal; Gauchan, Leesa; Rai, Ganesh
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley.
Chidubem L Ogbudebe
Conclusions: There is high prevalence of TB in Nigeria slum population. Targeted screening of out-patients, TB contacts, and HIV-infected patients should be optimized for active TB case finding in Nigeria.
Thora, S; Awadhiya, S; Chansoriya, M; Kaul, K K
Perinatal and infant mortality during the year 1985 was analyzed through a prospective study conducted in 12 Anganwadis (total population of 13,054) located in slum areas of India's Jabalpur city. Overall, the infant mortality rate was 128.7/1000 live births and the perinatal mortality rate was 88.5/1000 live births. 58.5% of deaths occurred in the neonatal period. Causes of neonatal deaths included prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome, birth asphyxia, septicemia, and neonatal tetanus. Postneonatal deaths were largely attributable to dehydration from diarrhea, bronchopneumonia, malnutrition, and infectious diseases. All mortality rates were significantly higher in Muslims than among Hindus. Muslims accounted for 28% of the study population, but contributed 63% of stillbirths and 55% of total infant deaths. This phenomenon appears attributable to the large family size among Muslims coupled with inadequate maternal-child health care. The national neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates are 88/1000 and 52/1000, respectively. The fact that the neonatal mortality rate in the study area was slightly lower than the national average may reflect the impact of ICDS services.
Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic Violence against women is still an unsolved issue in India, though, it is an important public health problem contributing to physical, mental illness and low quality of life. Aim: The study was undertaken with the aim to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence against ever married women in an urban slum and the associated factors contributing to it. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study had been conducted among 430 ever married women of reproductive age group, selected using a systematic random sampling technique in an urban slum of Kolkata. Interviews were conducted using pre-designed, pre-tested semi structured schedule regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, violence experienced by the subjects in their lifetime, type of violence (physical, emotional and sexual violence and the person responsible for the same. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS 20.0 version. Results: The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was (59.3%. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual violence was 61.6%, 84.3%and 58.8%, respectively. The occurrence of the event was reported by only 33.1% of the victims. Multivariate analysis revealed violence was higher among women belonging to families with low per capita income (6 years, low educational background of husband, not able to bear a male child, unemployment amongst both the spouses, leave the household on any pretext without prior permission from husband and where the wives did not attend household activities properly. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence in urban slum of Kolkata was high which is an alarming public health problem which needs to be addressed at the earliest through awareness programmes and empowerment of women.
Ochako, Rhoune; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Okal, Jerry; Askew, Ian; Temmerman, Marleen
Understanding women's contraceptive method choices is key to enhancing family planning services provision and programming. Currently however, very little research has addressed inter and intra-regional disparities in women's contraceptive method choice. Using data from slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi, Kenya, the current study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with contraceptive method choice among women. Data were from a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among a random sample of 1,873 women (aged 15-49 years) in two non-slum and two slum settlement areas in Nairobi, Kenya. The study locations were purposively sampled by virtue of being part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the association between the outcome variable, contraceptive method choice, and explanatory variables. The prevalence of contraceptive method choice was relatively similar across slum and non-slum settlements. 34.3 % of women in slum communities and 28.1 % of women in non-slum communities reported using short-term methods. Slightly more women living in the non-slum settlements reported use of long-term methods, 9.2 %, compared to 3.6 % in slum communities. Older women were less likely to use short-term methods than their younger counterparts but more likely to use long-term methods. Currently married women were more likely than never married women to use short-term and long-term methods. Compared to those with no children, women with three or more children were more likely to report using long term methods. Women working outside the home or those in formal employment also used modern methods of contraception more than those in self-employment or unemployed. Use of short-term and long-term methods is generally low among women living in slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi. Investments in increasing women's access to various contraceptive options are urgently
Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Huq, Molla
BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, recently has been using female volunteer community health workers (CHWs) in Dhaka urban slums to provide maternal and child health services. Due to erratic performance-based income and higher opportunity cost the urban CHWs lose motivation which contributes to high dropout and poor performance. This results challenges for the cost effectiveness and sustainability of the urban health program. CHWs also consider their performance-based income very low compare to their work load. So, CHWs raise their voice for a fixed income. In order to understand this problem we explored fixed income for CHWs and the correlates that influence it. We surveyed a sample of 542 current CHWs. We used bidding game approach to derive the equilibrium reservation wage for CHWs for providing full-time services. Then, we performed ordered logit models with bootstrap simulation to identify the determinants of reservation wage. The average reservation wage of CHWs to continue their work as full-time CHWs rather than volunteer CHWs was US$24.11 which was three times higher than their current performance-based average income of US$ 8.03. Those CHWs received additional health training outside BRAC were 72% and those who joined with an expectation of income were 62% more likely to ask for higher reservation wage. On the contrary, CHWs who were burdened with household loan were 65% and CHWs who had alternative income generating scope were 47% less likely to ask for higher reservation wage. Other important factors we identified were BRAC village organization membership, competition with other health services providers, performance as a CHW, and current and past monthly CHW income. The findings of this study are relevant to certain developing countries such as Bangladesh and Tanzania which commonly use volunteer CHWs, and where poor retention and performance is a common issue due to erratic and performance-based income. So, the study has implications in improving
Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L
Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted on married women residing in urban slums of Kamrangirchar in Dhaka to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning. A total of 265 married women of reproductive age who were fecund and living with husband were the sample of the study. The mean age of the respondents was 26.8±6.7 years. A little above 14% of the women were in the age group of 15–19 years. Almost equal proportion of respondents and their husbands were found to be illiterate. Nearly one-tenth of the respondents have not had ever experienced pregnancy, while 23% experienced pregnancy once, 18.1% twice and 33.6% three-four times, 17% more than four times. Among the respondents, 51.3% were currently using a contraceptive method. Around 5% were pregnant, which was intended. Another 3% wanted to conceive. The rest 41.1% wanted to use a contraceptive but certain barriers did not allow them to use the same suggesting that their family planning need was unmet. This need included limiting (21.5% and spacing (19.6%. Lactational amenorrhea, no specific reasons, side effect of past contraceptive use, lack of support from husband or other family members, lack of proper knowledge of contraceptive and difficulties in obtaining contraceptive supplies were the cited reasons. Unmet need of contraceptive is high despite an extensive family planning programme in Bangladesh. Mean age at marriage is still below the legal age and gender discrimination plays a vital role in this unmet need. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(1: 24-28
Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Orjioke, C; Ekenze, O S; Ijoma, U; Onodugo, O; Okudo, G; Okwara, C; Chime, P; Mbadiwe, N; Eddy, A; Onyekonwu, C; Onyebueke, G; Ulasi, I; Mba, A U
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders. Apart from high prevalence rates, recent trends with regard to hypertension in Africa include: low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Although a large number of studies provide data about hypertension in SSA, few studies focused on special populations such as urban slum dwellers. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases was used to access the prevalence of hypertension among adults in one of the urban slums in Enugu. Out of the 811 individuals aged 20 years and above surveyed, 774 (95.4%) cases were analyzed. About 4.7% and 2.7% reported a past history of diabetes and stroke, respectively, whereas 15% had a positive family history of hypertension. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (23.2-24.2) kg m(-2) among males and 26.6 (25.7-26.7) kg m(-2) among females (Pslums is very high and a cause for concern, and calls for urgent attention.
Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M
Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Healthy, singleton infants aged 6-11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ≥80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512.
This article presents a description of the migration and labor force characteristics of a sample of Bombay households in three slum areas. Interviews were conducted among 135 households in 1989. Slum areas were both similar and different from one another. Wadala slum had a large migrant population and a more integrated community structure. Slum dwellers tended to retain assets at their place of origin and were from agricultural areas in south Maharashtra. A greater proportion had close kin living in Wadala. Slum dwellers tended to be better-educated, formal-sector workers. Worli slum was less affluent and less close-knit. Migrants were mostly external migrants from Uttar and Andhra Pradesh. Kurla slum was the oldest slum area and had mixed traits. Kin interaction was voluntary and selective and flexible. The decision to return was unrelated to years spent in Bombay. Survey findings indicate that all areas had roughly equal proportions of internal and external migrants. Villagers migrated to cities due to unemployment in villages and the opportunity for social mobility and better employment. This analysis indicates that community-based politics were more influenced by state concerns than by the attributes of settlers or settlement types. State policies and market forces constrained poor people's housing options. The cost of urban housing and amenities rises as population density increases. The demand in urban areas for public services, housing, and infrastructure increases due to expanding populations, inadequate and deteriorating facilities, and social pressures. Governments are constrained by high debt levels and inadequate revenues. National agencies may be inefficient in the provision of services and infrastructure. There is growing pressure on international donors and developing country governments to reexamine the role of the private sector in financing and providing services and infrastructure.
Hayford, K; Uddin, M J; Koehlmoos, T P; Bishai, D M
To estimate the incremental economic costs and explore satisfaction with a highly effective intervention for improving immunization coverage among slum populations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A package of interventions based on extended clinic hours, vaccinator training, active surveillance, and community participation was piloted in two slum areas of Dhaka, and resulted in an increase in valid fully immunized children (FIC) from 43% pre-intervention to 99% post-intervention. Cost data and stakeholder perspectives were collected January-February 2010 via document review and 10 key stakeholders interviews to estimate the financial and opportunity costs of the intervention, including uncompensated time, training and supervision costs. The total economic cost of the 1-year intervention was $18,300, comprised of external management and supervision (73%), training (11%), coordination costs (1%), uncompensated staff time and clinic costs (2%), and communications, supplies and other costs (13%). An estimated 874 additional children were correctly and fully immunized due to the intervention, at an average cost of $20.95 per valid FIC. Key stakeholders ranked extended clinic hours and vaccinator training as the most important components of the intervention. External supervision was viewed as the most important factor for the intervention's success but also the costliest. All stakeholders would like to reinstate the intervention because it was effective, but additional funding would be needed to make the intervention sustainable. Targeting slum populations with an intensive immunization intervention was highly effective but would nearly triple the amount spent on immunization per FIC in slum areas. Those committed to increasing vaccination coverage for hard-to-reach children need to be prepared for substantially higher costs to achieve results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; van der Steen, P; Foppen, J W A; Lens, P N L
campaigns at household and community level. The data also provide a basis to make strategic investments to improve sanitary conditions in urban slums. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Olack, Beatrice; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Smeeth, Liam; Montgomery, Joel M; Kiwanuka, Noah; Breiman, Robert F
Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. Given a paucity of information on hypertension and associated risk factors among urban slum dwellers in SSA, we aimed to characterize the distribution of risk factors for hypertension and investigate their association with hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya. We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey among adults 35 years and older living in Kibera slum Nairobi, Kenya. Trained interviewers collected data on socio demographic characteristics and self reported health behaviours using modified World Health Organization stepwise surveillance questionnaire for chronic disease risk factors. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. A total of 1528 adults were surveyed with a mean age of 46.7 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 29.4 % (95 % CI 27.0-31.7). Among the 418 participants classified as hypertensive, over one third (39.0 %) were unaware they had hypertension. Prevalence of current smoking and alcohol consumption was 8.5 and 13.1 % respectively. Over one quarter 26.2 % participants were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥25 to ≤29.9 kg/m(2)), and 17 % classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overweight, obesity, current smoking, some level of education, highest wealth index, moderate physical activity, older age and being widowed were each independently associated with hypertension. When fit in a multivariable logistic regression model, being a widow [AOR = 1.7; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.6)], belonging to the highest wealth index [AOR = 1.6; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.5)], obesity [AOR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.1)] and moderate physical activity [AOR = 1.9; (95 % CI
Ayah, Richard; Joshi, Mark D; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Njau, Elijah K; Otieno, C Fredrick; Njeru, Erastus K; Mutai, Kenneth K
Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi's largest slum. We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45-54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women.Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high levels of physical activity were also reported. Findings
Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L
Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As a way of tackling poverty, there's need to reflect on governance and ... to deprivation and seek solutions or adaptive measures that can improve the ... Key words: Poverty, Innovations, adaptation, social amenities; infrastructure; governance ...
Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Das, Jui; Latham, Jonathan Ross; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer
To determine and compare socio-demographic, nutritional and clinical characteristics of children under five with diarrhoea living in slums with those of children who do not live in slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. From 1993 to 2012, a total of 28 948 under fives children with diarrhoea attended the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. Data were extracted from the hospital-based Diarrhoea Disease Surveillance System, which comprised 17 548 under fives children from slum and non-slum areas of the city. Maternal illiteracy [aOR = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (1.36, 1.81), P-value slum-dwelling children after controlling for co-variates. Measles immunisation [0.52 (0.47, 0.59) P slum dwellers than other children in univarate analysis only. Slum-dwelling children are more malnourished, have lower immunisation rates (measles vaccination and vitamin A supplementation) and higher rates of measles, are more susceptible to diarrhoeal illness due to V. cholerae and suffer from severe dehydration more often than children from non-slum areas. Improved health and nutrition strategies should give priority to children living in urban slums. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: India was the first country to launch National Family Planning Program in 1952. Even though various measures have been taken to encourage the usage of contraception but the achievement in this field was not to the extent expected due to various social and cultural factors. Objective: This study was planned to assess the prevalence and its determinants of unmet need for contraception among eligible couples in urban slums of Raipur city. Methodology: A cross sectional community based study was conducted using cluster sampling in urban slums of Raipur city from November 2011 to October 2012. During the study, 711 fecund married women, age group 15-49 years were included and predesigned and pretested proforma was used as a study tool. The obtained data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test. Results: Among all eligible married women 45 % were concentrated in the prime reproductive age 20-29 yrs. Majority of women were not educated. The total unmet need for family planning comes out to 32.9%. Age, Education, literacy, Occupation, Type of Family, No of living children, Birth Order , No of male child, No of female child , Husband literacy were the most significant predictor of unmet need. Conclusion: Percentage of unmet need is higher as compared to national data, so there is urgently need to ensure the same.
Rao, D. Raghunatha; Vijayapushpam, T.; Rao, N. Amulya; Dube, Anilkumar; Venkaiah, K.
Purpose: Consumption of right diet during the adolescent phase is a critical issue among the adolescent population as their eating behavior is significantly influenced by the peers. Therefore, a study was carried out to educate the school-going adolescent girls living in urban slums of Hyderabad, Telangana, India on right nutrition. Methods: The…
Urbanization increases the variety and amount of pollutants carried into our nation's waters. Pavement and compacted landscapes do not allow rain and snow melt to soak into the ground. List of typical pollutants from Urban runoff.
Jennings, Larissa; Mathai, Muthoni; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Trujillo, Antonio; Mak'anyengo, Margaret; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Kerrigan, Deanna L
Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Results indicated that slum youth made many sexual decisions considered rational from a traditional economics perspective, such as acquiring more sex when resources were available, maximizing wealth through sex, being price-sensitive to costs of condoms or testing services, and taking more risks when protected from adverse sexual consequences. Youth's engagement in sexual risk behaviors was also motivated by scarcity phenomena explained by behavioral economics, such as compensating for sex lost during scarce periods (risk-seeking), valuing economic gains over HIV risks (tunneling, bandwidth tax), and transacting sex as an investment strategy (internal referencing). When scarcity was alleviated, young women additionally described reducing the number of sex partners to account for non-economic preferences (slack). Prevention strategies should address the traditional and behavioral economics of the HIV epidemic.
Fink, Günther; Günther, Isabel; Hill, Kenneth
Continued population growth and increasing urbanization have led to the formation of large informal urban settlements in many developing countries in recent decades. The high prevalence of poverty, overcrowding, and poor sanitation observed in these settlements-commonly referred to as "slums"-suggests that slum residence constitutes a major health risk for children. In this article, we use data from 191 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 73 developing countries to investigate this concern empirically. Our results indicate that children in slums have better health outcomes than children living in rural areas yet fare worse than children in better-off neighborhoods of the same urban settlements. A large fraction of the observed health differences appears to be explained by pronounced differences in maternal education, household wealth, and access to health services across residential areas. After we control for these characteristics, children growing up in the slums and better-off neighborhoods of towns show levels of morbidity and mortality that are not statistically different from those of children living in rural areas. Compared with rural children, children living in cities (irrespective of slum or formal residence) fare better with respect to mortality and stunting but not with respect to recent illness episodes.
S C Saxena
Full Text Available Rresearch Problem: What is the prevalence of PCM amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur? Objectives: 1 To study the prevalence of PCM.2 To apply health educational interventions. Study Design: Cross - sectional study. Setting: All the households in the study area having under six children. Participants: Under - six children showing signs of PCM. Sample Size: 1260 children in the age group ofO - 6 years. Study Variables: Age - group, sex, education of mother, occupation of father, social class, type of family. Outcome Variables: Children with signs of PCM. Statistical Analysis: By chi - square test. Result: The occurrence of PCM was the highest in the 0 - 1 year age group. Boys suffered from overall PCM and grade I PCM more than the girls in whom grade III PCM was more common. Overall as well as grade I and II PCM was seen more in children of illiterate mothers and unemployed fathers. Majority of the children belonged to social class IV and were from unitary families. Conclusion: Mother's education plays an important role in the health and nutrition of children.
Panigrahi, Ansuman; Panigrahi, Madhulita; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Das, Sai Chandan
The mental health of women residing in slum areas is a neglected and important public health concern. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during 2012-2013 to assess frequently occurring mental disorders and associated factors among married women 15-45 years of age, residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India. A multistage, cluster, random sampling design was applied to select the study areas. The presence of a mental disorder was determined using a validated, self-reported questionnaire, developed by the World Health Organization. Using a predesigned, pretested schedule, relevant data were collected from 362 eligible, willing women respondents. Eighty women (22.1%) had a mental disorder, 56 (70.0%) of whom never consulted a health-care provider. Results of multiple logistic regression indicated that presence of a mental disorder was positively associated with not being satisfied with managing household financial affairs, not having time to attend social obligations, attending religious services less than four times per month, addiction of a family member to alcohol or drugs, and misunderstandings or quarrels in the family. Policy makers should be encouraged to incorporate such determinants in schemes or programs intended to promote the mental health of married slum women.
Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice
Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.
frequency of feeding; good hygiene and responsive feeding practices. Results: Since the program commenced in mid 2013, 38 malnourished children and caregivers have completed Hearth sessions and 30 out of 38 (79%) of mild and moderate malnourished children gain weighed after the 15 days program. Twenty out of the 30 children gained from 200 up to 1000 grams, whereas 10 children gained 100 g. The food vendors have adapted new behaviors for preparation of safe and nutritious foods, and the caregivers have demonstrated that despite multiple challenges they are committed to attend regular Hearth sessions and practice new practices. Conclusion: The preliminary results from the adapted PD Hearth approach show that this approach has the potential to successfully address child malnutrition in urban slum areas. The positive results have also boosted the confidence and motivation of the community. The next step is to continue close follow up of the children who have graduated from the session, re-admit the children who still need to gain weight and continue to involve the community in monitoring all the children under five years old. (author)
Moran, Allisyn C; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Uz Zaman Khan, Nazib; Ahsan Karar, Zunaid; Wahed, Tasnuva; Faiz Rashid, Sabina; Alam, M Ashraful
Urbanization is occurring at a rapid pace, especially in low-income countries. Dhaka, Bangladesh, is estimated to grow to 50 million by 2015, with 21 million living in urban slums. Although health services are available, neonatal mortality is higher in slum areas than in urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in urban slums in Bangladesh. This paper describes newborn care practices in urban slums in Dhaka and provides program recommendations. A quantitative baseline survey was conducted in six urban slum areas to measure newborn care practices among recently delivered women (n = 1,256). Thirty-six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore newborn care practices among currently pregnant women (n = 18) and women who had at least one delivery (n = 18). In the baseline survey, the majority of women gave birth at home (84%). Most women reported having knowledge about drying the baby (64%), wrapping the baby after birth (59%), and cord care (46%). In the in-depth interviews, almost all women reported using sterilized instruments to cut the cord. Babies are typically bathed soon after birth to purify them from the birth process. There was extensive care given to the umbilical cord including massage and/or applying substances, as well as a variety of practices to keep the baby warm. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare; most women reported first giving their babies sweet water, honey and/or other foods. These reported newborn care practices are similar to those in rural areas of Bangladesh and to urban and rural areas in the South Asia region. There are several program implications. Educational messages to promote providing newborn care immediately after birth, using sterile thread, delaying bathing, and ensuring dry cord care and exclusive breastfeeding are needed. Programs in urban slum areas should also consider interventions to improve social support for women, especially first time mothers. These
We have been witnessing a gradual and steady transformation from a pre dominantly rural society to an urban society in India and by 2030, it will have more people living in urban than rural areas. Slums formed an integral part of Indian urbanisation as most of the Indian cities lack in basic needs of an acceptable life. Many efforts are being taken to improve their conditions. To carry out slum renewal programs and monitor its implementation, slum settlements should be recorded to obtain an adequate spatial data base. This can be only achieved through the analysis of remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution. Regarding the occurrences of settlement areas in the remote sensing data pixel-based approach on a high resolution image is unable to represent the heterogeneity of complex urban environments. Hence there is a need for sophisticated method and data for slum analysis. An attempt has been made to detect and discriminate the slums of Pune city by describing typical characteristics of these settlements, by using eCognition software from quick bird data on the basis of object oriented approach. Based on multi resolution segmentation, initial objects were created and further depend on texture, geometry and contextual characteristics of the image objects, they were classified into slums and non-slums. The developed rule base allowed the description of knowledge about phenomena clearly and easily using fuzzy membership functions and the described knowledge stored in the classification rule base led to the best classification with more than 80% accuracy.
Full Text Available Started as a fishing settlement area in Bontang Kuala Village, the City of Bontang has been growing very rapidly. However, despite this growth people's standard of living has been decreasing in terms of environmental quality, income as well as sheltering with the emergence of slum areas. These conditions greatly affect the physical, social, cultural and economic aspects of life. The management of slum areas in Bontang City becomes strategic because slums are integrated with the rest of the city including the downtown area and urban growth centers, as well as with the other areas in the vicinity, such as industrial, commercial, warehousing, and office areas. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the characteristics of the slum areas. The identification methods do not discriminate the distribution of slum areas. The criteria used include non-economic vitality, regional economic vitality, land ownership status, infrastructure and facility conditions, local government’s commitment, and handling priorities. Environmental assessment of the slums was done by assigning a weighting system to each of the above criteria. The determination of the weights of the criteria is relative and depends on the individual and group preferences in looking at the influence of each criterion. The improvement or treatment patterns appropriate to be applied in Bontang City should be in accordance with the site characteristics. Locations with high-scale slum category (HS requires the curative pattern while those with moderate category (MS should take reductive treatment, and slum areas with low-scale category (LS will require preventive treatment.
