WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban runoff control

  1. Planning Framework for Mesolevel Optimization of Urban Runoff Control Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Blohm, Andrew; Liu, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A planning framework is developed to optimize runoff control schemes at scales relevant for regional planning at an early stage. The framework employs less sophisticated modeling approaches to allow a practical application in developing regions with limited data sources and computing capability. The methodology contains three interrelated modules: (1)the geographic information system (GIS)-based hydrological module, which aims at assessing local hydrological constraints and potential for runoff control according to regional land-use descriptions; (2)the grading module, which is built upon the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. It is used to establish a priority ranking system to assist the allocation of runoff control targets at the subdivision level; and (3)the genetic algorithm-based optimization module, which is included to derive Pareto-based optimal solutions for mesolevel allocation with multiple competing objectives. The optimization approach describes the trade-off between different allocation plans and simultaneously ensures that all allocation schemes satisfy the minimum requirement on runoff control. Our results highlight the importance of considering the mesolevel allocation strategy in addition to measures at macrolevels and microlevels in urban runoff management. (C) 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  2. Diffuse emission and control of copper in urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, M A; Steiner, M

    2002-01-01

    Copper washed off from roofs and roads is considered to be a major contribution to diffuse copper pollution of urban environments. In order to guarantee sustainable protection of soils and water, the long-term strategy is to avoid or replace copper containing materials on roofs and fagades. Until achievement of this goal, a special adsorber system is suggested to control the diffuse copper fluxes by retention of copper by a mixture of granulated iron-hydroxide (GEH) and calcium carbonate. Since future stormwater runoff concepts are based on decentralised runoff infiltration into the underground, solutions are proposed which provide for copper retention in infiltration sites using GEH adsorption layers. The example of a large copper façade of which the runoff is treated in an adsorption trench reveals the first full-scale data on façade runoff and adsorber performance. During the first year of investigation average façade runoff concentrations in the range of 1-10 mg Cu/l are reduced by 96-99% in the adsorption ditch.

  3. Land cover controls on summer discharge and runoff solution chemistry of semi-arid urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika L.; Brooks, Paul D.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McLain, Jean E. T.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryRecharge of urban runoff to groundwater as a stormwater management practice has gained importance in semi-arid regions where water resources are scarce and urban centers are growing. Despite this trend, the importance of land cover in controlling semi-arid catchment runoff quantity and quality remains unclear. Here we address the question: How do land cover characteristics control the amount and quality of storm runoff in semi-arid urban catchments? We monitored summertime runoff quantity and quality from five catchments dominated by distinct urban land uses: low, medium, and high density residential, mixed use, and commercial. Increasing urban land cover increased runoff duration and the likelihood that a rainfall event would result in runoff, but did not increase the time to peak discharge of episodic runoff. The effect of urban land cover on hydrologic responses was tightly coupled to the magnitude of rainfall. At distinct rainfall thresholds, roads, percent impervious cover and the stormwater drainage network controlled runoff frequency, runoff depth and runoff ratios. Contrary to initial expectations, runoff quality did not vary in repose to impervious cover or land use. We identified four major mechanisms controlling runoff quality: (1) variable solute sourcing due to land use heterogeneity and above ground catchment connectivity; (2) the spatial extent of pervious and biogeochemically active areas; (3) the efficiency of overland flow and runoff mobilization; and (4) solute flushing and dilution. Our study highlights the importance of the stormwater drainage systems characteristics in controlling urban runoff quantity and quality; and suggests that enhanced wetting and in-stream processes may control solute sourcing and retention. Finally, we suggest that the characteristics of the stormwater drainage system should be integrated into stormwater management approaches.

  4. Evaluation of secondary environmental impacts of urban runoff pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huibregtse, K.R.; Geinopolos, A.

    1982-03-01

    A generalized evaluation of the impacts associated with different urban stormwater runoff (UR) treatment techniques is presented. It addresses the definition of the problem, estimates the volume and characteristics of the UR and the sludges expected, evaluates six methods of UR sludge treatment, and examines alternatives and impacts for UR treatment sludge handling such as bleed/pump back to the dry weather plant, and land disposal. Regarding bleed/pump back of UR sludges, solids deposition in sewers and overload to the dry weather facilities are anticipated to cause problems. The most cost effective sludge treatment alternative appeared to be lime stabilization followed by thickening, pressure filter dewatering, and landfill disposal. Secondary impacts included costs, water quality, noise, energy consumption, air pollution, and land area requirements

  5. Urban Runoff: National Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This helps citizens and municipalities in urban areas protect bodies of water from polluted runoff . These scientifically sound techniques are the best practices known today. The guidance helps states to implement their nonpoint source control program.

  6. URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL - STATE-OF-THE-ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined sewer overflows are major sources of water pollution problems, but even discharges of stormwater alone can seriously affect water quality. Current approaches involve control of overflows, treatment, and combinations of the two. Control may involve maximizing treatment wi...

  7. Quality control of rain data used for urban runoff systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H. K.; Rosenørn, S.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    for collection and quality control of rain data from a network of tipping bucket rain gauges in Denmark carried out by the Danish Meteorological Institute. During rain, the RIMCO gauge counts the number of tips teach of 0.2 mm of precipitation) every minute, The quality control of the rain data includes...... an automatic and a manual bit marking, where the automatic control basically is pointing out minutes with extreme intensities. In the manual control, the maximum intensities as well as the daily totals of precipitation are inspected, using weather charts, intensity plots and precipitation sums of nearby...

  8. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Erosion and Sediment Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model ordinance in this section borrows language from the erosion and sediment control ordinance features that might help prevent erosion and sedimentation and protect natural resources more fully.

  9. Controls on Stormwater Runoff Quality and Quantity in Semi-arid, Urban Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Lohse, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Utilization of recharged urban runoff to complement municipal water supply has gained importance in arid regions where populations and their urban footprint continue to grow, and where water resources are scarce. However, our understanding of how runoff quantity and quality respond to urbanization in arid landscapes is largely incomplete and poses a challenge for water resources management. Here we address the question: What controls the hydrologic and hydrochemical responses of arid urban catchments? We collected water samples and stream stage data from 5 urban catchments of varied land uses (low, medium and high density residential, mixed and commercial land use) in southern Arizona during the summer rainfall seasons of 2007 and 2008. The most homogeneous catchments, as indicated by the index of landscape heterogeneity, were the least and most impervious, while the most heterogeneous sites had mid-range imperviousness. Hydrochemical responses were mixed, did not correlate with imperviousness or vegetation abundance, and were not strongly controlled by land use. Clustering analysis highlight hydrologic and sourcing controls on hydrochemistry, specifically conservative solute transport, land use specific and geologic solute sourcing and atmospheric deposition. Overall, water yields were surprisingly small (< 15%) and increased with imperviousness. Our data show that discharge responses were more sensitive to rainfall magnitude in homogeneous sites. We suggest that imperviousness and rainfall magnitude control water yields; whereas landscape heterogeneity may control a catchment’s sensitivity to generate runoff. The coupling of landscape and hydrology in controlling hydrochemistry is well illustrated by chloride (Cl), a non-reactive hydrologic tracer that was positively correlated with a large number of solutes such as ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, cadmium and zinc. We observed the highest concentrations and coefficients of variation of Cl at least and most

  10. Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow. [Wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffa, P.E. (Calocerinos and Spina, Liverpool, NY); Freedman, S.D.; Owens, E.M.; Field, R.; Cibik, C.

    1982-06-01

    The control, treatment and management of urban runoff and sewer overflow are reviewed. Simplified modeling and monitoring techniques are used to characterize urban runoff and to assess control alternatives. (KRM)

  11. Modeling urban storm rainfall runoff from diverse underlying surfaces and application for control design in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Li, Junqi; Gong, Yongwei

    2012-12-30

    Managing storm rainfall runoff is paramount in semi-arid regions with urban development. In Beijing, pollution prevention in urban storm runoff and storm water utilization has been identified as the primary strategy for urban water management. In this paper, we sampled runoff during storm rainfall events and analyzed the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) in the runoff. Furthermore, the first flush effect of storm rainfall from diverse underlying surfaces was also analyzed. With the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the different impervious rates of underlying surfaces during the storm runoff process were expressed. The removal rates of three typical pollutants and their interactions with precipitation and underlying surfaces were identified. From these rates, the scenarios regarding the urban storm runoff pollution loading from different designs of underlying previous rates were assessed with the SWMM. First flush effect analysis showed that the first 20% of the storm runoff should be discarded, which can help in utilizing the storm water resource. The results of this study suggest that the SWMM can express in detail the storm water pollution patterns from diverse underlying surfaces in Beijing, which significantly affected water quality. The scenario analysis demonstrated that impervious rate adjustment has the potential to reduce runoff peak and decrease pollution loading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Off-line control of runoff pollution by filtering ditch-pond system in urban tourist areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Feng; Shan, Bao-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing; Hu, Cheng-Xiao

    2007-10-01

    An off-line filtering ditch-pond system for controlling storm runoff pollution in urban tourist areas was developed, which could retain the first flush effectively, resulting in the decrease of pollutant concentration and suspended solid average grain size, and the improvement of pollutant retention in runoff. This system could be an effective treatment system for storm runoff pollution, particularly for the scarcity of available land use in urban areas. In 2005, the yearly retention rates of TSS, COD, TN and TP were 86.4%, 85.5%, 83.9% and 82.9%, and during a storm event on June 26, the retention rates of runoff volume, TSS, COD, TN and TP were 67.9%, 97.0%, 89.2%, 94.9% and 96.2%, respectively. This system could also retain most of the suspended solids in runoff.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative control of the urban runoff with detention basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolival Antônio da Silva Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Floods in urban areas are responsible for impacts that go from puddles formation to environmental and social disasters. Looking for alternatives to minimize the effects of floods in urban areas, some methodologies have been studied and applied, such as the use of detention basin in high consolidated urban areas. This study analyses the efficiency on flood control of two detention basins, a dry and a wet one. The study approaches both quantitative and qualitative aspects related to runoff from an urban area of Brasilia city, federal district of Brazil. The affluent caught by the detention basins is related to a conventional urban drainage system with a 4.75km2 (dry basin and 6.12km2 (wet basin contribution area. The results showed that the basins can reduce the peak income flow significantly (averaged 62.6% and 74% peak flow reduction, for dry and wet basin, respectively and has positive impact over pollution control, with an average reduction of 1 to 3% for BOD and up to 41 to 74% for Suspended Solids.

  14. Urban Runoff: Getting to the Nonpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Pendall, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Mandates for water-quality improvement have forced regulators and planners to confront the problem of urban runoff, still an important source of water pollution. This ar­ticle discusses those mandates and how to meet them, and provides examples of ongoing nonpoint water pollution control programs in the San Francisco Bay Area. These examples suggest that cleanup of urban runoff may require more comprehensive regional planning to encourage a de­velopment pattern conducive to pollution control.

  15. Urban runoff - Swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Jan

    1987-01-01

    During the past 20 years hard effort has been devoted to the protection of rivers, lakes and the sea from pollution. This effort has mainly been focused on the obvious sources of pollution i.e. the concentrated outlet of sewage. Currently 75% of the urban population is served by advanced treatment plants. Not until recently attention was paid to sewerage. The official policy was that separate storm sewers was the only acceptable system and discharge permits generally required separation of existing combined sewers were to be abandoned there was little concern about overflows

  16. Optimal design and real time control of the integrated urban run-off system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Rauch, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    Traditional design of urban run-off systems is based on fixed rules with respect to the points of demarcation between the three systems involved: the sewer system, the treatment plant and the receiving water. An alternative to fixed rules is to model the total system. There is still uncertainty...... and evaluation of competing alternatives for design. However, the complexity of these systems is such that the parameters associated with pollution are hardly identifiable on the basis of reasonable monitoring programmes. The empirical-iterative approach: structures are built on simplified assumptions...

  17. A Fuzzy Control System for Reducing Urban Runoff by a Stormwater Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Cai, Y.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Stormwater storage tank (SST) is a popular low impact development technology for reducing stormwater runoff in the construction of sponge city. Most researches on SST were mainly the design, pollutants removal effect, and operation assessment. While there were few researches on the automatic control of SST for reducing peak flow. In this paper, fuzzy control was introduced into the peak control of SST to improve the efficiency of reducing stormawter runoff. Firstly, the design of SST was investigated. A catchment area and return period were assumed, a SST model was manufactured, and then the storage capacity of the SST was verified. Secondly, the control parameters of the SST based on reducing stormwater runoff was analyzed, and a schematic diagram of real-time control (RTC) system based on peak control SST was established. Finally, fuzzy control system of a double input (flow and water level) and double output (inlet and outlet valve) was designed. The results showed that 1) under the different return periods (one year, three years, five years), the SST had the effect of delayed peak control and storage by increasing the detention time, 2) rainfall, pipeline flow, the influent time and the water level in the SST could be used as RTC parameters, and 3) the response curves of flow velocity and water level fluctuated very little and reached equilibrium in a short time. The combination of online monitoring and fuzzy control was feasible to control the SST automatically. This paper provides a theoretical reference for reducing stormwater runoff and improving the operation efficiency of SST.

  18. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  19. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  20. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  1. [Total pollution features of urban runoff outlet for urban river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Bing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; He, Qiang; Liu, Ping

    2009-11-01

    The urban stormwater runoff discharged to urban river, especially to rainfall source river, cannot be ignored. In this study, the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen city in a typical southern city of China is taken as the research object. In order to guide the pollution control for urban river, the eighteen rainfall events were monitored, and the total pollution features of the urban runoff outlet for this urban river were analyzed and discussed by using the process of pollutographs, the identifying to first flush, event mean concentration (EMC), etc. Results show that the concentrations of COD, SS, TN, TP and BOD5 are ten times more than the grade V of the environmental quality standards for surface water during the runoff time; the pollution caused by heavy metals (Cr, Ge, Cu, Hg and As) in runoff at a typical rainfall event is serious; the average and range of pollutant concentration at this runoff outlet in study area are evidently higher than at Shapingba in Chongqing city of China and at Silerwood in Canada, but are lower than at Shilipu in Wuhan city of China. The first flushes of COD, SS, BOD5, especially COD and SS, are evident, but the TN and TP are not. The average EMC of COD, TN, TP and BOD5 are 224.14, 571.15, 5.223, 2.04, 143.5 mg/L, respectively. To some extent, the EMC of COD is about two times of the value of the near cities, Macao and Zhuhai. The EMC of TN and TP are obviously higher than Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai. To compared with foreign counties, the EMC of the study area in Shenzhen is obviously much higher than the cities of Korean, USA and Canada. So the total pollution caused by the urban surface runoff in study area is serious and necessary to be treated.

  2. Integrated solutions for urban runoff pollution control in Brazilian metropolitan regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morihama, A C D; Amaro, C; Tominaga, E N S; Yazaki, L F O L; Pereira, M C S; Porto, M F A; Mukai, P; Lucci, R M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important causes for poor water quality in urban rivers in Brazil is the low collection efficiency of the sewer system due to unforeseen interconnections with the stormwater drainage system. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian cities have adopted separate systems for sanitary sewers and stormwater runoff. Gradually these two systems became interconnected. A major challenge faced today by water managers in Brazil is to find efficient and low cost solutions to deal with this mixed system. The current situation poses an important threat to the improvement of the water quality in urban rivers and lakes. This article presents an evaluation of the water quality parameters and the diffuse pollution loads during rain events in the Pinheiros River, a tributary of the Tietê River in São Paulo. It also presents different types of integrated solutions for reducing the pollution impact of combined systems, based on the European experience in urban water management. An evaluation of their performance and a comparison with the separate system used in most Brazilian cities is also presented. The study is based on an extensive water quality monitoring program that was developed for a special investigation in the Pinheiros River and lasted 2.5 years. Samples were collected on a daily basis and water quality variables were analyzed on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Two hundred water quality variables were monitored at 53 sampling points. During rain events, additional monitoring was carried out using an automated sampler. Pinheiros River is one of the most important rivers in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region and it is also a heavily polluted one.

  3. Frequency analysis of urban runoff quality in an urbanizing catchment of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huapeng; Tan, Xiaolong; Fu, Guangtao; Zhang, Yingying; Huang, Yuefei

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the frequency distribution of urban runoff quality indicators using a long-term continuous simulation approach and evaluates the impacts of proposed runoff control schemes on runoff quality in an urbanizing catchment in Shenzhen, China. Four different indicators are considered to provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential impacts: total runoff depth, event pollutant load, Event Mean Concentration, and peak concentration during a rainfall event. The results obtained indicate that urban runoff quantity and quality in the catchment have significant variations in rainfall events and a very high rate of non-compliance with surface water quality regulations. Three runoff control schemes with the capacity to intercept an initial runoff depth of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm are evaluated, respectively, and diminishing marginal benefits are found with increasing interception levels in terms of water quality improvement. The effects of seasonal variation in rainfall events are investigated to provide a better understanding of the performance of the runoff control schemes. The pre-flood season has higher risk of poor water quality than other seasons after runoff control. This study demonstrates that frequency analysis of urban runoff quantity and quality provides a probabilistic evaluation of pollution control measures, and thus helps frame a risk-based decision making for urban runoff quality management in an urbanizing catchment.

  4. [Urban non-point source pollution control by runoff retention and filtration pilot system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yao; Zuo, Jian-E; Gan, Li-Li; Low, Thong Soon; Miao, Heng-Feng; Ruan, Wen-Quan; Huang, Xia

    2011-09-01

    A runoff retention and filtration pilot system was designed and the long-term purification effect of the runoff was monitored. Runoff pollution characters in 2 typical events and treatment effect of the pilot system were analyzed. The results showed that the runoff was severely polluted. Event mean concentrations (EMCs) of SS, COD, TN and TP in the runoff were 361, 135, 7.88 and 0.62 mg/L respectively. The runoff formed by long rain presented an obvious first flush effect. The first 25% flow contributed more than 50% of the total pollutants loading of SS, TP, DTP and PO4(3-). The pilot system could reduce 100% of the non-point source pollution if the volume of the runoff was less than the retention tank. Otherwise the overflow will be purification by the filtration pilot system and the removal rates of SS, COD, TN, TP, DTP and PO4(3-) reached 97.4% , 61.8%, 22.6%, 85.1%, 72.1%, and 85.2% respectively. The system was stable and the removal rate of SS, COD, TN, and TP were 98.6%, 65.4%, 55.1% and 92.6%. The whole system could effectively remove the non-point source pollution caused by runoff.

  5. Snowmelt runoff: a new focus of urban nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-11-30

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing constitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control.

  6. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing cosntitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  7. Stormwater infrastructure controls runoff and dissolved material export from arid urban watersheds.

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, R.L.; Turnbull, L.; Earl, S.R.; Childers, D.L.; Grimm, N.B.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization alters watershed ecosystem functioning, including nutrient budgets and processes of nutrient retention. It is unknown, however, how variation in stormwater infrastructure design affects the delivery of water and materials from urban watersheds. In this study, we asked: (1) How does stormwater infrastructure design vary over time and space in an arid city (Phoenix, Arizona, USA)?, and (2) How does variation in infrastructure design affect fluxes of dissolved nitrogen (N), phosphor...

  8. Urban runoff forecasting with ensemble weather predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Wied; Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca

    This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice.......This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice....

  9. Contaminants in urban runoff to Norwegian fjords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jartun, Morten [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway); Pettersen, Arne [Norwegian Geotechnical Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Introduction: Sediments from urban stormwater runoff have been collected and analyzed for the content of various contaminants in harbor areas of Harstad, Trondheim, Bergen, and Drammen, Norway. Materials and methods: The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tributyltin, heavy metals, and total organic carbon were determined in most samples. This study provides substantial empirical data on the active, ongoing dispersion of pollutants from land-based sources in an urban area toward the marine environments in Norway. Results and discussion: The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. Conclusion: The concentrations of different contaminants in the urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the runoff systems with PCBs, PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, B(a)p), and heavy metals such as lead, mercury, zinc, and cadmium. This study describe the usefulness of the methods on how to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients before any remediation plan for improving the environmental condition of marine sediments is effectuated. (orig.)

  10. Adaptive measurements of urban runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brandon P.; Kerkez, Branko

    2016-11-01

    An approach to adaptively measure runoff water quality dynamics is introduced, focusing specifically on characterizing the timing and magnitude of urban pollutographs. Rather than relying on a static schedule or flow-weighted sampling, which can miss important water quality dynamics if parameterized inadequately, novel Internet-enabled sensor nodes are used to autonomously adapt their measurement frequency to real-time weather forecasts and hydrologic conditions. This dynamic approach has the potential to significantly improve the use of constrained experimental resources, such as automated grab samplers, which continue to provide a strong alternative to sampling water quality dynamics when in situ sensors are not available. Compared to conventional flow-weighted or time-weighted sampling schemes, which rely on preset thresholds, a major benefit of the approach is the ability to dynamically adapt to features of an underlying hydrologic signal. A 28 km2 urban watershed was studied to characterize concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus. Water quality samples were autonomously triggered in response to features in the underlying hydrograph and real-time weather forecasts. The study watershed did not exhibit a strong first flush and intraevent concentration variability was driven by flow acceleration, wherein the largest loadings of TSS and total phosphorus corresponded with the steepest rising limbs of the storm hydrograph. The scalability of the proposed method is discussed in the context of larger sensor network deployments, as well the potential to improving control of urban water quality.

  11. Characterization of chromium species in urban runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the presence of the element Cr in its toxic hexavalent form Cr(VI) in stormwater runoff from urban areas. Most studies report only total Cr concentration, i.e., including also the nontoxic Cr(III) molecular form. The objective of this study was to evaluate a field method bas...

  12. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitr...

  13. [Analysis of first flush effect of typical underlying surface runoff in Beijing urban city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Hou, Pei-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increase of the urban impervious underlying surfaces causes a great increase of urban runoff and the accumulation of pollutants on the roof and road surfaces brings many pollutants into the drainage system with the runoff, and it thus becomes a great threat to the urban water environment. To know the runoff pollution process and to build scientific basis for pollutant control, runoff processes from the roof and road surfaces were monitored and analyzed from 2004 to 2006, and the runoff EMC (Event Mean Concentration) was calculated. It was found that two types of runoff were seriously polluted by COD and TN. The COD and TN of roof runoff exceeded the fifth level of the surface water environmental quality standard (GB 3838-2002) by 3.64 and 4.80 times, respectively, and the COD and TN of road runoff exceeded by 3.73 and 1.07 times, respectively. M (V) curve was used to determine the relation between runoff volume and runoff pollution load. Various degrees of the first flush phenomenon were found for TSS, COD, TN and TP in roof runoff. But this phenomenon occurred only for TSS and TP of the road runoff, and on the whole it was not obvious. Properties of the underlying surfaces, rainfall intensity, and pollutant accumulation are all important factors affecting the roof and road runoff pollutant emission characteristics.