Ezeala-Adikaibe, Birinus A; Onyekonwu, Chinwe; Okudo, Grace; Onodugo, Obinna; Ekenze, Stella; Orjioke, Casmir; Chime, Peter; Ezeanosike, Obum; Mbadiwe, Nkiru; Chikani, Mark; Okwara, Celestine; Ulasi, Ifeoma; Ijoma, Uchenna
This study aims to determine the prevalence of primary headache disorders using the second edition of international classification of headache disorders among urban slum dwellers. Headache is a common neurological disorder and one of the most common reasons for visiting the neurology clinics in Nigeria. Low socioeconomic status has been linked with primary headaches. Factors that may precipitate and sustain headaches are common in Africa especially in urban slums. There are limited population based data on the prevalence of headache from Nigeria and other African countries. A 3 phase cross-sectional descriptive study was done to survey at least 40% of the adult population (Igbos) living in an urban slum using the International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd Edition (ICHD-I) criteria using a validated Igbo language adaptation (translation and back-translation into Igbo language) of a World Health Organization protocol for screening neurological disorders in the community. The lifetime prevalence of headache of any type was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64.2-69.2), significantly higher in females (70.2% [95% CI 67.0-73.4]) than in males (62.3% [95% CI 58.5-66.1]; P = .0.002). The prevalence of primary headaches was also significantly lower in males than in females (44.9% [95% CI 45.5-53.3] vs 53.2% (95% CI 49.3-57.1), P = .002). Female (52.1%) drinkers had a statistically higher prevalence of primary headaches than male drinkers (43.6%; P = .004). The prevalence of migraine was 6.4% (95% CI 5.1-7.7); 7.5% (95% CI 5.6-9.4) in females and 5% (95% CI 3.3-6.7) in males (P = .058). Migraine with aura was similar in both males and females. Migraine without aura was significantly higher in females (5.7%) than males (3.1%) (P = .022). Tension-type headache (TTH) had an overall prevalence of 13.8% (95% CI 11.3-16.3), males 12.2% (95% CI 9.7-14.7), and females 15.1% (95% CI 12.6-17.6; P = .118.) The peak decade for all primary headaches
Full Text Available Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world as well as high perinatal mortality. Unfortunately, the country does not have the resources to assess this critical indicator with the conventional health information system and measuring its progress toward the goal of ending preventable maternal deaths is almost impossible. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF conducted a cross-sectional study to assess maternal and perinatal mortality in Makoko Riverine and Badia East, two of the most vulnerable slums of Lagos.The study was a cross-sectional, community-based household survey. Nearly 4,000 households were surveyed. The sisterhood method was utilized to estimate maternal mortality and the preceding births technique was used to estimate newborn and child mortality. Questions regarding health seeking behavior were posed to female interviewees and self-reported data were collected.Data was collected from 3963 respondents for a total of 7018 sisters ever married. The maternal mortality ratio was calculated at 1,050/100,000 live births (95% CI: 894-1215, and the lifetime risk of maternal death at 1:18. The neonatal mortality rate was extracted from 1967 pregnancies reported and was estimated at 28.4/1,000; infant mortality at 43.8/1,000 and under-five mortality at 103/1,000. Living in Badia, giving birth at home and belonging to the Egun ethnic group were associated with higher perinatal mortality. Half of the last pregnancies were reportedly delivered in private health facilities. Proximity to home was the main influencing factor (32.4% associated with delivery at the health facility.The maternal mortality ratio found in these urban slum populations within Lagos is extremely high, compared to the figure estimated for Lagos State of 545 per 100,000 live births. Urgent attention is required to address these neglected and vulnerable neighborhoods. Efforts should be invested in obtaining data from poor, marginalized, and hard
Anastasi, Erin; Ekanem, Ekanem; Hill, Olivia; Adebayo Oluwakemi, Agnes; Abayomi, Oluwatosin; Bernasconi, Andrea
Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world as well as high perinatal mortality. Unfortunately, the country does not have the resources to assess this critical indicator with the conventional health information system and measuring its progress toward the goal of ending preventable maternal deaths is almost impossible. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) conducted a cross-sectional study to assess maternal and perinatal mortality in Makoko Riverine and Badia East, two of the most vulnerable slums of Lagos. The study was a cross-sectional, community-based household survey. Nearly 4,000 households were surveyed. The sisterhood method was utilized to estimate maternal mortality and the preceding births technique was used to estimate newborn and child mortality. Questions regarding health seeking behavior were posed to female interviewees and self-reported data were collected. Data was collected from 3963 respondents for a total of 7018 sisters ever married. The maternal mortality ratio was calculated at 1,050/100,000 live births (95% CI: 894-1215), and the lifetime risk of maternal death at 1:18. The neonatal mortality rate was extracted from 1967 pregnancies reported and was estimated at 28.4/1,000; infant mortality at 43.8/1,000 and under-five mortality at 103/1,000. Living in Badia, giving birth at home and belonging to the Egun ethnic group were associated with higher perinatal mortality. Half of the last pregnancies were reportedly delivered in private health facilities. Proximity to home was the main influencing factor (32.4%) associated with delivery at the health facility. The maternal mortality ratio found in these urban slum populations within Lagos is extremely high, compared to the figure estimated for Lagos State of 545 per 100,000 live births. Urgent attention is required to address these neglected and vulnerable neighborhoods. Efforts should be invested in obtaining data from poor, marginalized, and hard-to-reach populations in
Sabharwal Vandana, Passi Santosh Jain
Full Text Available Background : Promotion of appropriate complementary feeding practices is important in reducing malnutrition in infants and young children. Yet, India has dismal rates of optimal complementary feeding practices which are not rising. Aim: This study aimed to find the impact of the educational intervention directed through peer counselors to promote optimal complementary feeding practices. Methods and materials: This is an Interventional study, which has been conducted in an urban slum of Delhi using multi-stage random sampling. From the study area two sectors were randomly selected. From one sector, 54 pregnant women were selected who were not given any counselling forming the non-intervention group. From the other sector, 159 pregnant women were selected to form the intervention group (Igr which were further divided into 3 sub-groups; one sub-group was imparted counselling by a nutrition professional (Igr A; n=53 and the other two (Igr B1;n=53 and Igr B2;n=53 by the peer counselors who where the local health workers trained for promoting optimal infant feeding practices. The infants were followed up till their first birthday and in order to study the impact of counseling, the complementary feeding practices of the intervention and the non-intervention groups have been compared Results: In the intervention groups, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly higher as compared to the non-intervention group (67.5 % vs. 4.2 %. In the intervention groups, 2.6 per cent infants received semi-solid/ solid foods before the age of 6 months, 75.1 percent between 6 – 7 months and the rest by the age of 9 months. However, in the Non-Igr, the respective figures were 48.9, 19.4 and 25.4 per cent; and at the age of one year, 6.4 per cent infants were still being given predominantly mother’s milk. 99.3 per cent infants in the Igrs as compared to 82.3 per cent in the Non-Igr (P<0.05 continued to receive breast milk till the age of
Full Text Available Background: Unmet need for family planning signifies the gap between the reproductive intentions of couples and their actual contraceptive behaviour. The National Family Health Surveys carried out in India in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2004-2005 have revealed that for a sizable proportion of the population in the reproductive age group, the need for contraceptive services are not met with despite the existence of a National Policy on family planning since 1983. This study was carried out to assess the extent of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow and identify the various factors affecting it. Study design: Cross sectional Setting: four urban slums of Lucknow Participants: 414 married women in the age group of 15- 44 years Study variables: age, education, occupation, religion, parity Statistical analysis: chi- square test, logistic regression analysis, fisher’s exact test Results: the extent of unmet need among married women of reproductive age group was 53.1%. The unmet need was found to be significantly associated with age, number of living sons, discussion of family planning with husband, perception of husband’s view on family planning and husbands’ behaviour towards use of family planning method. Logistic regression analysis of unmet need showed that the lower age of the woman, lesser number of living sons and husband’s discouragement towards the use of FP method were correlated with the unmet need for Family Planning.
Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok
Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have adverse implications on the health of the women. Community-based studies in India have shown a high prevalence of RTIs but here is a lack of sizeable literature from urban slums and resettlement areas. The objective was to document the prevalence and determinants of RTIs in married women (15-49 years) residing in an urban slum in Delhi, India. The study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of Gokulpuri in the North-East district of Delhi. Systematic random sampling method was adopted to choose the study subjects, that is, married and non-pregnant women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) residing in the study area. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire, through the house to house visits. The diagnosis of RTIs was made as per the World Health Organization syndromic approach. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 802 women were interviewed. The mean age of study subjects was 30.79 ± 7 years. A total of 352 (43.9%) women currently had symptoms of RTIs. The most frequently reported symptoms included abdominal pain (68.2%), back pain (69.6%), and vaginal discharge (59.3%). Older women (≥25 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.4-3.5), those belonging to the lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.1, 95% CI; 1.5-2.9), those using cloth during menses (OR 2.6, 95% CI; 1.6-4.3), those having more than three pregnancies (OR 1.8, 95% CI; 1.2-2.6) and those using an intrauterine contraceptive device (OR 11.8, 95% CI; 4.3-32.0) had higher odds of having RTIs. A high case load was found based on the syndromic approach. Generating community awareness, ensuring proper menstrual hygiene, and improving the socioeconomic status would help in reducing the cases of RTI.
Full Text Available Rapid urbanization forces urban poor to live in slums and squatter settlement. In neo-liberal development approach, participatory planning and collaborative actions are becoming popular in slum upgrading programmes. This paper discusses the slum scenario in state of Haryana along with detailed pro-poor housing attempts in industrial city of Haryana i.e. Faridabad. The paper reviews the three projects that aimed to improve the living conditions and lives of urban poor communities in Faridabad. The study examines in detail BSUP projects at Dabua Colony and Bapu Nagar taken up under India’s first urban renewal mission i.e. JNNURM within the context of community participation. Results reveal that contrary to the state’s rhetoric of inclusive governance, the urban poor are completely excluded from settlement planning, leading to a lack of understanding of their needs by the state. BSUP housing scheme has failed to mobilize slum dwellers. Drawing on the experience of these projects, the paper seeks to answer the question: why the stated objectives were not achieved and makes recommendation that community led initiatives and slum mapping should be at the core of slum improvement strategy so that qualitatively superior areas can be planned for the unprivileged.
Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Tafere, Tadese Ejigu; Abitew, Dereje Berhanu
Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated. This further compromises infant feeding practice. The aim of this study was to assess infant and young child feeding practice among mothers with 0-24 month old children in the study area. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 mothers with 0-24 month old children from June 01-30 / 2016. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Infant and young child feeding practice was assessed using the fifteen World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice was 113 (84%). Sixty (15%) mothers gave prelacteal feeds and, 96 (23%) mothers used a bottle to feed their index child. Appropriate complementary feeding practice was only 20 (7%). Thirty nine out of forty mothers introduced complementary food timely, 131 (47%) of mothers gave the minimum meal frequency, and 20 (7%) children took the minimum food diversity and acceptable diet. Independent predictors for complementary feeding practice were having secondary and above education of the mother, receiving postnatal care, possession of radio and giving birth at hospital. In this study infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practice was poor. Therefore, there is a need for strengthening the promotion on IYCF practice during postnatal care and using mass media to giving emphasis for optimal complementary feeding practices, especially for mothers with a lower educational status.
Full Text Available Effectiveness of community-based leprosy control operations spanning almost a decade in two locations, a small self settled leprosy colony (I of about 800 subjects as well as a large slum (II with a population of about 20,000 in the metropolitan city of Bombay are compared. New case detection through survey in location I and voluntary reporting in location II during the period 1982-86 is taken as an index of the impact of the intervention, which consisted of field based administration of multi-drug therapy. Though the leprosy colony concentrates an abnormal reservoir of infectious cases in a small population, it was relatively easier to achieve success in reducing the transmission rate through field-based chemotherapy programme. The same degree of success however, could not be achieved in a normal slum. Health care delivery system in relation to leprosy eradication at the grass-root levels has to be planned giving maximum importance to cost-effective methods of identification of multi-bacillary leprosy patients and monitoring their movements carefully during the treatment phase.
Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos
In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.
Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan
To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children.
Joshi, Mark David; Ayah, Richard; Njau, Elijah Kaharo; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Kayima, Joshua Kyateesa; Njeru, Erastus Kennedy; Mutai, Kenneth Kipyegon
Urbanisation has been described as a key driver of the evolving non-communicable disease (NCD) epidemic. In Africa, hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular problem. We determined the prevalence and risk factor correlates of hypertension in the largest Nairobi slum. In 2010 we conducted a population-based household survey in Kibera, a large informal settlement in Nairobi City; utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method. The WHO instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors was administered by trained medical assistants, who also recorded blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measures. BP was recorded using a mercury sphygmomanometer utilising the American Heart Association guidelines. Hypertension was defined as per the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee or use of prescribed antihypertensive medication. Those with hypertension or with random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) >11.1 mmol/l had an 8 hours fasting venous blood sugar sample drawn. Age standardised prevalence was computed and multivariate analysis to assess associations. We screened 2200 and enrolled 2061 adults; 50.9% were males; mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had primary level education. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension (95% CI) was 22.8% (20.7, 24.9). 20% (53/258) were aware of their hypertensive status; 59.3% had pre-hypertension; 80% reported high levels of physical activity and 52% were classified as harmful alcohol drinkers; 10% were current smokers and 5% had diabetes. Majority of males had normal BMI and waist circumference, whereas a third of females were obese or overweight and 40% had central obesity. Older age, higher general and central obesity were independently associated with hypertension and higher SBP and DBP readings. Our findings of high prevalence of hypertension, in association with excess body weight in this poor urban slum community, point to the need
Moran, A C; Wahed, T; Afsana, K
In Bangladesh, the majority of women give birth at home. There is anecdotal evidence that unqualified allopathic practitioners (UAPs) administer oxytocin at home births to augment labour pain. The objective is to explore the use of oxytocin to augment labour pain during home births in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey. KamrangirChar slum, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Married women with a home birth or who experienced labour at home in the 6 months prior to the survey (n = 463) were interviewed. Twenty-seven UAPs were interviewed to validate women's responses. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify significant predictors of oxytocin use. Reported use of oxytocin to augment labour pain. Forty-six percent of women reported using medicine or other treatments to augment labour pain, 131 of whom reported using oxytocin (28% of total). Traditional birth attendants were the predominant decision-makers of when to use oxytocin. The medication was provided by a UAP who administered the drug via saline infusion or intramuscular injection. Higher education, lower parity, reported long labour (more than 12 hours), and knowledge of and positive attitudes towards oxytocin were significantly associated with oxytocin use after controlling for other factors. In the validation exercise, there was agreement about the use of oxytocin to augment labour in 22 of 27 cases (82%). About one-third of women used oxytocin to augment labour pain. This practice has implications for health education as well as future research to assess the impact on adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
Rosa-Jiménez, Carlos; Nebot, Nuria; García Moreno, Alberto; José Márquez Ballesteros, María
A vertical slum is defined as a socially vulnerable community in a building, with serious problems of functionality, safety and habitability. It is related to an important level of physical degradation, and a precarious socioeconomic situation of its occupants. Their inability to create a real community for proper and mandatory maintenance increases the physical deterioration of the building. The abandonment of the original owners of the houses can cause a system of illegal occupation and illegal activities, and vice versa. In many cases, the new occupants are primarily interested in maintaining the building in a state of precariousness in order to avoid any attempt of renovation by administrations. These security and habitability problems often extend outside the building and they affect a whole community of neighbours within the neighbourhood who feel threatened and insecure, causing their rejection and a strong social segregation in the area. This article wants to show some of the results from a research work developed on a case study of vertical slum in the city of Malaga, in Spain. In this context of marginality previously described, the research project explores different alternatives for the renovation of a building, its vulnerable community and the neighbourhood in which it is inserted. The project establishes four major objectives: (a) a physical renovation of the building, (b) social transformation in a disadvantaged environment, (c) functional evolution-from a residential model to a new hybrid model with a mixed supply of social services, and (d) the incorporation of new parameters of environmental sustainability that improve the energetic behaviour of the building (transforming it into a building of almost zero consumption). The research closes with a series of strategies and results for the case study. However, the main contribution of the work is related to the research methodology that has been developed. This is structured according to the four
Kamndaya, Mphatso; Vearey, Jo; Thomas, Liz; Kabiru, Caroline W; Kazembe, Lawrence N
Transactional sex has been associated with a high risk of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy among young women in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. However, few studies have explored the structural drivers of transactional sex from the perspective of both genders in these settings. This paper explores how young men and women understand the factors that lead to transactional sex among their peers, and how deprivation of material resources (housing, food and health care access) and consumerism (a desire for fashionable goods) may instigate transactional sex in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. Data from 5 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews undertaken with a total of 60 young men and women aged 18-23 years old, conducted between December 2012 and May 2013, were analysed using anticipated and grounded codes. Housing and food deprivation influenced decisions to engage in transactional sex for both young men and women. Poor health care access and a desire for fashionable goods (such as the latest hair or clothing styles and cellular phones) influenced the decisions of young women that led to transactional sex. Interventions that engage with deprivations and consumerism are essential to reducing sexual and reproductive health risks in urban slums.
Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.
Guy, Harold P.
A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.
Udgiri, Rekha; Angadi, M M; Patil, Shailaja; Sorganvi, Vijaya
Adolescence is a crucial period in woman's life. The adolescent girls of today are the mothers of tomorrow in whose hand lie the future of her family, community and the nation. Because of the scarcity of information regarding the problems of adolescent girls, particularly in urban areas, the present study was undertaken to elicit information about the knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. With this objective, a community-based cross-sectional study was done in an urban field practice area of BLDEA's Shri BM Patil Medical College, Bijapur. The study subjects included all adolescent girls who had attained menarche. Data was collected by questionnaire method and analysed. Out of 342 adolescent girls 324 (94.74%) were literate. Only 63 (18.42%) had knowledge about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche and this association was found to be statistically significant. The main source of information about menstruation was mother ie, 195 (57.01%). Nearly 81.58% adolescent girls were lacking knowledge about menstruation prior to menarche, this reflects upon the standard of awareness in the society to such important event and it also leads to negative reaction to menarche.
Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok
To document abortion practices and contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Delhi. Data were collected as part of a cross-sectional study conducted in an urban resettlement colony in the North East District of Delhi between November 2010 and December 2011. Systematic random sampling was used to enroll 200 married women aged 15-49 years from each of the four blocks of the colony. Participants were interviewed and data were entered into a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Among 802 participants, 284 (35.4%) reported at least one spontaneous or induced abortion, and 196 (24.4%) reported induced abortions. Unsupervised medical termination was reported by 78 (27.5%) of the 284 women. Overall, only 207 (25.8%) women practiced any type of contraception. The predominant decision maker regarding contraception was the husband for 95 (45.9%) women and the mother-in-law for 78 (37.7%). There is a need for focused community-based education to address specific issues, particularly regarding the dangers of unsafe abortion and choosing a method of contraception in consultation with a healthcare practitioner. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Mutiso, Victoria N; Musyimi, Christine W; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K; Ndetei, David M
This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and rural (Kibwezi) selected health facilities in Kenya. All households within the two sites served by the selected health facilities were included in the study. To select the main respondent in the household, the oldest adult who could speak English, Kiswahili or both (the official languages in Kenya) was selected to participate in the interview. The Opinion about Mental Illness in Chinese Community (OMICC) questionnaire and the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus Version 5 (MINI) tools were administered to the participants. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare prevalence according to gender, while adjusted regression models examined the association between mental illness and views about mental illness, stratified by gender. The overall prevalence of mental illness was 45%, showing gender differences regarding common types of illness. The opinions about mental illness were similar for men and women, while rural respondents were more positively opinionated than urban participants. Overall, suffering from mental illness was associated with more positive opinions among women and more negative opinions among men. More research is needed into the factors explaining the observed differences in opinion about mental illness between the subgroups, and the impact of mental illness on stigma in Kenya in order to create an evidence-based approach against stigma.
Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Phelps, Matthew; Tulsiani, Suhella; Farhana, Israt; Begum, Anowara; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie
To investigate the transmission of faecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. Over a period of 2 months, paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of Escherichia coli and genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. Rice was at greater risk (P E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (P 0·6 × 103 CFU. Genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified: the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). Flies may transmit large quantities of E. coli to food under field settings. The findings highlight the importance of implementing control measures to minimise exposure of food to flies to ensure food safety. Fly control measures should be considered for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases caused by E. coli. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Based on focus groups and interviews with student renters in an Israeli slum, the article explores the contributions of differences in sonic styles and sensibilities to boundary work, social categorization, and evaluation. Alongside visual cues such as broken windows, bad neighborhoods are characterized by sonic cues, such as shouts from windows. Students understand "being ghetto" as being loud in a particular way and use loudness as a central resource in their boundary work. Loudness is read as a performative index of class and ethnicity, and the performance of middle-class studentship entails being appalled by stigmatized sonic practices and participating in their exoticization. However, the sonic is not merely yet another resource of boundary work. Paying sociological attention to senses other than vision reveals complex interactions between structures anchored in the body, structures anchored in language, and actors' identification strategies, which may refine theorizations of the body and the senses in social theory.
Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.
Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums
Full Text Available Background: Community participation plays an important role in control of Mosquito borne diseases. This study tries to assess impact of educational intervention on various aspects of mosquito borne diseases in an urban slum. Methodology: An educational interventional study was done in 200 families residing in a slum (Badi Gwaltoli which is in field practice area of Urban Health Centre attached to Department of Community Medicine of M.G.M.Medical College, Indore. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the Head of the family which studied their awareness and perception regarding breeding sites and biting habits of mosquitoes, diseases spread by them and personal protective measures used, followed by an educational intervention and post assessment. Data was entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and analysed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: 46% of study population knew the correct breeding season of mosquitoes (monsoon season during pre-intervention and 68% of the population post- intervention (p- value 0.004. When asked at what time mosquitoes bite the most, maximum number (92% of people said that mosquitoes bite most in the evening and night, while only 6% and 2% were for morning and noon, respectively. Only 3.5% of the population who knew about breeding sites knew about artificial collections of water. Majority said mosquito breed in dirty stagnant water (78.5%. About 96%of the study population was aware that mosquitoes spread diseases. However, only 33.3%of respondents knew correctly about the diseases spread which improved to 68% in the post-intervention period (p-value=.000. 46% knew all the protection measures against mosquitoes in the pre-intervention which increased to 86% in the post intervention (p.value-.005. Conclusion: Awareness about Aedes mosquitoes and its habits is quite poor and many people still believe that only dirty water serves as a breeding place in mosquitoes. Regular IEC sessions
Maria Clotildes N. de Melo
Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children,each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.
Full Text Available Background: : Slum dwellers are likely to be among the most deprived people in urban areas. Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries like ours. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice about personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in selected slums of Dhaka city. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was conducted in purposively selected urban slum areas of Moghbazar slum, Bashabo slum and T&T slum of Dhaka city during February 2014 to April 2014. Convenient sampling technique was applied. Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used and face to face interview was conducted. Total 475 subjects, irrespective of age and sex, were included in this study. Results: Out of 475 respondents, more than fifty percent slum dwellers resided in tin shaded room while 21.7% in ‘kacha’ houses. Sixty six percent of the respondents used to drink water from tube-well and 24% used supplied water provided by the city corporation. The study revealed that near 59% of the respondents used sanitary latrine. About 67% slum dwellers regularly practiced hand washing before taking meal and 59.2% respondents used soap after defecation. About fifty percent respondents brushed their teeth regularly with tooth paste. Regarding personal cleanliness, 81% subjects took bath regularly while 78% washed clothes irregularly. A statistically significant relation was found between washing of hands before meal (p=0.001, washing of hands after defecation (p=0.02, tooth brushing (p=0.001, bathing (p=0.009, washing of cloths (p=0.001, use of footwear (p=0.63 with knowledge of personal hygiene of the slum dwellers. Conclusion: Continuous community hygiene education along with adequate access to water supply and sanitation improves hygiene behaviour and policy makers and health care providers should have definite strategy and implementation.
Dudeja, Puja; Sindhu, Apoorva; Shankar, Pooja; Gadekar, Tukaram
Reproductive health of adolescent girls is crucial as it determines the health of future generations. School girls when experiencing menarche find themselves in a setting without water, toilets or a supportive female teacher to explain the changes happening in their body. An important concern for adolescent girls is to have adequate, correct knowledge along with facilities and the cultural environment to manage menstruation hygienically and with dignity. Hence, the present study was done to assess knowledge and practices about menstruation in adolescent school girls of an urban slum. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among girls of a Government School located in an urban slum of western Maharashtra. A total of 250 girls participated. Data collection was through a pilot-tested questionnaire. The data thus collected were entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using the SPSS 20 software. All girls were educated about menstrual hygiene after the study. The mean age of the students was 14.9±1.75 years. The mean age at menarche was 11.97 (95% CI: 11.94-11.99). It was observed that only half (56.4%) had acquired prior knowledge about attaining menarche. Out of these in a large proportion, the knowledge was imparted to them by their mothers (60.7%), followed by friends (31.8%). There was no significant association between educational status of mother and awareness in respondent about menstruation. Regarding the organ of menstrual blood flow, half (50.7%) knew the correct answer (i.e. uterus); whereas the rest believed that it was stomach/kidney, etc. Most of the school girls (90.5%) used sanitary pads. Almost 90% of the young women faced physical complaints or health problems during menstruation. Most of the participants had some kind of restrictions on them during the menstruation and most of these were religious restrictions (69.7%) followed by physical (41.2%) and social restrictions (22.3%). All of them were unsatisfied with the toilets and
Valerio, F.; Pala, M.; Cipolla, M.; Stella, A.
Benzene exposures in urban areas were reviewed. Available data confirm that both in USA and Europe, benzene concentrations measured by fixed outdoor monitoring stations underestimate personal exposures of urban residents. Indoor sources, passive smoke and the high exposures during commuting time may explain this difference. Measures in European towns confirm that very frequently mean daily personal exposures to benzene exceed 10 μg/m 3 , current European air quality guideline for this carcinogenic compound [it
Kriti A Patel
Full Text Available Nutrition for under-5 children is of great importance as the foundation for life-time health, strength, and intellectual vitality is laid during this period. Globally, more than one-third of the child deaths are attributable to under-nutrition. The discriminatory attitudes against female children vary from being implicit to those that are quite explicit. So, the present cross-sectional study aims to assess the nutritional status (gender differences of 146 under-5 children attending Anganwadis and also to study the bio-socio-demographic factors associated with malnutrition attending three Anganwadis of Adopted Urban slum area, involving anthropometric examination using standardized techniques and interview using predesigned semi-structured questionnaire for the mothers in September-October 2011. Nutritional status grading was done based on weight for age as per Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP Classification and using height for age as per Vishveshwara Rao′s Classification. 51.4% were males, majority in age group of 2-3 years. 63% children were malnourished, majority in Grade I malnutrition. Out of the total females, 72% were stunted and 43% were severely malnourished having mid arm circumference <12.5 cm. Birth order ( P < 0.05, education status of the mother ( P < 0.001, socio-economic status ( P < 0.05 and type of family ( P < 0.05 were found to be significantly associated with malnutrition.
Rashid, Sabina Faiz
I carried out ethnographic fieldwork among 153 married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, in a Dhaka slum from December 2001 to January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies. I also held discussions with family and community members. In this article, I focus on popular understandings of vaginal discharge being caused by durbolota (weakness) and chinta rog (worry illness), as mentioned by young women. Eighty-eight young women reported that they had experienced white discharge, blaming it on a number of factors such as stress and financial hardships, tensions in the household, marital instability, hunger anxiety, and reproductive burdens. For married adolescent women in the urban slum, white discharge has many levels of meaning linked to the broader social, political, and material inequalities in their everyday lives.
Bhandari, Subhasis; Sarma, P Sankara; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu R
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of adherence to modern antihypertensive pharmacotherapy among slum dwellers in Kolkata, India. Prevalence of adherence based on patient self-reports of consuming ≥80% of the prescribed medications over a recall period of 1 week was found to be 73% (95% confidence interval = 68%-78%). Compared with their counterparts, the following patients were more likely to be adherent to treatment: patients hypertensive for ≥5 years (2.98 times), those whose hypertension was detected during checkups for conditions related to hypertension (2.35 times), those living with ≤4 family members (2.01 times), those with family income of ≥3000 rupees (2.56 times), those who were getting free drugs (4.16 times), patients perceiving current blood pressure to be under control (2.23 times), and those satisfied with current treatment (3.77). Those adherent to their prescribed medications were 1.71 times more likely to achieve adequate control of hypertension compared with those who were not adherent. © 2011 APJPH.
Parkar, Shubhangi R; Nagarsekar, Balkrishna; Weiss, Mitchell G
Health demographic mortality studies use verbal autopsies to identify suicide as a cause of death. Psychological autopsies focus almost exclusively on associated high-risk psychiatric disorders. New approaches considering contextual factors are needed for preventing suicide and promoting mental health. This study examined explanations of suicide reported by surviving family members or close friends with reference to social, cultural, and environmental conditions as well as the challenges of life in the Malavani slum of Mumbai. An EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalog) interview based on a cultural epidemiological framework considered underlying problems, perceived causes, and sociocultural contexts. It was administered to survivors of 76 people who had died by suicide (56.6% women). Accounts of underlying problems typically referred to various aspects of tension (73.7%). Perceived causes often identified multiple factors. The sociocultural contexts of suicide included the victimization of women, the personal and social impact of problem drinking, marital problems, physical health problems, mental tension, possession and sorcery. Women were particularly vulnerable to the impact of problem drinking by a spouse or father. This study demonstrates the value of an approach to sociocultural autopsy examining local contexts and explanations of suicide. Findings highlight needs for both mental health services and culturally sensitive social interventions.
Sohaila, Arjumand; Shafiq, Yasir; Azim, Shazia; Baloch, Benazir; Akhtar, Ali Syed Muhammad; Tikmani, Shiyam Sunder; Brown, Nick
Tetanus in newborns, is an under-reported public health problem and a major cause of mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the predictors and outcome of tetanus in newborn infants in the slums of Bin-Qasim town, Karachi, Pakistan. We conducted a case-control study at primary health care centers of slums of Bin-Qasim town, area located adjacent to Bin Qasim seaport in Karachi, from January 2003 to December 2013. Cases were infants aged ≤30 days with tetanus, as defined by the World Health Organization. Controls were newborn infants aged ≤30 days without Tetanus, who were referred for a checkup or minor illnesses. The case to control ratio was 1:2. We analyzed 26 cases and 52 controls. The case fatality was 70.8%. We identified four independent predictors of Tetanus in newborns: maternal education (only religious education with no formal education OR 51.95; 95% CI 3.69-731), maternal non-vaccination (OR 24.55; 95% CI 1.01-131.77), lack of a skilled birth attendant (OR 44.00; 95% CI 2.30-840.99), and delivery at home (OR 11.54; 95% CI 1.01-131.77). We identified several potentially modifiable socio-demographic risk factors for Tetanus in newborns, including maternal education and immunization status, birth site, and lack of a skilled birth attendant. Prioritization of these risk factors could be useful for planning preventive and cost-effective measures.
A literature study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness and cost of different reclamation procedures that may be employed after an accident on a nuclear facility takes place in which radioactive material is released to the atmosphere. A substantial amount of work has been done on reclaming soil and snow-covered surfaces. Using scrapers or other soil-moving equipment decontamination factors are 10-100. (The decontamination factor is the ratio of the contamination before to that after the decontamination procedure). However, information on decontamination of paved areas by simple methods such as firehosing and vacuum sweeping are poorly documented. Therefore, only a very uncertain figure in the range 2-10 can be given for the decontamination factor here. It is recommended that a major effort be made in the future to investigate the efficiency of these simple methods, because of their relatively low cost. Also, more expensive methods for reducing the dose such as vacuuming, road planing and deep plowing are treated because of their feasibility under certain circumstances. Using these methods dose reduction factors in the 2-100 range can be obtained. Very expensive techniques, such as sandblasting, water cannon, flame spalling, etc. are justifiable usable only in special situations and are therefore considered very briefly here. The methods vary widely in cost. A simple method like vacuum sweeping costs $0.004 per square meter of surface; whereas one like road planing can reach $4 per square meter. A more sophisticated technique like flame spalling costs as much as $100 per square meter. (author)
George, Mathew Sunil; Pant, Shradha; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Zodpey, Sanjay P
Background Community health workers play an important role in delivering health-care services, especially to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. They have been shown to be successful in providing a range of preventive, promotive and curative services. This qualitative study investigated the factors motivating or demotivating community health workers in urban settings in Delhi, India. Methods In this sub-study of the ANCHUL (Ante Natal and Child Healthcare in Urban Slums) implementation research project, four focus-group discussions and nine in-depth interviews were conducted with community health workers and medical officers. Utilizing a reflexive and inductive qualitative methodology, the data set was coded, to allow categories of motivating and demotivating factors to emerge. Results Motivating factors identified were: support from family members for their work, improved self-identity, job satisfaction and a sense of social responsibility, prior experiences of ill health, the opportunity to acquire new skills and knowledge, social recognition and status conferred by the community, and flexible work and timings. Negative experiences in the community and at health centres, constraints in the local health system in response to the demand generated by the community health workers, and poor pay demotivated community health workers in this study, even causing some to quit their jobs. Conclusion Community-health-worker programmes that focus on ensuring the technical capacity of their staff may not give adequate attention to the factors that motivate or discourage these workers. As efforts get under way to ensure universal access to health care, it is important that these issues are recognized and addressed, to ensure that community health worker programmes are effective and sustainable.
Roy, Debraj; Palavalli, B.; Menon, Niveditha; King, Robin; Pfeffer, K.; Lees, Michael Harold; Sloot, P.M.A.
In 2010, an estimated 860 million people were living in slums worldwide, with around 60 million added to the slum population between 2000 and 2010. In 2011, 200 million people in urban Indian households were considered to live in slums. In order to address and create slum development programmes and
Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna
The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample ( n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.
Maiti, Muktisadhan; Bandyopadhyay, Lina
High blood pressure in childhood is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The roots of essential hypertension in adults may be initiated in childhood. This study was conducted to investigate blood pressure profiles of adolescent schoolchildren in the practice field area of the Urban Health Centre, Chetla, Kolkata. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension in adolescent schoolchildren, to compare the blood pressure between boys and girls, and to study the association between selected variables and blood pressure. The study was conducted among adolescent schoolchildren aged 10-19 years in two randomly selected secondary schools situated in the practice field area of the Urban Health Centre, Chetla, Kolkata. All students aged 10-19 years present on the day of the visit were included in the study; the sample was 129. A predesigned questionnaire was used to carry out the study. Measurements of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were made using standardised physical instruments following standard operative guidelines. The data were collected and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 10.1% (11.1% in boys and 8.8% in girls). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 20.2% (16.7% in boys and 24.6% in girls). Hypertension was found to be significantly associated with physical exercise (p<0.05) and salt intake (p<0.05); BMI was also significantly associated with both systolic blood pressure (p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05). There was a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with BMI (r=0.303, p<0.05; r=0.262, p<0.05), age (r=0.326, p<0.05; r=0.267, p<0.05) and height (r=0.322, p<0.05; r=0.174, p<0.05). There was a negative correlation between hypertension and physical exercise (r=-0.313, p<0.05) and a positive correlation between hypertension and
Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis of hypertension (HT is an important strategy in its control. Tracking of blood pressure (BP has been found useful in identifying persons with potential HT, particularly in youngsters. A cohort of 756 subjects (with baseline information as a cross-sectional study in 2002 was followed up in 2006 to comment on the distribution of BP and its attributes. Objectives: To track BP distribution in a cohort of adolescents and young adults, and assess the persistence of high/low normotensives; to measure the incidence of HT and study the relationship of BP with age, sex, socioeconomic status, BMI, physical exercise, salt intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. Materials and Methods: The baseline study cohort (2002 of 756 subjects (19-24 years in urban field area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, was followed up between May and November 2006 by house visits for measurement of sociodemographic variables, anthropometry, salt intake, physical activity and BP. Results: A total of 555 subjects from the 2002 cohort were contacted (73.4%, in that 54.5% subjects who were below 5 th percentile, 93.6% subjects between 5 th and 95 th percentiles and 72% of those above 95 th percentile previously persisted in the same cut-offs for systolic blood pressure (SBP. The corresponding figures for diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 46.2, 92.2 and 74.1%, respectively. Shift from one cut-off to another was not significant for both SBP and DBP, proving the tracking phenomenon. Annual incidence of HT was 9.8/1000. Baseline BP was the significant predictor of current BP for the entire cohort; BMI and salt intake were significant predictors only in certain sections of the study cohort. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of hypertension even among adolescents/young adults is an important preventive measure, as tracking exists in the population.
An increasing pace of urbanization and the absence of affordable housing has resulted in growth of slums in urban India. The Government of India (GOI) has been incorporating certain programmes to alleviate poverty , create employment opportunities and encourage planned urban development in its public policy , yet there has been a fast emergence of slums in the Indian cities due to a number of factors. The present paper aims to analyze certain demographic attributes of the slum population in I...
Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Guda Obse, Amarech; Darker, Catherine; Biesma, Regien
Access to and utilisation of quality healthcare promotes positive child health outcomes. However, to be optimally utilised, the healthcare system needs to be responsive to the expectations of the population it serves. Health systems in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Malawi, have historically focused on promoting access to health services by the rural poor. However, in the context of increasing urbanisation and consequent proliferation of urban slums, promoting health of children under five years of age in these settings is a public health imperative. We conducted a discrete choice experiment to determine the relative importance of health facility factors in seeking healthcare for childhood illnesses in urban slums of Malawi. Caregivers of children under five years of age were presented with choice cards that depicted two hypothetical health facilities using six health facility attributes: availability of medicines and supplies, thoroughness of physical examination of the child, attitude of health workers, cost, distance, and waiting time. Caregivers were asked to indicate the health facility they would prefer to use. A mixed logit model was used to estimate the relative importance of and willingness to pay (WTP) for health facility attributes. Attributes with greatest influence on choice were: availability of medicines and supplies (β = 0.842, ppay 1.8 and 2.4 times more for medicine availability over thorough examination and positive attitude of health workers respectively. Therefore, strengthening health service delivery system through investment in sustained availability of essential medicines and supplies, sufficient and competent health workforce with positive attitude and clinical discipline to undertake thorough examination, and reductions in waiting times have the potential to improve child healthcare utilization in the urban slums.
Mudege, Netsayi Noris; Zulu, Eliya M
Using qualitative data collected from a sample of rural-urban migrants over the age of 15 in two Nairobi slums interviewed in 2008, this paper discusses the migrants' extent of satisfaction with their residential location and decision to migrate. The study sheds light on why people continue to migrate to, and stay in, the rapidly growing slum settlements despite the high levels of poverty and poor health conditions in these areas. Tenure status is related to satisfaction for all ages. Environmental factors were frequently mentioned as a source of dissatisfaction. Life cycle and 'age-cohort effects' may also affect satisfaction for different age groups in terms of who is satisfied as well as the issues that are considered for satisfaction. High levels of dissatisfaction with slum life may be responsible for high out-migration in slum areas, although it does not mean that those who remain do so because they are satisfied. At the same time, challenges associated with slum life do not automatically signify dissatisfaction. Perceived success, as well as conditions in the area of origin can be used to explain and understand satisfaction/dissatisfaction with slum life. Satisfaction with migration and residential location may be related not only to the destination place, but also to events in the area of origin.
Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael
There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the utilization of antenatal & intra-natal services by antenatal women and the socio-demographic factors affecting the utilization. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in urban slum from July to September 2011. Study population comprised of women who had delivered in last one year preceding study, irrespective of place and outcome of delivery. Only women who were residing at current address for at least 1 year were included. Women not consenting and pregnant women were excluded. All such women were interviewed face to face after obtaining their informed consent using pre tested semi-structured questionnaire which included details of their antenatal care (ANC and intra-natal services availed. Hospital Management Information System (HMIS and Systems, Applications and Products (SAP software were used for obtaining information regarding antenatal and intra-natal care. RESULTS: Antenatal services were utilized by 158(77.8% of study participants. 161(79.3% subjects had institutional delivery and 42(20.7% home delivery, out of which, only 3(7.1% subjects had an assisted home delivery. Low education status and poor socio-economic class had a significant association (P < 0.05 with utilization of ANC services. CONCLUSION: Public sector was the major source of utilization of antenatal care services and intra natal services in 62.7% subjects and 78% subjects respectively. It is suggested that low-income, uneducated women should be targeted for promotion of utilization of antenatal and intra-natal services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 157-164
Anjana P, Dattatreya D Bant
Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem affecting the growth and development of children which have detrimental effect in later adolescent and adult life. Although Malnutrition is multifaceted problem, Infant and young child feeding practices by mothers is crucial for optimum growth and development of the children Objectives: 1 To Assess the Infant and Young child feeding practices followed by the Mothers. 2 To study the influence of feeding practices on weight of Under 3 years children. Methodology: Cross-sectional study conducted in an urban slum of Hubli. 110 mother-child pairs recruited , where the child was between 7 months to 3 years of age. Employed a pre-structured questionnaire as tool and Child’s Anthropometry done. Data presented as percentages and proportions. Chi square test is applied to test association between Feeding practices and underweight, P value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: 22.7 % mothers had Breast fed within recommended time following delivery, prelacteal feeding practices observed in 47.3 % and 37.3% followed Exclusively Breast Feeding. However Timely Initiation of complementary foods was seen only in 34.5%. Breast feeding continued in 47.3 % beyond 6 months. 53.6 % & 86.4% didn’t satisfy the Minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity respectively. 50.9% of children were Normal, 49.09% were Underweight. Conclusions: Nearly 50% of the children under this study were underweight. Mothers who had not Exclusively Breast fed for 6 months, not continued Breast feeding beyond 6 months and inadequate meal frequency of the child were significantly associated with underweight of the children.
Full Text Available Background: Globally, approximately, one billion people lack access to safe drinking water and 1.59 million deaths per year are because of contaminated water, primarily in children age <5 years. WHO reported that more than 90% of diarrhea cases can be prevented by enhancing the availability of clean water and improving hygiene measures. Methodology: The study was conducted in an urban slum of Rohtak district. Investigator interviewed the mothers at their home having children age less than 5 years using study tools in their vernacular language. Study Design: The study was a community based epidemiological study with cross-sectional design. Study Participants: 400 mothers having children less than 5 years. Results: Most of subjects (59% were in the age group of 15-25 years followed by in 25-35 years. One third of subjects belonged to upper caste and 29% of subjects from backward class. The study found that 80% of mother store water in earthen pitcher followed by plastic jug (14%. 78% of mothers said that their source of drinking water was tap while 12% had Hand pump. 83.5% of subjects said that they drink water as such ie without filtering, boiling or chlorination. Conclusion and Recommendations: The study concluded that the prevalence of diarrhea is more among children < 5 years this is because of poor knowledge, poor attitude and inadequate storage water practices of water. The study recommends creating awareness how to diminish contamination of water at household level, creating community groups for women to learn about treatment of water at household level.
Gupta, Vidhu; Downs, Shauna M; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Lock, Karen; Singh, Archna
To describe the food environment in rural villages and an urban slum setting in India with reference to commercially available unbranded packaged snacks and street foods sold by vendors, and to analyze the type and quantity of fat in these foods. Cross-sectional. Two low-income villages in Haryana and an urban slum in Delhi. Street vendors (n = 44) were surveyed and the nutritional content of snacks (n = 49) sold by vendors was analyzed. Vendors' awareness and perception of fats and oils, as well as the type of snacks sold, along with the content and quality of fat present in the snacks. Descriptive statistics of vendor survey and gas chromatography to measure fatty acid content in snacks. A variety of snacks were sold, including those in unlabeled transparent packages and open glass jars. Mean fat content in snacks was 28.8 g per 100-g serving in rural settings and 29.6 g per 100-g serving in urban settings. Sampled oils contained high levels of saturated fats (25% to 69% total fatty acids) and trans fats (0.1% to 30% of total fatty acids). Interventions need to target the manufacturers of oils and fats used in freshly prepared products to improve the quality of foods available in the food environment of low-socioeconomic groups in India. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The body of scientific literature on slum mapping employing remote sensing methods has increased since the availability of more very-high-resolution (VHR sensors. This improves the ability to produce information for pro-poor policy development and to build methods capable of supporting systematic global slum monitoring required for international policy development such as the Sustainable Development Goals. This review provides an overview of slum mapping-related remote sensing publications over the period of 2000–2015 regarding four dimensions: contextual factors, physical slum characteristics, data and requirements, and slum extraction methods. The review has shown the following results. First, our contextual knowledge on the diversity of slums across the globe is limited, and slum dynamics are not well captured. Second, a more systematic exploration of physical slum characteristics is required for the development of robust image-based proxies. Third, although the latest commercial sensor technologies provide image data of less than 0.5 m spatial resolution, thereby improving object recognition in slums, the complex and diverse morphology of slums makes extraction through standard methods difficult. Fourth, successful approaches show diversity in terms of extracted information levels (area or object based, implemented indicator sets (single or large sets and methods employed (e.g., object-based image analysis (OBIA or machine learning. In the context of a global slum inventory, texture-based methods show good robustness across cities and imagery. Machine-learning algorithms have the highest reported accuracies and allow working with large indicator sets in a computationally efficient manner, while the upscaling of pixel-level information requires further research. For local slum mapping, OBIA approaches show good capabilities of extracting both area- and object-based information. Ultimately, establishing a more systematic relationship between
Mwase, Ivan; Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L; Wright, Charlotte M
Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6-24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
To mitigate the growth of slums in the country, there is a need to implement and practice urban innovative approaches and strategies based on sustainability thinking. This paper proposes and recommends the collaboration of all urban development stakeholders in the national urban development process to eradicate slums ...
Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Costa, Federico; Reis, Renato B; Hagan, José E; Melendez, Astrid X T O; Fraga, Deborah; Santana, Francisco S; Mohr, Sharif; dos Santos, Balbino L; Silva, Adriano Q; Santos, Andréia C; Ravines, Romy R; Tassinari, Wagner S; Carvalho, Marília S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I
Leptospirosis has emerged as an urban health problem as slum settlements have rapidly spread worldwide and created conditions for rat-borne transmission. Prospective studies have not been performed to determine the disease burden, identify risk factors for infection and provide information needed to guide interventions in these marginalized communities. We enrolled and followed a cohort of 2,003 residents from a slum community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Baseline and one-year serosurveys were performed to identify primary and secondary Leptospira infections, defined as respectively, seroconversion and four-fold rise in microscopic agglutination titers. We used multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate risk exposures for acquiring primary and secondary infection. A total of 51 Leptospira infections were identified among 1,585 (79%) participants who completed the one-year follow-up protocol. The crude infection rate was 37.8 per 1,000 person-years. The secondary infection rate was 2.3 times higher than that of primary infection rate (71.7 and 31.1 infections per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Male gender (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.40-5.91) and lower per capita household income (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.98 for an increase of $1 per person per day) were independent risk factors for primary infection. In contrast, the 15-34 year age group (OR 10.82, 95% CI 1.38-85.08), and proximity of residence to an open sewer (OR 0.95; 0.91-0.99 for an increase of 1 m distance) were significant risk factors for secondary infection. This study found that slum residents had high risk (>3% per year) for acquiring a Leptospira infection. Re-infection is a frequent event and occurs in regions of slum settlements that are in proximity to open sewers. Effective prevention of leptospirosis will therefore require interventions that address the infrastructure deficiencies that contribute to repeated exposures among slum inhabitants.
Molla Shahadat Hossain Lipu
Full Text Available Energy is a crucial input to promote socioeconomic development. In Bangladesh, about 96 million people (59% do not have access to electricity and 143 million people (88% still depend on biomass for cooking. The urban poor living in slum areas with lack of access to clean and modern sources of energy have not been addressed comprehensively. The main objective of this study is to identify the barriers faced by the urban poor in the slum areas of Dhaka in accessing different fuels and provide specific recommendations to overcome the barriers to enable energy access. The study is mainly based on field survey covering 185 households of the four major slum areas of Dhaka, literature review, and stakeholder interviews. Many barriers have been identified through this research where urban poor face problems in accessing legal energy services due to illegal settlement, lack of explicit policy on energy and housing, lack of dedicated institution, the pervasive role of Mastaans, poor infrastructure and lack of monitoring and evaluating system. Barriers specific recommendations are also suggested based on the experiences from the field visit and the best practices outside Bangladesh are also identified.
Misra, Vasundhra; Vashist, Praveen; Singh, Senjam Suraj; Malhotra, Sumit; Gupta, Vivek; Dwivedi, S N; Gupta, Sanjeev K
The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices related to cataract in urban slums of Delhi. This study design was a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants aged 18-60 years were recruited from randomly selected five slums of South Delhi. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on awareness and eye health-seeking practices related to cataract. The practices were recorded if the respondents themselves or any other member of the family was diagnosed with cataract in previous 2 years. A total of 1552 respondents participated in the study, of which, 89.9% had heard of cataract but only (42%) were aware of any symptom of cataract. The common symptoms of cataract reported by the participants were white opacity in eyes (25.9%) and loss of vision (20.6%). Surgery as a treatment of cataract was known to only 559 (40.1%) participants. Awareness about surgery as treatment of cataract was significantly higher among people aged 45-60 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.89, 95% confidence interval = 2.11-3.97) and in educated people (adjusted OR = 3.69 95% CI = 2.37-5.73). Out of 84 respondents who had been diagnosed with cataract, the health-seeking practices were observed by 70 (83.3%) participants. Among them, 51 (72.9%) had undergone surgery and another 19 (27.1%) had been advised to wait for surgery. Most of the operated patients 48 (94.1%) attended the postoperative follow-up. The study findings suggest the majority of participants have heard of cataract, but there is low awareness of its symptoms and treatment, and good eye health-seeking practices observed for cataract in urban slum population. Gaps in awareness observed can be filled up by implementing proper eye health education programs.
This thesis seeks to review Urban Sustainability in cities of the Developing South within the broader spectrum of Sustainable Development. Notably, the Developing South has for many years struggled to embrace Sustainability in its general terms: in part, because of the fragile institutions that cannot be counted on to uphold sustainability in the truest sense of the word; and in part because of the numerous challenges that often distract any attempt to prioritize Sustainable Development. Sust...
Ilic, Marina; Stojković, Sanja; Rundić, Ljupko; Ćalić, Jelena; Sandić, Dejan
Conflict over natural resources figured prominently in the urban areas. On the one hand there is a constant need for space for the construction of new buildings for housing, agriculture and industrial production, and on the other hand the resources need protection because of the threat of degradation or even complete destruction. Considering the fact that urbanization is one of the most serious threats to geodiversity, it is important that this issue is taken into account in spatial development plans and georesource management strategies in urban areas. The geodiversity, as well as natural resource, must be managed in a sustainable manner in which it is very important its protection. The mapping of specific categories of geodiversity (geological, geomorphological, hydrological and soil) on the basis of quantitative assessment with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can allow spatial planners and managers to take further steps that would reduce threats and protect the natural values. This work presents the application of geodiversity evaluation method by using the geodiversity index (Gd), based on the quantity of abiotic elements and relief roughness within a spatial unit in the case of the City of Belgrade, Serbia. The acquired results are analyzed in the context of sustainable use of georesources and the threats to which geodiversity is exposed due to the development of the city.
Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Shobirin, Abyzhar; Ramadhanty, Almira Husna; Hardiana, Ana
Surakarta is a rapidly urbanized city and it causes the limitation of the availability of land within its urban area. This entangled problem is resulting in the development of slum settlements that spread across the city. One of the slum concentration areas is located on Pepe riverbanks downstream area that belongs to Kampung Sangkrah administrative boundaries. Slum settlements are characterized as a densely-populated area lacking of, or absence of, open space. This condition forces slum inhabitants to effectively use their available spaces, even multi-functionally. This research aims to observe how slum inhabitants multi-functionally use the spaces around their houses and determine the typology of multifunctional space and also the factors that influence it. To understand this phenomenon, this research used activity pattern perspectives. The scope of observation covers in-house (internal) space utilizations and neighborhood-level (external) space utilization. The data used for this research were collected primarily through site observations and interviews, using sampling to conduct data collection for in-house activities and space utilization. The analysis was conducted using descriptive method qualitatively. The research concluded that there are three types of multifunctional space utilization within slum settlements, and the utilization of spaces, whether internal or external utilization also varies depending on the inhabitants' economic-related activities.
Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy
China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg = 1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m−2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014
Ngware, Moses W.; Mahuro, Gerald M.; Hungi, Njora; Abuya, Benta; Nyariro, Milka P.; Mutisya, Maurice
This paper examines effects of life-skills, mentoring, and counseling education intervention implemented among primary school attending girls aged between 10 and 19 years, living in Nairobi slums. We hypothesized that interaction between the intervention and aspiration, self-confidence and interest in schooling, mediates the impact of risky…
Vaijayanti, K.; Subramanian, Mathangi
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recently reported that the world's population is shifting to its cities. India is no exception. Throughout the country, an increasing number of migrants are leaving agricultural lifestyles in search of economic and educational opportunities, often relocating to non-notified slums. Despite the fact that many…
Oti, Samuel Oji; van de Vijver, Steven; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Agyemang, Charles; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Stronks, Karien
To describe the processes, outcomes and costs of implementing a multi-component, community-based intervention for hypertension among adults aged > 35 years in a large slum in Nairobi, Kenya. The intervention in 2012-2013 was based on four components: awareness-raising; improved access to screening;
Andre M N Renzaho
Full Text Available Young people in Uganda face various sexual and reproductive health risks, especially those living in urban slums. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with comprehensive categories of sexual and reproductive health, including sexual behaviours; sexual education and access to contraceptive services; family planning; prevention of STDs; sexual consent as a right; gender based violence; as well as HIV testing, counselling, disclosure and support.The study was cross-sectional in design and was carried out in July 2014 in Makindye and Nakawa Divisions of Kampala City, Uganda. Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala's urban slums.Sixty two percent of participants reported having ever had sex and the mean age of sexual debut was 16 years (95%CI: 15.6, 16.4 years, range: 5-23 years. The odds of reporting ever having had sexual intercourse were higher among respondents living alone (OR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.35, 5.61; p<0.01 than those living in a nuclear family. However, condom use was only 54%. The number of sexual partners in the last 12 months preceding the survey averaged 1.8 partners (95%CI: 1.7, 1.9; range 1-4 with 18.1% reporting an age gap of 10 years or older. More than three quarters (80.6% of sexually active participants reported that their first sexual encounter was consensual, suggesting that most young people are choosing when they make their sexual debut. Low prevalence of willing first sexual intercourse was associated with younger age (OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.90, p<0.05, having a disability (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.16, 0.98, p<0.05, living with non-relatives (OR = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.16, 0.97, p<0.05, and being still at school (OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.12, 0.67, p<0.01. These results remained significant after adjusting for covariates, except for disability and the age of participants. The proportion of unwilling first sexual intercourse was significantly higher
Tobias, Robert; O'Keefe, Mark; Künzle, Rahel; Gebauer, Heiko; Gründl, Harald; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Pronk, Wouter; Larsen, Tove A
The toilets used most in informal urban settlements have detrimental consequences for the environment and human health due to the lack of proper collection and treatment of toilet waste. Concepts for safe, sustainable and affordable sanitation systems exist, but their feasibility and acceptance have to be investigated at an early stage of development, which is difficult due to the high costs of building working models. In this paper, we present an approach to estimate acceptance in a valid and representative form with only one working model, and apply it to test an innovative zero-emission toilet with recycling of wash water. Four basic principles were specified for investigation and nine hypotheses formulated to test the feasibility and acceptance of these principles: source separation of urine and feces with subsequent collection for resource recovery; provision of wash water in a separate cycle with on-site recovery through a membrane bioreactor; a convenient and attractive overall design; and a financially sustainable business plan. In Kampala (Uganda), in 2013, data was collected from 22 regular users, 308 one-time users and a representative sample of 1538 participants. Qualitative data was collected from the users, who evaluated their likes, perceived benefits, social norms and expected ease of use based on verbal and visual information. Most of the hypotheses were confirmed, indicating the feasibility and acceptance of the basic principles. Source separation and on-site water recovery were found to be feasible and accepted, provided users can be convinced that the emptying service and water recovery process work reliably. In the survey, the toilet was evaluated favorably and 51% of the participants agreed to be placed on a bogus waiting list. However, some design challenges were revealed, such as the size of the toilet, hiding feces from view and improving the separation of urine and water. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights
Full Text Available The cancerous spread of slum has been a rampant problem in urban areas worldwide. The acute shortage of housing facilities compels the poor to live in slums. Proper rehabilitation is considered as a very essential remedial measure to provide better living environment to slum peoples. This study is an essential attempt to gauge the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program, which studies the changes in socio-economic and health condition of rehabilitated slum dwellers since they got rehabilitated. In order to do so, a household survey was carried comprising 240 households in two rehabilitated sites in the city of Kolkata (ward no. 107 and 114 during the month of July, 2014. The results conforms a strand of a belief that in-situ rehabilitation or rehabilitation within short distance is more effective. A rehabilitation too far away area disrupts the existing social, economic and political ties of neighborhoods. Measures have also been proposed to overcome such problems and to make the slum dwellers an integral part of urban society.
Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Singh, Archna; Shankar, Anuraj; Zodpey, Sanjay
Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the crucial factors in ensuring healthy outcomes in women and newborns. Nutrition education and counselling is an integral part of ANC that influences maternal and child health outcomes. A cross sectional study was conducted in Pregnant Women (PW) and mothers who had delivered in the past three months; Recently Delivered Women (RDW) in urban slums of North-east district of Delhi, India, to explore ANC utilization, dietary practices and nutritional outcomes. A household survey was conducted in three urban slums to identify PW and RDW. Socio-economic and demographic profile, various components of ANC received including nutrition counselling, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes based on anthropometric indices and anaemia status were assessed. Socio-demographic characteristics, nutrient intake and nutritional status were compared between those who availed ANC versus those who did not using logistic regression. Descriptive summary for services and counselling received; dietary and nutrient intake during ANC were presented. Almost 80% (274 out of 344) women received some form of ANC but the package was inadequate. Determinants for non-utilization of ANC were poverty, literacy, migration, duration of stay in the locality and high parity. Counselling on nutrition was reported by a fourth of the population. Nutrient intake showed suboptimal consumption of protein and micronutrients like iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin niacin, zinc and vitamin B12 by more than half of women. A high prevalence of anaemia among PW (85%) and RDW (97.1%) was observed. There was no difference in micronutrient intake and anaemia prevalence among women who received ANC versus who did not. Pregnant women living in urban poor settlements have poor nutritional status. This may be improved by strengthening the nutrition counselling component of ANC which was inadequate in the ANC package received. Empowering community based health workers in
Getachew, Sisay; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Erko, Berhanu; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay
A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. The dominant fly species was Chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by Musca domestica (31%), Musca sorbens (20.5.%), Lucina cuprina (6.8%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.8%), Calliphora vicina (2.2%) and Wohlfahrtia sp. (1.8%). Six intestinal helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and at least four protozoan parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp.) were isolated from both the external and gut contents of the flies. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites detected both on the external and in the gut contents of the flies, but occurring more in the latter. Among the flies, C. rufifacies and M. sorbens were the highest carriers of the helminth and protozoan parasites, respectively. The public health significance of these findings is highlighted.
Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico
The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.
Das, Sai Chandan
Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3–9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children. PMID:25580460
Panigrahi, Ansuman; Das, Sai Chandan
Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3-9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children.
Atinga, Roger A; Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Kuganab-Lem, Robert Bella
To identify the factors influencing dropout from Ghana's health insurance scheme among populations living in slum communities. Cross-sectional data were collected from residents of 22 slums in the Accra Metropolitan Assembly. Cluster and systematic random sampling techniques were used to select and interview 600 individuals who had dropped out from the scheme 6 months prior to the study. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models were computed to account for sample characteristics and reasons associated with the decision to dropout. The proportion of dropouts in the sample increased from the range of 6.8% in 2008 to 34.8% in 2012. Non-affordability of premium was the predominant reason followed by rare illness episodes, limited benefits of the scheme and poor service quality. Low-income earners and those with low education were significantly more likely to report premium non-affordability. Rare illness was a common reason among younger respondents, informal sector workers and respondents with higher education. All subgroups of age, education, occupation and income reported nominal benefits of the scheme as a reason for dropout. Interventions targeted at removing bottlenecks to health insurance enrolment are salient to maximising the size of the insurance pool. Strengthening service quality and extending the premium exemption to cover low-income families in slum communities is a valuable strategy to achieve universal health coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The sanitation crisis in unsewered urban slums of cities in developing countries is one of the challenges that need to be addressed. It is caused by the high rate of urbanisation in developing countries and the increasing urban population with limited urban infrastructure. The major issues of
Judd, Michael C; Emukule, Gideon O; Njuguna, Henry; McMorrow, Meredith L; Arunga, Geoffrey O; Katz, Mark A; Montgomery, Joel M; Wong, Joshua M; Breiman, Robert F; Mott, Joshua A
Little is known about how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects influenza transmission within homes in sub-Saharan Africa. We used respiratory illness surveillance and HIV testing data gathered in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya, to examine the impact of HIV status on (1) introducing influenza to the home and (2) transmitting influenza to household contacts. While HIV status did not affect the likelihood of being an influenza index case, household contacts of HIV-infected influenza index cases had twice the risk of developing secondary influenza-like illness than contacts of HIV-negative index cases. HIV-infected influenza index cases may facilitate transmission of influenza within the home. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
MAKAROVA V. N.
Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance . Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population . Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in
Dishant Joy Shah
Full Text Available Background: Child malnutrition is a single large contributor to under-five mortality due to greater susceptibility to infections and slow recovery from illness. Prevalence of malnutrition is high in Madhya Pradesh as compared to other states of India. Aims & Objectives: The study was aimed to find the prevalence, and study the risk factors for malnutrition, in children under the age of five years, in an urban slum, and also recommend appropriate remedial measures. Material and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 children under the age of 5 years in an urban slum Pipaliya Pende Khan in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh from August 2013 to October 2013. Anthropometric measurements like weight and height were recorded. They were also made to fill a pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis was done. Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting according to WHO Child Growth Standards, April 2006 was 62.6% (52.1%, 73.1%, 41.9%(31.4% , 52.5% and 17.4% (9.1% , 25.7% respectively. Stunting was associated with educational status of mother, more prevalent in children of less literate mother. Underweight was associated with both educational status of mother and type of toilet facility. Wasting was more prevalent in Muslim community and families with low socio-economic status. Conclusions: The study shows very high prevalence of the malnutrition, in the given community. The results also confirmed that education status of mother, type of toilet facility, religion and socio-economic status are some of the key determinants of nutritional status of children under the age of 5 years.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (≥ 15 years. All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS. Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that
Robert F Breiman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher rates in the urban area, given crowding and suboptimal access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: During 2007-9, we conducted population-based surveillance in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, and in Lwak, a rural area in western Kenya. Participants had free access to study clinics; field workers visited their homes biweekly to collect information about acute illnesses. In clinic, blood cultures were processed from patients with fever or pneumonia. Crude and adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: In the urban site, the overall crude incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi bacteremia was 247 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation (pyo with highest rates in children 5-9 years old (596 per 100,000 pyo and 2-4 years old (521 per 100,000 pyo. Crude overall incidence in Lwak was 29 cases per 100,000 pyo with low rates in children 2-4 and 5-9 years old (28 and 18 cases per 100,000 pyo, respectively. Adjusted incidence rates were highest in 2-4 year old urban children (2,243 per 100,000 pyo which were >15-fold higher than rates in the rural site for the same age group. Nearly 75% of S. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic urban slum and rural comparison showed dramatically higher typhoid incidence among urban children <10 years old with rates similar to those from Asian urban slums. The findings have potential policy implications for use of typhoid vaccines in increasingly urban Africa.
Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria
This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...
Roy, Debraj; Palavalli, Bharath; Menon, Niveditha; King, Robin; Pfeffer, Karin; Lees, Michael; Sloot, Peter M. A.
In 2010, an estimated 860 million people were living in slums worldwide, with around 60 million added to the slum population between 2000 and 2010. In 2011, 200 million people in urban Indian households were considered to live in slums. In order to address and create slum development programmes and poverty alleviation methods, it is necessary to understand the needs of these communities. Therefore, we require data with high granularity in the Indian context. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of highly granular data at the level of individual slums. We collected the data presented in this paper in partnership with the slum dwellers in order to overcome the challenges such as validity and efficacy of self reported data. Our survey of Bangalore covered 36 slums across the city. The slums were chosen based on stratification criteria, which included geographical location of the slum, whether the slum was resettled or rehabilitated, notification status of the slum, the size of the slum and the religious profile. This paper describes the relational model of the slum dataset, the variables in the dataset, the variables constructed for analysis and the issues identified with the dataset. The data collected includes around 267,894 data points spread over 242 questions for 1,107 households. The dataset can facilitate interdisciplinary research on spatial and temporal dynamics of urban poverty and well-being in the context of rapid urbanization of cities in developing countries.
Frenzel, F.; Koens, K.
This paper introduces the Special Issue on slum tourism with a reflection on the state of the art on this new area of tourism research. After a review of the literature we discuss the breadth of research that was presented at the conference 'Destination Slum', the first international conference on slum tourism. Identifying various dimensions, as well as similarities and differences, in slum tourism in different parts of the world, we contest that slum tourism has evolved from being practised ...
Nasir, Sudirman; Rosenthal, Doreen; Moore, Timothy
There are few studies exploring the social context of controlled drug use amongst young people in Indonesia. This qualitative study examines the experience of young people in a slum area (lorong) in Makassar, eastern Indonesia, who use drugs but are not drug dependent and who employ various forms of self regulation to control their use. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight controlled drug users. The study found that whilst controlled drug users lived in a drug risk environment, they were not deeply embedded in the street culture, risk-taking practises and drug scene within their locality. Their employment, albeit in the informal economy and in low-paid jobs, facilitated their perspective that the status of rewa (a local construct of masculinity) and gaul (being sociable and up-to-date) could and should be accomplished through conventional means such as jobs and halal (legitimate) income. Their employment generated both direct benefit (legitimate income) and indirect benefit, including meaningful activities, structured time, positive identity and wider social networks (bridging social capital). This enabled them to have a stake in mainstream society and provided an incentive to control drug use. All factors which are protective against escalation into problematic drug use. The study showed the importance of sociological concepts of direct and indirect benefits of employment and of social capital in understanding the social context of controlled drug use amongst young people in the lorong. Additionally, drug policy should be more cognizant of the social vulnerability in the lorong and of the need to increase access to employment amongst young people in order to potentially decrease the likelihood of problematic drug use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Winch, Peter J; Saxton, Ronald E; Nizame, Fosiul A; Yeasmin, Farzana; Norman, Guy; Masud, Abdullah-Al; Begum, Farzana; Rahman, Mahbubur; Hossain, Kamal; Layden, Anita; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P
Shared toilets in urban slums are often unclean and poorly maintained, discouraging consistent use and thereby limiting impacts on health and quality of life. We developed behaviour change interventions to support shared toilet maintenance and improve user satisfaction. We report the intervention effectiveness on improving shared toilet cleanliness. We conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial among users of 1226 shared toilets in 23 Dhaka slums. We assessed baseline toilet cleanliness in January 2015. The six-month intervention included provision of hardware (bin for solid waste, 4 l flushing bucket, 70 l water reservoir), and behaviour change communication (compound meetings, interpersonal household sessions, signs depicting rules for toilet use). We estimated the adjusted difference in difference (DID) to assess outcomes and accounted for clustering effects using generalised estimating equations. Compared to controls, intervention toilets were more likely to have water available inside toilet cubicles (DID: +4.7%, 95% CI: 0.2, 9.2), access to brush/broom for cleaning (DID: +8.4%, 95% CI: 2, 15) and waste bins (DID: +63%, 95% CI: 59, 66), while less likely to have visible faeces inside the pan (DID: -13%, 95% CI: -19, -5), the smell of faeces (DID: -7.6%, 95% CI: -14, -1.3) and household waste inside the cubicle (DID: -4%, 95% CI: -7, -1). In one of few efforts to promote shared toilet cleanliness, intervention compounds were significantly more likely to have cleaner toilets after six months. Future research might explore how residents can self-finance toilet maintenance, or employ mass media to reduce per-capita costs of behaviour change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
motivator bagi ibu hamil supaya bersedia mengonsumsi tablet zat besi ≥ 90 tablet selama kehamilannya. Kata kunci: Tablet zat besi, kumuh perkotaan, Jabar, DIYABSTRACTBackground:The maternal mortality rate in Indonesia is still quite high. At the provincial level, the maternal mortality vary widely. West Java Province is the largest contributor to maternal mortality with the estimated number 19.8% of all maternal deaths in Indonesia. While the province of Yogyakarta contribution is relatively small (1.1%. Objective:To compare the provision of iron tablets by health workers and pregnant women compliance consume, in urban slums in West Java Province and Yogyakarta. Methods:This study describes and analyzes object that is obtained from the Riskesdas 2010. Results:Based on the characteristics, the majority of mothers in the province of Yogyakarta are in middle education level, working as a self employed/farmer/fisherman/laborer. Meanwhile, in West Java province, mostly just poorly educated and do not have a job. Total ownership of health insurance in the province of Yogyakarta relatively more than in the province of West Java. Based on the scope of the giving of iron tablets, it appears that most of the mothers in the province of West Java and Yogyakarta get iron tablets during pregnancy (84.7% vs 96.0%. However, this condition is much different when viewed from the percentage of pregnant women who consumed at least 90 tablets of iron tablets. Seen that pregnant women who consumed iron tablets ≥ 90 in West Java province only 12.6 percent. By contrast, in the province of Yogyakarta, the consumption of iron tablets ≥ 90 percentage is quite high, reaching 60.0%. Conclusion:Coverage giving iron tablets in both provinces relatively good. However, the consumption of iron tablets ≥ 90 tablets in Yogyakarta Province is relatively better than in West Java Province. Recomendations:It is suggested for the provincial government of West Java and other areas for the promotion and
The most prominent problem of rapid urbanism in Harare is the development of slums and Epworth is a notable example. The quality of planning and decision making in the participatory slum upgrading initiative can be sustainably improved by well managed processes of spatial and socio-economic data collection. More so ...
Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.
This Exploration focuses on the emerging field of slum tourism research, which has the poten- tial to connect Latin American and Caribbean studies on tourism and urban inequality. Slum tourism involves transforming poverty, squalor and violence into a tourism product. Drawing on both altruism and
Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad
Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.
the cultural and ￼urban life took place in squares, shops, cafes, etc. ￼However, changed conditions as new forms of everyday life, the current climate and ￼sustainability agenda, increasing social segregation, etc. give us a need to see the suburb in a ￼new perspective. ￼This industrial PhD project examines...
Full Text Available Slum, a dwelling that is statutorily unfit for human habitation, is still the big problem in, especially, cities of developing countries. This article highlights the development of slums in Yogyakarta City along 1970-2000, and it’s merely focused on spatial and socio-ecological development. The aims of the study is to analyze the distribution and development process of slum dwellings. Distribution of slum area is taken from interpretation of time-series aerial photos. The change of extent and distribution of slum is analyzed using Geographic Information System. To obtain the socio-economic characteristics of slum dwellers, the survey method is chosen. The respondent are selected randomly among head of household that represent each settlement units. Quality of settlement are determined by total score of 15 selected variables. The result shows that the first category of slum was increased 74.4 hectares from year 1970 to 2000, the second category was increased 47.6 hectares, and the third was 131.1 hectares. Nevertheless, the process of slum development in Yogyakarta City includes in "continuous" type, which slowly and long period of creation. Densification and aging process is two of the main causes of slum expansion. Distribution of slum unit were driven by rivers that next to city center. According to this research, it’s found out that the slum dwellers are characterized by the new migrant who had low income and education, working in the informal sector, and renting the house.
Saba Syed, Sukhdas Gangam
Full Text Available Background: In India, currently 2.1 million people are living with HIV. Prevention is the mainstay of the strategic response to HIV/AIDS in India. Awareness rising brings behaviour change. People inhabiting slums have low awareness and are more vulnerable to RTI/STIs and HIV/AIDS. Aims: To assess HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexual behaviour, reported symptoms of STI/RTI’s along with the socio demographic profile of adult population of urban slum dwellers. Methods: A cross sectional, qualitative study. The study area, chosen by convenience sampling was an urban slum located in M East Ward of Greater Mumbai. The study was finally conducted with 104 participants. Results: The mean age of surveyed participants was 23.5yrs and nearly 38(40% of participants were illiterate Age at first sexual intercourse among the study participants was between 12-16 years for 23(22.10% participants. Among study participants; 30(29% of participants do not have any knowledge about prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: Urban slum residents in Mumbai have knowledge gap regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention. Initiation of sexual intercourse is at an early age, a high percentage report symptoms of STI/RTIs.
Celile Özçiçek Dölekoğlu
Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries involves unplanned migration, unemployment and poverty. The steady shrinking of rural areas and the use of agricultural land for other purposes are progressively increasing the pressure on natural resources. This development on the one hand increases the risk to food security, and on the other triggers climate change. The rural population who migrate to the cities or who are absorbed into urban areas continue their agricultural activities in the urban in order to provide themselves with an income or to maintain their food security. In the big cities of the developed world, contact with nature is kept by means of hobby gardens, recreational areas and urban and suburban plant and animal farming, and creative ideas such as roof gardens can be found. This development, known as urban agriculture, is practiced by 800 million people in the world. Urban agriculture has many economic, social and environmental benefits, but it may also have risks and adverse effects. In this study, the developments in this area in Turkey and the world are presented, and all aspects of its effects and outcomes are discussed.
Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.
The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr
Singh, Sanjeev; Sahu, Damodar; Agrawal, Ashish; Vashi, Meeta Dhaval
Almost, one third of the world's urban population resides in slums and the number would double by 2030. Slums denotes collection of people from various communities having a meagre income and living in unhygienic conditions thus making themselves most vulnerable for outbreaks of communicable diseases. India contributes substantially to the global disease burden and under-five mortality rates i.e. 20% attributable to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization plays a crucial role in combating high childhood mortality rates attributable to vaccine preventable diseases across the globe. This systematic review, provides insights on immunization status in slums, identifies various factors influencing it thus, exploring opportunities that may be available to improve vaccination coverage under the National Immunization Program. Taking into account the above aspects, a review of literature was undertaken in various databases that included studies published between 2006 and 2017. In India, ~33% of the urban population lives in slums with suboptimal vaccination coverage ranging from 14% to upto 90%. Few of the important causes for low coverage included socioeconomic factors such as poor community participation, lack of awareness, frequent migration, and loss of daily income. Hence, mere presence of vaccines in the National Immunization Program doesn't do the job, there is a definite unmet need to emphasize upon the importance of immunization among slums dwellers and take necessary steps. For instance, delivering immunization services at the doorstep (e.g. pulse polio program), community-based education, text messaging as reminders and incentivized immunization services are some of the opportunities that can be explored and implemented to improve immunization status in the slums. Thus, in addition to inclusion of more and more vaccines in the National Immunization Program, there is a definite need to focus on people living in high risk areas in order to improve coverage and
Holst, Tore Elias Harsløf Mukherjee
slum tourism, the article attempts to answer this question by analyzing the case of the NGO, Salaam Baalak Trust. This NGO conducted slum tours for tourists from the global North in the interstitial spaces around New Delhi Railway Station until 2010, when the slum they used as an example of their work......What are the limits of the knowledge it is ethically viable to articulate about “slums,” in a political environment where slum demolitions are a weekly occurrence? By cross-reading Partha Chatterjee's theoretical discussion of the conditions of subaltern (self)representation with studies of global...... was suddenly demolished. To the NGO staff, this posed two mutually exclusive ethical demands: a) to represent slums so that the plight of their (sometimes displaced) inhabitants might be publicized and discussed and b) to hide slums from view so the state would have no incentive to remove them as a part...
Full Text Available 3 models of Under Fives Clinics were tried successively at the Malavani Health Center beginning in 1978. Malavani is a village with a population of abourt 70,000 near the city of Bombay (India. In each model mothers were given a Road to Health Card for each child. Model I was a center-based model. The venue was the same center where outpatient departments were located for the convenience of the mothers. The staff comprised 1 pediatrician from the staff of the K.E.M. Hospital and rotating interns posted for 1 month at a time. Enrollment and follow-up of the children were done in the outpatient department. Model II, a subcenter-based model established in 1980, 5 satellite subcenters located in the community were established. The permanent staff consisted of a medical officer, a medico-social worker, and a records assistan. A detailed record of each child was maintained at the subcenter. The medico-social worker held group discussions with the attending mothers and an attempt was made to understand their views and beliefs about child care before trying to educate them. Model III, a community-based model, was established in April 1983. The staff was partly permanent (a medico-social worker, a student nurse, and local community health volunteer and partly temporary (rotating interns. The staff visited different areas of Malavani village by rotation. An attempt was made to visit each area at least once in 2 months. Detailed recors were maintained as in Model II. In all models, the children were weighed at each visit. They were given oral polio and triple vaccines. Mothers were advised on foods to feed the children to improve nutrition and were given simple recipes and cooking demonstrations. An attempt was made to evaluate the regularity of attendance, weight gain in children, and immuniation coverage. With Model I 450 babies were registered in 6 months but only 48 of them were brought for further follow-up; only 21 of them completed primary
Tabrez Uz Zaman
Full Text Available Aim: To understand and describe how the growth and development of slums in Guwahati, Assam influence the living conditions affect the health status of slum dwellers. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of 44 articles published during 1993 to 2016 in various databases computerized databases, hand searches, and authoritative texts was undertaken to reveal the inter-disciplinary character of the topic. The inclusion criteria for this study were to select items having scientific quality and were aligned with the objective of the study. Items were excluded if they were irrelevant to the slum areas, redundant and lacked scientific quality. Results: It is equally necessary to make sure that the health policies consider the importance of equity and social justice in slum areas. The nutritional condition of school going slum children and prevalence of diarrhea are issues to be taken care of. It was noted that the level of health awareness in Assam was less compared to the national level and the slum dwellers didn’t know how to avail these healthcare facilities. This was a barrier in improving their health status. Conclusion: We should nurture the aim to create a slum free society by providing proper housing, sanitation, safe drinking water, and affordable healthcare services. Special focus on the nutritional condition of slum children; maternal and child health in the slum areas of Assam is urgently required. Health and education must go hand in hand to uplift the lives of these slum dwellers.