  14. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  15. Modeling time-dependent toxicity to aquatic organisms from pulsed exposure of PAHs in urban road runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Ye Youbin; Tong Yindong; Ou Langbo; Hu Dan; Wang Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of the magnitude of urban runoff toxicity to aquatic organisms is important for effective management of runoff quality. In this paper, the aquatic toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban road runoff was evaluated through a damage assessment model. Mortality probability of the organisms representative in aquatic environment was calculated using the monitored PAHs concentration in road runoff. The result showed that the toxicity of runoff in spring was higher than those in summer. Analysis of the time-dependent toxicity of series of runoff water samples illustrated that the toxicity of runoff water in the final phase of a runoff event may be as high as those in the initial phase. Therefore, the storm runoff treatment systems or strategies designed for capture and treatment of the initial portion of runoff may be inappropriate for control of runoff toxicity. - Research highlights: → Toxicity resulting from realistic exposure patterns of urban runoff is evaluated. → Toxicity of runoff water in the final phase is as high as the initial phase. → Treatment of the initial runoff portion is inappropriate to abate runoff toxicity. - Toxicity to aquatic organisms after sequential pulsed exposure to PAHs in urban road runoff is evaluated.

  16. Simulation and assessment of urbanization impacts on runoff metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Yu, Jingjie

    2018-01-01

    changes. The Qing River catchment as a peri-urban catchment in the Beijing metropolitan area is selected as our study region. Results show that: (1) the dryland agriculture is decreased from 13.9% to 1.5% of the total catchment area in the years 2000–2015, while the percentages of impervious surface...... information for urban planning such as Sponge City design.......Urbanization-induced landuse changes alter runoff regimes in complex ways. In this study, a detailed investigation of the urbanization impacts on runoff regimes is provided by using multiple runoff metrics and with consideration of landuse dynamics. A catchment hydrological model is modified...

  17. [Effect of antecedent dry weather period on urban storm runoff pollution load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-qing; Yin, Cheng-qing; Kong, Ling-li; He, Qing-ci

    2007-10-01

    Twelve storm events were surveyed at Shilipu catchment in Wuhan City through three-year monitoring regime. The flow discharges, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in runoff were measured to study the mechanism of urban stormwater runoff pollution. The relationship between the event pollution load and the antecedent dry weather period was identified to discuss the influence of the urban surface sanitation management, operation of sewer pipe maintenance and rainfall characteristics on the urban stormwater runoff pollution. It was found that the antecedent dry weather period and runoff amount were the important determining factors in the generation of urban stormwater runoff pollution. The event pollution load was positively correlated to the antecedent dry weather period between two rainfall events (R2 = 0.95, p pollution loads. The best regression equation to estimate pollution load for storm events was developed based on the antecedent dry weather period and runoff depth. Source control including improving urban street sweeping activities and operation of sewer pipe maintenance should be made to reduce the amount of available pollutant over the dry days. It is important alternative to control urban stormwater runoff pollution for Hanyang District.

  18. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Jiunian Guan; Baixing Yan; Hui Zhu; Yingying Xu

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting season...

  19. Urban Run-off Volumes Dependency on Rainfall Measurement Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Jensen, N. E.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Urban run-off is characterized with fast response since the large surface run-off in the catchments responds immediately to variations in the rainfall. Modeling such type of catchments is most often done with the input from very few rain gauges, but the large variation in rainfall over small areas...... resolutions and single gauge rainfall was fed to a MOUSE run-off model. The flow and total volume over the event is evaluated....

  20. Real Time Updating in Distributed Urban Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Borup, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Grum, Morten; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    When it rains on urban areas the rainfall runoff is transported out of the city via the drainage system. Frequently, the drainage system cannot handle all the rain water, which results in problems like flooding or overflows into natural water bodies. To reduce these problems the systems are equipped with basins and automated structures that allow for a large degree of control of the systems, but in order to do this optimally it is required to know what is happening throughout the system. For ...

  1. Investigating the Influence of Various Stormwater Runoff Control Facilities on Runoff Control Efficiency in a Small Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Itsukushima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes an increase in the flood discharge because of the infiltration capacity. Furthermore, extreme precipitation events have been an increasing concern for many regions worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the influence of different outflow control facilities on runoff reduction in a small watershed. We focused on the soil-improvement technology and rainwater tanks as outflow control facilities and conducted a runoff calculation using a rainfall event of a magnitude that is likely to occur once in a hundred years. The calculation showed that the soil-improvement technology reduced runoff during long-term continuous rainfall, whereas in a concentrated short-term rainfall event, a significant difference in the runoff reduction effect between rainfall tanks of various volumes was observed. Since effective countermeasures for runoff reduction differ depending on the rainfall distribution pattern, we suggested both facilities for storing initial rainfall and initiating countermeasures for penetration improvement over the long term.

  2. EPA RESEARCH IN URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This state-of-the-art on the Environmental Protection Agency' s research in urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control describes the major elements of the Urban Runoff Pollution Control Program. roblem definition, users assistance tools, management alternative...

  3. Study of heavy metals in urban runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabizadeh, R.; Mahvi, A.; Mardani, G.; Yunesian, M.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted through Tehran city and a field study was conducted to prepare main and accessory drainage channels map. Three main drainage channels were identified for this research and some sampling stations were chosen. Three stations selected in south of Tehran. The reason for selecting these stations is that all urban surface run off completely pass through these points and samples taken from these points are representative of all kinds of pollutants that transit from city surface. Another three stations were selected in center and further three stations were selected at north of Tehran. Surface runoff flow in three main channels, from north of south of Tehran, converge at south of Rey city and finally end up to Ghom Salt lake. The stations were chosen at three trajectories Sorkhe Hesar, Emad Avard, Kan. At each month two samples were from nine different stations. After collection of samples with respect to standard methods, they were dissolved in nitric acid and then analyzed by atomic absorption device. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants increased from north to south. For instance, Zinc had most concentration with monthly average of 0.98 mg/l and Nickel had the lowest amount with 0.02 mg/l in southern stations. Average concentration of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were: 0.638, 0.97, 0.04 and 0.035 mg/l respectively. Total average concentrations of heavy metals at three main channels were of 0.177, 0.176 and 0.145 mg/l. Emad Avard was the most polluted channel

  4. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%–30.91%, 83.29%–90.51%, and 61.54–68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff. PMID:23935444

  5. Characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%-30.91%, 83.29%-90.51%, and 61.54-68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff.

  6. Sampling and chemical analysis of urban street runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, J.; Striebel, T.; Robien, A.; Herrmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    In order to characterize the environmentally relevant physical and chemical properties of urban street runoff, an automatic sampling device was developed. Precipitation samples were collected together with runoff samples. Organic and inorganic compounds were analysed in the runoff. Dissolved and particle bound substances were analysed separately. The concentrations in runoff are generally considerably higher than in precipitation. Concentrations of lead, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, in particular are higher in runoffs at sites with high traffic densities than at sites with low traffic densities. Preceding dry period normally has no effect on the measured concentrations. The typical chemograph of a dissolved substance shows a maximum at the beginning of the event dropping quickly to a minimum, which often coincides with the maximum in runoff rate. A slight rise is observed with decreasing runoff rates at the end of the event. Applying a mathematical model, chemographs may be described by three terms: - Relatively large amounts of easily soluble material at the beginning of the event decrease with increasing runoff. Conservative behaviour is assumed. - A part which varies inversely to the runoff rate. This term assumes zero-order kinetics; the amount dissolved from surfaces is constant with time. - A small constant term. Concentrations of particle bound substances correlate with amounts of total suspended solids. Frequently a negative correlation between the specific concentration of substances and the concentration of total suspended solids is observed. (orig.) [de

  7. Physicochemical conditions and properties of particles in urban runoff and rivers: Implications for runoff pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qionghua; Wu, Yaketon; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2017-04-01

    In this study, to gain an improved understanding of the fate and fractionation of particle-bound pollutants, we evaluated the physicochemical conditions and the properties of particles in rainwater, urban runoff, and rivers of Yixing, a city with a large drainage density in the Taihu Lake Basin, China. Road runoff and river samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2015 and 2016. There were significant differences between the physicochemical conditions (pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and electroconductivity (EC)) of rainwater, runoff, and rivers. The lowest pH and highest ORP values of rainwater provide the optimal conditions for leaching of particle-bound pollutants such as heavy metals. The differences in the physicochemical conditions of the runoff and rivers may contribute to the redistribution of pollutants between particulate and dissolved phases after runoff is discharged into waterways. Runoff and river particles were mainly composed of silt and clay (runoff particles contained a higher proportion of nano-scale particles (runoff pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rainfall Runoff Mitigation by Retrofitted Permeable Pavement in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement is an effective low impact development (LID practice that can play an important role in reducing rainfall runoff amount in urban areas. Permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP was retrofitted in a tremendously developed area of Seoul, Korea and the data was monitored to evaluate its effect on the hydrology and stormwater quality performance for four months. Rainfall runoff was first absorbed by different layers of the PICP system and then contributed to the sewage system. This not only helps to reduce the runoff volume, but also increase the time of concentration. In this experiment, different real rain events were observed and the field results were investigated to check the effectiveness of the PICP system for controlling the rainfall runoff in Songpa, Korea. From the analysis of data, results showed that the PCIP system was very effective in controlling rainfall runoff. Overall runoff reduction performance from the PCIP was found to be around 30–65% during various storm events. In addition, PICP significantly reduced peak flows in different storm events which is very helpful in reducing the chances of water-logging in an urbanized area. Research results also allow us to sum up that retrofitted PICP is a very effective approach for rainfall runoff management in urban areas.

  9. Trace Metals in Urban Stormwater Runoff and their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Hall, K.; Li, L. Y.; Schreier, H.

    2009-04-01

    were 3, 0.7, 9, and 3.2 times higher than the GVRD urban area limits for Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn, respectively. The filter showed high and stable capture efficiencies in total metals (Cu 62%, Mn 75%, Fe 83%, Zn 62%), dissolved metals (Cu 39%, Mn 37%, Fe 47%, Zn 32%), turbidity (72%), and suspended solids (74%) removal during the first month of operation. After that, there was gradual degradation. The catch basin filter performance improved significantly for the suspended solids and total metal removal after cleaning. However, the perlite filter medium showed poor performance for dissolved metal removal in the second study period. Based on the findings, a catch basin filter is effective in storm water management to control suspended solids loading from storm water runoff.

  10. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  11. [Hydrology and pollution characteristics of urban runoff: Beijing as a sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Du, Peng-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yi; Yu, Zheng-Rong; Wang, Rui; Huang, Jin-Liang

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is identification and characterization of hydrological process of urban runoff, as well as concentration variation of pollutants in it. Samples were collected in 4 rainfall events in Beijing from Jun. 2006 to Aug. 2006. Hydrology and pollution of the rainfall-runoff process were analyzed on roof and road. Study results show that the shapes of hydrological curves of runoff, despite for a 5 - 20 min delay and a milder tendency, are similar to rainfall curves. Runoff coefficients of roof are 0.80 - 0.98, while 0.87 - 0.97 of road. Event mean concentrations (EMC) of pollutants are influenced by build-up and wash-off features, which leads to a higher concentration in road runoff than in roof runoff. Major pollutants that excess the water quality standards are COD, TN, and TP. Evident correlations (> 0.1) are found between pollutants. Correlation with particles are higher for COD and SO4(2-) (> 0.5), while lower for nutrients (pollutant variety, types of land covers, and rainfall intensity. FFE are found more intense in SS, more frequently in road runoff, and more difficult to form for COD and nutrients with low rainfall intensity. Therefore, control of first period of runoff would be an effective approach for runoff management in Beijing.

  12. Initial conditions of urban permeable surfaces in rainfall-runoff models using Horton’s infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Steffen; Löwe, Roland; Høegh Ravn, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Infiltration is a key process controlling runoff, but varies depending on antecedent conditions. This study provides estimates on initial conditions for urban permeable surfaces via continuous simulation of the infiltration capacity using historical rain data. An analysis of historical rainfall...... records show that accumulated rainfall prior to large rain events does not depend on the return period of the event. Using an infiltration-runoff model we found that for a typical large rain storm, antecedent conditions in general lead to reduced infiltration capacity both for sandy and clayey soils...... and that there is substantial runoff for return periods above 1–10 years....

  13. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier

  14. Urban runoff management information/education products. Version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The catalog contains information and education material related to urban runoff, stormwater and construction activities. The material has been categorized by information media. The purpose of the catalog is to showcase existing efforts, transfer information, attempt to avoid duplication and to provide a resource list for future activity. Also, it can be used as an educational guide for school systems

  15. An urban runoff model designed to inform stormwater management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Nicole G; Conley, Gary; Kanner, Lisa; Mathias, Margaret

    2017-05-15

    We present an urban runoff model designed for stormwater managers to quantify runoff reduction benefits of mitigation actions that has lower input data and user expertise requirements than most commonly used models. The stormwater tool to estimate load reductions (TELR) employs a semi-distributed approach, where landscape characteristics and process representation are spatially-lumped within urban catchments on the order of 100 acres (40 ha). Hydrologic computations use a set of metrics that describe a 30-year rainfall distribution, combined with well-tested algorithms for rainfall-runoff transformation and routing to generate average annual runoff estimates for each catchment. User inputs include the locations and specifications for a range of structural best management practice (BMP) types. The model was tested in a set of urban catchments within the Lake Tahoe Basin of California, USA, where modeled annual flows matched that of the observed flows within 18% relative error for 5 of the 6 catchments and had good regional performance for a suite of performance metrics. Comparisons with continuous simulation models showed an average of 3% difference from TELR predicted runoff for a range of hypothetical urban catchments. The model usually identified the dominant BMP outflow components within 5% relative error of event-based measured flow data and simulated the correct proportionality between outflow components. TELR has been implemented as a web-based platform for use by municipal stormwater managers to inform prioritization, report program benefits and meet regulatory reporting requirements (www.swtelr.com). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. URBAN RUNOFF QUALITY MANAGEMENT (BOOK REVIEW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual of practice is geared toward a technical audience but the first four chapters can be understood by anyone interested in stormwater issues and the use of best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate urban stormwater effects. These chapters outline the stormwater probl...

  17. The ecological value of constructed wetlands for treating urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, S; Young, T; Cuevas-Arellano-, H; Kumar, R; Ambrose, R F; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    The Sweetwater Authority's urban runoff diversion system (URDS) comprises constructed wetlands on a hillside between the town of Spring Valley and the Sweetwater Reservoir, California, USA. The URDS were designed to divert dry-weather and first-flush urban runoff flows from the Sweetwater reservoir. However, these constructed wetlands have developed into ecologically valuable habitat. This paper evaluates the following ecological questions related to the URDS: (1) the natural development of the species present and their growth pattern; (2) the biodiversity and pollutant stress on the plants and invertebrates; and (3) the question of habitat provided for endangered species. The URDS wetlands are comprised primarily of rush (Scirpus spp.) and cattails (Typha spp.). This vegetative cover ranged from 39-78% of the area of the individual wetland ponds. Current analyses of plant tissues and wetland sediment indicates the importance of sediment sorption for metals and plant uptake of nutrients. Analyses of URDS water following runoff events show the URDS wetlands do reduce the amount of nutrients and metals in the water column. Invertebrate surveys of the wetland ponds revealed lower habitat quality and environmental stress compared to unpolluted natural habitat. The value of the wetlands as wildlife habitat is constrained by low plant biodiversity and pollution stress from the runoff. Since the primary Sweetwater Authority goal is to maintain good water quality for drinking, any secondary utilization of URDS habitat by species (endangered or otherwise) is deemed an added benefit.

  18. Comparison between snowmelt-runoff and rainfall-runoff nonpoint source pollution in a typical urban catchment in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhi, Xiaosha; Shen, Zhenyao; Dai, Ying; Aini, Guzhanuer

    2018-01-01

    As a climate-driven event, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall- or snowmelt-runoff processes; however, few studies have compared the characteristics and mechanisms of these two kinds of NPS processes. In this study, three factors relating to urban NPS, including surface dust, snowmelt, and rainfall-runoff processes, were analyzed comprehensively by both field sampling and laboratory experiments. The seasonal variation and leaching characteristics of pollutants in surface dust were explored, and the runoff quality of snowmelt NPS and rainfall NPS were compared. The results indicated that dusts are the main sources of urban NPS and more pollutants are deposited in dust samples during winter and spring. However, pollutants in surface dust showed a low leaching ratio, which indicated most NPS pollutants would be carried as particulate forms. Compared to surface layer, underlying snow contained higher chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids (TSS), Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb concentrations, while the event mean concentration of most pollutants in snowmelt tended to be higher in roads. Moreover, the TSS and heavy metal content of snowmelt NPS was always higher than those of rainfall NPS, which indicated the importance of controlling snowmelt pollution for effective water quality management.

  19. Interspecies variation in the susceptibility of adult Pacific salmon to toxic urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jenifer K; Lundin, Jessica I; Cameron, James R; Chow, Michelle I; Davis, Jay W; Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2018-07-01

    Adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) prematurely die when they return from the ocean to spawn in urban watersheds throughout northwestern North America. The available evidence suggests the annual mortality events are caused by toxic stormwater runoff. The underlying pathophysiology of the urban spawner mortality syndrome is not known, and it is unclear whether closely related species of Pacific salmon are similarly at risk. The present study co-exposed adult coho and chum (O. keta) salmon to runoff from a high traffic volume urban arterial roadway. The spawners were monitored for the familiar symptoms of the mortality syndrome, including surface swimming, loss of orientation, and loss of equilibrium. Moreover, the hematology of both species was profiled by measuring arterial pH, blood gases, lactate, plasma electrolytes, hematocrit, and glucose. Adult coho developed behavioral symptoms within a few hours of exposure to stormwater. Various measured hematological parameters were significantly altered compared to coho controls, indicating a blood acidosis and ionoregulatory disturbance. By contrast, runoff-exposed chum spawners showed essentially no indications of the mortality syndrome, and measured blood hematological parameters were similar to unexposed chum controls. We conclude that contaminant(s) in urban runoff are the likely cause of the disruption of ion balance and pH in coho but not chum salmon. Among the thousands of chemicals in stormwater, future forensic analyses should focus on the gill or cardiovascular system of coho salmon. Because of their distinctive sensitivity to urban runoff, adult coho remain an important vertebrate indicator species for degraded water quality in freshwater habitats under pressure from human population growth and urbanization. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of suspended solids and heavy metals from urban stormwater runoff by a tree box filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimo, F K F; Maniquiz-Redillas, M C; Tobio, J A S; Kim, L H

    2014-01-01

    Particulates, inorganic and toxic constituents are the most common pollutants associated with urban stormwater runoff. Heavy metals such as chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead are found to be in high concentration on paved roads or parking lots due to vehicle emissions. In order to control the rapid increase of pollutant loads in stormwater runoff, the Korean Ministry of Environment proposed the utilization of low impact developments. One of these was the application of tree box filters that act as a bioretention treatment system which executes filtration and sorption processes. In this study, a tree box filter located adjacent to an impervious parking lot was developed to treat suspended solids and heavy metal concentrations from urban stormwater runoff. In total, 11 storm events were monitored from July 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the tree box filter was highly effective in removing particulates (up to 95%) and heavy metals (at least 70%) from the urban stormwater runoff. Furthermore, the tree box filter was capable of reducing the volume runoff by 40% at a hydraulic loading rate of 1 m/day and below.

  1. Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P. [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States)], E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu; Holmes, R.W. [Water Branch, California Department of Fish and Game, 830 S Street, Sacramento, CA 95811 (United States)], E-mail: rholmes@dfg.ca.gov; Lydy, M.J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid pesticides occur in urban creek sediments at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive aquatic life. To better understand the source of these residues, runoff from residential neighborhoods around Sacramento, California was monitored over the course of a year. Pyrethroids were present in every sample. Bifenthrin, found at up to 73 ng/L in the water and 1211 ng/g on suspended sediment, was the pyrethroid of greatest toxicological concern, with cypermethrin and cyfluthrin of secondary concern. The bifenthrin could have originated either from use by consumers or professional pest controllers, though the seasonal pattern of discharge from the drain was more consistent with professional use as the dominant source. Stormwater runoff was more important than dry season irrigation runoff in transporting pyrethroids to urban creeks. A single intense storm was capable of discharging as much bifenthrin to an urban creek in 3 h as that discharged over 6 months of irrigation runoff. - Pyrethroid insecticides regularly detected in residential runoff at toxicologically significant concentrations.

  2. Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.P.; Holmes, R.W.; Lydy, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides occur in urban creek sediments at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive aquatic life. To better understand the source of these residues, runoff from residential neighborhoods around Sacramento, California was monitored over the course of a year. Pyrethroids were present in every sample. Bifenthrin, found at up to 73 ng/L in the water and 1211 ng/g on suspended sediment, was the pyrethroid of greatest toxicological concern, with cypermethrin and cyfluthrin of secondary concern. The bifenthrin could have originated either from use by consumers or professional pest controllers, though the seasonal pattern of discharge from the drain was more consistent with professional use as the dominant source. Stormwater runoff was more important than dry season irrigation runoff in transporting pyrethroids to urban creeks. A single intense storm was capable of discharging as much bifenthrin to an urban creek in 3 h as that discharged over 6 months of irrigation runoff. - Pyrethroid insecticides regularly detected in residential runoff at toxicologically significant concentrations

  3. Mineral Adsorbents for Removal of Metals in Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Karin; Li, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the capacity of four different soil minerals to adsorb metals frequently detected in urban runoff. These are low-cost, natural and commercially available soil minerals. Contaminated surface runoff from urban areas is a major cause of concern for water quality and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Pollution in urban areas is generated by a wide array of non-point sources, including vehicular transportation and building materials. Some of the most frequently detected pollutants in urban runoff are metals. Exhaust gases, tire wear and brake linings are major sources of such metals as Pb, Zn and Cu, while impregnated wood, plastics and galvanized surfaces may release As, Cd, Cr and Zn. Many metals have toxic effects on aquatic plants and animals, depending on metal speciation and bioavailability. The removal efficiency of pollutants in stormwater depends on treatment practices and on the properties the pollutant. The distribution of metals in urban runoff has shown, for example, that Pb is predominantly particle-associated, whereas Zn and Cd are present mainly in dissolved form. Many metals are also attached to colloids, which may act as carriers for contaminants, thereby facilitating their transport through conventional water treatment processes. Filtration of stormwater is one of the most promising techniques for removal of particulates, colloidal and truly dissolved pollutants, provided that effective filtration and adsorption media are used. Filtration and infiltration are used in a wide array of stormwater treatment methods e.g. porous paving, infiltration drains and rain gardens. Several soil minerals were investigated for their potential as stormwater filter materials. Laboratory batch tests were conducted to determine the adsorption capacity of these minerals. A synthetic stormwater was tested, with spiked concentrations corresponding to levels reported in urban runoff, ranging from 50-1,500 µg/L for Zn; 5-250 µg/L for Cu

  4. A Synopsis of Technical Issues for Monitoring Sediment in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Gray, John R.; Smith, Kirk P.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Accurate and representative sediment data are critical for assessing the potential effects of highway and urban runoff on receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identified sediment as the most widespread pollutant in the Nation's rivers and streams, affecting aquatic habitat, drinking water treatment processes, and recreational uses of rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Representative sediment data are also necessary for quantifying and interpreting concentrations, loads, and effects of trace elements and organic constituents associated with highway and urban runoff. Many technical issues associated with the collecting, processing, and analyzing of samples must be addressed to produce valid (useful for intended purposes), current, complete, and technically defensible data for local, regional, and national information needs. All aspects of sediment data-collection programs need to be evaluated, and adequate quality-control data must be collected and documented so that the comparability and representativeness of data obtained for highway- and urban-runoff studies may be assessed. Collection of representative samples for the measurement of sediment in highway and urban runoff involves a number of interrelated issues. Temporal and spatial variability in runoff result from a combination of factors, including volume and intensity of precipitation, rate of snowmelt, and features of the drainage basin such as area, slope, infiltration capacity, channel roughness, and storage characteristics. In small drainage basins such as those found in many highway and urban settings, automatic samplers are often the most suitable method for collecting samples of runoff for a variety of reasons. Indirect sediment-measurement methods are also useful as supplementary and(or) surrogate means for monitoring sediment in runoff. All of these methods have limitations in addition to benefits, which must be identified and quantified to produce representative data. Methods for

  5. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M Todd

    2018-04-17

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M. Todd

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns. PMID:29673182

  7. Contribution and loading estimation of organochlorine pesticides from rain and canopy throughfall to runoff in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Hu, Dan; Wang, Xuejun

    2011-01-30

    Concentrations of OCPs in rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water were measured in the Beijing metropolitan area during the rainy seasons from 2006 to 2007. This study was conducted to calculate the fluxes of OCPs in rain and canopy throughfall, as well as their contributions to runoff. At urban sites, the contribution of HCB and ΣHCHs from rainfall accounted for approximately 50% of the mass in runoff. At the site with significant coverage of landscaping trees, the HCB, ΣHCHs, and ΣDDTs from the net canopy throughfall accounted for approximately 10% of the mass in the runoff. Based on the data obtained in this study, loadings of OCPs (in μg) in rain, net canopy throughfall, and runoff water were calculated. The input of OCPs from rain and canopy throughfall water accounted for a significant portion of urban runoff. In cities undergoing rapid urban sprawl, monitoring and control of the transport of OCPs in urban runoff are essential for effective control of environmental hazards in surface water bodies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contamination by urban superficial runoff: accumulated heavy metals on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behaviour of accumulated contamination on urban surfaces is important in designing control methods minimising the impacts of surface runoff on the environment. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on the surface of an urban road in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a period of 65 days during which 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. The results showed that heavy metal concentration in the collected sediment (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was inversely proportional to particle diameter. High heavy metal concentrations were found in the smaller fraction (63 pm. Regression equations were calculated for heavy metal concentration regarding particle diameter. Large heavy metal loads were found in the larger fraction (125 pm. The results provide information for analysing runoff water quality in urban areas and designing treatment strategies.