Bishwajit, Ghose; Hoque, Md Rakibul; Yaya, Sanni
In Bangladesh, similar to its other South Asian counterparts, shortage of health workers along with inadequate infrastructure constitute some of the major obstacles for the equitable provision of reproductive healthcare services, particularly among the marginalized and underserved neighbourhoods. However, given the rapidly expanding broadband communication and mobile phone market in the country, the application of eHealth and mHealth technologies offer a window of opportunities to minimise the impact of socioeconomic barriers and promote the utilization of maternal healthcare services thereby. In the present study we aimed to investigate 1) the prevalence of usage of mobile phones for seeking childbirth services, 2) neighbourhood and socioeconomic disparities in the use, and 3) association between using mobile phones and the uptake of postnatal care among mothers and neonates. Data for the present study came from Bangladesh Urban Health Survey 2013. Study subjects were 9014 married women aged between 15 and 49 years. The overall rate of use of mobile phone was highest in City Corporation non-Slum areas (16.2%) and lowest in City Corporation Slum areas (7.4%). The odds of using mobile for seeking childbirth services were significantly higher among those who were living in non-slum areas, and lower among those who never attended school and lived in poorer households. Results also indicated that women in the slum areas who used mobile phone for childbirth service seeking, were 4.3 times [OR = 4.250;95% CI = 1.856-9.734] more likely to receive postnatal care for themselves, and those from outside the city-corporation areas were 2.7 times [OR = 2.707;95% CI = 1.712-4.279] more likely to receive postnatal care for the newborn. Neighbourhood, educational and economic factors were significantly associated with the mobile phone utilization status among urban women. Promoting access to better education and sustainable income earning should be regarded as an
The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.
Huang, Z.; Gu, S.X.
The several years experience of radioactive waste management in Shanghai of China shows that the centralized management is quite successful and effective. Rad waste generated in urban area would be treated with further concern in the respect of radiation and environmental protection. In this respect, there is a need for a professional organisation to undertake the necessary regulation, and demonstrate that high standards of design, planning, management and operation could be met. The experience in China is suitable to manage and dispose rad waste generated from the civil applications in urban area, and valuable to the developing country and area in particular. It is concluded that the centralized management of intermediate level and low level radioactive waste is an optimum choice for urban area
Hanousková, Irena; Boháč, Jaroslav; Sedláček, František; Šerá, Božena; Lepšová, A.; Zacharda, Miloslav
-, č. 23 (2004), s. 58-68 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC C11.001 Grant - others:ÚEK AV ČR(CZ) OC C11.001 Program:OC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : urban green areas, harmful organisms, management, * planning Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning
Wong, Joshua M; Cosmas, Leonard; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Williamson, John M; Olack, Beatrice; Okoth, George; Njuguna, Henry; Feikin, Daniel R; Burke, Heather; Montgomery, Joel M; Breiman, Robert F
Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative contacts of HIV-infected persons at increased risk of exposure to infectious pathogens. We calculated incidence and longitudinal prevalence (number of days per year) of influenzalike illness (ILI), diarrhea, and nonspecific febrile illness during 2008 from a population-based surveillance program in the urban slum of Kibera (Kenya) that included 1830 HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals and 13 677 individuals living in exclusively HIV-negative households. For individuals ≥5 years old, incidence was significantly increased for ILI (risk ratio [RR], 1.47; P 5 years old. Targeted interventions are needed, including ensuring that HIV-infected persons are receiving appropriate care and treatment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Olayemi, S O; Oreagba, I A; Akinyede, A; Adepoju, G E
Community based participation has been advocated by a number of international health organisations including the World Health Organization (WHO) as a solution to the problems of poor patient adherence and default from Directly Observed Treatment Short course [DOTs] programmes for tuberculosis control. To determine the impact of a health educational intervention on the management of tuberculosis in relation to the outcome and adherence to therapy by Tuberculosis patients residing in a densely populated urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was conducted using forty tuberculosis patients (confirmed by acid fast bacilli positive sputum), and selected randomly from those who attend the Mainland Hospital in Lagos. They were divided into two groups of twenty each made up of those to be provided with education intervention at the community level and the control groups followed up at the hospital level only. An initial assessment of the knowledge about tuberculosis management was done through a structured questionnaire for both groups. This was followed by continuous health talks for intervention group in form of neighbourhood self help approach. The results showed that the intervention had a significant impact on the understanding of disease and its management (X(2) =11.842 peducation is therefore beneficial for TB control in Nigeria.
Ajjampur, S S R; Koshy, B; Venkataramani, M; Sarkar, R; Joseph, A A; Jacob, K S; Ward, H; Kang, G
Early childhood diarrhoea is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recurrent and persistent diarrhoea affect growth and cognition in children as young as 6 years. To evaluate the effect of early childhood cryptosporidial and giardial diarrhoea on growth and development in children in a semi-urban slum in India. This is the first report of such assessment at 3 years of age. This study was undertaken on 116 children who were part of an ongoing birth cohort study (n=452) of rotaviral and cryptosporidial diarrhoea between June and December 2005. Social quotients (SQ) assessed by the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, intelligence quotients (IQ) assessed by the Seguin Form Board Test, physical growth parameters and sociodemographic data in 84 children with a history of cryptosporidial or giardial diarrhoea were compared with those of 32 without diarrhoea. Children with a past history of giardial diarrhoea showed a trend towards lower SQ (p=0.09) and had significantly lower IQ (p=0.04) and increased wasting (p=0.04). Cryptosporidial diarrhoea was not associated with poor IQ, SQ or physical growth. This study demonstrates the long-term effect of protozoan diarrhoea, especially that caused by giardia, on both intelligence and physical growth in Indian children as early as 3 years of age and re-inforces the need for early detection and prevention of early childhood protozoan diarrhoea.
Zar Ni Hlaing
Full Text Available This research analyzed the prevalence of water sanitation at the household level against gastrointestinal disease occurrence in the urban slum setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar, using cross-sectional study design techniques. A total of 364 household respondents were interviewed face to face by well-trained research assistants using structured questionnaires. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between independent and dependent variables. Results showed that the source of household water (OR: 13.58, 95% CI: 6.90-26.74, and the types of drinking water (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 0.92-3.71, were significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. After adjustment for confounding factors, this study found that occupation (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.25-5.54, employment status (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.01, type of household toilet (AOR: 8.66, 95% CI: 4.03-18.60, sources of household water (AOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 2.86-15.08, and the method of vector control (AOR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.37-7.30 were all significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. Health education and appropriate technology for household water, sanitary latrines, environmental sanitation and waste disposal, and the implementation of policies focusing on systematic water management are therefore urgently required to control the spread of waterborne diseases.
Zubair, M.; Adil, M.M.; Alam, A.Y.; Qureshi, A.A.
The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in Tarlai, an urban slum of Islamabad. A Cross-sectional survey of 100 married women in the age range 15-45 years women utilizing and not utilizing antenatal care facilities during their previous pregnancy was carried out in April 2004. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire and processed and analyzed by using SPPS 10.0. Use of supplements was found high in women attending antenatal care. Realization of the importance of taking a healthy diet during pregnancy was significantly higher among women utilizing antenatal care. In most of the women's the diet remain unchanged. 56% women attended the antenatal care clinics. Those not taking food supplements, 39% were non affording, 21% had no concept of their benefits, 36% did not like to take and 4% felt nausea and vomiting. Just over 50% women received antenatal care. Utilization of antenatal care showed a positive impact on awareness of taking food supplements during pregnancy and lactation. (author)
Zubair, M; Adil, M M; Alam, A Y; Qureshi, A A [Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad (Pakistan)
The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in Tarlai, an urban slum of Islamabad. A Cross-sectional survey of 100 married women in the age range 15-45 years women utilizing and not utilizing antenatal care facilities during their previous pregnancy was carried out in April 2004. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire and processed and analyzed by using SPPS 10.0. Use of supplements was found high in women attending antenatal care. Realization of the importance of taking a healthy diet during pregnancy was significantly higher among women utilizing antenatal care. In most of the women's the diet remain unchanged. 56% women attended the antenatal care clinics. Those not taking food supplements, 39% were non affording, 21% had no concept of their benefits, 36% did not like to take and 4% felt nausea and vomiting. Just over 50% women received antenatal care. Utilization of antenatal care showed a positive impact on awareness of taking food supplements during pregnancy and lactation. (author)
Santos, Norlan de Jesus; Sousa, Erica; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Costa, Federico
We analyzed environmental factors that provide food, water and harborage to rodents and the risk of household rodent infestation in a slum community with a high risk of leptospirosis transmission. Detailed environmental surveys were performed in 221 households. Multivariate regression models evaluated the association between rodent infestation and socioeconomic status and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys. The general household infestation rate was 45.9%. Rattus norvegicus signs were the most prevalent, present in 74% of the infested households. The risk for rodent infestation was associated with environmental factors supporting harborage for rats, such as dilapidated fences/walls (OR: 8.95; 95%CI: 2.42-33.12) and households built on an earthen slope (OR: 4.68; 95%CI: 2.23-9.81). An increase of 1 meter from the nearest sewer was associated with a 3% (95%CI: 1%-5%) decrease in the risk of rodent infestation. A lack of sanitation where poor people live provides factors for rat infestation and could the target of educational interventions.
Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas
A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as
Snyder, Robert E; Marlow, Mariel A; Phuphanich, Melissa E; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia
Brazil's National Tuberculosis Control Program seeks to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment in vulnerable populations. Slum residents are more vulnerable to TB due to a variety of factors, including their overcrowded living conditions, substandard infrastructure, and limited access to healthcare compared to their non-slum dwelling counterparts. Directly observed treatment (DOT) has been suggested to improve TB treatment outcomes among vulnerable populations, but the program's differential effectiveness among urban slum and non-slum residents is not known. We retrospectively compared the impact of DOT on TB treatment outcome in residents of slum and non-slum census tracts in Rio de Janeiro reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Disease Database in 2010. Patient residential addresses were geocoded to census tracts from the 2010 Brazilian Census, which were identified as slum (aglomerados subnormais -AGSN) and non-slum (non-AGSN) by the Census Bureau. Homeless and incarcerated cases as well as those geocoded outside the city's limits were excluded from analysis. In 2010, 6,601 TB cases were geocoded within Rio de Janeiro; 1,874 (27.4 %) were residents of AGSN, and 4,794 (72.6 %) did not reside in an AGSN area. DOT coverage among AGSN cases was 35.2 % (n = 638), while the coverage in non-AGSN cases was 26.2 % (n = 1,234). Clinical characteristics, treatment, follow-up, cure, death and abandonment were similar in both AGSN and non-AGSN TB patients. After adjusting for covariates, AGSN TB cases on DOT had 1.67 (95 % CI: 1.17, 2.4) times the risk of cure, 0.61 (95 % CI: 0.41, 0.90) times the risk of abandonment, and 0.1 (95 % CI: 0.01, 0.77) times the risk of death from TB compared to non-AGSN TB cases not on DOT. While DOT coverage was low among TB cases in both AGSN and non-AGSN communities, it had a greater impact on TB cure rate in AGSN than in non-AGSN populations in the city of Rio de Janeiro.
Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos
The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.
Darmastuti, Amalia Ji; Wardana, Agustinus Wisnu; Eng, Ir. Maya Andria Nirawati M.
Slum areas are heavily populated urban informal settlements characterized by substandard housing and illegal land usage (squatting). Surakarta is one of many Indonesian cities that are still entangled by this problem. One of the slum concentrations in Surakarta is the slum settlement (kampong) alongside Kali Pepe riverbank. Within these slum settlements, people survive in substandard housing by effectively using the limited space. This research aims to discover the typologies of the alternative use of space. This research takes a case study approach in a few kampongs alongside Kali Pepe riverbank, based on the types and sizes of small houses within this area, considering the number of occupants and the space required. The data for this research is categorized as primary data which was collected through a series of site observations and focus group discussions. The data will be analysed, compared, and classified to find out the typology of the alternative solutions of space requirements. This research uses mixed-method analysis to define how Kali Pepe's slum residents alternatively use the spaces within their kampongs. Based on the typologies found through multiple analyses, this research concludes that the use of space in substandard housing cannot be bound by limited spaces. Furthermore, the main strategy to solve the problem of limited space is by using alternative spaces.
This study examines the impact of caste on slum communities’ access to urban land in Bangalore, India. Historically, pattern of land ownership in India was inextricably melded together with caste wherein the dominant castes owned land and excluded Dalits from land access. Slums can be seen as primarily an urban land access issue. A majority of slum residents in Bangalore are Dalits though they form a minority in the overall population. The study adopts a Social Exclusion paradigm to understan...
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.
Roed, J.; Andersson, Kasper; Sandalls, J.
From a knowledge of the distribution and levels of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides on urban surfaces, the dose rate at various locations in an urban complex can be calculated. The information produced provides a quantitative guide of where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction. The efficiency and cost of practicable reclamation and decontamination procedures has been considered and, combined with dose rate calculations before and after treatment, a strategy for reclamation of various urban contamination scenarios has been developed. The study has shown that decontamination of green areas and streets is relatively highly cost-effective in terms of dose reduction and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Roofs are shown to make a significant contribution to dose rate but decontamination of roofs is difficult and not highly cost-effective. Decontamination of walls would rank lowly in a list of priorities, since they represent large areas carrying very little contamination. (3 refs., 4 tabs.)
Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB
Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian
The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited....
Kimani-Murage, E.W.; Fotso, J.C.; Egondi, T.; Abuya, B.; Elungata, P.; Ziraba, A.K.; Kabiru, C.W.; Madise, N.
Background We describe trends in childhood mortality in Kenya, paying attention to the urban–rural and intra-urban differentials. Methods We use data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) collected between 1993 and 2008 and the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) collected in two Nairobi slums between 2003 and 2010, to estimate infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR) and under-five mortality rate (U5MR). Results Between 1993 and 2008, there was a downward trend in IMR, CMR and U5MR in both rural and urban areas. The decline was more rapid and statistically significant in rural areas but not in urban areas, hence the gap in urban–rural differentials narrowed over time. There was also a downward trend in childhood mortality in the slums between 2003 and 2010 from 83 to 57 for IMR, 33 to 24 for CMR, and 113 to 79 for U5MR, although the rates remained higher compared to those for rural and non-slum urban areas in Kenya. Conclusions The narrowing gap between urban and rural areas may be attributed to the deplorable living conditions in urban slums. To reduce childhood mortality, extra emphasis is needed on the urban slums. PMID:25024120
Aunsborg, Christian; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj
in more land-based freight and less shipping, amalgamation of industries and re-location due to new localization parameters. As the case may be, these structural alterations bring about more or less abandoned and worn-down areas. Typically, the areas are located centrally in the towns. With that......, they hold a substantial need for redevelopment and revitalization from an urban planning and management point of view as well as a considerable development potential, as the areas generally offer an attractive possibility for building new housing, offices and other white-collar workplaces. However......, redevelopment of these older business areas faces great challenges; especially compared to urban (re)development in general. The property structure and ownerships are often complex and need re-composition to meet new land uses, the soil may be polluted from former activities implying large clearing costs...
Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.
Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.
Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.
The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings...
The high rental value of core city areas has always influenced the formation of slums at the peripheries or outskirts of towns and cities of the developing world. However, a peculiar inner-city slum that has persisted over the years is the Ogui slum in Enugu, Nigeria. This paper tried to identify the factors that has made this ...
This study examined the association between marital status and risk of HIV infection in urban slums of Nairobi. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population-based survey nested in an ongoing Demographic Surveillance System in two urban slums in Nairobi. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression ...
Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.
Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana
Studies on the behaviour and transport of 137 Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57 t h Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of 137 Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of 137 Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author)
California Natural Resource Agency — For Census 2000, the Census Bureau classifies as 'urban' all territory, population, and housing units located within an urbanized area (UA) or an urban cluster (UC)....
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Abbas, Safdar; Safdar, Rabia; Shaukat, Mahwish; Krämer, Alexander
Child marriage (women's knowledge and attitude towards child marriage practice who themselves were married as children. Women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were married prior to 18 years, for at least 5 years and had at least one child birth were recruited from most populous slum areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Themes for the interview were developed using published literature and everyday observations of the researchers. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers in Urdu language and were translated into English. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, analyzed and categorized into themes. Nineteen of 20 participants who agreed to participate were married between 11-17 years. Most respondents were uneducated, poor and were working as housemaids. The majority participants were unaware of the negative health outcomes of child marriages. They appeared satisfied by the decision of their parents of marrying them before 18 years, and even condemned banning child marriages in Pakistan. Strong influence of culture and community perceptions, varying interpretation of religion, and protecting family honor are some of the reasons that were narrated by the participants, which seems playing a role in continuation of child marriage practice in Pakistan. Raising awareness of the negative health outcomes of child marriage, implementing and enforcing strict laws against child marriage practice, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women, can help eliminate child marriages in Pakistan.
Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Vries, de Pieter
This article engages with the coproduction of urban space by focusing on a slum upgrading project in Recife, Brazil. It argues that the urban situation is essentially inconsistent, unpredictable and unstable. It documents the history of urban planning in Recife, paying special attention to the
The proliferation of slums in many cities of the developing countries has ... slum upgrading in Ghana and Kenya as model examples to make a case for .... improvement in housing, and still others, infrastructural development. ..... Class Summer Research Report), City and Regional Planning: International and Area Studies.
Patel, Ronak; Walker, Garrett; Bhatt, Mihir; Pathak, Vishal
Small informal businesses make up the core markets for many poor urban communities, providing essential goods, services, and livelihoods. Many of these communities and businesses exist in hazardous locations. In most cases, these business owners do not have access to proper coping mechanisms including risk transfer and lack resilience to shocks. Access to risk-transfer in the form of insurance for these small businesses is extremely limited. This demand survey is the first phase of an intervention to test disaster microinsurance for these businesses. Previous research has examined the demand for and value of microinsurance to protect poor households but not micro- and medium-sized informal urban businesses. This study investigates knowledge about and demand for microinsurance among small informal business owners in three different cities of India. Survey of all informal business owners (n=4919) identified through purposive sampling of the most vulnerable in three proposed study sites: Guwahati in Assam (n=1622), Puri in Odisha (n=1551) and Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu (n=1746). Our findings reflect that while small business owners largely did not know about disaster microinsurance, after describing it, a vast majority wanted to subscribe to such a program. Without it, they often rely on personal savings, forgo basic necessities, or take out costly loans that trap them in debt to cope with disasters. This research supports the need for more experiments on actual adoption patterns, feasibility studies, and innovative trial programs by governments, non-governmental organizations, and insurance providers.
Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is a small South Asian country which became independent in 1971 after a bloody war. Rapid urbanisation in Bangladesh (26% of the 147.1 million inhabitants live in urban areas is fuelling a growth in urban poverty, particularly in the urban slums where the quality of life is extremely poor. The average population density in slums was reported in 2005 as 831 persons per acre or 205,415 people per square kilometre.1 Early commencement of antenatal care by pregnant women as well as regular visits has the potential to affect maternal and foetal outcome. Objective: To assess the status of ANC service used by the pregnant mothers and their socio-demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Moghbazar slum area in Dhaka district of Bangladesh, during January to June 2014. A total of 161 slum dwellers were enrolled in the study. Information regarding education, occupation, monthly family income, antenatal care was gathered using a pretested structured questionnnare and data were analysed. Results: The majority respondents had knowledge about antenatal care and of them 89 (55.2% completed ≥3 visits. Forty five (47.8% pregnant women received ANC from government hospitals. Nearly 72% mothers received ANC service from doctors and 16.9% received from family welfare visitors (FWV. Half of mothers were satisfied with the overall care provided to them. About 86.2% mothers said that they had to wait for more than two hours for check-ups. More than 50% received information about exercise and 36% were reassured about discussing fear and anxiety about pregnancy. Conclusion: This study reveals that antenatal care provided was not up to the mark of standard care and measures should be taken to improve it.
Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. The average city-wide PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations measured during this sampling were 87.8 ± 33.9 and 28.7 ± 10.6 µg/m3 respectively. These results show that particulate matter levels are high and exceed Algerian ambient air quality standards (maximum 80 µg/m3, without specifying the particle size). Further, PM10 and PM2.5 averages were well above the prescribed 24-hour average World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG) (50 µg/m3 for PM10 and 25 µg/m3 for PM2.5). The PM1, PM2,5, PM4 and PM7 fractions accounted for 15%, 32 %, 56% and 78% respectively of the PM10 measurements. Our analysis reveals that PM concentration variations in the study region were influenced primarily by traffic. In fact, lower PM10 concentrations (21.7 and 33.1 µg/m3) were recorded in residential sites while higher values (53.1, and 45.2 µg/m3) were registered in city centers. Keywords: Particulate matter, Urban area, vehicle fleet, Bejaia.
Huey, Samantha Lee; Venkatramanan, Sudha; Udipi, Shobha A; Finkelstein, Julia Leigh; Ghugre, Padmini; Haas, Jere Douglas; Thakker, Varsha; Thorat, Aparna; Salvi, Ashwini; Kurpad, Anura V; Mehta, Saurabh
Biofortification, a method for increasing micronutrient content of staple crops, is a promising strategy for combating major global health problems, such as iron and zinc deficiency. We examined the acceptability of recipes prepared using iron- and zinc-biofortified pearl millet (FeZnPM) (~80 ppm Fe, ~34 ppm Zn, varietal ICTP-8203), compared to conventional pearl millet (CPM) (~20 ppm Fe, ~19 ppm Zn) in preparation for an efficacy trial. Our objective was to examine the acceptability of FeZnPM compared to CPM among young children and mothers living in the urban slums of Mumbai. Standardized traditional feeding program recipes ( n = 18) were prepared with either FeZnPM or CPM flour. The weight (g) of each food product was measured before and after consumption by children ( n = 125) and the average grams consumed over a 3-day period were recorded. Mothers ( n = 60) rated recipes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Mean intakes and hedonic scores of each food product were compared using t -tests across the two types of pearl millet. There were no statistically significant differences in consumption by children (FeZnPM: 25.27 ± 13.0 g; CPM: 21.72 ± 6.90 g) across the food products ( P = 0.28). Overall mean hedonic scores for all recipes were between 7 to 9 points. CPM products were rated higher overall (8.22 ± 0.28) compared to FeZnPM products (7.95 ± 0.35) ( P = 0.01). FeZnPM and CPM were similarly consumed and had high hedonic scores, demonstrating high acceptability in this population. These results support using these varieties of pearl millet in a proposed trial [http://Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02233764; Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI), reference number REF/2014/10/007731, CTRI number CTRI/2015/11/006376] testing the efficacy of FeZnPM for improving iron status and growth.
Abuya, Benta A; Ciera, James; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth
Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother's education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). The study involves 5156 children aged 0-42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Overall, mothers' education persists as a strong predictor of child's nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may contribute to breaking the poverty cycle in urban poor settings.
Full Text Available This paper measures migration flows and determinants in two slum settlements in Nairobi City between 2003 and 2007. The results confirm the high intensity of migration with a quarter of the total slum population and a third of those aged 15-30 being renewed annually. A circular migration system is at play whereby the majority of slum dwellers are short-term migrants spending on average less than 3 years in the area. Migration is more intense during early adulthood (20-24, and despite very similar determinants across gender, mobility is more intense among women compared to men. The increasing feminization of migration is likely to change the face of slum settlements, resulting in more balanced sex ratios, in line with city-wide trends in Nairobi over the past half century. The high population turnover is due to the insecurity of livelihoods, tenure, and poor basic amenities and social services in slum settlements.
Onur Çalışkan; Necla Türkoğlu
In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET) of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use...
The number of horses in Sweden has increased from 70 000 to almost 300 000 in 30 years. Today these horses are to a large extent kept for the purpose of hobby and leisure and create a substantial land use but link a diverse and a large amount of activities in peri-urban areas in Sweden. The sector contributes with new economic, social and physical possibilities, but also with conflicts between various stakeholders and interests. The overall aim of this work was to contribute to increased unde...
Full Text Available Urban air pollution has been increasing due to ever increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, energy usage, traffic density. The purpose of the study is to examine the relation between urban air quality and urban environmental factors in urban regeneration areas. Two common air polluters (SO2 and PM10 are considered in the study. The data are collected for Cigli district, including the level of air pollutants, the local natural gas service lines and planning decisions for the years between 2007 and 2011. According to the examinations, urban environmental factors and planning decisions affect the urban air quality in urban regeneration areas.
Chackleton, C.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Kaoma, M.; Chishaleshale, M.; Shackleton, S.; Gambiza, J.; Gumbo, D.
Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees.