  9. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  10. Storm water runoff concentration matrix for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, P.; Dierkes, C.; Coldewey, W. G.

    2007-04-01

    The infrastructure (roads, sidewalk, commercial and residential structures) added during the land development and urbanisation process is designed to collect precipitation and convey it out of the watershed, typically in existing surface water channels, such as streams and rivers. The quality of surface water, seepage water and ground water is influenced by pollutants that collect on impervious surfaces and that are carried by urban storm water runoff. Heavy metals, e.g. lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) and readily soluble salts in runoff, contribute to the degradation of water. An intensive literature search on the distribution and concentration of the surface-dependent runoff water has been compiled. Concentration variations of several pollutants derived from different surfaces have been averaged. More than 300 references providing about 1300 data for different pollutants culminate in a representative concentration matrix consisting of medians and extreme values. This matrix can be applied to long-term valuations and numerical modelling of storm water treatment facilities.

  11. First flush of storm runoff pollution from an urban catchment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing; He, Qing-Ci; Kong, Ling-Li

    2007-01-01

    Storm runoff pollution process was investigated in an urban catchment with an area of 1.3 km2 in Wuhan City of China. The results indicate that the pollutant concentration peaks preceded the flow peaks in all of 8 monitored storm events. The intervals between pollution peak and flow peak were shorter in the rain events with higher intensity in the initial period than those with lower intensity. The fractions of pollution load transported by the first 30% of runoff volume (FF30) were 52.2%-72.1% for total suspended solids (TSS), 53.0%-65.3% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40.4%-50.6% for total nitrogen (TN), and 45.8%-63.2% for total phosphorus (TP), respectively. Runoff pollution was positively related to non-raining days before the rainfall. Intercepting the first 30% of runoff volume can remove 62.4% of TSS load, 59.4% of COD load, 46.8% of TN load, and 54.1% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. It is suggested that controlling the first flush is a critical measure in reduction of urban stormwater pollution.

  12. Urban Stormwater Runoff. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Robert A.

    Urban stormwater runoff collects pollutants from many parts of a city and is an important consideration in water quality planning. Presented is an instructor's guide for a learning session covering various aspects of urban runoff including pollutant sources, management practices, and regulatory programs. Intended for citizen advisory groups, this…

  13. [Pollution load and the first flush effect of phosphorus in urban runoff of Wenzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Chen, Zhen-lou; Bi, Chun-juan

    2012-08-01

    Five typical rainfalls were monitored in two different research areas of Wenzhou municipality. The pH and concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved phosphorus (DP), particulate phosphorus (PP), total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), total suspended substances (TSS), BOD5 and COD in six different kinds of urban runoff were measured. The results showed that, the concentrations of TP, DP and PP in different kinds of urban runoff of Wenzhou ranged from 0.01 to 4.32 mg x L(-1), ND to 0.88 mg x L(-1) and ND to 4.31 mg x L(-1), respectively. In the early stages of runoff process PP was dominated, while in the later, the proportion of DP in most of the runoff samples would show a rising trend, especially in roof and outlet runoff. Judged by the event mean concentration (EMC) of TP and DP in these five rainfalls, some kinds of urban runoff could cause environmental pressure to the next level receiving water bodies. Meanwhile, the differences among the TP and DP content (maximum, minimum and mean content) in various urban runoffs were significant, and so were the differences among various rainfall events. According to the M (V) curve, the first flush effect of TP in most kinds of urban runoff was common; while the first flush effect of DP was more difficult to occur comparing with TP. Not only the underlying surface types but also many physico-chemical properties of runoff could affect the concentration of TP in urban runoff. All the results also suggested that different best management plans (BMPs) should be selected for various urban runoff types for the treatment of phosphorus pollution, and reducing the concentration of TSS is considered as one of the effective ways to decrease the pollution load of phosphorus in urban runoff.

  14. Performance of Two Bioswales on Urban Runoff Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfu Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of two bioswales eight years after construction in Davis, California. The treatment bioswale measured 9 m × 1 m × 1 m (L × W × D. Engineered soil mix (75% native lava rock and 25% loam soil replaced the native loam soil. Four Red Tip Photinia (Photinia × fraseri Dress trees and two Blueberry Muffin Hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Thunb. Makino shrubs were planted in the bioswale. Runoff flowed into the bioswale from an adjacent 171 m2 panel of turf grass. An identically sized control bioswale consisting of non-disturbed native soil was located adjacent to the treatment bioswale. Surface runoff quantity and quality were measured during three experiments with different pollutant loads. When compared to the control, the treatment bioswale reduced surface runoff by 99.4%, and reduced nitrogen, phosphate, and total organic carbon loading by 99.1%, 99.5%, and 99.4%, respectively. After eight years, tree growth characteristics were similar across both sites.

  15. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a dynamic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Li, Hao; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-05-15

    Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic modeling approach for assessing the PAH pollution and its associated environmental risk. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of pollutant buildup and washoff. To reflect the complex interaction among different environmental media (i.e. atmosphere, dust and stormwater), the dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. Long-term simulations of the model can be efficiently performed, and probabilistic features of the pollution level and its risk can be easily determined. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case study in Beijing, China. The results showed that Beijing's PAH pollution of road runoff is relatively severe, and its associated risk exhibits notable seasonal variation. The current sweeping practice is effective in mitigating the pollution, but the effectiveness is both weather-dependent and compound-dependent. The proposed modeling approach can help identify critical timing and major pollutants for monitoring, assessing and controlling efforts to be focused on. The approach is extendable to other urban areas, as well as to other contaminants with similar fate and transport as PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulating the effect of flow path roughness to examine how green infrastructure restores urban runoff timing and magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2015-01-01

    Impervious land cover was the choice for many urban development projects in order to accelerate runoff and reduce the depth and duration of local flooding, however this led to increases in downstream runoff characterized by large, flashy peak flows. Urban ecosystem restoration now involves slowing down urban runoff to restore local hydrology with green infrastructure,...

  17. ICUD-0061 Field station to quantify overland runoff from urban green areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristoffer; Duus, L. B.; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    A hydrological field station is established to measure storm water runoff from a 4300 m2 pervious catchment in an urban landscape. The objective is to explore potential flood early warning indicators and assess the consequences of runoff from pervious surfaces to urban drainage systems in addition...... to runoff from impermeable surfaces. Soil volumetric water content and soil-water matric potential are measured in several sensor clusters in the catchment. It is found that measured surface runoff and soil volumetric water content are well correlated while matric potential is an on-off indicator...

  18. Simulated rain events on an urban roadway to understand the dynamics of mercury mobilization in stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, Chris S; Branfireun, Brian

    2009-08-01

    This research focuses on mercury (Hg) mobilization in stormwater runoff from an urban roadway. The objectives were to determine: how the transport of surface-derived Hg changes during an event hydrograph; the influence of antecedent dry days on the runoff Hg load; the relationship between total suspended sediments (TSS) and Hg transport, and; the fate of new Hg input in rain and its relative importance to the runoff Hg load. Simulated rain events were used to control variables to elucidate transport processes and a Hg stable isotope was used to trace the fate of Hg inputs in rain. The results showed that Hg concentrations were highest at the beginning of the hydrograph and were predominantly particulate bound (HgP). On average, almost 50% of the total Hg load was transported during the first minutes of runoff, underscoring the importance of the initial runoff on load calculations. Hg accumulated on the road surface during dry periods resulting in the Hg runoff load increasing with antecedent dry days. The Hg concentrations in runoff were significantly correlated with TSS concentrations (mean r(2)=0.94+/-0.09). The results from the isotope experiments showed that the new Hg inputs quickly become associated with the surface particles and that the majority of Hg in runoff is derived from non-event surface-derived sources.

  19. Change detection of runoff-urban growth relationship in urbanised watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas, Aisya Azizah; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    Urban growth has negative environmental impacts that create water-based disasters such as flash floods and storm runoff causing billions of dollars worth of damage each year. Due to serious flash floods in urbanised areas of Malaysia, water resource management is a vital issue. This paper reports on a study that has been carried out using remote sensing techniques and hydrological modelling for examining the spatial patterns changes of urban areas and its impacts on surface runoff. The estimation of surface runoff based on the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS CN) method was performed by integrating both remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Remote sensing is a data sources for monitoring urban growth by quantifying the changes of urban area and its environmental impact are then analysed by using a GIS-based hydrological model. By linking the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS, the relationship of runoff with urban expansion are further examined. Hence, the changes in runoff due to urbanisation are analysed. This methodology is applied to the central region of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, where rapid urban growth has occurred over the last decade. The results showed that there was a significant between spatial patterns of urban growth and estimated runoff depth. The increase in runoff from year 2000, 2006 and 2010 are estimated about five percent

  20. Analysis of long-term trends (1950–2009) in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velpuri, N M; Senay, G B

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term trends in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States. The seasonal Mann–Kendall trend test was performed on monthly precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient data from 1950 to 2009 obtained from 62 urban watersheds covering 21 major urban centers in the United States. The results indicate that only five out of 21 urban centers in the United States showed an uptrend in precipitation. Twelve urban centers showed an uptrend in runoff coefficient. However, six urban centers did not show any trend in runoff coefficient, and three urban centers showed a significant downtrend. The highest rate of change in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient was observed in the Houston urban watershed. Based on the results obtained, we also attributed plausible causes for the trends. Our analysis indicated that while a human only influence is observed in most of the urban watersheds, a combined climate and human influence is observed in the central United States. (letter)

  1. A Review of Semivolatile and Volatile Organic Compounds in Highway Runoff and Urban Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Dionne, Shannon G.

    1998-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted since 1970 to characterize concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in highway runoff and urban stormwater. To a lesser extent, studies also have characterized concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), estimated loads of SVOCs, and assessed potential impacts of these contaminants on receiving streams. This review evaluates the quality of existing data on SVOCs and VOCs in highway runoff and urban storm- water and summarizes significant findings. Studies related to highways are emphasized when possible. The review included 44 articles and reports that focused primarily on SVOCs and VOCs. Only 17 of these publications are related to highways, and 5 of these 17 are themselves review papers. SVOCs in urban stormwater and sediments during the late 1970's to mid-1980's were the subject of most studies. Criteria used to evaluate data quality included documentation of sampling protocols, analytical methods, minimum reporting limit (MRL) or method detection limit (MDL), qualityassurance protocols, and quality-control samples. The largest deficiency in documenting data quality was that only 10 percent of the studies described where water samples were collected in the stream cross section. About 80 percent of SVOCs in runoff are in the suspended solids. Because suspended solids can vary significantly even in narrow channels, concentrations from discrete point samples and contaminant loads estimated from those samples are questionable without information on sample location or how well streamflow was mixed. Thirty percent or fewer of the studies documented the MRL, MDL, cleaning of samplers, or use of field quality-control samples. Comparing results of different studies and evaluating the quality of environmental data, especially for samples with low concentrations, is difficult without this information. The most significant factor affecting SVOC concentrations in water is suspended solids concentration. In sediment

  2. Urban rainwater runoff quantity and quality: a potential endogenous resource in cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Angrill Toledo, Sara; Petit Boix, Anna; Morales Pinzon, Tito; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Rieradevall Pons, Joan; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting might help to achieve self-sufficiency, but it must comply with health standards. We studied the runoff quantity and quality harvested from seven urban surfaces in a university campus in Barcelona according to their use (pedestrian or motorized mobility) and materials (concrete, asphalt and slabs). An experimental rainwater harvesting system was used to collect the runoff resulting from a set of rainfall events. We estimated the runoff coefficient and initial abstraction ...

  3. The Impact of Urban Run-Off on Ogbor River | Atuluegwu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of urban run-off on Ogbor River in Aba metropolis has been studied. The run-off contains toxic chemical, heavy metals and suspended solids. Water samples were collected from three discharged points in the months of May to September. The results of the analysis of the samples show high-level concentration of ...

  4. How does imperviousness develop and affect runoff generation in an urbanizing watershed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness associated with urbanization remains one of the biggest challenges in sustainable urban design. The replacement of forests, marshlands, buffers, and wetlands with impervious surfaces, strongly influences hydrological processes in urbanizing areas. This study analyzed the contribution of four constructed surfaces types – roofs, yards, roads, and an international airport – to surface runoff within a 21 km2 watershed, and presents the development over five decades (1977−2030. The land-cover model, used to assess watershed imperviousness in 2030, utilized coefficients between impervious areas generating surface runoff and the floor area, developed during the study. The conducted imperviousness analysis allowed the evaluation of land-use development impacts on the stream network, and the identification of hydrologically active areas for urban planning and stormwater management. Research revealed the importance of yard imperviousness related to suburban residential housing for stormwater runoff generation, and the impacts of transport-related imperviousness on stormwater runoff.

  5. Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers following rain events at a beach impacted by urban runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers following rain events at a beach impacted by urban runoff Timothy J. Wade, Reagan R. Converse, Elizabeth A. Sams, Ann H. Williams, Edward Hudgens, Alfred P. Dufour Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers have been associated with fecal ...

  6. Real time adjustment of slow changing flow components in distributed urban runoff models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, M.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    In many urban runoff systems infiltrating water contributes with a substantial part of the total inflow and therefore most urban runoff modelling packages include hydrological models for simulating the infiltrating inflow. This paper presents a method for deterministic updating of the hydrological...... improvements for regular simulations as well as up to 10 hour forecasts. The updating method reduces the impact of non-representative precipitation estimates as well as model structural errors and leads to better overall modelling results....

  7. Effects of Urban Stormwater Infrastructure and Spatial Scale on Nutrient Export and Runoff from Semi-Arid Urban Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Turnbull, L.; Earl, S.; Grimm, N. B.

    2011-12-01

    There has been an abundance of literature on the effects of urbanization on downstream ecosystems, particularly due to changes in nutrient inputs as well as hydrology. Less is known, however, about nutrient transport processes and processing in urban watersheds. Engineered drainage systems are likely to play a significant role in controlling the transport of water and nutrients downstream, and variability in these systems within and between cities may lead to differences in the effects of urbanization on downstream ecosystems over time and space. We established a nested stormwater sampling network with 12 watersheds ranging in scale from 5 to 17000 ha in the Indian Bend Wash watershed in Scottsdale, AZ. Small (density residential), but were drained by a variety of stormwater infrastructure including surface runoff, pipes, natural or modified washes, and retention basins. At the outlet of each of these catchments we monitored rainfall and discharge, and sampled stormwater throughout runoff events for dissolved nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and organic carbon (oC). Urban stormwater infrastructure is characterized by a range of hydrologic connectivity. Piped watersheds are highly connected and runoff responds linearly to rainfall events, in contrast to watersheds drained with retention basins and washes, where runoff exhibits a nonlinear threshold response to rainfall events. Nutrient loads from piped watersheds scale linearly with total storm rainfall. Because of frequent flushing, nutrient concentrations from these sites are lower than from wash and retention basin drained sites and total nutrient loads exhibit supply limitation, e.g., nutrient loads are poorly predicted by storm rainfall and are strongly controlled by factors that determine the amount of nutrients stored within the watershed, such as antecedent dry days. In contrast, wash and retention basin-drained watersheds exhibit transport limitation. These watersheds flow less frequently than pipe

  8. A multi-stakeholder framework for urban runoff quality management: Application of social choice and bargaining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, an integrated framework is proposed for urban runoff management. To control and improve runoff quality and quantity, Low Impact Development (LID) practices are utilized. In order to determine the LIDs' areas and locations, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), which considers three objective functions of minimizing runoff volume, runoff pollution and implementation cost of LIDs, is utilized. In this framework, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used for stream flow simulation. The non-dominated solutions provided by the NSGA-II are considered as management scenarios. To select the most preferred scenario, interactions among the main stakeholders in the study area with conflicting utilities are incorporated by utilizing bargaining models including a non-cooperative game, Nash model and social choice procedures of Borda count and approval voting. Moreover, a new social choice procedure, named pairwise voting method, is proposed and applied. Based on each conflict resolution approach, a scenario is identified as the ideal solution providing the LIDs' areas, locations and implementation cost. The proposed framework is applied for urban water quality and quantity management in the northern part of Tehran metropolitan city, Iran. Results show that the proposed pairwise voting method tends to select a scenario with a higher percentage of reduction in TSS (Total Suspended Solid) load and runoff volume, in comparison with the Borda count and approval voting methods. Besides, the Nash method presents a management scenario with the highest cost for LIDs' implementation and the maximum values for percentage of runoff volume reduction and TSS removal. The results also signify that selection of an appropriate management scenario by stakeholders in the study area depends on the available financial resources and the relative importance of runoff quality improvement in comparison with reducing the runoff volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  9. [Characterization and source apportionment of pollutants in urban roadway runoff in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Hao, Li-Ling; Hou, Pei-Qiang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2012-01-01

    By investigating surface runoff from urban roadway in Chongqing, we assessed the characteristics of surface runoff pollution and the effect of rainfall intensity and antecedent dry weather period on water quality. Using multivariate statistical analysis of data of runoff quality, potential pollutants discharged from urban roadway runoff were identified. The results show that the roadway runoff has high levels of COD, TP and TN, the EMC were 60.83-208.03 mg x L(-1), 0.47-1.01 mg x L(-1) and 2.07-5.00 mg x L(-1) respectively, being the main pollutants; The peaks of pollutant concentration are ahead of or synchronous with the peak of runoff volume; the peaks of pollutant concentrations are mostly occurred within 10 minutes of rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations fluctuate dentately during runoff proceeding. Two potential pollution sources to urban roadway runoff apportioned by using principal component analysis are: vehicle's traffic loss and atmospheric dry and wet deposition, and municipal wastes.

  10. Toxicity assessment of simulated urban runoff containing polycyclic musks and cadmium in Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Gao Jie; Zhou Qixing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of simulated urban runoff on Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers. The activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of C. auratus were analyzed after a 7-, 14- and 21-day exposure to simulated urban runoff containing galaxolide (HHCB) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of MDA increased significantly exposed to the simulated urban runoff containing HHCB alone or mixture of HHCB and Cd. The activity of the investigated enzymes and the content of MDA then returned to the blank level over a longer period of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the liver of C. auratus under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Highlights: ► We assessed potential toxicity of urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd. ► Exposure of simulated urban runoff can caused oxidative stress in C. auratus liver. ► SOD and CAT are more sensitive than POD and more suitable for indicating the toxicity of urban runoff. ► The present study using oxidative stress biomarkers could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Simulated urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd could cause oxidative stress on the liver of Carassius auratus, which could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff.

  11. Nonpoint source pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a methodology for source analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Guido; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Shorshani, Masoud Fallah; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-09-01

    The characterization and control of runoff pollution from nonpoint sources in urban areas are a major issue for the protection of aquatic environments. We propose a methodology to quantify the sources of pollutants in an urban catchment and to analyze the associated uncertainties. After describing the methodology, we illustrate it through an application to the sources of Cu, Pb, Zn, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a residential catchment (228 ha) in the Paris region. In this application, we suggest several procedures that can be applied for the analysis of other pollutants in different catchments, including an estimation of the total extent of roof accessories (gutters and downspouts, watertight joints and valleys) in a catchment. These accessories result as the major source of Pb and as an important source of Zn in the example catchment, while activity-related sources (traffic, heating) are dominant for Cu (brake pad wear) and PAH (tire wear, atmospheric deposition).

  12. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  13. Runoff quality and pollution loadings from a tropical urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Z; Tan, L W; Ujang, Z; Mohamed, M; Nasir, K A

    2005-01-01

    Runoff quality draining from 17.14 km2 urban catchment in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, was analysed. The land-use consists of residential (30.3%), agricultural (27.3%), open space (27.9%), industrial (8.1%) and commercial (6.4%) areas. Three storm events were sampled in detail. These storms produced stormflow between 0.84 mm and 27.82 mm, and peakflow from 2.19 m3/s to 42.36 m3/s. Water quality showed marked variation during storms especially for TSS, BOD and COD with maximum concentrations of 778 mg/l, 135 mg/l and 358 mg/l, respectively. Concentrations of TOC, DOC, NH3-N, Fe and level of colour were also high. In general, the river quality is badly polluted and falls in Class V based on the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standards. Event Mean Concentrations (EMC) for various parameters varied considerably between storms. The largest storm produced higher EMC for TSS, NO3-N and SS whereas the smaller storms tend to register higher EMC for BOD, COD, NH3-N, TOC, Ca, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Such variations could be explained in terms of pollutant availability and the effects of flushing and dilution. Based on a three-month average recurrence interval (ARI) of rainfall, the estimated event loadings (ton/ha) of TSS, BOD, COD, TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N were 0.055, 0.016, 0.012, 0.039, 0.010, 0.0007 and 0.0002, respectively. Heavy metals present in trace quantities. Storms with 3 months ARI could capture about 70% of the total annual loads of major pollutants.