Mishra, Vimal; Ganguly, Auroop R; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis P
Climate extremes have profound implications for urban infrastructure and human society, but studies of observed changes in climate extremes over the global urban areas are few, even though more than half of the global population now resides in urban areas. Here, using observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the number of heat waves during the period 1973–2012, while the frequency of cold waves has declined. Almost half of the urban areas experienced significant increases in the number of extreme hot days, while almost 2/3 showed significant increases in the frequency of extreme hot nights. Extreme windy days declined substantially during the last four decades with statistically significant declines in about 60% in the urban areas. Significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the frequency of daily precipitation extremes and in annual maximum precipitation occurred at smaller fractions (17 and 10% respectively) of the total urban areas, with about half as many urban areas showing statistically significant downtrends as uptrends. Changes in temperature and wind extremes, estimated as the result of a 40 year linear trend, differed for urban and non-urban pairs, while changes in indices of extreme precipitation showed no clear differentiation for urban and selected non-urban stations. (letter)
Full Text Available Introduction: Education plays a vital role to developing a nation. In India, urban slums constituting about 22.6% of the urban population are the poor and socially disadvantaged. This slum community is least concerned for school enrolment of their children inspite of the fact that primary education is compulsory and is free in public schools. In urban areas schools available are mostly of private sector that are not free and beyond affordability to slums; government and corporation schools are few, but beyond reach. Motive of the parents is to involve children in income generating activities and the girls are more deprived of school enrolment in poorer society. Objectives: 1 assess the enrolment status of slum children and 2 determine the factors influencing school enrolment.Methodology: The data was collected during 2011-12 from 15 randomly selected slums out of 227 in which a total of 893 families were contacted and mothers with children aged 5-15 years interrogated. In addition to child history on age, sex and school enrolment, the family background characteristics were e.g. religion, caste, and family size as well as age, education and occupation of both mother & father were recorded.Results: Out of 1145 children, male and female equal represented; mostly (90.9% were Hindus and half were SC/ST class. About 30% father and 57.2% mothers were illiterate; about half fathers were unskilled-worker and 96.0% mother’s house wife. Overall 31.3% children were not enrolled and were decreasing from 49.2% to 24.3% to 21.4% in the age groups 5-6, 7-9 and 10-15 years respectively. Enrolment was poor in Muslims (50.0% compared to Hindus (29.4%; enrolment was similar irrespective of child sex among Hindus, but in Muslims 62.5% male and 35.4% female children were only enrolled. Similar was the situation as one move from SC/ST (67.6% to OBC (73.4% and general caste (77.9%. Education of father and mother had significant role to enrolment but not the age and
Bijaya Nanda Naik
Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity are important addendum to the pool of risk factors for noncommunicable disease (NCD among the elderly. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to find (1 the proportion of overweight and obesity and (2 the distribution of overweight and obesity based on sociodemographic characteristics and four major risk factors for NCDs (smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity among the elderly attending the out-patient department/NCD clinic of a Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC. Materials and Methods: This facility-based descriptive study was conducted among 181 elderly attending one UHTC, in Puducherry during June and July 2015. A pretested interview schedule was used to obtain information on sociodemographic details and history of NCD risk factors after obtaining verbal informed consent. Anthropometric measurements were taken as per standard procedures prescribed by the World Health Organization. Body mass index (BMI was calculated and classified using BMI classification for the Asian population. Results: Among the elderly, 18% were overweight and 51% were obese. The proportion of obesity was more among females than males. Obesity was found to be decreasing with increase in age. Overweight and obesity were found to be significantly inversely related to chronic disease status. Overweight and obesity were proportionately more among elderly who were consuming alcohol and doing less physical activity than prescribes. However, the proportion of overweight/obees elderly with no tobacco use and not having unhealthy diet was found to be more than their counterpart. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are important public health problems in the study population. Hence, interventions should be implemented targeting elderly as well as the adult to decrease the obesity and overweight among the elderly.
Zulu, Eliya M; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex C; Bocquier, Philippe; Madise, Nyovani J; Cleland, John; Falkingham, Jane
The Urbanization, Poverty, and Health Dynamics research program was designed to generate and provide the evidence base that would help governments, development partners, and other stakeholders understand how the urban slum context affects health outcomes in order to stimulate policy and action for uplifting the wellbeing of slum residents. The program was nested into the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, a uniquely rich longitudinal research platform, set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi city, Kenya. Findings provide rich insights on the context in which slum dwellers live and how poverty and migration status interacts with health issues over the life course. Contrary to popular opinions and beliefs that see slums as homogenous residential entities, the findings paint a picture of a highly dynamic and heterogeneous setting. While slum populations are highly mobile, about half of the population comprises relatively well doing long-term dwellers who have lived in slum settlements for over 10 years. The poor health outcomes that slum residents exhibit at all stages of the life course are rooted in three key characteristics of slum settlements: poor environmental conditions and infrastructure; limited access to services due to lack of income to pay for treatment and preventive services; and reliance on poor quality and mostly informal and unregulated health services that are not well suited to meeting the unique realities and health needs of slum dwellers. Consequently, policies and programs aimed at improving the wellbeing of slum dwellers should address comprehensively the underlying structural, economic, behavioral, and service-oriented barriers to good health and productive lives among slum residents.
Full Text Available Updated spatial information on the dynamics of slums can be helpful to measure and evaluate progress of policies. Earlier studies have shown that semi-automatic detection of slums using remote sensing can be challenging considering the large variability in definition and appearance. In this study, we explored the potential of an object-oriented image analysis (OOA method to detect slums, using very high resolution (VHR imagery. This method integrated expert knowledge in the form of a local slum ontology. A set of image-based parameters was identified that was used for differentiating slums from non-slum areas in an OOA environment. The method was implemented on three subsets of the city of Ahmedabad, India. Results show that textural features such as entropy and contrast derived from a grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and the size of image segments are stable parameters for classification of built-up areas and the identification of slums. Relation with classified slum objects, in terms of enclosed by slums and relative border with slums was used to refine classification. The analysis on three different subsets showed final accuracies ranging from 47% to 68%. We conclude that our method produces useful results as it allows including location specific adaptation, whereas generically applicable rulesets for slums are still to be developed.
Mello, Carolina S; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian S; Filho, Humberto B A; Melli, Lígia C F L; Tahan, Soraia; Pignatari, Antônio C C; de Morais, Mauro B
To compare gut microbiota in impoverished children versus children of high socioeconomic status living in the same urban area in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate 100 children living in a slum and 30 children from a private school, ages between 5 and 11 years old, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To characterize the groups, data based on socioeconomic status, sanitation, and housing conditions were collected. Anthropometric measurements and neonatal data were obtained from both groups. Gut microbiota were quantified in fecal samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The children in the private school group had higher rates of cesarean delivery and premature birth than the children in the slum group. Staphylococcus aureus (90% vs 48.0%) and Clostridium difficile (100% vs 43.0%) were more commonly found in the children from the private school than in the impoverished children (P poverty, whereas higher counts of Salmonella spp., C difficile, and C perfringens were observed in the children living in satisfactory housing conditions (P poverty.
Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.
Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…
Jana Dilley; Kathleen L. Wolf
Urban forests are a critical element in sustainable urban areas because of the many environmental, economic, and social benefits that city trees provide. In order to increase canopy cover in urban areas, residential homeowners, who collectively own the majority of the land in most cities, need to engage in planting and retaining trees on their properties. This...
Maria de Fátima P. M. Albuquerque
Full Text Available Neste artigo discutimos a ocorrência da filariose como um problema de saúde pública na cidade do Recife, capital do Estado de Pernambuco, que apresenta ainda hoje, em algumas áreas, níveis de prevalência preocupantes. Procura-se mostrar o papel da evolução urbana da cidade, caracterizada por um crescimento desordenado e pela formação de um número crescente de favelas, na criação de condições propícias para a transmissão desta parasitose. Identificamos categorias de análise, ligadas à organização social do espaço urbano, que devem ser incluídas como "mediadoras" em um modelo compreensivo da transmissão da filariose. Os aglomerados de habitações inadequadas, construídas em favelas superpovoadas, sem saneamento básico e sem sistema de drenagem de águas, propiciam as condições adequadas à proliferação dos mosquitos vetores da infecção e à manutenção da endemia.In this article the filariasis endemic is discussed as a public health problem in the city of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Prevalence figures for this parasitic disease in some urban settings are cause for concern. The urban development process, characterized by disordered growth of cities and an increase in the number of slums, is pointed out as an important factor for the maintenance of conditions favouring disease transmission. Some analytical categories linked to urban social organization are identified and included in a comprehensive filariasis transmission model. Clusters of inadequate houses built in overcrowded slums without basic sanitation or a proper drainage system produce adequate conditions for proliferation of infection vectors and maintenance of the endemic.
Bayou, Yibeltal T; Mashalla, Yohana S; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
There are recent efforts made to eliminate inequalities in the utilisation of basic health care services. More emphasis is given for improvement of health in developing countries including maternal and child health. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal care adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This was a quantitative and cross-sectional community based study design which employed a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique to determine the sample. Data was collected using structured questionnaire administered to 870 women aged 15-49 years. Weighted 'backward selection' logistic regression models were employed to identify predictors of adequacy of antenatal care. Majority of slum residents did not have adequate antenatal care services with only 50.3, 20.2 and 11.0 % of the slum resident women initiated antenatal care early, received adequate antenatal care service contents and had overall adequate antenatal care services respectively. Educational status and place of ANC visits were important determinant factors for adequacy of ANC in the study area. Women with secondary and above educational status were 2.7 times more likely to receive overall adequate care compared to those with no formal education. Similarly, clients of private healthcare facilities were 2.2 times respectively more likely to receive overall adequate antenatal care compared to those clients of public healthcare facilities. In order to improve ANC adequacy in the study area, the policy-making, planning, and implementation processes should address the poor adequacy of ANC among the disadvantaged groups in particular and the slum residents in general.
Duque, J.C.; Patino, J.E.; Betancourt, A.
Slum identification in urban settlements is a crucial step in the process of formulation of pro-poor policies. However, the use of conventional methods for slum detection such as field surveys can be time-consuming and costly. This paper explores the possibility of implementing a low-cost
Urban planners and policy makers face challenges in effective management of slum ... slum characteristics using various remote sensing and artificial intelligence ... an empirically informed agent based prototype that can simulate future patterns ... The study incorporates physical, environmental, social and economic factors ...
Aboderin, Isabella; Kano, Megumi; Owii, Hilda Akinyi
A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers. The analysis builds on the case of two slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya. It analyzes two bodies of relevant evidence from these settlements, namely on the health and social circumstances of older residents, and on the local application and measurement of AFC indicators. The findings point to a set of unsurprising, but also less obvious, core health and social adversities that an age-friendly initiative in such settlements would need to consider. The findings show, further, that the current AFC domains and indicators framework only partly capture these adversities, but that there is potential for adapting the framework to be meaningful for slum settings. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for, and opportunities inherent in, the pursuit of an "age-friendly slums" initiative going forward.
Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Allen, Elizebeth; Sharma, Saket; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay
Disparity in utilization of reproductive healthcare services between the urban poor and the urban non-poor households in the developing nations is well known. However, disparity may also exist within urban poor households. Our objective was to document the extent of disparity in reproductive healthcare utilization among the urban poor and to identify the socio-demographic determinants of underutilization with a view to characterizing this vulnerable subpopulation. A survey of 16,221 households was conducted in 39 clusters from two large urban poor settlements in Delhi. From 13,451 consenting households, socio-demographic data and information on births, maternal and child deaths within the previous year was collected. Details of antenatal care (ANC) was collected from 597 pregnant women. Information on ANC and postnatal care was also obtained from 596 recently delivered (within six months) mothers. All data were captured electronically using a customized and validated smart phone application. Households were categorized into quintiles of socio-economic position (SEP) based on dwelling characteristics and possession of durable assets using principal component analysis. Potential socio-demographic determinants of reproductive healthcare utilization were examined using random effects logistic regression. The prevalence of facility based birthing was 77% (n = 596 mothers). Of the 596 recently delivered mothers only 70% had an ANC registration card, 46.3% had ANC in their first trimester, 46% had visited a facility within 4 weeks post-delivery and 27% were using modern contraceptive methods. Low socio-economic position was the most important predictor of underutilization with a clear gradient across SEP quintiles. Compared to the poorest, the least poor women were more likely to be registered for ANC (OR 1.96, 95%CI 0.95-4.15) and more likely to have made ≥ 4 ANC visits (OR 5.86, 95%CI 2.82-12.19). They were more likely to have given birth in a facility (OR 4
Mehta, Kedar; Pandya, Chandresh; Chavda, Paragkumar; Solanki, Dipak
Health indicators of rural and urban India show a wide variation. Rural areas have received large focus in child health services, but on the flip side, urban areas have been the last to receive such attention. A cross-sectional study was conducted to include one randomly selected outreach session from all the 19 urban primary health centers of Vadodara city from April 2013 to May 2014. Nineteen session sites were observed for the process evaluation of three components of child health care, namely, "planning of Health and Nutrition Day," "availability of vaccines/logistics," and "direct observation of actual immunization process" at the site using a structured checklist. Most of the vaccines and logistics were present at all 19 sites visited, but adverse events following immunization kit were observed at ten sites (52%) only. Open vial policy, no-touch technique, and immediate cutting of syringe with hub cutter were implemented at all sites; however, completely filled Mamta Card was observed at 9 (47%) sites only. All four key messages were given at 5 (26%) sites only. Immunization services such as proper vaccine administration with no-touch technique and open vial policy were mainly focused; however, other services such as biomedical waste management, record keeping, and delivery of all four key messages need to be strengthened during Mamta Divas. Strengthening of other child health care services such as growth monitoring, Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses, and referral services is required in urban areas.
There is currently limited data on urban, multimodal trip generation at the individual site level. This lack of : data limits the ability of transportation agencies to assess development impacts on the transportation system : in urban and multimodal ...
Full Text Available Inclusive development is mean to accommodate the marginalized people, most of whom are the poor with problem of fulfilling their need of housing. The government has tried hard to meet the need of housing by constructing rusunawa. This paper is aimed at describing about the provision and uses of rusunawa, both in cities and peri urban area by studying the cases in the City of Yogyakarta, Sleman Regency, and Bantul Regency. The study was conducted by doing observation and both structured and in-depth interviews. The research results show that rusunawa was viewed as one solutions to help low-income family in fulfilling their need of housing. In some cases in the City of Yogyakarta, rusunawa plays an important role in preventing the settlement along both sides of rivers from becoming slum areas. Rusunawa in both Regencies of Sleman and Bantul are located near the city so it is easy for the settlers to get to their workplace. The construction of rusunawa has also paid attention to the disabled by providing special facilities. The same case is providing playground for children and facilities for early education for young kids. However, there have not been special facilities for the elderly and pregnant women.
K. E. Yttri
Full Text Available Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their spatial and seasonal variations. Aerosol filter samples were collected using tandem filter sampling to correct for the positive sampling artefact introduced by volatile and semivolatile OC. Analyses were performed using the thermal optical transmission (TOT instrument from Sunset Lab Inc., which corrects for charring during analysis. Finally, we estimated the relative contribution of OC from wood burning based on the samples content of levoglucosan.
Levels of EC varied by more than one order of magnitude between sites, likely due to the higher impact of vehicular traffic at the curbside and the urban background sites. In winter, the level of particulate organic carbon (OCp at the suburban site was equal to (for PM10 or even higher (for PM2.5 than the levels observed at the curbside and the urban background sites. This finding was attributed to the impact of residential wood burning at the suburban site in winter, which was confirmed by a high mean concentration of levoglucosan (407 ng m−3. This finding indicates that exposure to primary combustion derived OCp could be equally high in residential areas as in a city center. It is demonstrated that OCp from wood burning (OCwood accounted for almost all OCp at the suburban site in winter, allowing a new estimate of the ratio TCp/levoglucosan for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate carbonaceous material (PCM
Simona Raluca GRĂDINARU
Full Text Available The compact city is regarded as an important concept in promoting sustainable development, especially within the European Union. The socialist urban planning system maintained a high compactness of the urban areas through almost exclusive predominance of the public sector in housing provision, and ideological nature of the planning strategies. After the 1990’s, the administrative decentralization allowed local authorities to adopt particular urban development strategies. However, development was directly influenced by the importance of the urban administrative centre. The aim of the paper is to determine if post-socialist urban areas maintained their compact urban form or they encountered different evolution trajectories. We determined the type of changes by calculating urban form indicators at two time moments: 1990 and 2006. Furthermore, the two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA was used to identify significant changes, and to assess the effect of the development level of the urban area on the variance of form indicators. The results show that Romanian post-socialist urban areas either shifted from the compact form, "inherited" after the collapse of socialism, to more dispersed patterns, either expanded in a compact manner. Moreover, as development level got higher, urban areas were more likely to be affected by suburbanization and periurbanization. In order to respond to these challenges, new instruments such as setting of metropolitan areas or spatial framework plans could be used. Furthermore, planning should be adapted to local circumstances and to the different development trajectories of big and mid-sized urban areas.
Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Garger, E.; Sobotovitch, E.; Matveenko, I.I.
The major contamination processes in the urban environment are wet and dry deposition with the former leading to much greater deposition per unit of time. Typical deposition patterns for radiocesium in urban areas have been identified for these processes and recent in situ measurements have been used to verify these relations and to investigate the urban weathering effect over long periods. The results of a recent series of field trials of decontamination methods in urban or suburban Russian areas are reported, and this experience has been incorporated in an example of formation of strategies for clean-up in an urban contamination scenario
Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta
Malnutrition is a public health concern in Ethiopia. This might be correlated with inappropriate infant and young child feeding practice. This in turn is affected by Mothers' knowledge on feeding practice. However, information on mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation was scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was designed to assess mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation and associated factors in slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1-26/2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected by pretested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Knowledge score was computed. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with maternal knowledge. Only 28.7% of mothers had sufficient knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation. Factors associated with mothers, knowledge were above primary education [AOR 2.5, 95% CI (1.5, 3.9)], possession of radio [AOR 1.7, 95% CI (1.1, 2.7)], attending antenatal care [AOR 2.4, 95% CI (1.5, 4.0)], and having employed husband [AOR 2.3, 95% CI (1.2, 4.4)]. Mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation was very low. Hence, education on infant and young child feeding recommendation should be strengthened during antenatal care visit and using mass media especially for mothers with lower educational status to fill up of this gap.
Schippl, J.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard
The 2011 White Paper on Transport of the European Commission spells out a series of targets for 2030 and 2050. One of the 10 targets is explicitly related to urban transport and stipulates: ''Halve the use of 'conventionally fuelled' cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them out in cities by 2050....... Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.'' With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The ''stakeholder-driven'' roadmap was developed in the FP7...... project TRANSFORuM. The paper will present the key findings and the suggested action steps identified in the roadmap. The paper will also exemplify three possible urban transformation pathways towards the urban target. This approach emerged from stakeholder consultations which highlighted the need to take...
Full Text Available Introduction: Health indicators of rural and urban India show a wide variation. Rural areas have received large focus in child health services, but on the flip side, urban areas have been the last to receive such attention. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to include one randomly selected outreach session from all the 19 urban primary health centers of Vadodara city from April 2013 to May 2014. Nineteen session sites were observed for the process evaluation of three components of child health care, namely, “planning of Health and Nutrition Day,” “availability of vaccines/logistics,” and “direct observation of actual immunization process” at the site using a structured checklist. Results: Most of the vaccines and logistics were present at all 19 sites visited, but adverse events following immunization kit were observed at ten sites (52% only. Open vial policy, no-touch technique, and immediate cutting of syringe with hub cutter were implemented at all sites; however, completely filled Mamta Card was observed at 9 (47% sites only. All four key messages were given at 5 (26% sites only. Conclusion: Immunization services such as proper vaccine administration with no-touch technique and open vial policy were mainly focused; however, other services such as biomedical waste management, record keeping, and delivery of all four key messages need to be strengthened during Mamta Divas. Strengthening of other child health care services such as growth monitoring, Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses, and referral services is required in urban areas.
An innovative learning technique that originated in a slum in India's capital, New Delhi, sets the stage for "Q&A" that is now the Oscar winning movie, "Slumdog Millionaire". In an interview, Dr. Sugata Mitra, the creator of this new educational pedagogy termed Minimally Invasive Education (MIE), explains how it can help…
Mueck, K.; Steger, F.
The reduction of the activity distributed in urban areas in three Austrian cities after a radioactive fall-out, by run-off and wash-off effects from stabilised surfaces and the resulting dose reduction to the population were investigated four years after the Chernobyl fall-out to predict the long term external exposure of the population. The measurements were performed in cities with different fractions of dry and wet deposition after the Chernobyl accident in order to determine whether any differences in radionuclide removal with regard to wet and dry fall-out was observable. High resolution in situ gamma spectroscopy was employed to measure the gamma flux from 137 Cs and 134 Cs at points over stabilised surfaces, which was then compared with undisturbed grass surfaces. The average reduction of the place activity on stabilised surfaces amounted to a factor of 10±5 compared to the original deposition after the fall-out. Asphalt showed the highest reduction factor (11.4), concrete less (8.1), stone slabs and cobblestone only about 4.5 and gravel virtually no reduction (1.1). Only very little variation of this reduction with dry or wet deposition was observed. (author)
Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne
Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bu, L.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Wiegmans, B.; Luo, Z.; Yin, C.
This paper aims to apply a preference method for selecting optimal city distribution reloading locations in urbanized areas. The focus in the optimization is on trucks entering the urbanized area where the truck can choose between at least two locations with similar distances determined by a
Riascos, A. P.
In this work, we explore the spatial structure of built zones and green areas in diverse western cities by analyzing the probability distribution of areas and a coefficient that characterize their respective shapes. From the analysis of diverse datasets describing land lots in urban areas, we found that the distribution of built-up areas and natural zones in cities obey inverse power laws with a similar scaling for the cities explored. On the other hand, by studying the distribution of shapes of lots in urban regions, we are able to detect global differences in the spatial structure of the distribution of land. Our findings introduce information about spatial patterns that emerge in the structure of urban settlements; this knowledge is useful for the understanding of urban growth, to improve existing models of cities, in the context of sustainability, in studies about human mobility in urban areas, among other applications.
Zhang, Xiya; Li, Peijun
Accurate and timely information regarding the extent and spatial distribution of urban areas on regional and global scales is crucially important for both scientific and policy-making communities. Stable nighttime light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) provides a unique proxy of human settlement and activity, which has been used in the mapping and analysis of urban areas and urbanization dynamics. However, blooming and saturation effects of DMSP/OLS NTL data are two unresolved problems in regional urban area mapping and analysis. This study proposed a new urban index termed the Temperature and Vegetation Adjusted NTL Urban Index (TVANUI). It is intended to reduce blooming and saturation effects and to enhance urban features by combining DMSP/OLS NTL data with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Terra satellite. The proposed index was evaluated in two study areas by comparison with established urban indices. The results demonstrated the proposed TVANUI was effective in enhancing the variation of DMSP/OLS light in urban areas and in reducing blooming and saturation effects, showing better performance than three established urban indices. The TVANUI also significantly outperformed the established urban indices in urban area mapping using both the global-fixed threshold and the local-optimal threshold methods. Thus, the proposed TVANUI provides a useful variable for urban area mapping and analysis on regional scale, as well as for urbanization dynamics using time-series DMSP/OLS and related satellite data.
Mariana Rocha David
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate density, parity rates, daily survival and longevity of natural populations of Culex quinquefasciatus in three neighborhoods with distinct socio-economic and infrastructure profiles. METHODS: Mosquito collections of the Culex quinquefasciatus species were performed weekly during two four month periods, from August to November 2008 (spring and March to June 2009 (fall, in a favela (slum, a suburban area and a middle class area of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Collections were performed with backpack aspirators, in 20 randomly selected houses in each area per week, during 15-20 minutes per house. Ovaries were removed from captured females and classified as initial, intermediary or final stage. Furthermore, females were dissected for determination of parity based on the condition of the tracheal system. Mosquito survival rate and longevity were estimated on a per month basis for each neighborhood. RESULTS: We collected a total of 2,062 Culex quinquefasciatus, but monthly vector density was not correlated with temperature and rainfall. We dissected the ovaries of 625 Culex quinquefasciatus, and overall, there was a higher proportion of nulliparous females during the dryer months, while gravid females were more frequent in rainy months. In the middle class neighborhood, the parity rate reached up to 93.75% with survivorship of 0.979. Lower parity and survival rates were obtained in the suburban area (as low as 36.4% parity and 0.711 daily survival. Up to 84.7% of Culex quinquefasciatus females could survive the eight day period needed to complete West Nile Virus incubation. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus varied significantly between the neighborhoods. This suggests that vectorial capacity and disease transmission risk may vary greatly between different urban areas, which is potentially useful information for vector control programs.
Abuya Benta A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother’s education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Methods Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS. The study involves 5156 children aged 0–42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Overall, mothers’ education persists as a strong predictor of child’s nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may
Background Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother’s education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Methods Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). The study involves 5156 children aged 0–42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Overall, mothers’ education persists as a strong predictor of child’s nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may contribute to breaking the
Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie
Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073
Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie
Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments.
Full Text Available Internationally, urban tourism began to develop gradually from the '80s, nowadays being a distinct form of tourism whose importance is increasing. Thus, there were concerns about specific facilities for different categories of visitors and their harmonization with the demands of caring for the smooth functioning of urban settlements. By adding tourism to the local economy inventory activities of an urban area, it can be considered a catalyst and a reviving factor for strengthening urban cities especially because it represents an important source of income and it is responsible for creating thousands of jobs. Given the need to adapt to the demands of tourists, this paper attempts to clarify some issues related to content, characteristics and influencing factors of urban tourism, but also the adoption of policies for exploitation through tourism of the specific elements of urban space and urban tourism prospects.
The prevalence of HIV in the adult population in slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya, is higher than for residents in the city as a whole. This disparity suggests that the characteristics of slum areas may adversely influence the HIV-prevention strategies directed at reducing the national prevalence of HIV. The objective of the study ...
Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.
Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.
Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.