  14. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  15. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Does runoff or temperature control chemical weathering rates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The rate chemical weathering is affected by both temperature and runoff. Separating out these two factors is challenging because runoff tends to increase with increasing temperature. → In this study, natural river water samples collected on basaltic catchments over a five year period are used together with experimentally derived dissolution rate model for basaltic glass to pull apart the effects of runoff and temperature. → This study shows that the rate of chemical denudation is controlled by both temperature and runoff, but is dominated by runoff. - Abstract: The rate of chemical denudation is controlled by both temperature and runoff. The relative role of these two factors in the rivers of NE Iceland is determined through the rigorous analysis of their water chemistry over a 5-a period. River catchments are taken to be analogous to laboratory flow reactors; like the fluid in flow reactors, the loss of each dissolved element in river water is the sum of that of the original rainwater plus that added from kinetically controlled dissolution and precipitation reactions. Consideration of the laboratory determined dissolution rate behaviour of basalts and measured water chemistry indicates that the maximum effect of changing temperature on chemical denudation in the NE Icelandic rivers was 5-25% of the total change, whereas that of runoff was 75-95%. The bulk of the increased denudation rates with runoff appear to stem from an increase in reactive surface area for chemical weathering of catchment solids.

  18. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Moo Young

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD cr , TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO 3 , TP, PO 4 and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways. - Research highlights: → Field test on urban highway were performed to 50 of 100 storm events for 3 years. → The peak pollutant concentrations occurs 20 min after the first runoff. → The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and rainfall intensity. → Relationship between runoff and event mean concentration for SS and COD. → A crest of the EMC by 70-80 m 3 /event and decreasing EMC after 70-80 m 3 /event. - This study investigate the characterization of the EMC of runoff during rainfall event on highway.

  19. Temporal and spatial responses of Chironomidae (Diptera) and other benthic invertebrates to urban stormwater runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Gresens; Kenneth T. Belt; Jamie A. Tang; Daniel C. Gwinn; Patricia A. Banks

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of two streams whose lower reaches received unattenuated urban stormwater runoff, physical disturbance by stormflow was less important than the persistant unidentified chemical impacts of urban stormwater in limiting the distribution of Chironomidae, and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera (EPT). A hierarchical spatial analysis showed that...

  20. The role of soil in the generation of urban runoff : development and evaluation of a 2D model

    OpenAIRE

    BERTHIER, E; ANDRIEU, H; CREUTIN, JD

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model is developed to determine the role of soil in the formation of urban catchment runoff. The model is based on a modeling unit, called the Urban Hydrological Element (UHE), which corresponds to the cross-section of an urban cadastral parcel. Water flow in the soil of a UHE is explicitly simulated with a finite element code for solving the Richards' equation. Two runoff components, dependent on soil behavior, are represented: runoff from natural surfaces and dra...

  1. Characterizations of the first flush in storm water runoff from an urban roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B C; Matsui, S; Shimizu, Y; Matsuda, T

    2005-07-01

    Storm water runoff from urban roadways contains anthropogenic pollutants, which are mainly generated from traffic-related activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of pollutants from the roadway runoff as well as first flush effects. Storm water runoff was sampled during five storm events from the experimental site in Otsu, Shiga, Japan. From the hydrographs and pollutographs for the roadway runoff, the concentration of pollutants increased with increasing runoff flow in the low flow rate event, but did not significantly increase in the high flow rate event. Moreover, according to the analysis of cumulative pollutant mass versus runoff volume curves from five storm events, the first 50% of the runoff volume transported 62% of TOC and Mo, 60% of SS, 59% of Fe, Mn and Cu, 58% of Ni, 57% of Cd and Pb, 56% of Al, 55% of Zn, and 54% of Cr, as the mean values. The first 30% and 80% of the runoff volume also transported 34-43% mass of the pollutants and 82-88% mass of the pollutants, respectively. This study for storm water runoff may also provide useful information to correctly design treatment facilities, such as detention tanks and ponds, filtration and adsorption systems.

  2. Curve Number Estimation for a Small Urban Catchment from Recorded Rainfall-Runoff Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasik Kazimierz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Runoff estimation is a key component in various hydrological considerations. Estimation of storm runoff is especially important for the effective design of hydraulic and road structures, for the flood flow management, as well as for the analysis of land use changes, i.e. urbanization or low impact development of urban areas. The curve number (CN method, developed by Soil Conservation Service (SCS of the U.S. Department of Agriculture for predicting the flood runoff depth from ungauged catchments, has been in continuous use for ca. 60 years. This method has not been extensively tested in Poland, especially in small urban catchments, because of lack of data. In this study, 39 rainfall-runoff events, collected during four years (2009–2012 in a small (A=28.7 km2, urban catchment of Służew Creek in southwest part of Warsaw were used, with the aim of determining the CNs and to check its applicability to ungauged urban areas. The parameters CN, estimated empirically, vary from 65.1 to 95.0, decreasing with rainfall size and, when sorted rainfall and runoff separately, reaching the value from 67 to 74 for large rainfall events.

  3. Investigation of Quality and Reclamation of Urban Storm Runoff in City of Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parvinnia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban storm runoff is considered as a potentially reclaimable and valuable resource in many arid and semiarid areas, in Iran. Urban storm runoff in Shiraz is collected mainly by Khoshk River and transported to the Maharloo Lake without any treatment or reclamation. In this study, storm runoff quality and the possibility for its reclamation from different parts of the city in certain canals and pipes are investigated. The quality of the first flush in three relatively large and small suburban areas with different land uses is studied. For the purposes of this study, three stations were considered: one near the downstream end of the city on Khoshk River with a relatively large watershed, one in the middle of the city where street runoff is the main constituent of the flush, and a third one near the western outskirts of the city with relatively small mainly residential watershed.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in storm runoff from urban and coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabe, B; Bidleman, T F; Scott, G I

    2000-06-08

    Stormwater runoff was collected in urbanized areas of South Carolina to investigate the levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Mean concentrations of total PAHs in runoff (sum(PAHs), 14 compounds), determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were 5590 ng/l in the city of Columbia and 282 ng/l in the coastal community of Murrells Inlet. Lower concentrations were found in estuarine water at Murrells Inlet (mean = 35 ng/l) and at undeveloped North Inlet estuary (13 ng/l). The PAH profiles in Columbia and Murrells Inlet runoff were similar to those of atmospheric particulate matter and unlike those in used crankcase oil. Examination of the aliphatic fraction of Columbia runoff samples by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection showed patterns that were more similar to used crankcase oil than to urban aerosols.

  5. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shucai; Wan, Chao; Yue, Dapan; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2008-06-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing.

  6. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  7. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    elements and other sources of bias and variability in the sampling process. Trace elements have both natural and anthropogenic sources that may affect the sampling process, including the sample-collection and handling materials used in many trace-element monitoring studies. Trace elements also react with these materials within the timescales typical for collection, processing and analysis of runoff samples. To study the characteristics and potential effects of trace elements in highway and urban runoff, investigators typically sample one or more operationally defined matrixes including: whole water, dissolved (filtered water), suspended sediment, bottom sediment, biological tissue, and contaminant sources. The sampling and analysis of each of these sample matrixes can provide specific information about the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in runoff and receiving waters. There are, however, technical concerns specific to each matrix that must be understood and addressed through use of proper collection and processing protocols. Valid protocols are designed to minimize inherent problems and to maximize the accuracy, precision, comparability, and representativeness of data collected. Documentation, including information about monitoring protocols, quality assurance and quality control efforts, and ancillary data also is necessary to establish data quality. This documentation is especially important for evaluation of historical traceelement monitoring data, because trace-element monitoring protocols and analysis methods have been constantly changing over the past 30 years.

  8. Managing urban runoff in residential neighborhoods: Nitrogen and phosphorus in lawn irrigation driven runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Marti L.; Yang, Yun-Ya; Majcherek, Tammy; Haver, Darren; Oki, Lorence

    2017-01-01

    Sources and mechanisms of nutrient transport in lawn irrigation driven surface runoff are largely unknown. We investigated the transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lawn irrigation driven surface runoff from a residential neighborhood (28 ha) of 56% impervious and 44% pervious areas. Pervious areas encompassing turfgrass (lawns) in the neighborhood were irrigated with the reclaimed water in common areas during the evening to late night and with the municipal water in homeowner’s lawns during the morning. The stormwater outlet pipe draining the residential neighborhood was instrumented with a flow meter and Hach autosampler. Water samples were collected every 1-h and triple composite samples were obtained at 3-h intervals during an intensive sampling period of 1-week. Mean concentrations, over 56 sampling events, of total N (TN) and total P (TP) in surface runoff at the outlet pipe were 10.9±6.34 and 1.3±1.03 mg L–1, respectively. Of TN, the proportion of nitrate–N was 58% and other–N was 42%, whereas of TP, orthophosphate–P was 75% and other–P was 25%. Flow and nutrient (N and P) concentrations were lowest from 6:00 a.m. to noon, which corresponded with the use of municipal water and highest from 6:00 p.m. to midnight, which corresponded with the use of reclaimed water. This data suggests that N and P originating in lawn irrigation driven surface runoff from residential catchments is an important contributor of nutrients in surface waters. PMID:28604811

  9. Developing a stochastic conflict resolution model for urban runoff quality management: Application of info-gap and bargaining theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two deterministic and stochastic multilateral, multi-issue, non-cooperative bargaining methodologies are proposed for urban runoff quality management. In the proposed methodologies, a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate stormwater runoff quantity and quality for different urban stormwater runoff management scenarios, which have been defined considering several Low Impact Development (LID) techniques. In the deterministic methodology, the best management scenario, representing location and area of LID controls, is identified using the bargaining model. In the stochastic methodology, uncertainties of some key parameters of SWMM are analyzed using the info-gap theory. For each water quality management scenario, robustness and opportuneness criteria are determined based on utility functions of different stakeholders. Then, to find the best solution, the bargaining model is performed considering a combination of robustness and opportuneness criteria for each scenario based on utility function of each stakeholder. The results of applying the proposed methodology in the Velenjak urban watershed located in the northeastern part of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, illustrate its practical utility for conflict resolution in urban water quantity and quality management. It is shown that the solution obtained using the deterministic model cannot outperform the result of the stochastic model considering the robustness and opportuneness criteria. Therefore, it can be concluded that the stochastic model, which incorporates the main uncertainties, could provide more reliable results.

  10. Particle size distribution variance in untreated urban runoff and its implication on treatment selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the particle size distribution (PSD) of sediment in urban runoff assists in the selection of appropriate treatment systems for sediment removal as systems vary in their ability to remove sediment across different particle size fractions. Variation in PSD in runoff from individual urban surfaces both during and across multiple rain events is not well understood and it may lead to performance uncertainty in treatment systems. Runoff PSDs in international literature were compiled to provide a comparative summary of PSDs from different urban surfaces. To further assess both intra-event and inter-event PSD variation, untreated runoff was collected from road, concrete roof, copper roof, and galvanized roof surfaces within an urban catchment exposed to the same rainfall conditions and analysed for PSD and total suspended solids (TSS). Road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper roofs had high initial TSS that reduced to very low levels under steady state conditions. Despite variation in TSS concentrations, the median particle diameter of the TSS was comparable across the surfaces. Intra-event variation was generally not significant, but substantial inter-event variation was observed, particularly for coarser road and concrete roof surfaces. PSD variation for each surface contributed to a wide range in predicted treatment performance and suggests that short-retention treatment devices carry a high performance risk of not being able to achieve adequate TSS removal across all rain events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urbanization and runoff in the Tucunduba hydrographic basin, Belém, PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the runoff resulting from urban sprawl in the area of Tucunduba basin, in Belem, in the period between 1972 and 2006, which is characterized by a urbanization process started in the 1960s by low income population without adequate infrastructure services. Urbanization modifies the soil surface interfering on the ground phase of the hydrological cycle, inasmuch as it reduces the area of infiltration, increases runoff, and the runoff coefficient. A geographic database with land use and land cover map layers extracted from orthophotos acquired in 1972, 1977, and 1998 and a SPOT satellite image acquired in 2006 were used. Digital maps and analysis of the urbanization processes were supported by tools available in ArcGIS™ software package. To estimate the infiltration potential (S and effective rainfall (Pe, as a function of rainfall duration equal to the maximum time of concentration of the water in the basin, Curve Number methodology proposed by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS was applied. Rainfall estimates were calculated using the maximum rain equation for the city of Belém, with return times specified at 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100, and 200 years. The results showed an increase in areas of high and medium population density (urban and reduced area of low population density (secondary forest growth for the years of 1972, 1977, 1998, and 2006, that generated a higher effective precipitation value and, therefore, a higher effective runoff coefficient value (C.

  12. Predicting runoff induced mass loads in urban watersheds: Linking land use and pyrethroid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Kazue; Lau, Sim-Lin; Nonezyan, Michael; McElroy, Elizabeth; Wolfe, Becky; Suffet, Irwin H; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-10-01

    Pyrethroid pesticide mass loadings in the Ballona Creek Watershed were calculated using the volume-concentration method with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore potential relationships between urban land use, impervious surfaces, and pyrethroid runoff flowing into an urban stream. A calibration of the GIS volume-concentration model was performed using 2013 and 2014 wet-weather sampling data. Permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were detected as the highest concentrations; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and cyfluthrin were the most frequently detected synthetic pyrethroids. Eight neighborhoods within the watershed were highlighted as target areas based on a Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA) in GIS. Water phase concentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) were calculated from the reported usage. The need for stricter BMP and consumer product controls was identified as a possible way of reducing the detections of pyrethroids in Ballona Creek. This model has significant implications for determining mass loadings due to land use influence, and offers a flexible method to extrapolate data for a limited amount of samplings for a larger watershed, particularly for chemicals that are not subject to environmental monitoring. Offered as a simple approach to watershed management, the GIS-volume concentration model has the potential to be applied to other target pesticides and is useful for simulating different watershed scenarios. Further research is needed to compare results against other similar urban watersheds situated in mediterranean climates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation of Urban Rainfall-Runoff in Piedmont Cities: A Case Study in Jinan City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, X.; Xu, Z.; Zhao, G.; Li, H.

    2017-12-01

    During the past decades, frequent flooding disasters in urban areas resulted in catastrophic impacts such as human life casualties and property damages especially in piedmont cities due to its specific topography. In this study, a piedmont urban flooding model was developed in the Huangtaiqiao catchment based on SWMM. The sub-catchments in this piedmont area were divided into mountainous area, plain area and main urban area according to the variations of underlying surface topography. The impact of different routing mode and channel roughness on simulation results was quantitatively analyzed under different types of scenarios, and genetic algorithm was used to optimize model parameters. Results show that the simulation is poor (with a mean Nash coefficient of 0.61) when using the traditional routing mode in SWMM model, which usually ignores terrain variance in piedmont area. However, when the difference of routing mode, percent routed and channel roughness are considered, the prediction precision of model were significantly increased (with a mean Nash coefficient of 0.86), indicating that the difference of surface topography significantly affects the simulation results in piedmont cities. The relevant results would provide the scientific basis and technical support for rainfall-runoff simulation, flood control and disaster alleviation in piedmont cities.

  14. Treatment of synthetic urban runoff using manganese oxide-coated sand in the presence of magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Foroughi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Manganese oxide-coated sand filter in the presence of magnetic field improve the quality of urban runoff significantly. Authors believe that this approach is simple, economical and efficient as in comparison to other existing methods. This could be a promising treatment technology that can enhance quality of urban runoff and industrial wastewaters.

  15. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  16. Soil bioretention protects juvenile salmon and their prey from the toxic impacts of urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Hinman, C; Macneale, K H; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L; Stark, J D

    2015-08-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI), or low impact development, encompasses a diverse and expanding portfolio of strategies to reduce the impacts of stormwater runoff on natural systems. Benchmarks for GSI success are usually framed in terms of hydrology and water chemistry, with reduced flow and loadings of toxic chemical contaminants as primary metrics. Despite the central goal of protecting aquatic species abundance and diversity, the effectiveness of GSI treatments in maintaining diverse assemblages of sensitive aquatic taxa has not been widely evaluated. In the present study we characterized the baseline toxicity of untreated urban runoff from a highway in Seattle, WA, across six storm events. For all storms, first flush runoff was toxic to the daphniid Ceriodaphnia dubia, causing up to 100% mortality or impairing reproduction among survivors. We then evaluated whether soil media used in bioretention, a conventional GSI method, could reduce or eliminate toxicity to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) as well as their macroinvertebrate prey, including cultured C. dubia and wild-collected mayfly nymphs (Baetis spp.). Untreated highway runoff was generally lethal to salmon and invertebrates, and this acute mortality was eliminated when the runoff was filtered through soil media in bioretention columns. Soil treatment also protected against sublethal reproductive toxicity in C. dubia. Thus, a relatively inexpensive GSI technology can be highly effective at reversing the acutely lethal and sublethal effects of urban runoff on multiple aquatic species. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Shucai; Wan Chao; Yue Dapan; Ye Youbin; Wang Xuejun

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing. - Urban road runoff and road dust, canopy throughfall and rain were considered as a system for diagnostics of PAH sources

  18. Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC Waters Design Features in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ping Goh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Storm water management in Singapore has always been a challenge due to intense rainfall in a flat, low-lying and urbanised catchment. PUB’s (Singapore’s National Water Agency recent runoff control regulation limits the runoff coefficient to 0.55 for developments larger than or equal to 0.2 ha. The use of Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC Waters design features are encouraged to attain peak runoff reduction. Hence the paper focuses on (i determining the actual hydrological response regime of Singapore using the relationship between runoff coefficient (C, land use and slope; and (ii investigating the effectiveness of ABC Waters design features in delaying and reducing peak runoff using a modelling approach. Based on a Storm Water Management Model (SWMM model and using elevation, land use and soil data as inputs, the peak C-values were obtained for 50 m × 50 m grid cells. The results show that for the same land use, the one with steeper slope resulted in a higher runoff coefficient. Simulations were carried out in two study areas, Green Walk District and Tengah Subcatchment, where ABC Waters design features (such as porous pavements, green roofs, rain gardens and detention tanks were incorporated to reduce C-values. Results showed that peak C-values can be reduced to less than 0.55 after increasing the green areas and constructing detention facilities. Reduction in peak discharge (22% to 63% and a delay in peak discharge by up to 30 min were also observed. Hence, it is recommended to consider the relationship between slope and land use while determining runoff coefficients; and to incorporate ABC Waters design features in urban design to reduce the peak flow and runoff coefficient (C.

  19. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2017-01-01

    Weather radar data used for urban drainage applications are traditionally adjusted to point ground references, e.g., rain gauges. However, the available rain gauge density for the adjustment is often low, which may lead to significant representativeness errors. Yet, in many urban catchments, rain...

  20. Simulation and assessment of urbanization impacts on runoff metrics: insights from landuse changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Yu, Jingjie; Randall, Mark; Zhang, Yichi; Zhao, Tongtiegang; Pan, Xingyao; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Shao, Quanxi

    2018-05-01

    Urbanization-induced landuse changes alter runoff regimes in complex ways. In this study, a detailed investigation of the urbanization impacts on runoff regimes is provided by using multiple runoff metrics and with consideration of landuse dynamics. A catchment hydrological model is modified by coupling a simplified flow routing module of the urban drainage system and landuse dynamics to improve long-term urban runoff simulations. Moreover, multivariate statistical approach is adopted to mine the spatial variations of runoff metrics so as to further identify critical impact factors of landuse changes. The Qing River catchment as a peri-urban catchment in the Beijing metropolitan area is selected as our study region. Results show that: (1) the dryland agriculture is decreased from 13.9% to 1.5% of the total catchment area in the years 2000-2015, while the percentages of impervious surface, forest and grass are increased from 63.5% to 72.4%, 13.5% to 16.6% and 5.1% to 6.5%, respectively. The most dramatic landuse changes occur in the middle and downstream regions; (2) The combined landuse changes do not alter the average flow metrics obviously at the catchment outlet, but slightly increase the high flow metrics, particularly the extreme high flows; (3) The impacts on runoff metrics in the sub-catchments are more obvious than those at the catchment outlet. For the average flow metrics, the most impacted metric is the runoff depth in the dry season (October ∼ May) with a relative change from -10.9% to 11.6%, and the critical impact factors are the impervious surface and grass. For the high flow metrics, the extreme high flow depth is increased most significantly with a relative change from -0.6% to 10.5%, and the critical impact factors are the impervious surface and dryland agriculture; (4) The runoff depth metrics in the sub-catchments are increased because of the landuse changes from dryland agriculture to impervious surface, but are decreased because of the

  1. Potential urban runoff impacts and contaminant distributions in shoreline and reservoir environments of Lake Havasu, southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Doyle C

    2018-04-15

    Heavy metal, nutrient, and hydrocarbon levels in and adjacent to Lake Havasu, a regionally significant water supply reservoir with a highly controlled, dynamic flow regime, are assessed in relation to possible stormwater runoff impacts from an arid urban center. Shallow groundwater and sediment analyses from ephemeral drainage (wash) mouths that convey stormwater runoff from Lake Havasu City, Arizona to the reservoir, provided contaminant control points and correlation ties with the reservoir environment. Fine-grain sediments tend to contain higher heavy metal concentrations whereas nutrients are more evenly distributed, except low total organic carbon levels from young wash mouth surfaces devoid of vegetation. Heavy metal and total phosphate sediment concentrations in transects from wash mouths into the reservoir have mixed and decreasing trends, respectively. Both series may indicate chemical depositional influences from urban runoff, yet no statistically significant concentration differences occur between specific wash mouths and corresponding offshore transects. Heavy metal pollution indices of all sediments indicate no discernible to minor contamination, indicating that runoff impacts are minimal. Nevertheless, several heavy metal concentrations from mid-reservoir sediment sites increase southward through the length of the reservoir. Continual significant water flow through the reservoir may help to disperse locally derived runoff particulates, which could mix and settle down gradient with chemical loads from upriver sources and local atmospheric deposition. Incorporating the shoreline environment with the reservoir investigation provides spatial continuity in assessing contaminant sources and distribution patterns. This is particularly acute in the investigation of energetic, flow-through reservoirs in which sources may be overlooked if solely analyzing the reservoir environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. RAINWATER MANAGEMENT AIMING TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF URBAN SURFACE RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. HAIDU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater Management Aiming to Improve the Quality of Urban Surface Runoff. Currently many urban areas experience the quality degradation of rooftop runoff and accumulated rainwater. The present study aims to estimate the volume of water draining from rooftops within an area of 0.68 km² in the municipality of Cluj-Napoca. The volume of water flowing from rooftops presents a beneficial alternative not only for collecting rainwater for later use, but also for reducing the volume of water and for improving surface runoff quality in urban areas. The procedure was based on the Michel Simplified SCS-CN model, a derived variant of the most popular hydrological model, the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN. The results of the applied method reveal that the highest rooftop runoff water values correspond to the summer months, these being based on daily rainfall data. Estimating the volume of water draining from rooftops for future harvesting is an important step in the sustainable management of rainwater in urban areas and in improving water quality.

  3. Influence of time of concentration on variation of runoff from a small urbanized watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Agnieszka Cupak; Andrzej Walega

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to estimate the influence of time of concentration (TC) on maximum flow in an urbanized watershed. The calculations of maximum flow have been carried out using the Rational method, Technical Release 55 (TR55) procedure based on NRCS (National Resources Conservation Services) guidelines, and NRCS-UH rainfall-runoff model. Similarly,...

  4. Heavy metal contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of Vilnius, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff from urbanized territories carries a wide range of pollutants. Sediments in untreated runoff from direct discharge stormwater systems significantly contribute to urban waterway pollution. In this study, heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ba, As and Fe contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of the city of Vilnius was investigated. The surface runoff sediment samples were collected from seven dischargers with the highest volume rate of water flow and concentrations of suspended solids. The geospatial analysis of the distribution of heavy metals shows that there are several active pollution sources supplying the dischargers with contaminated sediments. Most of these areas are located in the central part of the city and in old town with intense traffic. Principal components analysis and t-test results clearly depicted the significantly different chemical compositions of winter and autumn surface sediment samples. The sampling approach and assessment of results provide a useful tool to examine the contamination that is generated in urban areas, distinguish pollution sources and give a better understanding of the importance of permeable surfaces and green areas.

  5. A note on estimating urban roof runoff with a forest evaporation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gash, J.H.C.; Rosier, P.T.W.; Ragab, R.

    2008-01-01

    A model developed for estimating the evaporation of rainfall intercepted by forest canopies is applied to estimate measurements of the average runoff from the roofs of six houses made in a previous study of hydrological processes in an urban environment. The model is applied using values of the mean

  6. [Pollution load and the first flush effect of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff of Wenzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bi, Chun-juan; Chen, Zhen-lou; Zhou, Dong

    2013-05-01

    Four typical rainfalls were monitored in two different research areas of Wenzhou Municipality. Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in six different urban runoffs were measured. In addition the event mean concentration (EMC), M (V) curve and BOD5/COD of pollutant were calculated. The results showed that concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs of Wenzhou ranged from ND to 69.21 mg x L(-1) and ND to 636 mg x L(-1). Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs were decreasing over time, so it is greatly significant to manage the initial runoff for reducing organic pollution. Judged by EMC of BOD5 and COD in these five rainfalls, concentrations of pollutant in some urban runoffs were out of the integrated wastewater discharge standard. If these runoffs flowed into river, it would cause environmental pressure to the next level receiving water bodies. According to the M (V) curve, the first flush effect of COD in most urban runoffs was common; while the first flush effect of BOD5 was same as that of COD. The result also showed that organic pollution was serious at the beginning of runoff. The underlying surface type could affect the concentration of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff. While the results of BOD5/COD also suggested that biodegradation was considered as one of the effective ways to decrease the pollution load of organics in urban runoff, and the best management plans (BMPs) should be selected for various urban runoff types for the treatment of organic pollution.

  7. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Stormwater Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to impervious surfaces associated with urbanization, overview of effects vs. total imperviousness, overview of how impervious surfaces affect biotic condition, summary of threshold values of impervious cover for stream biotic condition.

  8. Development of urban runoff model FFC-QUAL for first-flush water-quality analysis in urban drainage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sungchul; Nam, Kisung; Kim, Jungsoo; Kwak, Changjae

    2018-01-01

    An urban runoff model that is able to compute the runoff, the pollutant loadings, and the concentrations of water-quality constituents in urban drainages during the first flush was developed. This model, which is referred to as FFC-QUAL, was modified from the existing ILLUDAS model and added for use during the water-quality analysis process for dry and rainy periods. For the dry period, the specifications of the coefficients for the discharge and water quality were used. During rainfall, we used the Clark and time-area methods for the runoff analyses of pervious and impervious areas to consider the effects of the subbasin shape; moreover, four pollutant accumulation methods and the washoff equation for computing the water quality each time were used. According to the verification results, FFC-QUAL provides generally similar output as the measured data for the peak flow, total runoff volume, total loadings, peak concentration, and time of peak concentration for three rainfall events in the Gunja subbasin. In comparison with the ILLUDAS, SWMM, and MOUSE models, there is little difference between these models and the model developed in this study. The proposed model should be useful in urban watersheds because of its simplicity and its capacity to model common pollutants (e.g., biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, Escherichia coli, suspended solids, and total nitrogen and phosphorous) in runoff. The proposed model can also be used in design studies to determine how changes in infrastructure will affect the runoff and pollution loads. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple metric to predict stream water quality from storm runoff in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Zachary M; Sullivan, Patrick J; Walter, M Todd; Fuka, Daniel R; Petrovic, A Martin; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of runoff from various land uses to stream channels in a watershed is often speculated and used to underpin many model predictions. However, these contributions, often based on little or no measurements in the watershed, fail to appropriately consider the influence of the hydrologic location of a particular landscape unit in relation to the stream network. A simple model was developed to predict storm runoff and the phosphorus (P) status of a perennial stream in an urban watershed in New York State using the covariance structure of runoff from different landscape units in the watershed to predict runoff in time. One hundred and twenty-seven storm events were divided into parameterization (n = 85) and forecasting (n = 42) data sets. Runoff, dissolved P (DP), and total P (TP) were measured at nine sites distributed among three land uses (high maintenance, unmaintained, wooded), three positions in the watershed (near the outlet, midwatershed, upper watershed), and in the stream at the watershed outlet. The autocorrelation among runoff and P concentrations from the watershed landscape units (n = 9) and the covariance between measurements from the landscape units and measurements from the stream were calculated and used to predict the stream response. Models, validated using leave-one-out cross-validation and a forecasting method, were able to correctly capture temporal trends in streamflow and stream P chemistry (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies, 0.49-0.88). The analysis suggests that the covariance structure was consistent for all models, indicating that the physical processes governing runoff and P loss from these landscape units were stationary in time and that landscapes located in hydraulically active areas have a direct hydraulic link to the stream. This methodology provides insight into the impact of various urban landscape units on stream water quantity and quality.

  10. Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Luan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC and low-impact development (LID have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms.

  11. Runoff Modelling in Urban Storm Drainage by Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Brorsen, Michael; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1995-01-01

    A neural network is used to simulate folw and water levels in a sewer system. The calibration of th neural network is based on a few measured events and the network is validated against measureed events as well as flow simulated with the MOUSE model (Lindberg and Joergensen, 1986). The neural...... network is used to compute flow or water level at selected points in the sewer system, and to forecast the flow from a small residential area. The main advantages of the neural network are the build-in self calibration procedure and high speed performance, but the neural network cannot be used to extract...... knowledge of the runoff process. The neural network was found to simulate 150 times faster than e.g. the MOUSE model....

  12. Export Mechanisms of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTSs) in Urban Land Uses during Rainfall-Runoff Events: Experimental and Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Luo, X.; Lin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The urban environment has a variety of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury. Soil in pervious lands and dust deposited on impervious surfaces are two major sinks of PTSs in urbanized areas, which could contribute significant nonpoint source loadings of PTSs to adjacent waterbodies during rainfall-runoff events and therefore jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. However, PTSs have been much less understood regarding their export mechanisms in urban land uses, and efforts to model nonpoint source pollution processes of PTSs have been rare. We designed and performed in-lab rainfall-runoff simulation experiments to investigate transport of PAHs and mercury by runoff from urban soils. Organic petrology analysis (OPA) techniques were introduced to analyze the soil and sediment compositions. Our study revealed the limitation of the classic enrichment theory which attributes enrichment of pollutants in eroded sediment solely to the sediment's particle size distribution and adopts simple relationships between enrichment ratio and sediment flux. We found that carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil are the direct and major sorbents for PAHs and mercury, and highly different in content, mobility and adsorption capacity for the PTSs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon components largely control the transport of soil PAHs, while humic substances have a dominant influence on the transport of soil mercury. A model was further developed to estimate the enrichment ratio of PAHs, which innovatively applies the fugacity concept.We also conducted field studies on export of PAHs by runoff from urban roads. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of PAH buildup and washoff on urban roads. The dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case

  13. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.; Boller, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used...... shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time...

  14. Spatial bias and uncertainty in numerical weather predictions for urban runoff forecasts with long time horizons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Wied; Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) can be used to forecast urban runoff with long lead times. However, NWP exhibit large spatial uncertainties and using forecasted precipitation directly above the catchment might therefore not be an ideal approach in an online setup. We use the Danish...... Meteorological Institute’s NWP ensemble and investigate a large spatial neighborhood around the catchment over a two-year period. When compared against in-sewer observations, runoff forecasts forced with precipitation from north-east of the catchment are most skillful. This highlights spatial biases...

  15. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Land-use and Best-Management-Practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to

  16. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Storm Water Runoff in Real-Time using Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel onl....... The radar rainfall extrapolation (nowcast) limits the lead time of the system to two hours. In this paper, the model set-up is tested on a small urban catchment for a period of 1.5 years. The 50 largest events are presented....... online system, which forecasts flows and water levels in real-time with inputs from extrapolated radar rainfall data, has been developed. The fully distributed urban drainage model includes auto-calibration using online in-sewer measurements which is seen to improve forecast skills significantly...

  17. Hydrologic conditions controlling runoff generation immediately after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the control of postwildfire runoff by physical and hydraulic properties of soil, hydrologic states, and an ash layer immediately following wildfire. The field site is within the area burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA. Physical and hydraulic property characterization included ash thickness, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, and soil water retention curves. Soil water content and matric potential were measured indirectly at several depths below the soil surface to document hydrologic states underneath the ash layer in the unsaturated zone, whereas precipitation and surface runoff were measured directly. Measurements of soil water content showed that almost no water infiltrated below the ash layer into the near-surface soil in the burned site at the storm time scale (i.e., minutes to hours). Runoff generation processes were controlled by and highly sensitive to ash thickness and ash hydraulic properties. The ash layer stored from 97% to 99% of rainfall, which was critical for reducing runoff amounts. The hydrologic response to two rain storms with different rainfall amounts, rainfall intensity, and durations, only ten days apart, indicated that runoff generation was predominantly by the saturation-excess mechanism perched at the ash-soil interface during the first storm and predominantly by the infiltration-excess mechanism at the ash surface during the second storm. Contributing area was not static for the two storms and was 4% (saturation excess) to 68% (infiltration excess) of the catchment area. Our results showed the importance of including hydrologic conditions and hydraulic properties of the ash layer in postwildfire runoff generation models.

  18. Surface runoff from urban areas. New aspects; Neue Aspekte in der Behandlung von Siedlungsabfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Stephan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereich Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Wasserguetewirtschaft; Lambert, Benedikt [Bioplan Landeskulturgesellschaft, Sinsheim (Germany); Grotehusmann, Dieter [Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Stadthydrologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The surface runoff from urban areas is one of the most important sources of pollutants emitted into surface waters. Suspended solids which act as a transport vehicle for many anthropogenic pollutants (e. g. heavy metals, PAH) are a key factor in this regard. The development of efficient measures of storm water runoff treatment thus requires a further differentiation of suspended solids in a fine (clay and silt) and coarse (sand and gravel) fraction. Both fractions show distinctly different characteristics in pollutant loading, transport and retention on urban surfaces and sewer systems. The primary aim of storm water runoff treatment is the reduction of the fine particles which are always highly loaded with anthropogenic pollutants. In contrast the coarse particles are almost unpolluted especially if they have a low organic share. The widespread sedimentation tanks with surface loadings between 10 and 2 m/h are very inefficient. A significant, save and lasting reduction of the emitted load of fine particles requires a considerable reduction of the surface loads. That can be achieved with the installation of lamellar settler or the utilization of the very large volumes of flood management tanks frequently present in urban areas. Filtration plants are highly efficient but there application in urban areas is limited due to their high space demands. (orig.)

  19. Impacts of Changing Climate, Hydrology and Land Use on the Stormwater Runoff of Urbanizing Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, E.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2017-12-01

    We computed the historical and future storm runoff scenarios for the Shingle Creek Basin, including the growing urban centers of central Florida (e.g., City of Orlando). Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.1) of US EPA was used to develop a mechanistic hydrologic model for the basin by incorporating components of urban hydrology, hydroclimatological variables, and land use/cover features. The model was calibrated and validated with historical streamflow of 2004-2013 near the outlet of the Shingle Creek. The calibrated model was used to compute the sensitivities of stormwater budget to reference changes in hydroclimatological variables (rainfall and evapotranspiration) and land use/cover features (imperviousness, roughness). Basin stormwater budgets for the historical (2010s = 2004-2013) and future periods (2050s = 2030-2059; 2080s = 2070-2099) were also computed based on downscaled climatic projections of 20 GCMs-RCMs representing the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5), and anticipated changes in land use/cover. The sensitivity analyses indicated the dominant drivers of urban runoff in the basin. Comparative assessment of the historical and future stormwater runoff scenarios helped to locate basin areas that would be at a higher risk of future stormwater flooding. Importance of the study lies in providing valuable guidelines for managing stormwater flooding in central Florida and similar growing urban centers around the world.

  20. Effect of urban stormwater runoff on ground water beneath recharge basins on Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H.F.; Simmons, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff was monitored during 1980-82 to investigate the source, type, quantity, and fate of contaminants routed to the more than 3,000 recharge basins on Long Island and to determine whether this runoff might be a significant source of contamination to the groundwater reservoir. Forty-six storms were monitored at five recharge basins in representative land use areas (strip commercial, shopping-mall parking lot, major highway, low-density residential, and medium-density residential). Runoff:precipitation ratios indicate that all storm runoff is derived from precipitation on impervious surfaces in the drainage area, except during storms of high intensity or long duration, when additional runoff can be derived from precipitation on permeable surfaces. Lead was present in highway runoff in concentrations up to 3300 micrograms/L, and chloride was found in parking lot runoff concentrations up to 1,100 mg/L during winter, when salt is used for deicing. In the five composite stormwater samples and nine groundwater grab samples that were analyzed for 113 EPA-designated ' priority pollutants, ' four constituents were detected in concentrations exceeding New York State guidelines of 50 micrograms/L for an individual organic compound in drinking water: p-chloro-m-cresol (79 micrograms/L); 2 ,4-dimethylphenol (96 micrograms/L); 4-nitrophenol (58 micrograms/L); and methylene chloride (230 micrograms/L in either groundwater or stormwater at the highway basin). One stormwater sample and two groundwater samples exceeded New York State guidelines for total organic compounds in drinking water (100 micrograms/L). The presence of these constituents is attributed to contamination from point sources rather than to the quality of runoff from urban areas. The median number of indicator bacteria in stormwater ranged from 0.1 to 10 billion MPN/100 ml. Fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude during the warm season. The use of recharge

  1. Heavy metal contents of road-deposited sediment along the urban-rural gradient around Beijing and its potential contribution to runoff pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the contribution of road-deposited sediment (RDS) and its washoff process is essential for controlling urban runoff pollution. Ninety-seven RDS samples were collected along the urban-suburban-rural gradient from areas of five administrative units in the Beijing metropolitan region, including central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas. RDS washoff was evaluated with different particle sizes using a rainfall simulator. Heavy metal elements (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were estimated in both RDS and runoff samples. The RDS mass per unit area increased in the order UCA (21 ± 24 g/m(2)) ≈ CSA (20 ± 16 g/m(2)) runoff pollution contributions per unit area. Our findings imply that controlling the first flush in the UCA and CSA, and improving existing street cleaning methods and road surface conditions in the TRA, UVA, and RVA will be appropriate strategies for controlling runoff pollution from RDS.

  2. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The measurement of dry deposition and surface runoff to quantify urban road pollution in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunn-Jinn; Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang

    2013-10-16

    Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01-5.14 g/m(2) · day and 78-87% of these solids are in the 75-300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC) from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads.

  4. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  5. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M; Zuleeg, S; Vonbank, R; Schmid, P; Hean, S; Lamani, X; Bester, K; Boller, M

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades' render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol 1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 microg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

  6. Urban rainwater runoff quantity and quality - A potential endogenous resource in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrill, Sara; Petit-Boix, Anna; Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Josa, Alejandro; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2017-03-15

    Rainwater harvesting might help to achieve self-sufficiency, but it must comply with health standards. We studied the runoff quantity and quality harvested from seven urban surfaces in a university campus in Barcelona according to their use (pedestrian or motorized mobility) and materials (concrete, asphalt and slabs). An experimental rainwater harvesting system was used to collect the runoff resulting from a set of rainfall events. We estimated the runoff coefficient and initial abstraction of each surface and analyzed the physicochemical and microbiological properties, and hydrocarbon and metal content of the samples. Rainfall intensity, surface material and state of conservation were essential parameters. Because of low rainfall intensity and surface degradation, the runoff coefficient was variable, with a minimum of 0.41. Concrete had the best quality, whereas weathering and particulate matter deposition led to worse quality in asphalt areas. Physicochemical runoff quality was outstanding when compared to superficial and underground water. Microorganisms were identified in the samples (>1 CFU/100 mL) and treatment is required to meet human consumption standards. Motorized traffic mostly affects the presence of metals such as zinc (31.7 μg/L). In the future, sustainable mobility patterns might result in improved rainwater quality standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Real Time Updating in Distributed Urban Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Madsen, Henrik

    that are being updated from system measurements was studied. The results showed that the fact alone that it takes time for rainfall data to travel the distance between gauges and catchments has such a big negative effect on the forecast skill of updated models, that it can justify the choice of even very...... as in a real data case study. The results confirmed that the method is indeed suitable for DUDMs and that it can be used to utilise upstream as well as downstream water level and flow observations to improve model estimates and forecasts. Due to upper and lower sensor limits many sensors in urban drainage...

  8. Comparison of two stochastic techniques for reliable urban runoff prediction by modeling systematic errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Giudice, Dario; Löwe, Roland; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    from different fields and have not yet been compared in environmental modeling. To compare the two approaches, we develop a unifying terminology, evaluate them theoretically, and apply them to conceptual rainfall-runoff modeling in the same drainage system. Our results show that both approaches can......In urban rainfall-runoff, commonly applied statistical techniques for uncertainty quantification mostly ignore systematic output errors originating from simplified models and erroneous inputs. Consequently, the resulting predictive uncertainty is often unreliable. Our objective is to present two...... approaches which use stochastic processes to describe systematic deviations and to discuss their advantages and drawbacks for urban drainage modeling. The two methodologies are an external bias description (EBD) and an internal noise description (IND, also known as stochastic gray-box modeling). They emerge...

  9. Evaluation of statistical distributions to analyze the pollution of Cd and Pb in urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toranjian, Amin; Marofi, Safar

    2017-05-01

    Heavy metal pollution in urban runoff causes severe environmental damage. Identification of these pollutants and their statistical analysis is necessary to provide management guidelines. In this study, 45 continuous probability distribution functions were selected to fit the Cd and Pb data in the runoff events of an urban area during October 2014-May 2015. The sampling was conducted from the outlet of the city basin during seven precipitation events. For evaluation and ranking of the functions, we used the goodness of fit Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests. The results of Cd analysis showed that Hyperbolic Secant, Wakeby and Log-Pearson 3 are suitable for frequency analysis of the event mean concentration (EMC), the instantaneous concentration series (ICS) and instantaneous concentration of each event (ICEE), respectively. In addition, the LP3, Wakeby and Generalized Extreme Value functions were chosen for the EMC, ICS and ICEE related to Pb contamination.

  10. Urban runoff (URO) process for MODFLOW 2005: simulation of sub-grid scale urban hydrologic processes in Broward County, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jeremy D.; Hughes, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and sea-level rise could cause substantial changes in urban runoff and flooding in low-lying coast landscapes. A major challenge for local government officials and decision makers is to translate the potential global effects of climate change into actionable and cost-effective adaptation and mitigation strategies at county and municipal scales. A MODFLOW process is used to represent sub-grid scale hydrology in urban settings to help address these issues. Coupled interception, surface water, depression, and unsaturated zone storage are represented. A two-dimensional diffusive wave approximation is used to represent overland flow. Three different options for representing infiltration and recharge are presented. Additional features include structure, barrier, and culvert flow between adjacent cells, specified stage boundaries, critical flow boundaries, source/sink surface-water terms, and the bi-directional runoff to MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing process. Some abilities of the Urban RunOff (URO) process are demonstrated with a synthetic problem using four land uses and varying cell coverages. Precipitation from a hypothetical storm was applied and cell by cell surface-water depth, groundwater level, infiltration rate, and groundwater recharge rate are shown. Results indicate the URO process has the ability to produce time-varying, water-content dependent infiltration and leakage, and successfully interacts with MODFLOW.

  11. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wei, Jiahua; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-07-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrofitting impervious urban infrastructure with green technology for rainfall-runoff restoration, indirect reuse and pollution load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansalone, John; Raje, Saurabh; Kertesz, Ruben; Maccarone, Kerrilynn; Seltzer, Karl; Siminari, Michele; Simms, Peter; Wood, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The built environs alter hydrology and water resource chemistry. Florida is subject to nutrient criteria and is promulgating “no-net-load-increase” criteria for runoff and constituents (nutrients and particulate matter, PM). With such criteria, green infrastructure, hydrologic restoration, indirect reuse and source control are potential design solutions. The study simulates runoff and constituent load control through urban source area re-design to provide long-term “no-net-load-increases”. A long-term continuous simulation of pre- and post-development response for an existing surface parking facility is quantified. Retrofits include a biofiltration area reactor (BAR) for hydrologic and denitrification control. A linear infiltration reactor (LIR) of cementitious permeable pavement (CPP) provides infiltration, adsorption and filtration. Pavement cleaning provided source control. Simulation of climate and source area data indicates re-design achieves “no-net-load-increases” at lower costs compared to standard construction. The retrofit system yields lower cost per nutrient load treated compared to Best Management Practices (BMPs). -- Continuous simulation of climate and site data demonstrate that urban re-design using green infrastructure can provide long-term “no-net-load-increases” at a lower costs compared to BMPs

  13. The removal of heavy metals in urban runoff by sorption on mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Am; Seo, Youngwoo; Bishop, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    A series of adsorption experiments was conducted in order to assess the ability of three mulches to remove several of the heavy metal ions typically encountered in urban runoff. Three types of mulch, cypress bark (C), hardwood bark (H), and pine bark nugget (P), were selected as potential sorbents to capture heavy metals in urban runoff. The hardwood bark (H) mulch had the best physicochemical properties for adsorption of heavy metal ions. In addition, because of its fast removal rate and acceptably high capacity for all the heavy metal ions, it was concluded that the H mulch is the best of the three adsorbents for treatment of urban runoff containing trace amounts of heavy metals. In order to investigate the sorption isotherm, two equilibrium models, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, were analyzed. The sorption of these metals on H mulch conformed to the linear form of the Langmuir adsorption equation. At pH 5 and 6, the Langmuir constants (S m ) for each metal were found to be 0.324 and 0.359 mmol/g (Cu); 0.306 and 0.350 mmol/g (Pb); and 0.185 and 0.187 mmol/g (Zn) at 25 deg. C. - Capsule: Hardwood bark had the best physicochemical properties for adsorption of metal ions

  14. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  15. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Long; Wei Jiahua; Huang Yuefei; Wang Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm. - Highlights: → An improved urban NPS model was developed. → It performs well in areas where storm events have great temporal variation. → Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined. - An improved urban NPS model was developed. Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined.