Full Text Available Many international covenants and constitutions have recognized housing and shelter needs as one of many human right aspects. This paper intends to clarify the particular issues relating to paragraph 19 of the United Nations Millennium Declaration, on resolving city slum problems. The Declaration has also embedded initiative to achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers as proposed in the “Cities without Slums” by 2020. In the local perspectives, based on existing regulations analysis, the Special Region (DKI of Jakarta has many problems on forthcoming implementation. Vertical land utilization model by way of storey houses development becomes an alternative to settle the demographic and housing problems. More legal research needs to be conducted to find the best effective national policy in the future. Urban land use, proposed as starting points, will be able to explore how to provide and undertake vertical land utilization and city planning to resolve city slums problems by providing both housing needs and city attractiveness as an integrated planning.
Katteler, H.A.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Brebbia, C.; Wadhwa, L.
This paper discusses a way to drastically cope with speeding in the urban area. Pilots with Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) in Europe applied in passenger cars support the perspective of creating an urban environment with a guaranteed maximum speed level for car drivers. Therefore, the
Franco, George H.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Many of the "small wars" that have occurred in the aftermath of the Cold War fit the profile of insurgent conflicts: they pit a constituted state vs. a counter-state, the counter-state relies on a support structure within the population, and the center-of-mass of these conflicts is political and psychological rather than military in nature. The urbanization boom in many underdeveloped countries has stretched the social services and inf...
Cahya, D. L.; Martini, E.; Kasikoen, K. M.
Urbanization is shown by the increasing percentage of the population in urban areas. In Indonesia, the percentage of urban population increased dramatically form 17.42% (1971) to 42.15% (2010). This resulted in increased demand for housing. Limited land in the city area push residents looking for an alternative location of his residence to the peri-urban areas. It is accompanied by a process of land conversion from green area into built-up area. Continuous land conversion in peri-urban area is becoming increasingly widespread. Bogor Regency as part of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area is experiencing rapid development. This regency has been experienced land-use change very rapidly from agricultural areas into urban built up areas. Aim of this research is to analyze the effect of urbanization on land use changes in peri-urban areas using spatial analysis methods. This research used case study of Ciawi Urban Area that experiencing rapid development. Method of this research is using descriptive quantitative approach. Data used in this research is primary data (field survey) and secondary data (maps). To analyze land use change is using Geographic Information System (GIS) as spatial analysis methods. The effect of urbanization on land use changes in Ciawi Urban Area from year 2013 to 2015 is significant. The reduction of farm land is around -4.00% and wetland is around - 2.51%. The increasing area for hotel/villa/resort is around 3.10%. Based on this research, local government (Bogor Regency) should be alert to the land use changes that does not comply with the land use plan and also consistently apply the spatial planning.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An urbanized area (UA) consists of densely settled territory that contains 50,000 or more people. A UA may contain both place and nonplace territory. The U.S. Census...
Full Text Available Achieving the paradigm of sustainable urban mobility requires institutional capacities, appropriate policies and a regulatory framework that contains them. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the regulation of urban mobility in the metropolitan area of Mendoza. To this end, the current mobility regulations are assessed through indicators that are classified into three key areas: institutional and political organization, urban system and financial setup. The purpose is to account for the existence, or not, of regulatory capacities contained in the paradigm of sustainable mobility. Among the results, the absence of a policy of sustainable urban mobility is noteworthy, as well as the lack of sectorial coordination. Also of note is the absence of coordination between the urban planning system and the public transport provision. Lastly, in the financial sector, the results point to a promotion of sustainable transport modes but without such an explicit purpose.
Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.
The Chernobyl accident in 1986 lead to high level contamination in urban areas in different parts of Europe and showed the importance of preparedness in the optimisation of any mitigatory interference. To meet this demand, a method for development of a decontamination strategy for urban areas has been developed based on measurements of radionuclide distribution in the urban environment after the Chernobyl accident, calculations of dose and experimentally obtained data on effectiveness and cost of practicable clean-up procedures. The approach highlights where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction and cost. (author)
Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof
Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.
In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....
Rauch, W.; Harremoës, P.
Oxygen and ammonia concentration are key parameters of acute water pollution in urban rivers. These two abiotic parameters are statistically assessed for a historical rain series by means of a simplified deterministic model of the integrated drainage system. Continuous simulation of the system...... performance indicates that acute water pollution is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behavior. Detention basins and alternative operational...... modes in the treatment plant under wet weather loading have a limited positive effect for minimizing acute water pollution. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....
Full Text Available Maya Laxmi Patel, Raywat Deonandan Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Background: Urbanization is increasing around the world, and in India, this trend has translated into an increase in the size of slum dwellings whose environments are suspected of being associated with poor health outcomes, particularly those relating to women’s nutritional status. With this study, we sought to determine the factors associated with Indian women’s body mass index (BMI in slum environments, with special attention paid to women with tribal status.Methods: A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on data from the Indian National Family Health Survey (2005–2006, modeling demographic and behavioral factors suspected of being associated with BMI, with additional focus on the measures of social class, specifically caste and tribal status.Results: Increasing BMI is significantly and positively associated with frequency of watching television, having diabetes, age, wealth index, and residency status in the areas of New Delhi, Andhra Pradesh, or Tamil Nadu.Conclusion: Although belonging to a scheduled tribe was not associated with changes in BMI, unadjusted rates suggest that tribal status may be worthy of deeper investigation. Among slum dwellers, there is a double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition. Therefore, a diverse set of interventions may be required to improve the health outcomes of these women. Keywords: slums, India, BMI, women, caste, obesity, poverty
Pataki, D. E.; Cobley, L.; Smith, R. M.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Chritz, K.
A significant difficulty in quantifying urban pollution lies in the extreme spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cities. Dense sources of both point and non-point source pollution as well as the dynamic role of human activities, which vary over very short time scales and small spatial scales, complicate efforts to establish long-term urban monitoring networks that are relevant at neighborhood, municipal, and regional scales. Fortunately, the natural abundance of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements provides a wealth of information about the sources and fate of urban atmospheric pollution. In particular, soils and plant material integrate pollution sources and cycling over space and time, and have the potential to provide long-term records of pollution dynamics that extend back before atmospheric monitoring data are available. Similarly, sampling organic material at high spatial resolution can provide "isoscapes" that shed light on the spatial heterogeneity of pollutants in different urban parcels and neighborhoods, along roads of varying traffic density, and across neighborhoods of varying affluence and sociodemographic composition. We have compiled numerous datasets of the isotopic composition of urban organic matter that illustrate the potential for isotopic monitoring of urban areas as a means of understanding hot spots and hot moments in urban atmospheric biogeochemistry. Findings to date already reveal the critical role of affluence, economic activity, demographic change, and land management practices in influencing urban pollution sources and sinks, and suggest an important role of stable isotope and radioisotope measurements in urban atmospheric and biogeochemical monitoring.
Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera
Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel is responsible for 50,320 annual deaths of children under-five year, accounting for 4.9% of the national burden of disease in Ethiopia. Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of mortality among children in Ethiopia. There is limited research that has examined the association between the use of biomass fuel and acute respiratory infections among children. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during January to February 2012 among 422 households in the slum of Addis Ababa. Data were collected by using structured and pretested questionnaire. Odds ratio was done to determine association between independent variables and acute respiratory infections by using logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the presence of an association between biomass fuel use and acute respiratory infections after controlling for other confounding variables. Nearly 253 (60%) of children live in households that predominately used biomass fuel. The two weeks prevalence of acute respiratory infection was 23.9%. The odds ratios of acute respiratory infection were 2.97 (95% CI: 1.38-3.87) and 1.96 (95% CI: 0.78-4.89) in households using biomass fuel and kerosene, respectively, relative to cleaner fuels. There is an association between biomass fuel usage and acute respiratory infection in children. The relationship needs investigation which measure indoor air pollution and clinical measures of acute respiratory infection.
The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed [it
Santi; Bachrun, Ratna; Ornam, Kurniati
Handling slum area actually needs to be done not only in slum areas that are part of a metropolitan city or a large town, but it also need to be conducted in the slum areas in the middle city, small town, and coastal areas. A slum generally includes physical condition, socio-economic conditions of cultural communities who live in the settlements, and the impact of both of these conditions. Environmental coastal settlements in Konawe located in the riverside that lead to loss of quality due to environmental stress of the condition of settlement that are not habitable, can be seen from the problems that exist, namely the existence of housing that goes into river body which causes malfunction of watershed river (DAS), and that is prone to flooding. The purpose of this study is to identify slums in coastal settlements in an effort to improve the quality of structured settlements to obtain a picture of the slum in Konawe, to know the problems regarding the existence of slums and future recommendation of the slum settlement in Konawe. Normative analysis was carried out in this research together with quantitative and qualitative description, as well as methods of spatial analysis (spatial). Identification of slum areas was analyzed based on indicators and parameters issued by the Directorate General of Human Settlements. Problems in some districts in Konawe located in the coastal rivers and coastal areas, consist of drainage, disposal of waste water, waste, and the settlement which is not in accordance with the Spatial Konawe. Among those, there are settlements categorized as slums and some are recommended for refurbishment.
Turley, Ruth; Saith, Ruhi; Bhan, Nandita; Rehfuess, Eva; Carter, Ben
Slums are densely populated, neglected parts of cities where housing and living conditions are exceptionally poor. In situ slum upgrading, at its basic level, involves improving the physical environment of the existing area, such as improving and installing basic infrastructure like water, sanitation, solid waste collection, electricity, storm water drainage, access roads and footpaths, and street lighting, as well as home improvements and securing land tenure. To explore the effects of slum upgrading strategies involving physical environment and infrastructure interventions on the health, quality of life and socio-economic wellbeing of urban slum dwellers in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Where reported, data were collected on the perspectives of slum dwellers regarding their needs, preferences for and satisfaction with interventions received. We searched for published and unpublished studies in 28 bibliographic databases including multidisciplinary (for example Scopus) and specialist databases covering health, social science, urban planning, environment and LMIC topics. Snowballing techniques included searching websites, journal handsearching, contacting authors and reference list checking. Searches were not restricted by language or publication date. We included studies examining the impact of slum upgrading strategies involving physical environment or infrastructure improvements (with or without additional co-interventions) on the health, quality of life and socio-economic wellbeing of LMIC urban slum dwellers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) were eligible for the main analysis. Controlled studies with only post-intervention data (CPI) and uncontrolled before and after (UBA) studies were included in a separate narrative to examine consistency of results and to supplement evidence gaps in the main analysis. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to estimate unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years in urban slums of Lucknow and to determine the various factors that influence the unmet need. METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was conducted in slums of Lucknow City from February 2014 to September 2014. A total 452 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total unmet need for family planning was 69.0%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed socioeconomic status upper lower and below (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.1; p = 0.00; duration of marriage less than 1 year (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.01; less number of live issues (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5; p = 0.00; working status of women (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.03; social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p = 0.02 were found to be independent predictors of unmet need of family planning. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that unmet need for family planning was quite high among women belonging to social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST, with low socioeconomic status, duration of marriage less than one year less number of live issues and working status of the women.
Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.
In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927
Full Text Available In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites, a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.
Arellano, Blanca; Roca, Josep
The separation between the countryside and the city, from rural and urban areas, has been one of the central themes of the literature on urban and territorial studies. The seminal work of Kingsley Davis  in the 1950s introduced a wide and fruitful debate which, however, has not yet concluded in a rigorous definition that allows for comparative studies at the national and subnational levels of a scientific nature. In particular, the United Nations (UN) definition of urban and rural population is overly linked to political and administrative factors that make it difficult to use data adequately to understand the human settlement structure of different countries. The present paper seeks to define a more rigorous methodology for the identification of rural and urban areas. For this purpose it uses the night lights supplied by the SNPP satellite, and more specifically by the VIIRS sensor for the determination of the urbanization gradient, and by means of the same construct a more realistic indicator than the statistics provided by the UN. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and most meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, this paper proposes a new methodology designed to identify highly impacted (urbanized) landscapes worldwide based on the analysis of satellite imagery of night-time lights. The application of this methodology on a global scale identifies the land highly impacted by light, the urbanization process, and allows an index to be drawn up of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The methodology used in this paper can be summarized in the following steps: a) a logistic regression between US Urban Areas (UA), as a dependent variable, and night-time light intensity, as an explanatory variable, allows us to establish a nightlight intensity level for the determination of Areas Highly Impacted by Light (AHIL); b) the delimitation of
Radiation doses received by the population of a contaminated urban area have been estimated. Possible dose reduction measures and their cost-effectiveness are investigated. Potentially important parameters influencing the doses have also been studied. They include distribution of contamination following both wet and dry deposition, run-off, weathering, shielding, resuspension, indoor deposition, the relative airborne concentrations indoors and outdors, and forced decontamination. It is shown that contamination of the green areas in an urban complex is generally a major contributor to dose. A study of the cost-effectiveness of different clean-up procedures indicates that decontamination of green areas and streets are relatively cost-effective and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Following a contamination due to a reactor accident, the dose rate to an individual will generally be less in an urban area than in a rural environment. (author) 89 refs
Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.
It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.
It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved
Garcia Y Garma, I O
Data from 6 fertility surveys conducted in Mexico between 1969-87 were used to compare rural and urban fertility and to determine whether a significant level of contraceptive usage could be achieved in rural areas despite their lack of socioeconomic development. Age-specific marital fertility rates were calculated for the 4 national-level and 2 rural fertility surveys. The index of fertility control developed by Coale and Trussel was calculated for rural, urban, and all areas. The marital total fertility rate in rural areas declined from 10.6 in 1970 to 7.4 in 1982, a decline of 2.5% annually. From 1982-87 the annual rate of decline in rural fertility slowed to 1.6%, reaching 6.8 children in 1987. The urban marital total fertility rate declined from 7.72 in 1976 to 5.03 in 1987, while the marital total fertility rate for Mexico as a whole declined from 9.04 in 1976 to 5.85 in 1987. The indices of fertility control showed slowly increasing use of contraception in rural areas starting from the very low level of 1969. The urban index of fertility control showed some contraceptive use for all age groups in all surveys. The increases in contraceptive usage were considerable in rural areas from 1976-82 and much less marked in urban areas. From 1982-87 the inverse was observed and the fertility decline in urban areas was more marked. The condition of natural fertility found in rural areas in 1969 subsequently disappeared. Over time, fertility decline and use of contraception have intensified. Contraception is widely practiced in urban areas and is continuing to become more prevalent. The rural fertility decline in 1976-82 suggests that at least sometimes increases in fertility control are more important in rural areas than in urban areas. The theory of modernization, which holds that fertility decline in developed countries is attributable to factors associated with the process of modernization, thus comes into question. However, it is probable that a sustained fertility
Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld
A cost effective vertical pointing X-band weather radar (VPR) has been tested for measurement of precipitation in urban areas. Stationary tests indicate that the VPR performs well compared to horizontal weather radars, such as the local area weather radars (LAWR). The test illustrated...
Paul H. Gobster; Kristin Floress; Lynne M. Westphal; Cristy A. Watkins; Joanne Vining; Alaka Wali
Public support is important to the success of natural areas restoration programs. Support can be especially critical in urban settings where stakeholders recreate in or reside near natural areas but may lack familiarity with practices for managing ecological processes. Surveys of on-site recreationists and nearby residents (N= 888) of 11 Chicago metropolitan natural...
van Dijk, T.K.
Tara van Dijk leverages concepts from subaltern urbanism, namely political society and occupancy urbanism, to look at how residence and locality development are constituted and governed in practice across three types of settlements in two 'satellite' cities of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region:
Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Geisler, Gisela; Nangulah, Selma; Nygaard, Knut; Pomuti, Akiser; Shifotoka, Albertina; Van Rooy, Gert
The urbanisation of poverty is one of the most dramatic developments on the African continent, yielding contrasting images of affluent residential and business districts and utter misery in sprawling shantytowns or slums. Namibia has one of Africa’s highest urban growth rates, taking thousands of women, men and children to towns in search of a better life. The large majority of these end up in poverty-stricken informal settlements in urban areas. The current service delivery approach of the g...
Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo
Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.
Churkina, G.; Brown, D.; Keoleian, G.
It is widely accepted that human settlements occupy a small proportion of the landmass and therefore play a relatively small role in the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. Most modeling studies focusing on the land carbon cycle use models of varying complexity to estimate carbon fluxes through forests, grasses, and croplands, but completely omit urban areas from their scope. Here, we estimate carbon storage in urban areas within the United States, defined to encompass a range of observed settlement densities, and its changes from 1950 to 2000. We show that this storage is not negligible and has been continuously increasing. We include natural- and human-related components of urban areas in our estimates. The natural component includes carbon storage in urban soil and vegetation. The human related component encompasses carbon stored long term in buildings, furniture, cars, and waste. The study suggests that urban areas should receive continued attention in efforts to accurately account for carbon uptake and storage in terrestrial systems.
Carvalho da Costa, B.L. de; Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de
Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)
Steven van de Vijver
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by
van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs.
NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — URBAN_AREAS_TIGER00_IN contains major urban areas in Indiana identified by the US Bureau of the Census. Data is from U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau,...
Jakovljevic, I.; Pehnec, G.; Vadjic, V.; Marovic, G.; Suric Mihic, M.; Sencar, J.; Godec, R.; Davila, S.
Pollution of the environment is characterized, among others, by ionizing radiation burden and air pollution. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is operational quantity for area monitoring due to ionizing radiation exposure. One of air pollution sources is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the most commonly measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is used as an indicator of carcinogenic hazard in polluted environments. PAHs are widely distributed in the atmosphere and were among the first pollutants identified as potential carcinogens. PAHs are products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. More than 500 PAHs have so far been identified in the air. Sampling of airborne particles PM10 was carried out in a mountain area in Gorski Kotar, Croatia during 60 days in the winter and 60 days in the summer period of the year. During the sampling of airborne particles, the ambient dose equivalent rate was also measured using an electronic dosemeter ALARA device. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was used for BaP analysis. BaP concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. During winter, the average BaP concentrations were significantly higher (5.46 ng/m3) than in the summer (0.06 ng/m3). Ambient dose equivalent rate in winter period was a little higher than in summer. Ambient dose equivalent was calculated on a yearly base. Yearly ambient dose equivalent was 860 micro Sv which is slightly lower than the average value for Croatia (890 micro Sv). (author).
Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D
The layout of an urban area can impact air pollution via changes in emissions and their spatial distribution. Here, we explore relationships between air quality and urban form based on cross-sectional observations for 111 U.S. urban areas. We employ stepwise linear regression to quantify how long-term population-weighted outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), and other criteria pollutants measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency depend on urban form, climate, transportation, city size, income, and region. Aspects of urban form evaluated here include city shape, road density, jobs-housing imbalance, population density, and population centrality. We find that population density is associated with higher population-weighted PM(2.5) concentrations (p urban form variables are associated with 4%-12% changes in population-weighted concentrations-amounts comparable, for example, to changes in climatic factors. Our empirical findings are consistent with prior modeling research and suggest that urban form could potentially play a modest but important role in achieving (or not achieving) long-term air quality goals.
Dasappa, Hemavathi; Fathima, Farah Naaz; Prabhakar, Rugmani
Trial Design: Nonrandomized controlled trial. Methods: Nonrandomized controlled trial. This was an interventional study that was conducted in 4 slums of Bengaluru. Of the 256 diabetes participants, only 109 people agreed to participate in the program. Of 109 people, 52 people agreed to participate in the intervention (agreed to learn and practice Yoga) while the remaining 57 people were assigned to nonintervention group. Randomization and blinding could not be done. Objective and Outcome: The study was conducted with objective of assessing the effectiveness of Yoga, Pranayama, and Sudarshan Kriya in the community-based management of diabetes mellitus. The primary outcome variable was Hb1Ac and secondary outcome variables were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), adherence to medication, and changes in lifestyle. Results: The study was conducted for 40 days. Community health workers made a total of 6 visits during the study. All the 109 participants were available for weekly follow-up. There were no drop outs among the study population. Statistically significant change was seen in the consumption of vegetable (χ2 = 15.326, P < 0.005), fruits (χ2 = 16.207, P < 0.005), salty food (χ2 = 14.823, P < 0.005), bakery food (χ2 = 10.429, P < 0.005) and fried food (χ2 = 15.470, P < 0.005), adherence to metformin (χ2 = 41.780, P < 0.005) and other medication(χ2 = 21.871, P < 0.005) and proportion of patients with DBP under control (χ2 = 9.396, P < 0.005) and proportion of people with glucose random blood sugar under control (χ2 = 29.693, P < 0.005) between the two groups following the intervention. Statistically significant change was also seen in the proportion of people with SBP/DBP ≤140/90 (χ2 = 10.635, P < 0.005) between the two groups. Conclusion: The Yoga program was successful in improving dietary practices and medication adherence and in increasing the proportion of diabetics and hypertensive patients under control. PMID:28217594
Zulu Eliya M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV counseling and testing (HCT is widely considered an integral component of HIV prevention and treatment strategies, few studies have examined HCT behavior among youth in sub-Saharan Africa-a group at substantial risk for HIV infection. In this paper we examine: the correlates of HIV testing, including whether associations differ based on the context under which a person gets tested; and the motivations for getting (or not getting an HIV test. Methods Drawing on data collected in 2007 from 4028 (51% male youth (12-22 years living in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi (Kenya, we explored the correlates of and motivations for HIV testing using the Health Belief Model (HBM as a theoretical framework. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were employed to examine correlates of HIV testing. Bivariate analyses were employed to assess reasons for or against testing. Results Nineteen percent of males and 35% of females had been tested. Among tested youth, 74% of males and 43% of females had requested for their most recent HIV test while 7% of males and 32% of females reported that they were required to take their most recent HIV test (i.e., the test was mandatory. About 60% of females who had ever had sex received an HIV test because they were pregnant. We found modest support for the HBM in explaining variation in testing behavior. In particular, we found that perceived risk for HIV infection may drive HIV testing among youth. For example, about half of youth who had ever had sex but had never been tested reported that they had not been tested because they were not at risk. Conclusions Targeted interventions to help young people correctly assess their level of risk and to increase awareness of the potential value of HIV testing may help enhance uptake of testing services. Given the relative success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT services in increasing HIV testing rates
Kabiru, Caroline W; Beguy, Donatien; Crichton, Joanna; Zulu, Eliya M
Although HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is widely considered an integral component of HIV prevention and treatment strategies, few studies have examined HCT behavior among youth in sub-Saharan Africa-a group at substantial risk for HIV infection. In this paper we examine: the correlates of HIV testing, including whether associations differ based on the context under which a person gets tested; and the motivations for getting (or not getting) an HIV test. Drawing on data collected in 2007 from 4028 (51% male) youth (12-22 years) living in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi (Kenya), we explored the correlates of and motivations for HIV testing using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were employed to examine correlates of HIV testing. Bivariate analyses were employed to assess reasons for or against testing. Nineteen percent of males and 35% of females had been tested. Among tested youth, 74% of males and 43% of females had requested for their most recent HIV test while 7% of males and 32% of females reported that they were required to take their most recent HIV test (i.e., the test was mandatory). About 60% of females who had ever had sex received an HIV test because they were pregnant. We found modest support for the HBM in explaining variation in testing behavior. In particular, we found that perceived risk for HIV infection may drive HIV testing among youth. For example, about half of youth who had ever had sex but had never been tested reported that they had not been tested because they were not at risk. Targeted interventions to help young people correctly assess their level of risk and to increase awareness of the potential value of HIV testing may help enhance uptake of testing services. Given the relative success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) services in increasing HIV testing rates among females, routine provider-initiated testing and
Full Text Available Trial Design: Nonrandomized controlled trial. Methods: Nonrandomized controlled trial. This was an interventional study that was conducted in 4 slums of Bengaluru . Of the 256 diabetes participants, only 109 people agreed to participate in the program. Of 109 people, 52 people agreed to participate in the intervention (agreed to learn and practice Yoga while the remaining 57 people were assigned to nonintervention group. Randomization and blinding could not be done. Objective and Outcome: The study was conducted with objective of assessing the effectiveness of Yoga, Pranayama, and Sudarshan Kriya in the community-based management of diabetes mellitus. The primary outcome variable was Hb1Ac and secondary outcome variables were systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, adherence to medication, and changes in lifestyle. Results: The study was conducted for 40 days. Community health workers made a total of 6 visits during the study. All the 109 participants were available for weekly follow-up. There were no drop outs among the study population. Statistically significant change was seen in the consumption of vegetable (c2 = 15.326, P < 0.005, fruits (c2 = 16.207, P < 0.005, salty food (c2 = 14.823, P < 0.005, bakery food (c2 = 10.429, P < 0.005 and fried food (c2 = 15.470, P < 0.005, adherence to metformin (c2 = 41.780, P < 0.005 and other medication(c2 = 21.871, P < 0.005 and proportion of patients with DBP under control (c2 = 9.396, P < 0.005 and proportion of people with glucose random blood sugar under control (c2 = 29.693, P < 0.005 between the two groups following the intervention. Statistically significant change was also seen in the proportion of people with SBP/DBP ≤140/90 (c2 = 10.635, P < 0.005 between the two groups. Conclusion: The Yoga program was successful in improving dietary practices and medication adherence and in increasing the proportion of diabetics and hypertensive patients under control.
Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter
Geophysical mapping in urban areas. Detailed 3D geological model of the area. Mapping contaminant plume......Geophysical mapping in urban areas. Detailed 3D geological model of the area. Mapping contaminant plume...
Yeprintsev, S. A.; Klevtsova, M. A.; Lepeshkina, L. A.; Shekoyan, S. V.; Voronin, A. A.