  16. The economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Xie, Gaodi; Zhang, Canqiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-06-15

    Urbanization involves the replacement of vegetated surfaces with impervious built surfaces, and it often results in an increase in the rate and volume of rainwater surface runoff. Urban green spaces play a positive role in rainwater-runoff reduction. However, few studies have explored the benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces. Based on inventory data of urban green spaces in Beijing, the paper evaluated the economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces, using the rainwater-runoff-coefficient method as well as the economic valuation methods. The results showed that, 2494 cubic meters of potential runoff was reduced per hectare of green area and a total volume of 154 million cubic meters rainwater was stored in these urban green spaces, which almost corresponds to the annual water needs of the urban ecological landscape in Beijing. The total economic benefit was 1.34 billion RMB in 2009 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1=RMB6.83), which is equivalent to three-quarters of the maintenance cost of Beijing's green spaces; the value of rainwater-runoff reduction was 21.77 thousand RMB per hectare. In addition, the benefits in different districts and counties were ranked in the same order as urban green areas, and the average benefits per hectare of green space showed different trends, which may be related to the impervious surface index in different regions. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role that Beijing's green spaces play in rainwater regulation and in the creation and scientific management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Urban Land: Study of Surface Run-off Composition and Its Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagin, E. D.; Gridneva, M. A.; Bykova, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    The qualitative composition of urban land surface run-off is liable to significant variations. To study surface run-off dynamics, to examine its behaviour and to discover reasons of these variations, it is relevant to use the mathematical apparatus technique of time series analysis. A seasonal decomposition procedure was applied to a temporary series of monthly dynamics with the annual frequency of seasonal variations in connection with a multiplicative model. The results of the quantitative chemical analysis of surface wastewater of the 22nd Partsjezd outlet in Samara for the period of 2004-2016 were used as basic data. As a result of the analysis, a seasonal pattern of variations in the composition of surface run-off in Samara was identified. Seasonal indices upon 15 waste-water quality indicators were defined. BOD (full), suspended materials, mineralization, chlorides, sulphates, ammonium-ion, nitrite-anion, nitrate-anion, phosphates (phosphorus), iron general, copper, zinc, aluminium, petroleum products, synthetic surfactants (anion-active). Based on the seasonal decomposition of the time series data, the contribution of trends, seasonal and accidental components of the variability of the surface run-off indicators was estimated.

  18. Bayesian uncertainty assessment of flood predictions in ungauged urban basins for conceptual rainfall-runoff models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sikorska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and the resulting land-use change strongly affect the water cycle and runoff-processes in watersheds. Unfortunately, small urban watersheds, which are most affected by urban sprawl, are mostly ungauged. This makes it intrinsically difficult to assess the consequences of urbanization. Most of all, it is unclear how to reliably assess the predictive uncertainty given the structural deficits of the applied models. In this study, we therefore investigate the uncertainty of flood predictions in ungauged urban basins from structurally uncertain rainfall-runoff models. To this end, we suggest a procedure to explicitly account for input uncertainty and model structure deficits using Bayesian statistics with a continuous-time autoregressive error model. In addition, we propose a concise procedure to derive prior parameter distributions from base data and successfully apply the methodology to an urban catchment in Warsaw, Poland. Based on our results, we are able to demonstrate that the autoregressive error model greatly helps to meet the statistical assumptions and to compute reliable prediction intervals. In our study, we found that predicted peak flows were up to 7 times higher than observations. This was reduced to 5 times with Bayesian updating, using only few discharge measurements. In addition, our analysis suggests that imprecise rainfall information and model structure deficits contribute mostly to the total prediction uncertainty. In the future, flood predictions in ungauged basins will become more important due to ongoing urbanization as well as anthropogenic and climatic changes. Thus, providing reliable measures of uncertainty is crucial to support decision making.

  19. Can Urban Trees Reduce the Impact of Climate Change on Storm Runoff?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina ZABRET

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanisation leads to significant changes in surface cover, which influence the hydrological properties of an area. The infiltration of precipitation into the soil is reduced, so that both surface water runoff and the velocity at which water travels have increased drastically. In recent decades climate change has also been observed to affect precipitation trends. Many studies have shown that the amount of rainfall is increasing and that heavy rainfall events are becoming more frequent. These changes are producing more runoff, which has to be drained. Urban trees can reduce the amount of precipitation reaching the ground due to rainfall interception, and are becoming increasingly recognized as an effective means for the regulation of storm water volumes and costs. The study measured rainfall interception in an urban area. It shows that Betula pendula can intercept 20.6% of annual rainfall, whereas Pinus nigra could intercept as much as 51.0% of annual rainfall. The advantage of rainfall interception was shown in the case of a parking lot where the planting of trees was able to reduce runoff by up to 17%.

  20. Effects of Low-impact Development of Infiltration and Storage Facilities on Urban Runoff Management in City of Sanandaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Bahrami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, low-impact development (LID has been well established as a method to provide the best and most affordable solutions for managing and alleviating the negative impacts of urban floods. Application of this practical method is regarded as a major step toward sustainable development as it employs eco-friendly storage instruments, reduces the effects of urbanization on impervious surfaces, and helps water infiltration to recharge groundwater resuorces. Although low-impact development tools have proved effective in the management of surface water resources and conservation of water quality, finding proper locations for the deployment of the equipment and the optimal use of each tool are still questions of much controversy and no definitive solutions are provided yet as environmental conditions keep changing. The present study exploits bio-retention cells, rain barrels, green roofs, and vegetable swales as storage instruments under different rainfall scenarios with return periods from 2 to 100 years extracted from the statistical data of Sanadaj City to determine the flood volumes and hydrographs for each sub-basin before and after the low-impact development tools are employed. Moreover, SWMM 5.1 software developed by the American Environmental Protection Agency is used to develop hydraulic and hydrologic models of the basin and the changes are monitored with each development tool selected. The most outstanding results obtained from this study include the change observed in thet form of hydrograph, a reduction of 50% in time of concentration, and reductions of 35 to 50% in peak flow in the city of Sanadaj as a result of employing the low-impact development method. Conclusion: Classification of the equipment into infiltration and storage tools used for urban runoff control allows the best runoff control model to be developed such that the grounds are prepared not only for the return to the conditions before a certain development took

  1. Assessing the role of urban developments on storm runoff response through multi-scale catchment experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Owen, Gareth; Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality issues with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). In particular for mixed rural and urban catchments where the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological responses is high, there remains a key research challenge in evaluating the timing and magnitude of storage and flow pathways at multiple scales. This is of crucial importance for appropriate catchment management, for example to aid the design of Green Infrastructure (GI) to mitigate the risk of flooding, among other multiple benefits. The aim of this work was to (i) explore spatio-temporal storm runoff generation characteristics in multi-scale catchment experiments that contain rural and urban land use zones, and (ii) assess the (preliminary) impact of Sustainable Drainage (SuDs) as GI on high flow and flood characteristics. Our key research catchment, the Ouseburn in Northern England (55km2), has rural headwaters (15%) and an urban zone (45%) concentrated in the lower catchment area. There is an intermediate and increasingly expanding peri-urban zone (currently 40%), which is defined here as areas where rural and urban features coexist, alongside GIs. Such a structure is typical for most catchments with urban developments. We monitored spatial precipitation and multiscale nested (five gauges) runoff response, in addition to the storage dynamics in GIs for a period of 6 years (2007-2013). For a range of events, we examined the multiscale nested runoff characteristics (lag time and magnitude) of the rural and urban flow components, assessed how these integrated with changing land use and increasing scale, and discussed the implications for flood management in the catchment. The analyses indicated three distinctly different

  2. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. The hierarchy of controls on snowmelt-runoff generation over seasonally-frozen hillslopes

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Anna E.; Appels, Willemijn M.; McConkey, Brian G.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and modeling snowmelt-runoff generation in seasonally-frozen regions is a major challenge in hydrology. Partly, this is because the controls on hillslope-scale snowmelt-runoff generation are potentially extensive and their hierarchy is poorly understood. Understanding the relative importance of controls (e.g. topography, vegetation, land use, soil characteristics, and precipitation dynamics) on runoff response is necessary for model development, spatial extrapolation, and runoff...

  4. Storm water runoff-a source of emerging contaminants in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, K.; Chen, C.; FitzGerald, K.; Badgley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) that refers to prescription, over-the-counter, veterinary, and illicit drugs in addition to products intended to have primary effects on the human body, such as sunscreens and insect repellants. Historically municipal wastewater treatment effluent has been considered to be the main source of ECs in aquatic environment. However, recent investigations have suggested urban storm water runoff as an important source of ECs in the environment. The objective of this multi-year study was to investigate the occurrence of a wide range of ECs and the special and temporal change of 4-Nonlyphenol (4-NP), an endocrine disruptor, in a stream solely impacted by the storm water runoff from Blacksburg, VA. Urban land cover has doubled during the past 15 years surrounding this. Water and sediment samples were collected periodically along the stream during a 3-year period and analyzed for 4-NP using a gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and for EC screening using an ultra- performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, human-associated Bacteroides sp. (HF183) was analyzed to explore possible cross contamination between the sewer system and storm water collection system of the city. Fifteen ECs were detected in water samples from various locations along the stream at estimated levels ranging from low ppt to low ppb. The levels of 4-NP in the storm water sediment samples, ranging from 30-1500 µg/kg (d.w.), positively correlated with the levels of Human-associated Bacteroides sp. (HF183) in the storm water. Our study suggested: 1) collective urban activity and leaky urban sewer systems are significant sources of ECs in storm water runoff that are often untreated or with minimum treatment before flowing into urban streams; and 2) sediment transport and re-suspension can further releases accumulated ECs back into stream water during rain events, resulting in occurrence of ECs downstream and possibly in the receiving river. This

  5. The Measurement of Dry Deposition and Surface Runoff to Quantify Urban Road Pollution in Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunn-Jinn; Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01–5.14 g/m2·day and 78–87% of these solids are in the 75–300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC) from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads. PMID:24135820

  6. Removal of metals from industrial wastewater and urban runoff by mineral and bio-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Harshita; Leiviskä, Tiina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Tanskanen, Juha

    2018-03-01

    The study was performed to evaluate chemically modified biosorbents, hydrochloric acid treated peat (HCl-P) and citric acid treated sawdust (Citric acid-SD) for their metal removal capacity from dilute industrial wastewater and urban runoff and compare their efficiency with that of commercially available mineral sorbents (AQM PalPower M10 and AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite). Batch and column experiments were conducted using real water samples to assess the sorbents' metal sorption capacity. AQM PalPower M10 (consisting mainly of magnesium, iron and silicon oxides) exhibited excellent Zn removal from both industrial wastewater and spiked runoff water samples even at low dosages (0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively). The high degree of Zn removal was associated with the release of hydroxyl ions from the sorbent and subsequent precipitation of zinc hydroxide. The biosorbents removed Ni and Cr better than AQM PalPower M10 from industrial wastewater and performed well in removing Cr and Cu from spiked runoff water, although at higher dosages (0.3-0.75 g/L). The main mechanism of sorption by biosorbents was ion exchange. The sorbents required a short contact time to reach equilibrium (15-30 min) in both tested water samples. AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite was the worst performing sorbent, leaching Zn into both industrial and runoff water and Ni into runoff water. Column tests revealed that both HCl-P and AQM PalPower M10 were able to remove metals, although some leaching was witnessed, especially As from AQM PalPower M10. The low hydraulic conductivity observed for HCl-P may restrict the possibilities of using such small particle size peat material in a filter-type passive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An assessment of the potential toxicity of runoff from an urban roadscape during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waara, Sylvia; Färm, Carina

    2008-05-01

    The potential negative impact of urban storm water on aquatic freshwater ecosystems has been demonstrated in various studies with different types of biological methods. There are a number of factors that influence the amount and bioavailability of contaminants in storm water even if it is derived from an area with a fairly homogenous land use such as a roadscape where a variation in toxicity during rain events might be expected. There are only a few previous investigations on the toxicity of highway runoff and they have not explored these issues extensively. The main objective of this study is therefore to characterize the potential toxicity of highway runoff during several rain events before it enters a detention pond in Västerås, Sweden, using laboratory bioassays with test organisms representing various functional groups in an aquatic ecosystem. The results are to be used for developing a monitoring program, including biological methods. The storm water was sampled before the entrance to a detention pond, which receives run-off from a highway with approximately 20,000 vehicles a day. The drainage area, including the roadscape and vegetated areas, is 4.3 ha in size. Samples for toxicity tests were taken with an automatic sampler or manually during storm events. In total, the potential toxicity of 65 samples representing 15 different storm events was determined. The toxicity was assessed with 4 different test organisms; Vibrio fischeri using the Microtox comparison test, Daphnia magna using Daphtoxkit-F agna, Thamnocephalus platyurus using the ThamnotoxkitF and Lemna minor, duckweed using SS 028313. Of the 65 samples, 58 samples were tested with DaphniatoxkitF agna, 57 samples with the Microtox comparison test, 48 samples with ThamnotoxkitF and 20 samples with Lemna minor, duckweed. None of the storm water samples were toxic. No toxicity was detected with the Lemna minor test, but in 5 of the 23 samples tested in comparison to the control a growth stimulation of

  8. Probabilistic runoff volume forecasting in risk-based optimization for RTC of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-01-01

    overflow risk. The stochastic control framework and the performance of the runoff forecasting models are tested in a case study in Copenhagen (76 km2 with 6 sub-catchments and 7 control points) using 2-h radar rainfall forecasts and inlet flows to control points computed from a variety of noisy...... smoothing. Simulations demonstrate notable improvements of the control efficiency when considering forecast information and additionally when considering forecast uncertainty, compared with optimization based on current basin fillings only....

  9. Assessment of two loss methods for estimation of surface runoff in Zaafrania urban catchment, North-East of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dahdouh Yacina; Ouerdachi Lahbassi

    2018-01-01

    Surface runoff is a major problem in urban catchments; its generation is always related to the amount of effective rainfall dropped over the surface, however in urban catchments the process is considerably altered by the emergence of impervious areas. In this study the Soil Consevation Service – curve number (SCS-CN) and the Green–Ampt loss methods were used in rainfall-runoff modelling in the Zaafrania urban catchment which is located in Annaba city in the north east of Algeria. The two loss...

  10. Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Indianapolis Department of Public Works began a study to evaluate the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff discharging to Fall Geek on the White River. This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality during base flow with that during storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the combined-sewer overflows. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 combined-sewer overflows on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply.

  11. Retrofitting impervious urban infrastructure with green technology for rainfall-runoff restoration, indirect reuse and pollution load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, John; Raje, Saurabh; Kertesz, Ruben; Maccarone, Kerrilynn; Seltzer, Karl; Siminari, Michele; Simms, Peter; Wood, Brandon

    2013-12-01

    The built environs alter hydrology and water resource chemistry. Florida is subject to nutrient criteria and is promulgating "no-net-load-increase" criteria for runoff and constituents (nutrients and particulate matter, PM). With such criteria, green infrastructure, hydrologic restoration, indirect reuse and source control are potential design solutions. The study simulates runoff and constituent load control through urban source area re-design to provide long-term "no-net-load-increases". A long-term continuous simulation of pre- and post-development response for an existing surface parking facility is quantified. Retrofits include a biofiltration area reactor (BAR) for hydrologic and denitrification control. A linear infiltration reactor (LIR) of cementitious permeable pavement (CPP) provides infiltration, adsorption and filtration. Pavement cleaning provided source control. Simulation of climate and source area data indicates re-design achieves "no-net-load-increases" at lower costs compared to standard construction. The retrofit system yields lower cost per nutrient load treated compared to Best Management Practices (BMPs). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulating urban surface runoff through nature-based solutions - An assessment at the micro-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölch, Teresa; Henze, Lisa; Keilholz, Patrick; Pauleit, Stephan

    2017-08-01

    Urban development leads to changes of surface cover that disrupt the hydrological cycle in cities. In particular, impermeable surfaces and the removal of vegetation reduce the ability to intercept, store and infiltrate rainwater. Consequently, the volume of stormwater runoff and the risk of local flooding rises. This is further amplified by the anticipated effects of climate change leading to an increased frequency and intensity of heavy rain events. Hence, urban adaptation strategies are required to mitigate those impacts. A nature-based solution, more and more promoted in politics and academia, is urban green infrastructure as it contributes to the resilience of urban ecosystems by providing services to maintain or restore hydrological functions. However, this poses a challenge to urban planners in deciding upon effective adaptation measures as they often lack information on the performance of green infrastructure to moderate surface runoff. It remains unclear what type of green infrastructure (e.g. trees, green roofs), offers the highest potential to reduce discharge volumes and to what extent. Against this background, this study provides an approach to gather quantitative evidence on green infrastructure's regulation potential. We use a micro-scale scenario modelling approach of different variations of green cover under current and future climatic conditions. The scenarios are modelled with MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological simulation tool, and applied to a high density residential area of perimeter blocks in Munich, Germany. The results reveal that both trees and green roofs increase water storage capacities and hence reduce surface runoff, although the main contribution of trees lies in increasing interception and evapotranspiration, whereas green roofs allow for more retention through water storage in their substrate. With increasing precipitation intensities as projected under climate change their regulating potential decreases due to limited water

  13. Experimental study and simulation of phosphorus purification effects of bioretention systems on urban surface runoff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiake Li

    Full Text Available Excessive phosphorus (P contributes to eutrophication by degrading water quality and limiting human use of water resources. Identifying economic and convenient methods to control soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP pollution in urban runoff is the key point of rainwater management strategies. Through three series of different tests involving influencing factors, continuous operation and intermittent operation, this study explored the purification effects of bioretention tanks under different experimental conditions, it included nine intermittent tests, single field continuous test with three groups of different fillers (Fly ash mixed with sand, Blast furnace slag, and Soil, and eight intermittent tests with single filler (Blast furnace slag mixed with sand. Among the three filler combinations studied, the filler with fly ash mixed with sand achieved the best pollution reduction efficiency. The setting of the submerged zone exerted minimal influence on the P removal of the three filler combinations. An extension of the dry period slightly promoted the P purification effect. The combination of fly ash mixed with sand demonstrated a positive purification effect on SRP during short- or long-term simulated rainfall duration. Blast furnace slag also presented a positive purification effect in the short term, although its continuous purification effect on SRP was poor in the long term. The purification abilities of soil in the short and long terms were weak. Under intermittent operations across different seasons, SRP removal was unstable, and effluent concentration processes were different. The purification effect of the bioretention system on SRP was predicted through partial least squares regression (PLS modeling analysis. The event mean concentration removal of SRP was positively related to the adsorption capacity of filler and rainfall interval time and negatively related to submerged zones, influent concentration and volume.

  14. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  15. Demonstration Of A Green-blue Approach For A Strategic Management Of Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J. C.; Quinn, P. F.; Heidrich, O.; James, P.; Harris, N.; Dawson, R. J.; Pearson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    With more than half of the world's population now living in cities, there is an increasing need to facilitate urban areas to be more sustainable and resilient to the impacts of extreme events such as surface water flooding. Traditionally, urban storm water is managed predominately through grey infrastructure such as sewer collection systems and flood walls, often with little consideration of the increased water utility costs or downstream flood risk. There is little collaboration between organisations and sectors on managing and mitigating the impacts of flooding at city level, with decisions made in silos. A 24-acre development zone is used as a case study to show how different sectors and organisations came to realise the multiple benefits of a blue-green, joined-up, site-wide approach to managing storm runoff. The Science Central development zone (http://www.newcastlesciencecentral.com/) is at the heart of the city and is jointly owned by Newcastle University and the Newcastle city council with an overall vision for innovation and urban sustainability. The masterplan was reviewed and agreed by the partners in 2016 to include a site-wide holistic conveyance of surface water through a series of measures across the site, and the commercial needs of the building plots were balanced with the need to manage the flood hazard. Uniquely, once constructed, the measures will be monitored to evaluate how they function and the multiple benefits they provide will also be evaluated. This will include monitoring water and air quality parameters, indicators of biodiversity and carbon capture through The Urban Observatory. The Urban Observatory (http://urbanobservatory.ac.uk/) is a research project based at Newcastle University that produces a data portal of open and scalable data from deployments of heterogeneous sensors and 3rd party data sources around the city. The site will also host a new national sustainable urban drainage research facility that will provide research

  16. Urban Stormwater Characterization, Control, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Trisha L; Rodak, Carolyn M; Vogel, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    A summary of 246 studies published in 2016 on topics related to the characterization and management of urban stormwater runoff is presented in the following review. The review is structured along three major topical areas: (1) general characterization of stormwater quantity and quality; (2) engineered systems for stormwater control and treatment, including erosion and sediment control practices, constructed stormwater ponds and wetlands, bioretention, permeable pavement, greenroofs, and rainwater harvesting and (3) watershedscale application of stormwater treatment and control practices. Common research themes and needs highlighted throughout this review include efforts to better understand stormwater transport and treatment mechanisms and their representation in models, advancements to optimize the design of stormwater control measures to meet specific hydrologic and/or water quality targets, and increasing understanding of the biophysical and social factors that influence watershed-scale implementation of low impact development and other stormwater control measures.

  17. Statistical analysis of vegetation and stormwater runoff in an urban watershed during summer and winter storms in Portland, Oregon, U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry; Megan Y. Mao

    2016-01-01

    Past research has examined the effect of urban trees, and other vegetation, on stormwater runoff using hydrological models or small-scale experiments. However, there has been no statistical analysis of the influence of vegetation on runoff in an intact urban watershed, and it is not clear how results from small-scale studies scale up to the city level. Researchers...

  18. Surface runoff in flat terrain: How field topography and runoff generating processes control hydrological connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.; Bogaart, P.W.; Bogaart, P.W.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    In flat lowland agricultural catchments in temperate climate zones with highly permeable sandy soils, surface runoff is a rare process with a large impact on the redistribution of sediments and solutes and stream water quality. We examine hydrological data obtained on two field sites in the

  19. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  20. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-03-16

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  1. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-01-01

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas. PMID:29547567

  2. Analysis of one dimension migration law from rainfall runoff on urban roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, Chen

    2017-08-01

    Research was taken on the hydrology and water quality process in the natural rain condition and water samples were collected and analyzed. The pollutant were included SS, COD and TN. Based on the mass balance principle, one dimension migration model was built for the rainfall runoff pollution in surface. The difference equation was developed according to the finite difference method, by applying the Newton iteration method for solving it. The simulated pollutant concentration process was in consistent with the measured value on model, and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was higher than 0.80. The model had better practicability, which provided evidence for effectively utilizing urban rainfall resource, non-point source pollution of making management technologies and measures, sponge city construction, and so on.

  3. EVALUATION OF RETENTION POND AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND BMPS FOR TREATING PARTICULATE-BOUND HEAVY METALS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sources of heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff are diverse (e.g., highways, road surfaces, roofs) and the release of metals into the environment is governed by several complex mechanisms. Heavy metals in stormwater are associated with suspended particulate materials that ...

  4. Interactions between copper(II) and DOM in the urban stormwater runoff: modeling and characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Wang, Chong-Chen; Li, Jun-Qi; Wang, Peng; Ou, Jia-Qi; Cui, Jing-Rui

    2018-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can strongly interact with both organic and inorganic contaminants to influence their transportation, transformation, bioavailability, toxicity and even their ultimate fate. Within this work, DOM was extracted from urban stormwater runoff samples collected from a regular sampling site of a typical residential area in Beijing, China. Copper(II) ions were selected as model to investigate the interactions between DOM and typical heavy metals. Both ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and fluorescence titration methods were introduced to determine the complex capacities (C L ) and conditional stability constants (log K M ) of bonding between DOM and copper (II) ions, which revealed that the values of C L were 85.62 and 87.23 μmol mg -1 and the log K M values were 5.37 and 5.48, respectively. The results suggested the successful complexation between DOM and copper(II) ions. Furthermore, morphology of the DOM binding to copper(II) ions was confirmed by both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which can facilitate to clarify the corresponding mechanism. The Cu 2p 3/2 peak at 933.7 eV and the characteristic shake-up peaks of Cu-O were found in the XPS spectra, implying that copper(II) ions might coordinate with hydroxyl (aliphatic or phenolic) or carboxyl groups. With these profitable results, it can be concluded that DOM in urban stormwater runoff has a strong binding affinity with copper(II) ions, which may further lead to potentially significant influence on their migration and transformation.

  5. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  6. The impact of domestic rainwater harvesting systems in storm water runoff mitigation at the urban block scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, A; Gnecco, I; La Barbera, P

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of storm water management, Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) systems are recently recognized as source control solutions according to LID principles. In order to assess the impact of these systems in storm water runoff control, a simple methodological approach is proposed. The hydrologic-hydraulic modelling is undertaken using EPA SWMM; the DRWH is implemented in the model by using a storage unit linked to the building water supply system and to the drainage network. The proposed methodology has been implemented for a residential urban block located in Genoa (Italy). Continuous simulations are performed by using the high-resolution rainfall data series for the ''do nothing'' and DRWH scenarios. The latter includes the installation of a DRWH system for each building of the urban block. Referring to the test site, the peak and volume reduction rate evaluated for the 2125 rainfall events are respectively equal to 33 and 26 percent, on average (with maximum values of 65 percent for peak and 51 percent for volume). In general, the adopted methodology indicates that the hydrologic performance of the storm water drainage network equipped with DRWH systems is noticeable even for the design storm event (T = 10 years) and the rainfall depth seems to affect the hydrologic performance at least when the total depth exceeds 20 mm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional approach to exploring climatic and landscape controls of runoff generation: 1. Behavioral constraints on runoff volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yi; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Tian, Fuqiang; Harman, Ciaran

    2014-12-01

    Inspired by the Dunne diagram, the climatic and landscape controls on the partitioning of annual runoff into its various components (Hortonian and Dunne overland flow and subsurface stormflow) are assessed quantitatively, from a purely theoretical perspective. A simple distributed hydrologic model has been built sufficient to simulate the effects of different combinations of climate, soil, and topography on the runoff generation processes. The model is driven by a sequence of simple hypothetical precipitation events, for a large combination of climate and landscape properties, and hydrologic responses at the catchment scale are obtained through aggregation of grid-scale responses. It is found, first, that the water balance responses, including relative contributions of different runoff generation mechanisms, could be related to a small set of dimensionless similarity parameters. These capture the competition between the wetting, drying, storage, and drainage functions underlying the catchment responses, and in this way, provide a quantitative approximation of the conceptual Dunne diagram. Second, only a subset of all hypothetical catchment/climate combinations is found to be "behavioral," in terms of falling sufficiently close to the Budyko curve, describing mean annual runoff as a function of climate aridity. Furthermore, these behavioral combinations are mostly consistent with the qualitative picture presented in the Dunne diagram, indicating clearly the commonality between the Budyko curve and the Dunne diagram. These analyses also suggest clear interrelationships amongst the "behavioral" climate, soil, and topography parameter combinations, implying these catchment properties may be constrained to be codependent in order to satisfy the Budyko curve.

  8. Control of fjordic deep water renewal by runoff modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, A; Edelsten, D J

    1976-09-01

    Loch Etive is a Scottish fjord subject to fresh-water run off which renders it markedly brackish. This paper considers the frequency of deep water renewal, developing a model which relates the timing of all such renewals to runoff records. Using the model one can examine the effect of changes caused by interference with the natural runoff pattern.

  9. The Firstflush of Pollutants in Surface Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Pejman Razi; Amir Taebi

    2005-01-01

    One of the factors impacting quality of water resources is pollution due to urban storm runoff during first stage of storm runoff and is commonly called "firsflush". At this stage the pollution load is rather high. However, if this pollution is properly controlled and managed, the size of the required treatment facilities will be considerably reduced. The surface runoff pollution in the city of Isfahan is high and necessitates the implementation of some control system. For this purpose, ten r...

  10. Probabilistic online runoff forecasting for urban catchments using inputs from rain gauges as well as statically and dynamically adjusted weather radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Thorndahl, Søren; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the application of rainfall observations and forecasts from rain gauges and weather radar as input to operational urban runoff forecasting models. We apply lumped rainfall runoff models implemented in a stochastic grey-box modelling framework. Different model structures are conside......We investigate the application of rainfall observations and forecasts from rain gauges and weather radar as input to operational urban runoff forecasting models. We apply lumped rainfall runoff models implemented in a stochastic grey-box modelling framework. Different model structures...

  11. Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartun, Morten; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Steinnes, Eiliv; Volden, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Runoff sediments from 68 small stormwater traps around the harbor of urban Bergen, Norway, were sampled and the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in addition to grain size. Our study provides empirical data from a large area in the interface between the urban and marine environment, studying the active transport of pollutants from land-based sources. The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. The concentrations of different pollutants in urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the sewage systems with PCBs, PAHs and heavy metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The concentration of PCB 7 in the urban runoff sediments ranged between 16 , the concentration range was < 0.2-80 mg/kg, whereas the concentration ranges of Pb, Zn and Cd were 9-675, 51.3-4670 and 0.02-11.1 mg/kg respectively. Grain size distribution in 21 selected samples varied from a median particle diameter of 13 to 646 μm. However, several samples had very fine-grained particles even up to the 90 percentile of the samples, making them available for stormwater dispersion in suspended form. The sampling approach proposed in this paper will provide environmental authorities with a useful tool to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients

  12. Chemism of the run-off wastewater from urbanized areas based on the Kielce City example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the collector of run-off wastewater (Si9, located in Kielce. Silnica River is a small river cutting through the city of Kielce from the North to the South-West. It has its source in Masłowskie Range at a height of 360 m a.s.l. and it flows into Bobrza River. It is ranked among mountain rivers at a 6.4 ‰ gradient. Its river-bed bas belonged to Kielecki Protected Landscape Area since 2006. Next to Szydłowek estate the artificial water body was build - Kielecki Bay. Beneath Kielecki Bay, Silnica River flows in regu1ated river-bed. Because of no separated storm water drainage, the rainwater washes away pollutants among others from industrial plants, houses, pavements, and streets into Silnica River. The wastewater treatment plant is located at the mouth of the Silnica River. It receives rainwater and snowmelt from the central - eastern part of the city with an area of 62 ha. The primary channel has a length of 1569 m and its diameter varies from 600 mm to 1250 mm. Is attached to the side of seventeen channels (with diameters from 300 mm to 1000 mm. The collector wells are 32 inspection and connection, and 24 entries. The side channels are located 119 wells and 82 outlets. The total length of the sewerage system is equal to 5583 m. The decrease of the collector changes to individual sections from 0.04% to 3.9%, and decreases in side channels to reach 2.61%. On average, one groove receives water from the surface of 0.585 ha. Ordinate the highest point in the catchment area is 271.20 m, 260.0 m above sea level the lowest, the average decrease in surface area is equal to 0.71%. Within the basin was isolated six types of surface runoff: roofs (14.3%, walks (8.4%, roads (17.7%, parking (11.2%, green (47.2% and pitch school (1.3%. Generally, paved areas with a high coefficient of runoff represent 52.83% of the total catchment area, which shows the typical urban character. The run-off wastewater is collected from the roofs by

  13. Prediction of hydrological reduction factor and initial loss in urban surface runoff from small ungauged catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Harremoës, P.

    1996-01-01

    An advanced runoff model is compared to a simple one employing only a runoff coefficient and a regression parameter allowing for initial loss. The present study shows that the more detailed description of the runoff processes cannot be justified due to the uncertainty from using only one gauge...... in the evaluation of the yearly discharges. In the case of extreme events, the uncertainty of the predicted runoff of the single event should also be taken into account....

  14. Enhanced Removal of Nutrients and Trace Organics from Urban Runoff with Novel Capture, Treatment, and Recharge Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, N.; Planes, M. T.; Lefevre, G.; Sedlak, D.; Luthy, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth, urban sprawl and impact of climate change are forcing water-stressed areas to rely on new local sources of water supply. Under this scenario, reclamation of stormwater runoff has emerged as a source for irrigation and replenishing drinking-water groundwater reservoirs. However, urban stormwater can be a significant source of pollutants, including nutrients and organic compounds. In order to overcome the stormwater treatment system limitations, this project has developed a pilot-scale column system for passive treatment of infiltrated water using low-cost, low-energy geomedia. The objective was to provide guidance on the design and operation of systems for controlling nutrient and trace organic contaminant releases to surface waters. The work comprised of replicate column studies in the field to test stormwater treatment modules with various media, such as woodchips and biochar, using urban runoff from a watershed in Sonoma, California. Woodchip bioreactors host an endemic population of microorganisms that can be harnessed to biologically degrade nitrate. The columns amended with biochar enhance removal of organic pollutants present in stormwater through physicochemical processes (i.e., adsorption onto biochar) and biodegradation in the column through increasing retention time. The field columns were conditioned with stormwater for eight months before being spiked weekly with 50 ppb of representative trace organics. The key finding was the successful field demonstration of a novel treatment system for both the removal of nitrate and trace organics. Nitrogen removal was successful in all columns for the thirteen month experiment due to the woodchips being an effective source of carbon for denitrifying microorganisms to convert nitrate to nitrogen gases. As for the trace organics experiments, the results highlight an overall attenuation of the studied trace organic compounds by the columns containing woodchip and biochar throughout the five

  15. Precipitation and runoff water quality from an urban parking lot and implications for tree growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Pham; H. G. Halverson; G. M. Heisler

    1978-01-01

    The water quality of precipitation and runoff from a large parking lot in New Brunswick, New Jersey was studied during the early growing season, from March to June 1976. Precipitation and runoff from 10 storms were analyzed. The runoff was higher in all constituents considered except for P, Pb, and Cu. Compared with published values for natural waters, sewage effluent...

  16. Spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and their correlation with land-use in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua-Peng; Khu, Soon-Thiam; Yu, Xiang-Ying

    2010-09-15

    The composition of land use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as a study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the downstream of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measure rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events in 2007 and 2009. Due to relatively low frequency monitoring, the IHACRES and exponential pollutant wash-off simulation models are used to interpolate the measured data to compensate for data insufficiency. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants in each sub-catchment during the storm events, and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with not only the residential land use, but also agricultural and bare land use. And some pairs of pollutants (such as COD/BOD, NH(3)-N/TN) might have the similar source because they have strong or moderate positive spatial correlation. Moreover, the first flush intensity (FF50) varies with impervious land areas and different interception ratio of initial storm runoff volume should be adopted in different sub-catchments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Research on evaluation of water quality of Beijing urban stormwater runoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei-Qiang; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The natural rainwater and stormwater runoff samples from three underlying surfaces (rooftop, campus road and ring road) were sampled and analyzed from July to October, 2010 in Beijing. Eight rainfall events were collected totally and thirteen water quality parameters were measured in each event. Grey relationship analysis and principal component analysis were applied to assess composite water quality and identify the main pollution sources of stormwater runoff. The results show that the composite water quality of ring road runoff is mostly polluted, and then is rooftop runoff, campus road runoff and rainwater, respectively. The composite water quality of ring road runoff is inferior to V class of surface water, while rooftop runoff, campus road runoff and rainwater are in II class of surface water. The mean concentration of TN and NH4(+)-N in rainwater and runoff is 5.49-11.75 mg x L(-1) and 2.90-5.67 mg x L(-1), respectively, indicating that rainwater and runoff are polluted by nitrogen (N). Two potential pollution sources are identified in ring road runoff: (1) P, SS and organic pollutant are possibly related to debris which is from vehicle tyre and material of ring road; (2) N and dissolved metal have relations with automobile exhaust emissions and bulk deposition.

  18. [Monitoring and analysis on evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality in urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Li, Huai-En; Li, Jia-Ke

    2013-02-01

    In order to find the water quality evolution law and pollution characteristics of the rainfall runoff from undisturbed to the neighborhood exit, 6 times evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality were monitored and analyzed from July to October in 2011, and contrasted the clarification efficiency of the grassland to the roof runoff rudimentarily at the same time. The research showed: 1. the results of the comparison from "undisturbed, rainfall-roof, rainfall runoff-road, rainfall-runoff the neighborhood exit runoff " showed that the water quality of the undisturbed rain was better than that from the roof and the neighborhood exist, but the road rainfall runoff water quality was the worst; 2. the average concentrations of the parameters such as COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen all exceeded the Fifth Class of the Surface Water Quality Standard except for the soluble total phosphorus from undisturbed rainfall to the neighborhood exit; 3. the runoff water quality of the short early fine days was better than that of long early fine days, and the last runoff water quality was better than that of the initial runoff in the same rainfall process; 4. the concentration reduction of the grassland was notable, and the reduction rate of the grassland which is 1.0 meter wide of the roof runoff pollutants such as COD and nitrogen reached 30%.

  19. δ(15)N and δ(18)O Reveal the Sources of Nitrate-Nitrogen in Urban Residential Stormwater Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-03-15

    Nitrogen (N) sources are widely distributed in the complex urban environment. High-resolution data elucidating N sources in the residential catchments are not available. We used stable isotopes of N and oxygen (O) of nitrate (δ(18)O-NO3(-) and δ(15)N-NO3(-)) along with δ(18)O and hydrogen (δD) of water (H2O) to understand the sources and transformations of N in residential stormwater runoff. Stormwater runoff samples were collected over 25 stormwater events at 5 min intervals using an autosampler installed at the residential catchment outlet pipe that drained 31 low-density homes with a total drainage area of 0.11 km(2). Bayesian mixing model results indicated that atmospheric deposition (range 43-71%) and chemical N fertilizers (range stormwater runoff and that there was a continuum of source changes during the stormwater events. Further, the NO3-N transport in the stormwater runoff from the residential catchment was driven by mixing of multiple sources and biotic (i.e., nitrification) processes. This work suggests that a better understanding of N transport and sources is needed to reduce N export and improve water quality in urban water systems.

  20. Comparison of heavy metal loads in stormwater runoff from major and minor urban roads using pollutant yield rating curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Brett; Birch, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Trace metal export by stormwater runoff from a major road and local street in urban Sydney, Australia, is compared using pollutant yield rating curves derived from intensive sampling data. The event loads of copper, lead and zinc are well approximated by logarithmic relationships with respect to total event discharge owing to the reliable appearance of a first flush in pollutant mass loading from urban roads. Comparisons of the yield rating curves for these three metals show that copper and zinc export rates from the local street are comparable with that of the major road, while lead export from the local street is much higher, despite a 45-fold difference in traffic volume. The yield rating curve approach allows problematic environmental data to be presented in a simple yet meaningful manner with less information loss. - A simple method for representing data onroad runoff pollution allows comparisons among dissimilar sites and could form the basis for a pollution database.

  1. Comparison of filter media materials for heavy metal removal from urban stormwater runoff using biofiltration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H S; Lim, W; Hu, J Y; Ziegler, A; Ong, S L

    2015-01-01

    The filter media in biofiltration systems play an important role in removing potentially harmful pollutants from urban stormwater runoff. This study compares the heavy metal removal potential (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) of five materials (potting soil, compost, coconut coir, sludge and a commercial mix) using laboratory columns. Total/dissolved organic carbon (TOC/DOC) was also analysed because some of the test materials had high carbon content which affects heavy metal uptake/release. Potting soil and the commercial mix offered the best metal uptake when dosed with low (Cu: 44.78 μg/L, Zn: 436.4 μg/L, Cd, 1.82 μg/L, Pb: 51.32 μg/L) and high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu: 241 μg/L, Zn: 1127 μg/L, Cd: 4.57 μg/L, Pb: 90.25 μg/L). Compost and sludge also had high removal efficiencies (>90%). Heavy metal leaching from these materials was negligible. A one-month dry period between dosing experiments did not affect metal removal efficiencies. TOC concentrations from all materials increased after the dry period. Heavy metal removal was not affected by filter media depth (600 mm vs. 300 mm). Heavy metals tended to accumulate at the upper 5 cm of the filter media although potting soil showed bottom-enriched concentrations. We recommend using potting soil as the principal media mixed with compost or sludge since these materials perform well and are readily available. The use of renewable materials commonly found in Singapore supports a sustainable approach to urban water management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EFFECTS OF EXCESS URBAN RUNOFF ON WASTE WATER FLOW IN PÉCS, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RONCZYK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has been leading to climate change that is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and intensity of rainfall. Urban areas must be designed to cope with the undesired effect and risks associated with stormwater runoff. Stormwater, entering into the sewerage of Pécs, SW Hungary, exerts an extra load on wastewater and sewage transfer in the underground pipeline system. Based on precipitation and pumping station flow data, we identified a strong correspondence between rainfall and flow behavior in Pécs. We also determined the types of foreign waters entering the sewerage according to their source and origin. Our study also indicates that 32% of the entire land area has a low-degree infrastructure for cutting-edge stormwater drainage and management. The results of the current research aid to evaluate the adequate methodology for risk analysis of each sewage catchment. The spatial analysis of waste water system and its physical and human geographical environment became an effective tool to help the local waterworks (Tettye Forrásház Ltd. to estimate potential hazard level in each sewage catchment and allocate and distribute pumping costs and efforts among the pumping stations during spatiallyheterogeneous torrential rainfall events.

  3. Runoff and loads of nutrients and heavy metals from an urbanized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasuna, H; Fukushima, T; Matsushige, K; Imai, A; Ozaki, N

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the run-off characteristics of dissolved and particulate substances from a heavily urbanized area (basin area: 95 ha, percentage of impervious surfaces: 60%), sensors for measuring water level, water temperature, DO, pH, electric conductivity (EC), turbidity and ammonium ion were placed in the channel connecting storm sewers and natural river, together with water sampling for analyzing SS, nutrients and metals. While both turbidity and EC showed apparent "first flush", the peaks of EC were always earlier than those of turbidity. In a similar manner, dissolved nutrients and metals exhibited earlier "first flush" compared with particulate nutrients and acid-extractable metals. Significantly positive correlations between EC and dissolved substances as well as those between turbidity and particulate (acid-extractable minus dissolved) substances were usually observed, and two distinct different regressions were found between the two datasets separated before and after the concentration peaks. Using these relationships, the total loads during the respective rainfall events were calculated on the basis of EC and turbidity changes. The total loads of nitrogen, zinc, etc. were nearly proportional to the lengths of non-rainfall periods before the events, indicating that these loads derived from the atmospheric deposition.

  4. Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 7- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations , Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for...January 2017 Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Rosa Affleck U.S. Army Engineer Research and...runoff can be extreme where the flow can overwhelm both the drainage system and the operations and maintenance (O&M) crew. CRREL has been involved

  5. Assessment of two loss methods for estimation of surface runoff in Zaafrania urban catchment, North-East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahdouh Yacina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff is a major problem in urban catchments; its generation is always related to the amount of effective rainfall dropped over the surface, however in urban catchments the process is considerably altered by the emergence of impervious areas. In this study the Soil Consevation Service – curve number (SCS-CN and the Green–Ampt loss methods were used in rainfall-runoff modelling in the Zaafrania urban catchment which is located in Annaba city in the north east of Algeria. The two loss methods were carried out within Hydrologic Engineering Center – Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS, the choice of the appropriate method for simulating runoff hydrographs in the study area was made by comparing the simulated hydrographs versus observed data using visual inspection and statistical analysis. The results indicate that SCS-CN loss method fit better in the case of 100 years return period NSE (0.462 than in 10 years NSE (0.346 and the results of calibration of Green–Ampt loss method for the 100 years return period NSE (0.417 provide best fit than the case of 10 years NSE (0.381. Furthermore, the results of both return periods (10 and 100 years of SCS-CN loss method provide best fit than the results of return periods (10 and 100 years of Green–Ampt loss method. It could be concluded that SCS-CN method is preferred to the Green–Ampt method for event based rainfall-runoff modelling.

  6. Grain size distribution of road-deposited sediment and its contribution to heavy metal pollution in urban runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaomei; Tian, Di

    2010-11-15

    Pollutant washoff from road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an increasing problem associated with the rapid urbanization of China that results in urban non-point source pollution. Here, we analyzed the RDS grain size distribution and its potential impact on heavy metal pollution in urban runoff from impervious surfaces of urban villages, colleges and residences, and main traffic roads in the Haidian District, Beijing, China. RDS with smaller grain size had a higher metal concentration. Specifically, particles with the smallest grain size (runoff water accounted for greater than 70% of the metal mass in the total suspended solids (TSS). The heavy metal content in the TSS was 2.21-6.52% of that in the RDS. These findings will facilitate our understanding of the importance of RDS grain size distribution in heavy metal pollution caused by urban storm runoff. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficiency of source control systems for reducing runoff pollutant loads: feedback on experimental catchments within Paris conurbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressy, Adèle; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Saad, Mohamed; Leroy, Florent; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-06-15

    Three catchments, equipped with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS: vegetated roof, underground pipeline or tank, swale, grassed detention pond) for peak flow mitigation, have been compared to a reference catchment drained by a conventional separate sewer system in terms of hydraulic behaviour and discharged contaminant fluxes (organic matter, organic micropollutants, metals). A runoff and contaminant emission model has been developed in order to overcome land use differences. It has been demonstrated that the presence of peak flow control systems induces flow attenuation even for frequent rain events and reduces water discharges at a rate of about 50% depending on the site characteristics. This research has also demonstrated that this type of SUDS contributes to a significant reduction of runoff pollutant discharges, by 20%-80%. This level of reduction varies depending on the considered contaminant and on the design of the drainage system but is mostly correlated with the decrease in runoff volume. It could be improved if the design of these SUDS focused not only on the control of exceptional events but also targeted more explicitly the interception of frequent rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff flowing into the tidal Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.-M.; Foster, Gregory D.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the sources, fate, and transport dynamics of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in stormwater runoff that is a leading source of pollution in urban watersheds, storm and base flow samples were collected in six branches along the lower Anacostia River. PAHs in storm flow (1510-12,500 ng/L) were significantly enriched in the particle phase, which accounted for 68-97% of the total PAHs. It suggests that reducing particles in stormwater using post-treatment system would decrease PAHs considerably. The solid-water distribution coefficients (K D ) of PAHs in the storm flow samples were up to 340 times higher than predicted values. A greater portion of high molecular weight PAHs and their distribution patterns indicate higher contribution of automobile originated pyrogenic PAHs. Total suspended solids in storm flow had a positive relationship with flow rates and exceeded benchmark level for the protection of aquatic biota in some samples. - PAHs in urban stormwater runoff degrade the quality of watersheds and need to be removed before runoff enters into receiving water bodies

  9. The use of simulated rainfall to study the discharge process and the influence factors of urban surface runoff pollution loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinqin, Li; Qiao, Chen; Jiancai, Deng; Weiping, Hu

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the characteristics of pollutants on impervious surfaces is essential to estimate pollution loads and to design methods to minimize the impacts of pollutants on the environment. In this study, simulated rainfall equipment was constructed to investigate the pollutant discharge process and the influence factors of urban surface runoff (USR). The results indicated that concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) appeared to be higher in the early period and then decreased gradually with rainfall duration until finally stabilized. The capacity and particle size of surface dust, rainfall intensity and urban surface slopes affected runoff pollution loads to a variable extent. The loads of TP, TN and COD showed a positive relationship with the surface dust capacity, whereas the maximum TSS load appeared when the surface dust was 0.0317 g·cm⁻². Smaller particle sizes (pollution carrying capacity of runoff, leading to higher pollution loads. Knowledge of the influence factors could assist in the management of USR pollution loads.