This research looks at the results of a study of spatial ecological zoning of urban territories using the NDVI-analysis of actual multi-channel satellite images from Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 in the Voronezh region for the period 2001 to 2016. The results obtained in the course of interpretation of space images and processing of statistical information compiled in the GIS environment “Ecology of cities Voronezh region” on the basis of which carried out a comprehensive ecological zoning of the studied urbanized areas. The obtained data on the spatial classification of urban and suburban areas, the peculiarities of the dynamics of weakly and strongly anthropogenically territories, hydrological features and vegetation.
Hahs, Amy K; McDonnell, Mark J; McCarthy, Michael A; Vesk, Peter A; Corlett, Richard T; Norton, Briony A; Clemants, Steven E; Duncan, Richard P; Thompson, Ken; Schwartz, Mark W; Williams, Nicholas S G
Plant extinctions from urban areas are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide. To minimize this threat, it is critical to understand what factors are influencing plant extinction rates. We compiled plant extinction rate data for 22 cities around the world. Two-thirds of the variation in plant extinction rates was explained by a combination of the city's historical development and the current proportion of native vegetation, with the former explaining the greatest variability. As a single variable, the amount of native vegetation remaining also influenced extinction rates, particularly in cities > 200 years old. Our study demonstrates that the legacies of landscape transformations by agrarian and urban development last for hundreds of years, and modern cities potentially carry a large extinction debt. This finding highlights the importance of preserving native vegetation in urban areas and the need for mitigation to minimize potential plant extinctions in the future.
Full Text Available Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Service quality can be approached from four directions: consumer, vehicle performance (including the human operator, specialized company in passenger transport, and the Government (local Councils. Availability, comfort and convenience are the two main indicators that must be evaluated by citizens as being with high grades for a good quality of urban transport services. The instrument used to gather data is the preference survey.
Houet, Thomas, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [GEODE UMR 5602 CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 5 allee Antonio Machado, 31058 Toulouse Cedex (France); Pigeon, Gregoire [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, 42 avenue Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex (France)
Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone-UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. - Highlights: > We proposed a method to map Urban Climate Zones and quantify their climate behaviors. > UCZ is an expert-based classification and is integrated in the WMO guidelines. > We classified 26 sample areas and quantified climate behaviors in winter/summer. > Results enhance urban heat islands and outskirts are surprisingly hottest in summer. > Influence of scale and climate data on UCZ mapping and climate evaluation is discussed. - This paper presents an automated approach to classify sample areas in a UCZ using landscape descriptors and demonstrate that climate behaviors of UCZ differ.
Jokhio, M.H.; Abro, M.I.; Essani, A.
The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)
... more than a century of defining urban areas, the Census Bureau has introduced conceptual and... patterns and with changes in theoretical and practical approaches to interpreting and understanding the... based on ground-truth samples, more current imagery, and/or projection models, and locally produced...
Maria Avany Bezerra Gusmão
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p117 Perception of termites in urban areas of semiarid Brazil. Termites are present in the daily life of most people, although they usually evoke a sense of strong dislike, especially in populations of urban areas. This study sought to analyze the perception of these insects in human populations in urban areas in the towns of Fagundes (A1 and Pocinhos (A2, in Paraíba state, Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were answered by 100 residents in these two areas, following both synchronic and diachronic situations. In spite of the fact that most of the interviewees (64% in A1 and 72% in A2 were able to identify termites by morphology and had knowledge of use for treating eight types of human diseases, very few understood their ecological roles in nature. Attempts to eliminate termites from human environments were linked to the popular belief that these animals are sources of bad luck. Twenty-two percent of the interviewees in A1 and 8% in A2 believe that termites are capable of doing damage or harm, of having a foul smell, and/or of containing pus.In this sense, academic studies are important because they can inform people of the ecological roles of termites in natural and urban environments, while demystifying the termite as an agent of fear and destruction.
The state of the art of parking management in urban areas in the United States was established using an extensive review of the literature and a nationwide questionnaire survey that was distributed to 458 city officials, 173 of whom responded. Based ...
R.S. Zalesny Jr.; Jill Zalesny
Urban areas requiring remedial work has prompted the use of phytotechnologies to improve water quality, soil health, and biodiversity, as well as to achieve sustainable social and economic goals. Phytotechnologies directly use plants to clean up contaminated groundwater, soil, and sediment.
Haldrup, Karin; Snällfot, David
The “urban transition” agenda is as a conglomerate of ambitions derived from international policy documents and as applied in the Oresund area. Encompassing locally set goals for (i) climate change mitigation; (ii) energy efficiency; and (iii) human wellbeing in the built environment. Its...
T. Elmqvist; H. Setala; S.N. Handel; S. van der Ploeg; J. Aronson; J.N. Blignaut; E. Gomez-Baggethun; D.J. Nowak; J. Kronenberg; R. de Groot
Cities are a key nexus of the relationship between people and nature and are huge centers of demand for ecosystem services and also generate extremely large environmental impacts. Current projections of rapid expansion of urban areas present fundamental challenges and also opportunities to design more livable, healthy and resilient cities (e.g. adaptation to climate...
Changnon, S A [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)
Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the USA's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multidisciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioural implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally.
Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the USA's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multidisciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioural implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally
This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…
Rodrigo da Costa Carneiro
Full Text Available We present two cases of juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic mycosis frequently found in rural areas, whose prognosis is poor in children and young adults. They are a 14-year-old boy and a 25-year-old woman, both residents in an urban area in São Paulo - Brazil, without any history of travelling to an endemic area. They have been admitted to the hospital due to fever, weight loss and lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis was confirmed by serologic and histopathologic study. Patients have recovered after therapy with oral itraconazole and were discharged from hospital, maintaining outpatient visits. In this article, the authors discuss the unusual presentation of PCM in an urban area.
Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Aunsborg, Christian
The paper focuses formal as well as informal public-private partnerships (PPP) in Danish urban regeneration areas. The concept ‘urban regeneration areas’ was introduced in the 2003 Planning Act as old, remaining industrial areas within the city boundaries by now were recognized as an ressource...... into housing while neighbouring noisy industries go on. Beyond this, from a municipal point of view there are several public interests to manage when old, remaining industrial areas face re-development. The motive of the municipal council can either be regulative (safeguarding certain financial or other public....../neighbour interests, e.g. exceeding what is directly permitted by written law) or supporting (encourage developers to re-develop an area, e.g. by subsidies). The purpose of the paper is to describe the range of possible partnerships between public and private partners, and to investigate their legal background...
Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.
The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The
Marcotegui , Beatriz; Serna , Andrés; Hernández , Jorge
International audience; This paper explores the use of ultimate opening in urban analysis context. It demonstrates the efficiency of this approach for street level elevation images, derived from 3D point clouds acquired by terrestrial mobile mapping systems. An area-stability term is introduced in the residual definition, reducing the over-segmentation of the vegetation while preserving small significant regions. We compare two possible combinations of the Ultimate Opening and the Area Stabil...
ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU
Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an administrative model for green spaces in any geographical area, especially in urban areas. The organizational proposed model also concerns the possibilities to develop new areas with green spaces for both recreation and leisure. Current structures leave much to be desired and, unfortunately, they do not seek to manage the green spaces on types of activities and these activities are not integrated into a unit structure to ensure coordination of operations for maintenance and expansion of these spaces. In the study, for the administrative plan are proposed those necessary changes to create organizational structures needed to implement a coherent strategy and policy to support the development of green space. Given the necessity of an integrated management for urban space, the model proposes solutions to eliminate functional overlaps of the various decision-making bodies by creating a unit of action, together with arrangements for its effective support. Developing effective solutions to managing green spaces for recreation and leisure becomes an obligation for the next period under conditions of increasing green areas arranged as parks and other types of green spaces and hence an increase for the cost of their administration. On the other hand, the paper addresses the issue of integrated management for both, green areas and recreational and leisure facilities existing within the urban areas, by giving more importance and impact for these spaces within communities. In this framework of integrated administration, it is possible to ensure modern leisure amenities in these urban green areas, and on the other hand it is possible to provide a very important prospect of additional revenues for the general budget of the community and also for future budget of planning for new green areas.
Park, C.; Cho, M.; Lee, D.
Landslide vulnerability assessment methodology of urban area is proposed with urban structure and building charateristics which can consider total damage cost of climate impacts. We used probabilistic analysis method for modeling rainfall-induced shallow landslide susceptibility by slope stability analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. And We combined debris flows with considering spatial movements under topographical condition and built environmental condition. Urban vulnerability of landslide is assessed by two categories: physical demages and urban structure aspect. Physical vulnerability is related to buildings, road, other ubran infra. Urban structure vulnerability is considered a function of the socio-economic factors, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. The analysis was performed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment because GIS can deal efficiently with a large volume of spatial data. The results of the landslide susceptibility assessment were compared with the landslide inventory, and the proposed approach demonstrated good predictive performance. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.
Mohd. Haroon Khan
Full Text Available Background: The newborn health challenge faced by India is more formidable than that experienced by any other country in the world. The current neonatal mortality rate (NMR of 44 per 1,000 live births, accounts for nearly two-thirds of all infant mortality and translates into at least two newborn deaths every minute. Methods: The present community based study was conducted in the field practice area of the Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC, Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Purposive sampling i.e. nonrandom sampling to include subjects that serve the specific purpose was used. Two hundred pregnant women were chosen for the study. The study was carried out from one year. Data were analyzed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, and Chi Square Test used. Objective was to study the knowledge and practices related to newborn care among slum dwellers in Aligarh, UP. Results: Majority of pregnant women (75% had more than one live issue. Majority of pregnant women 91.5% delivered at home by untrained dais. Unhygienic delivery practices were common. There were low level of breastfeeding practices, practices to prevent hypothermia and knowledge of danger signs in newborns requiring medical consultation, among pregnant women in periurban area of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh India. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was a poor newborn care practices among slum dwellers in Aligarh.
Affonseca, M.S. de.
The urbanization effects and their possible causes on the environmental gamma radiation levels, in an anomalous area, were studied. The field work was accomplished in Guarapari, located in the seacoast of the Brazilian state of Espirito Santo, which is rich in monazite sands, with thorium and uranium contents. The results show clearly that there was a reduction in the levels of external exposition in the streets and squares of Guarapari. It was ascertained that the reduction was due to the materials used in the urbanization. (L.C.J.A.)
Slamet, B.; Agustiarni, Y.; Hidayati; Basyuni, M.
Urban forest has many functions mainly on improving the quality of the urban environment. One of the functions is to increase pH and reduce dangerous chemical content. The aim of the research is to find out the role of vegetation density of urban forest around the industrial area in reducing the acid rain. The condition of land cover was classified into four classes which are dense, medium, sparse and open area. The water of the throughfall and stemflow was taken from each type of land cover except in the open area. Parameters measured in this study are water acidity (pH), anion content (SO4 2- and NO3 -), cation content (Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4 +) and electrical conductivity (EC). The results indicated that urban forest vegetation was able to increase the pH of rain water from 5.42 which is in an open area without vegetation to be 7.13 and 7.32 in dense and moderate vegetation cover by throughfall mechanism, respectively. Rain water acidity also decreased through stemflow mechanism with a pH ranged from 5.92 - 6.43. Urban forest vegetation decreased sulfate content (SO42-) from 528.67 mg/l in open area to 44 - 118 mg/l by throughfall mechanism and ranged from 90 to 366.67 mg/l through stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation significantly decreased the rainwater nitrate content from 27 mg/l to 0.03 - 0.70 mg/l through the mechanism of throughfall and between 1.53 - 8.82 mg/l through the stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation also increased the concentration of cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) compared with open areas. Urban forest vegetation showed increased the electrical conductivity (EC) from 208.12 μmhos/cm to 344.67 - 902.17 μmhos/cm through the through fall mechanism and 937.67 - 1058.70 μmhos/cm through the stemflow mechanism. The study suggested that urban forests play a significant role in reducing rainwater acidity and improving the quality of rainwater that reached the soil surface.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010, Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007, Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008, Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008 or Sahn and Stifel (2002 are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data
Eui Hoon Lee
Full Text Available Imperviousness has increased due to urbanization, as has the frequency of extreme rainfall events by climate change. Various countermeasures, such as structural and nonstructural measures, are required to prepare for these effects. Flood forecasting is a representative nonstructural measure. Flood forecasting techniques have been developed for the prevention of repetitive flood damage in urban areas. It is difficult to apply some flood forecasting techniques using training processes because training needs to be applied at every usage. The other flood forecasting techniques that use rainfall data predicted by radar are not appropriate for small areas, such as single drainage basins. In this study, a new flood forecasting technique is suggested to reduce flood damage in urban areas. The flood nomograph consists of the first flooding nodes in rainfall runoff simulations with synthetic rainfall data at each duration. When selecting the first flooding node, the initial amount of synthetic rainfall is 1 mm, which increases in 1 mm increments until flooding occurs. The advantage of this flood forecasting technique is its simple application using real-time rainfall data. This technique can be used to prepare a preemptive response in the process of urban flood management.
Carrasco, Brisa; Cadena, Edel; Campos, Juan; Hinojosa, Raquel
The urban sprawl of metropolitan areas involves complex processes of coexistence between urban and rural dynamics, the functional redefining of central urban areas and rural areas or urban-rural surrounding transition generates land conflicts. In this paper the context of Mexico City megalopolis and its expansion process, will be discussed in the new specialization of the central city to tertiary services and increasing the value of land, it has resulted in the expulsion of the industry and s...
Gaston Tong Sang
Full Text Available Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas.
should include geo-physical characterization of soil and drainage of pit latrine sites so as ... Key words: Faecal, sludge accumulation rates, slum areas, lined pit latrines. .... Value and its unit Source .... overall quality of the models had to be assessed by validation on ..... Sanitation partnership series: Bringing pit emptying out.
The problem that guided this study was that child mortality and morbidity disparities continue to be observed in the era of improved expansion of the provision of health care services. Some areas have low mortality and morbidity while others such as the slums of Nairobi have high. Various factors may account for this ...
Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Patterson, Lesley; Scharlach, Martina; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Verma, Arpana
As part of the EU-funded project, European Urban Health Indicator System (EURO-URHIS), a definition of urban areas (UAs) and of urban populations was needed to be able to identify comparable UAs in all member states. A literature review on existing definitions, as well as those used by other relevant projects, was performed. A survey of national experts in public health or land planning was also conducted. An algorithm was proposed to find UAs, which were feasible for the focus of EURO-URHIS. No unique general definition of UAs was found. Different fields of research define UAs differently. None of the definitions found were feasible for EURO-URHIS. All of them were found to have critical disadvantages when applied to an urban health project. An ideal definition for this type of project needs to provide a description of the situation without recourse to administrative boundaries yet inform the collection of routine data for urban health monitoring. These requirements were found to contradict each other and were not met in any existing definition. An algorithm was developed for the definition of UAs for the purpose of this study whereby national experts would select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health; identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin (e.g. by aerial photos); identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible and list all administrative areas which are contained in the larger UA. The aggregation of all administrative areas within the original region formed the UA which was used in the project. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Frunzulica, Florin; Cismilianu, Alexandru; Boros, Alexandru; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan
In this paper we aim at developing the model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with the short-term goal of physically realising this turbine to operate at a maximmum power of 5 kW. The turbine is designed for household users in the urban or rural areas and remote or isolated residential areas (hardly accsessible). The proposed model has a biplane configuration on each arm of the VAWT (3 × 2 = 6 blades), allowing for increased performance of the turbine at TSR between 2 and 2.5 (urban area operation) compared to the classic vertical axis turbines. Results that validate the proposed configuration as well as passive control methods to increase the performance of the classic VAWTs are presented.
Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia
Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education. PMID:29430018
Shepherd, J. Marshall; Pierce, Harold F.; Negri, Andrew
Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) were employed to identify warm season rainfall (1998-2000) patterns around Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas. Results reveal an average increase of -28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage changes are relative to an upwind control area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind control area by 48% - 116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. Results are consistent with METROMEX studies of St. Louis almost two decades ago and with more recent studies near Atlanta. Future work is extending the investigation to Phoenix, Arizona, an arid U.S. city, and several international cities like Mexico City, Johannesburg, and Brasilia. The study establishes the possibility of utilizing satellite-based rainfall estimates for examining rainfall modification by urban areas on global scales and over longer time periods. Such research has implications for weather forecasting, urban planning, water resource management, and understanding human impact on the environment and climate.
Reijneveld, S.A.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; de Meer, G.
Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urbanization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and
Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi
A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.
Full Text Available Background: Menstruation, an important part of female reproductive cycle but menstrual dysfunction in adolescent girls may affect normal life of adolescent and young adult women.Objectives: To assess the percentage of common menstrual problems among adolescent girls from urban slums and to determine the correlation between common menstrual problems with nutritional status of these girls. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent girls residing in urban slum area under the field practice area of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Karad of Western Maharashtra, India during the month of November - December 2011. 237 adolescent girls,age between 12-19 years were interviewed and examined using pretested semistructured questionnaire. Data was collected by researchers with the help of Medical Officer and Medical Social Worker of Urban Health Training Center by personal interview and clinical examination method. Data was compiled and presented into frequency percentage distribution. Chisquare test was applied to determine the association between common menstrual problem swith body mass index and anemia. Results: Out of total 237 adolescent girls, 230 (97.04% had attained menarche of which, 147 girls(63.91% had regular and 83(36.08% had irregular menstrual cycle with mean age at menarche by recall method was 12.8 yrs. The percentage of common menstrual problems such as oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia,hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were 16.08%, 17.82%, 27.39%,59.56%, 49.13% and 46.52% respectively,however amenorrhea ( primary was seen in 3(0.01% girls. Prevalence of under nutrition and anemia was 40.86% and 60.43%. Health seeking behavior for common menstrual problem was seen in only 25.75% girls. Oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were significantly associated with anemia; however BMI was significantly associated with dysmenorrhea
Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Mwangi, A.M.; Staveren, van W.A.
OBJECTIVE: Street foods are an important source of nutrients for poor urban residents. This study aimed to identify determinants of the proportion of daily energy provided by non-home-prepared foods. METHODS: A survey was conducted in a slum and a low- to middle-income area of Nairobi. The survey
Saitoh, T.; Hisada, T.; Shimada, T.
This paper reports the results of field observation and three-dimensional simulation of urban warming in Tokyo metropolitan area. The three-dimensional governing equations in an urban atmospheric boundary layer were formulated by virtue of vorticity-velocity vector potential method. Particular attention was focused on the representation of a buoyancy term in equation of motion in the vertical direction, thereby describing the crossover and stratification effects near the ground surface. The vorticity-velocity potential method is superior from the view point of numerical stability and suitable for the simulation of an urban heat island. The authors first made a survey on the energy consumption in Tokyo metropolitan area. Next, the three-dimensional simulations were carried out using these data. The simulation results were then compared with the data of field observation of the surface temperature by automobiles. Further future prediction of urban warming was performed when the energy consumption rate is increased five times as large as the present rate, which will correspond to the year 2030 if the present consumption rate were maintained until then
Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi
Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.
Agra, Maria Claudia Ribeiro; Costa, Pietra Lemos; Duque, Anderson Enio Silva; Soares, Efraim Naftali Lopes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida de
The sandfly fauna is well studied globally. In Brazil, sandfly fauna is very diverse in the Northeast region, especially in states such as Maranhão, Ceará, and Bahia. However, in the State of Pernambuco, the distribution of these insects is still not well known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the different species that constitute the sandfly fauna in an urban area in the Northeast region of Brazil, where an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recently reported. The sandflies were collected from an urban area endemic for VL, at five collection points. The collection of samples was carried out from November 2014 to December 2015, using CDC light traps installed in intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary fashion. The collected sandflies (n = 297) belonged to eight species: Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia capixaba, Lutzomyia carmelinoi, and Lutzomyia whitmani. Most of the specimens collected were peridomiciliary (247/297, 83%). L. lenti (154/297, 52%) was the most frequently sampled species, followed by L. longipalpis (88/297, 29.6%), and L. sallesi (42/297, 14.1%), which together accounted for over 90% of the collected sandfly specimens. The continued presence of L. longipalpis in urban areas, including that in intradomiciliary areas, with a predominance of females, is crucial because of the high possibility of them causing VL outbreaks, since this species is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil.
Vodyanova, M A; Kriatov, I A; Donerian, L G; Evseeva, I S; Ushakov, D I; Sbitnev, A V
Assessment of the soil quality is ofprime importance essential for the characterization of the ecological and hygienic condition of the territory, as the soil is the first link of the food chain, the source of secondary air and water pollution, as well as an integral index of ecological well-being of the environment. Herewith the qualitative analysis of soil complicated by the specifics of the soil genesis in the urban environment, in which an important role is played by manmade land bulk and alluvial soils; the inclusion of construction of material debris and household garbage in upper horizons; the growing up of the profile due to the perpetual introduction of different materials and intensive aeolian deposition. It is advisable to consider the currently neglected question of the study of soil vapor containing volatile chemicals. These pollutants penetrate into the building through cracks in the foundation and openings for utilities. Soil evaporation may accumulate in residential areas or in the soil under the building. Because of this, it is necessary to pay attention to the remediation of areas allocated for the built-up area, possessing a large-scale underground parking. Soil contamination is the result of significant anthropogenic impacts on the environment components. In general, about 89.1 million people (62.6% of the population of the country) live in terms of complex chemical load, determined by contamination offood, drinking water, air and soil. The list of microbiological and sanitary-chemical indices of the assessment of soils of urban areas may vary in dependence on the data obtained in pilot studies due to changes and additions to the assigned tasks. Timely forecast for the possibility of the usage of released lands of urban territories for the construction and the creation of new objects for different purposes should become the prevention of chronic non-infectious diseases in the population residing in urban areas.
Leroyer, S.; Bélair, S.; Husain, S.; Vionnet, V.
A Sub-kilometer atmospheric modeling system with grid-spacings of 2.5 km, 1 km and 250 m and including urban processes is currently being developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) in order to provide more accurate weather forecasts at the city scale. Atmospheric lateral boundary conditions are provided with the 15-km Canadian Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS). Surface physical processes are represented with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model for the built-up covers and with the Interactions between the Surface, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model for the natural covers. In this study, several research experiments over large metropolitan areas and using observational networks at the urban scale are presented, with a special emphasis on the representation of local atmospheric circulations and their impact on extreme weather forecasting. First, numerical simulations are performed over the Vancouver metropolitan area during a summertime Intense Observing Period (IOP of 14-15 August 2008) of the Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities (EPiCC) observational network. The influence of the horizontal resolution on the fine-scale representation of the sea-breeze development over the city is highlighted (Leroyer et al., 2013). Then severe storms cases occurring in summertime within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) are simulated. In view of supporting the 2015 PanAmerican and Para-Pan games to be hold in GTA, a dense observational network has been recently deployed over this region to support model evaluations at the urban and meso scales. In particular, simulations are conducted for the case of 8 July 2013 when exceptional rainfalls were recorded. Leroyer, S., S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, S.Z. Husain, 2013: Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in an Urban Coastal Area: A case study over the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, submitted to Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.
Pahwa, Smriti; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Toteja, G S
Diarrhoeal infections are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and continue to take a high toll on child health. Mushrooming of slums due to continuous urbanization has made diarrhoea one of the biggest public-health challenges in metropolitan cities in India. The objective of the study was to carry out a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention, focusing on several factors influencing child health with special emphasis on diarrhoea, in a slum of Delhi, India. Mothers (n=370) of children, aged >12-71 months, identified by a door-to-door survey from a large urban slum, were enrolled in the study in two groups, i.e. control and intervention. To ensure minimal group interaction, enrollment for the control and intervention groups was done purposively from two extreme ends of the slum cluster. Baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on diarrhoea-related issues, such as oral rehydration therapy (ORT), oral rehydration salt (ORS), and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea, was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. Thereafter, mothers (n=195) from the intervention area were provided health and nutrition education through fortnightly contacts achieved by two approaches developed for the study--'personal discussion sessions' and 'lane approach'. The mothers (n=175) from the control area were not contacted. After the intervention, there was a significant (p=0.000) improvement in acquaintance to the term 'ORS' (65-98%), along with its method of reconstitution from packets (13-69%); preparation of home-made sugar-salt solution (10-74%); role of both in the prevention of dehydration (30-74%) and importance of their daily preparation (74-96%); and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea (47-90%) in the intervention area. Sensitivity about age-specific feeding of ORS also improved significantly (p=0.000) from 13% to 88%. The reported usage of ORS packets and sugar-salt solution improved significantly from 12% to 65
Full Text Available Abstract:This Exploration focuses on the emerging field of slum tourism research, which has the potential to connect Latin American and Caribbean studies on tourism and urban inequality. Slum tourism involves transforming poverty, squalor and violence into a tourism product. Drawing on both altruism and voyeurism, this form of tourism is a complex phenomenon that raises various questions concerning power, inequality and subjectivity. This essay seeks to advance the theoretical debate on slum tourism research and to stimulate comparative studies. Introducing brief examples of slum tourism in Mexico and Jamaica, this contribution moves towards an initial theorization of the performance, negotiation and transformation of inequality in a framework of tourism and global mobilities.Resumen: Teorizar el Turismo en las zonas marginadas: Construcción, negociación y transformación de la desigualdadEsta Exploración se centra en el campo emergente del turismo en zonas marginadas, que tiene como potencial conectar a América Latina y el Caribe en los estudios sobre el turismo y la desigualdad urbana. Turismo 'Slum' implica la transformación de la pobreza, la miseria y la violencia en un producto turís