  10. Design and Development of Low P-Emission Substrate for the Protection of Urban Water Bodies Collecting Green Roof Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to higher phosphorus (P concentration in urban catchments. Among different stormwater retention measures, green roofs are the least efficient in phosphorus retention. Moreover, much research has shown that green roofs act as sources of phosphorus, and they can emit P in significant loads. In this study low P emission green roof substrate was developed based on the proposed step by step procedure for the selection of materials including laboratory tests, column experiments, and the monitoring of the open air green roof model. Developed substrate is the mixture of crushed red brick (35% of volume, crushed limestone (20% of volume, and sand (45% of volume, and is characterized by a bulk density of 1.52 g/cm3, water permeability of 9 mm/min, water capacity of 24.6% of volume, and granulometric composition that meets the Landscaping and Landscape Development Research Society (FLL guidelines. Limestone was added to limit the potential P leaching from crushed red brick and vegetated mate consisted of Sedum album, Sedum acre, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum spurium, Sedum reflexum, Sedum sexangulare, Dianthus deltoides, Dianthus carthusianorum, and Thymus vulgaris. The open air model experiment was run for 319 days, from March 2015 to February 2016. The total water runoff from the green roof model amounted to 43.3% of runoff from the reference roof. The only one runoff event polluted with phosphorus was connected with the outflow of melted snow from an unfreezing green roof model.

  11. Speciation distribution and mass balance of copper and zinc in urban rain, sediments, and road runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Fu, Dafang; Li, He

    2012-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution in road runoff had caused widespread concern since the last century. However, there are little references on metal speciation in multiple environmental media (e.g., rain, road sediments, and road runoff). Our research targeted the investigation of metal speciation in rain, road sediments, and runoff; the analysis of speciation variation and mass balance of metals among rain, road sediments, and runoff; the selection of main factors by principal component analysis (PCA); and the establishment of equation to evaluate the impact of rain and road sediments to metals in road runoff. Sequential extraction procedure contains five steps for the chemical fractionation of metals. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Shimadzu, AA-6800) was used to determine metal speciation concentration, as well as the total and dissolved fractions. The dissolved fractions for both Cu and Zn were dominant in rain. The speciation distribution of Zn was different from that of Cu in road sediments, while speciation distribution of Zn is similar to that of Cu in runoff. The bound to carbonates for both Cu and Zn in road sediments were prone to be dissolved by rain. The levels of Cu and Zn in runoff were not obviously influenced by rain, but significantly influenced by road sediments. The masses for both Cu and Zn among rain, road sediments, and road runoff approximately meet the mass balance equation for all rainfall patterns. Five principal factors were selected for metal regression equation based on PCA, including rainfall, average rainfall intensity, antecedent dry periods, total suspended particles, and temperature. The established regression equations could be used to predict the effect of road runoff on receiving environments.

  12. VARIATION OF PATHOGEN DENSITITES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three land use areas (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of organisms in ...

  13. VARIATIONS OF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE AND SEASONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial)....

  14. VARIATION OF PATHOGEN DENSITIES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three land use areas (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of organisms in ...

  15. The capture and destruction of E. coli from simulated urban runoff using conventional bioretention media and iron oxide-coated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the magnitude of the threat to the quality of receiving water bodies posed by microbial pollutants in urban stormwater runoff, and the untested potential for their removal in bioretention systems, studies were performed to evaluate the removal efficiency of bacteria from simulated urban stormw...

  16. Determination of selected metals in urban runoff and related estuarine sediments by neutron activation and atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.R.; Guinn, V.P.; Scherfig, J.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution sources for Newport Bay, California are of a nonpoint nature. To assess the heavy metals loading of the runoff into the Bay, 18 water samples, taken during dry and rainy periods, have been analyzed for Mn, Cu, Zn, and Pb, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In addition, 7 sediment cores from the Upper Bay and 5 sediment grab samples from the Lower Bay were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for Cr, Fe, and Co, whereas Mn, Cu, and Pb were determined by AAS. Zinc was determined by both of these techniques. Three major streams pass into Newport Bay carrying: (1) agricultural and to some extent urban and residential runoff (70-90%), (2) urban runoff (10-30%), and (3) residential runoff (<5%). The levels of Zn and Pb are much higher under storm conditions, e.g., 338 μg/l Zn and 425 μg/l Pb, than during dry weather, where typical concentrations are 20 μg/l Zn and 9 μg/l Pb. For Cu there is a moderate increase from about 10 μg/l in dry weather to a maximum of 54 μg/l under storm conditions. Soil erosion appears to be responsible for high Mn values (max. 1230 μg/l) in agricultural storm runoff. The cleansing action of a storm is evidenced by high concentrations in the beginning, and much lower levels towards the end of the storm.Vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment cores indicate that Zn and Pb are the only metals of those investigated that show clearly increased levels in the uppermost layers. Typical enrichment ratios are 2.0 for Zn and 5.5 for Pb. Maximum concentrations of Zn and Pb in sediments from the Upper Bay were 300 ppm and 132 ppm, respectively. The highest Pb value was found close to the mouth of the urban drainage channel. Dating of selected cores was carried out by the Pb-210 method. Mass injection rates into Upper Newport Bay for Zn and Pb of anthropogenic origin were estimated to be 6.0 and 6.5 tons/yr, respectively

  17. Estimating spatially and temporally varying recharge and runoff from precipitation and urban irrigation in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-17

    A daily precipitation-runoff model, referred to as the Los Angeles Basin watershed model (LABWM), was used to estimate recharge and runoff for a 5,047 square kilometer study area that included the greater Los Angeles area and all surface-water drainages potentially contributing recharge to a 1,450 square kilometer groundwater-study area underlying the greater Los Angeles area, referred to as the Los Angeles groundwater-study area. The recharge estimates for the Los Angeles groundwater-study area included spatially distributed recharge in response to the infiltration of precipitation, runoff, and urban irrigation, as well as mountain-front recharge from surface-water drainages bordering the groundwater-study area. The recharge and runoff estimates incorporated a new method for estimating urban irrigation, consisting of residential and commercial landscape watering, based on land use and the percentage of pervious land area.The LABWM used a 201.17-meter gridded discretization of the study area to represent spatially distributed climate and watershed characteristics affecting the surface and shallow sub-surface hydrology for the Los Angeles groundwater study area. Climate data from a local network of 201 monitoring sites and published maps of 30-year-average monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature were used to develop the climate inputs for the LABWM. Published maps of land use, land cover, soils, vegetation, and surficial geology were used to represent the physical characteristics of the LABWM area. The LABWM was calibrated to available streamflow records at six streamflow-gaging stations.Model results for a 100-year target-simulation period, from water years 1915 through 2014, were used to quantify and evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of water-budget components, including evapotranspiration (ET), recharge, and runoff. The largest outflow of water from the LABWM was ET; the 100-year average ET rate of 362 millimeters per year (mm

  18. Using Automatic Control Approach In Detention Storages For Storm Water Management In An Urban Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Yadav, H.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Increased imperviousness due to rapid urbanization have changed the urban hydrological cycle. As watersheds are urbanized, infiltration and groundwater recharge have decreased, surface runoff hydrograph shows higher peak indicating large volumes of surface runoff in lesser time durations. The ultimate panacea is to reduce the peak of hydrograph or increase the retention time of surface flow. SWMM is widely used hydrologic and hydraulic software which helps to simulate the urban storm water management with the provision to apply different techniques to prevent flooding. A model was setup to simulate the surface runoff and channel flow in a small urban catchment. It provides the temporal and spatial information of flooding in a catchment. Incorporating the detention storages in the drainage network helps achieve reduced flooding. Detention storages provided with predefined algorithms were for controlling the pluvial flooding in urban watersheds. The algorithm based on control theory, automated the functioning of detention storages ensuring that the storages become active on occurrence of flood in the storm water drains and shuts down when flooding is over. Detention storages can be implemented either at source or at several downstream control points. The proposed piece of work helps to mitigate the wastage of rainfall water, achieve desirable groundwater and attain a controlled urban storm water management system.

  19. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shafique; Reeho Kim; Kwon Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale...

  20. Monitoring and predicting the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations from agricultural, mixed land use and urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Ventura, J S; Memon, S A; Jahng, D; Kang, J-H; Lee, C-H

    2016-04-15

    While the urban runoff are increasingly being studied as a source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in watershed with mixed land use and ongoing land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this study, Escherichia coli (EC) and fecal streptococcus (FS) were monitored from 2012 to 2013 in agricultural, mixed and urban LULC and analyzed according to the most probable number (MPN). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between FIB and environmental parameters (physicochemical and hydrometeorological). Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to identify the significant parameters that affect the FIB concentrations and to predict the response of FIB in LULC change. Overall, the FIB concentrations were higher in urban LULC (EC=3.33-7.39; FS=3.30-7.36log10MPN/100mL) possibly because of runoff from commercial market and 100% impervious cover (IC). Also, during early-summer season; this reflects a greater persistence and growth rate of FIB in a warmer environment. During intra-event, however, the FIB concentrations varied according to site condition. Anthropogenic activities and IC influenced the correlation between the FIB concentrations and environmental parameters. Stormwater temperature (TEMP), turbidity, and TSS positively correlated with the FIB concentrations (p>0.01), since IC increased, implying an accumulation of bacterial sources in urban activities. TEMP, BOD5, turbidity, TSS, and antecedent dry days (ADD) were the most significant explanatory variables for FIB as determined in MLR, possibly because they promoted the FIB growth and survival. The model confirmed the FIB concentrations: EC (R(2)=0.71-0.85; NSE=0.72-0.86) and FS (R(2)=0.65-0.83; NSE=0.66-0.84) are predicted to increase due to urbanization. Therefore, these findings will help in stormwater monitoring strategies, designing the best management practice for FIB removal and as input data for stormwater models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  1. Reducing Runoff Loss of Applied Nutrients in Oil Palm Cultivation Using Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release fertilizers are expected to minimize nutrient loss from crop fields due to their potential to supply plant-available nutrients in synchrony with crop requirements. The evaluation of the efficiency of these fertilizers in tropical oil palm agroecological conditions is not yet fully explored. In this study, a one-year field trial was conducted to determine the impact of fertilization with water soluble conventional mixture and controlled-release fertilizers on runoff loss of nutrients from an immature oil palm field. Soil and nutrient loss were monitored for one year in 2012/2013 under erosion plots of 16 m2 on 10% slope gradient. Mean sediments concentration in runoff amounted to about 6.41 t ha−1. Conventional mixture fertilizer posed the greatest risk of nutrient loss in runoff following fertilization due to elevated nitrogen (6.97%, potassium (13.37%, and magnesium (14.76% as percentage of applied nutrients. In contrast, this risk decreased with the application of controlled-release fertilizers, representing 0.75–2.44% N, 3.55–5.09% K, and 4.35–5.43% Mg loss. Meanwhile, nutrient loss via eroded sediments was minimal compared with loss through runoff. This research demonstrates that the addition of controlled-release fertilizers reduced the runoff risks of nutrient loss possibly due to their slow-release properties.

  2. Quality of urban runoff in wet and dry seasons: a case study in a semi-arid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Joyce; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos; Lizárraga-Mendiola, Liliana; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa Icela; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Urban runoff (UR) is a promising new resource that may alleviate growing tensions in numerous arid and semi-arid regions of the world. However, it is precisely in these zones that the available UR quality characteristics are scarcer. This work aims to evaluate a wide set of parameters to establish a detailed approach to both the quality of UR in a midsized city in Central Mexico and the feasibility of using UR to recharge aquifers. UR from an institutional land use site was sampled during wet and dry seasons and assessed for suspended solids, organic matter, nutrients, microorganisms, metals, and persistent organic chemicals (i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH). The results were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods to identify relationships among the variables, the sampling sites and the seasons. The soil erosion and the leaching of materials due to the water flow through vegetated areas were identified as the most influencing factor on the quality of the site runoff in both dry and wet seasons. Additionally, data were more heterogeneous during the dry season, and higher pollutant concentrations were found both during the dry season and in more pervious zones. We consider UR a promising water source for recharging aquifers in arid and semi-arid zones if a program is implemented that can integrate an adequate runoff treatment system, soil protection, and other non-structural measures.

  3. Adjustment of regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using data for Chattanooga, Knoxville, and Nashville, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, Anne B.; Patel, Anant R.

    1996-01-01

    Model-adjustment procedures were applied to the combined data bases of storm-runoff quality for Chattanooga, Knoxville, and Nashville, Tennessee, to improve predictive accuracy for storm-runoff quality for urban watersheds in these three cities and throughout Middle and East Tennessee. Data for 45 storms at 15 different sites (five sites in each city) constitute the data base. Comparison of observed values of storm-runoff load and event-mean concentration to the predicted values from the regional regression models for 10 constituents shows prediction errors, as large as 806,000 percent. Model-adjustment procedures, which combine the regional model predictions with local data, are applied to improve predictive accuracy. Standard error of estimate after model adjustment ranges from 67 to 322 percent. Calibration results may be biased due to sampling error in the Tennessee data base. The relatively large values of standard error of estimate for some of the constituent models, although representing significant reduction (at least 50 percent) in prediction error compared to estimation with unadjusted regional models, may be unacceptable for some applications. The user may wish to collect additional local data for these constituents and repeat the analysis, or calibrate an independent local regression model.

  4. Understanding the factors influencing the removal of heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an infiltration trench equipped with an extensive pretreatment and filter bed consisting of woodchip, sand and gravel was utilized as a low impact development technique to manage stormwater runoff from a highly impervious road with particular emphasis on heavy metal removal. Findings revealed that the major factors influencing the removal of heavy metals were the concentration of the particulate matters and heavy metals in runoff, runoff volume and flow rates. The reduction of heavy metals was enhanced by sedimentation of particulates through pretreatment. Fine particles (heavy metals, thus, enhanced adsorption and filtration using various filter media were important design considerations. Sediment was most highly attached on the surface area of woodchip than to other filter media like sand, gravel and geotextile. It is suggested that maintenance must be performed after the end of the winter season wherein high sediment rate was observed to maintain the efficiency of the treatment system.

  5. Partitioning of fluoranthene between free and bound forms in stormwater runoff and other urban discharges using passive dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Mayer, Philipp; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    to dissolved organic carbon was lower than partitioning to particulate organic carbon. Partitioning of fluoranthene to particulate organic matter in the 19 stormwater samples yielded a log KPOM of 5.18. The presented results can be used in stormwater quality modeling and assessment of efficiency of stormwater......Partitioning of fluoranthene in stormwater runoff and other urban discharges was measured by a new analytical method based on passive dosing. Samples were collected at the inlet (n = 11) and outlet (n = 8) from a stormwater retention pond in Albertslund (Denmark), and for comparison samples were...... of the different stormwater samples for carrying fluoranthene was 2–23 relative to pure water and decreasing during rain events. The enhanced capacity of stormwater showed a different relationship with suspended solid concentrations than the other types of urban discharges. Partitioning of fluoranthene...

  6. Distributions of typical contaminant species in urban short-term storm runoff and their fates during rain events: a case of Xiamen City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qunshan; Zhu, Gefu; Wu, Peng; Cui, Li; Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Wenru

    2010-01-01

    The pollutants in urban storm runoff, which lead to an non-point source contamination of water environment around cities, are of great concerns. The distributions of typical contaminants and the variations of their species in short term storm runoff from different land surfaces in Xiamen City were investigated. The concentrations of various contaminants, including organic matter, nutrients (i.e., N and P) and heavy metals, were significantly higher in parking lot and road runoff than those in roof and lawn runoff. The early runoff samples from traffic road and parking lot contained much high total nitrogen (TN 6-19 mg/L) and total phosphorus (TP 1-3 mg/L). A large proportion (around 60%) of TN existed as total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species in most runoff. The percentage of TDN and the percentage of total dissolved phosphorus remained relatively stable during the rain events and did not decrease as dramatically as TN and TP. In addition, only parking lot and road runoff were contaminated by heavy metals, and both Pb (25-120 microg/L) and Zn (0.1-1.2 mg/L) were major heavy metals contaminating both runoff. Soluble Pb and Zn were predominantly existed as labile complex species (50%-99%), which may be adsorbed onto the surfaces of suspended particles and could be easily released out when pH decreased. This would have the great impact to the environment.

  7. Controllability of runoff and soil loss from small plots treated by vinasse-produced biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Harchegani, Mahboobeh Kiani

    2016-01-15

    Many different amendments, stabilizers, and conditioners are usually applied for soil and water conservation. Biochar is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen with the goal to be used as a soil amendment. Biochar can be produced from a wide range of biomass sources including straw, wood, manure, and other organic wastes. Biochar has been demonstrated to restore soil fertility and crop production under many conditions, but less is known about the effects of its application on soil erosion and runoff control. Therefore, a rainfall simulation study, as a pioneer research, was conducted to evaluate the performance of the application of vinasse-produced biochar on the soil erosion control of a sandy clay loam soil packed in small-sized runoff 0.25-m(2) plots with 3 replicates. The treatments were (i) no biochar (control), (ii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 24h before the rainfall simulation and (iii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 48 h before the rainfall simulation. Rainfall was applied at 50 mm h(-1) for 15 min. The mean change of effectiveness in time to runoff could be found in biochar application at 24 and 48 h before simulation treatment with rate of +55.10% and +71.73%, respectively. In addition, the mean runoff volume 24 and 48 h before simulation treatments decreased by 98.46% and 46.39%, respectively. The least soil loss (1.12 ± 0.57 g) and sediment concentration (1.44 ± 0.48 gl(-1)) occurred in the biochar-amended soil treated 48 h before the rainfall simulation. In conclusion, the application of vinasse-produced biochar could effectively control runoff and soil loss. This study provided a new insight into the effects of biochar on runoff, soil loss, and sediment control due to water erosion in sandy clay loam soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal Drivers of Dissolved Metal Transport During Infiltration of Road Runoff in an Urban Roadside Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, A.; Bain, D.

    2017-12-01

    Infiltration-based green infrastructure (GI) is being increasingly applied in urban areas, systems characterized by substantial legacy contamination and complicated hydrology. However, it is not clear how the application of green infrastructure changes the geochemistry of urban roadside environments. Most current research on GI focuses on small sets of chemical parameters (e.g. road salt, nitrogen and phosphorous species) over relatively short time periods, limiting comprehensive understanding of geochemical function. This work measures changes in groundwater infiltration rate and dissolved metal concentrations in two infiltration trenches in Pittsburgh, PA to evaluate function and measure dissolved metal transport from the system over time. Two distinct geochemical regimes seem to be driven by seasonality: road de-icer exchange and microbial driven summer reducing conditions. Interactions between these geochemical regimes and variability in infiltration rate control the flux of different metals, varying with metal chemistry. These findings suggest the adoption of infiltration based green infrastructure will likely create complicated patterns of legacy contamination transport to downstream receptors.

  9. Comparing the impact of time displaced and biased precipitation estimates for online updated urban runoff models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Borup, Morten

    2013-01-01

    When an online runoff model is updated from system measurements, the requirements of the precipitation input change. Using rain gauge data as precipitation input there will be a displacement between the time when the rain hits the gauge and the time where the rain hits the actual catchment, due...

  10. INFILTRATION THROUGH DISTURBED URBAN SOILS AND COMPOST-AMENDED SOIL EFFECTS OF RUNOFF QUALITY AND QUANTITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project examined a common, but poorly understood, problem associated with land development, namely the modifications made to soil structure and the associated reduced rainfall infiltration and increased runoff. The project was divided into two separate major tasks: 1) to tes...

  11. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution.

  12. Bioretention storm water control measures decrease the toxicity of copper roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarre, William J; Ownby, David R; Rader, Kevin J; Lev, Steven M; Casey, Ryan E

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated the ability of 2 different bioretention storm water control measures (SCMs), planter boxes and swales, to decrease the toxicity of sheet copper (Cu) roofing runoff to Daphnia magna. The present study quantified changes in storm water chemistry as it passed through the bioretention systems and utilized the biotic ligand model (BLM) to assess whether the observed D. magna toxicity could be predicted by variations found in water chemistry. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using select storm samples with D. magna cultured under low ionic strength conditions that were appropriate for the low ionic strength of the storm water samples being tested. The SCMs decreased toxicity of Cu roof runoff in both the BLM results and the storm water bioassays. Water exiting the SCMs was substantially higher than influent runoff in pH, ions, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon and substantially lower in total and dissolved Cu. Daphnids experienced complete mortality in untreated runoff from the Cu roof (the SCM influent); however, for planter and swale effluents, survival averaged 86% and 95%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that conventional bioretention practices, including planter boxes and swales, are capable of decreasing the risk of adverse effects from sheet Cu roof runoff to receiving systems, even before considering dilution of effluents in those receiving systems and associated further reductions in copper bioavailability. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1680-1688. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services.

  14. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  15. Variation of microorganism concentrations in urban stormwater runoff with land use and seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Borst, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of microorganisms in the stormwater runoff were found to be similar in magnitude to, but less variable than, those reported in the stormwater National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) database. Microorganism concentrations from high-density residential areas were higher than those associated with low-density residential and landscaped commercial areas. Since the outfalls were free of sanitary wastewater cross-connections, the major sources of microorganisms to the stormwater runoff were most likely from the feces of domestic animals and wildlife. Concentrations of microorganisms were significantly affected by the season during which the samples were collected. The lowest concentrations were observed during winter except for Staphylococcus aureus. The Pearson correlation coefficients among different indicators showed weak linear relationships and the relationships were statistically significant. However, the relationships between indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated and were not statistically significant, suggesting the use of indicators as evidence of the presence of pathogens is not appropriate. Further, the correlation between the concentration of the traditionally monitored indicators (total coliforms and fecal coliforms) and the suggested substitutes (enterococci and E. coli) is weak, but statistically significant, suggesting that historical time series will be only a qualitative indicator of impaired waters under the revised criteria for recreational water quality by the US EPA.

  16. Community-Based Soil Quality Assessment As a Tool for Designing an Urban Green Infrastructure Network to Manage Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, C.; Montgomery, J.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) may be the most practical approach for reducing contaminated runoff, providing ecosystem services, mitigating food deserts and creating community open spaces in urban areas. This project was funded by the USEPA's People-Prosperity-Planet (P3) program and was a partnership between a team of DePaul University undergraduates (the P3 team) and high school interns (Green Teens) and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center (GCYC). GCYC is located in a low-income African-American community on Chicago's south side characterized by high crime, abandoned buildings, lack of green space and a food desert. The overaching project goal was to develop a network of Green Teens qualified to conduct soil quality assessment using USDA-NRCS protocols in order to let them develop GI plans to minimize storm water runoff and contaminant loadings, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space. Working with a USDA-ARS soil scientist from Washington State University, the P3 team conducted soil quality assessment on 116 soil samples collected among four abandoned residential lots owned by GCYC. Analytes included infiltration, bulk density, texture, pH, conductivity, aggregate stability, available nutrients, and total and bioavailable (PBET) lead. Soil pH on all lots is greater than 8.0, are low in organic matter, have little microbial respiration activity, are enriched in available phosphorus, and have average total lead values ranging from 24-2,700 mg/kg. PBET lead was less than 40% on most lots. Regardless, these soils will need to be remediated by adding carbon-rich materials such as biosolids prior to GI installation. Students enrolled in a landscape design course at DePaul developed 3-D models representing potential GI designs for one of the vacant lots that include strategies for immobilizing heavy metals, reducing runoff, and which are tied into an educational module for neighborhood school children.

  17. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Byrne, Barbara A; Jang, Spencer S; Dodd, Erin M; Dorfmeier, Elene; Harris, Michael D; Ames, Jack; Paradies, David; Worcester, Karen; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2010-01-01

    Although protected for nearly a century, California's sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona. However, potential impacts from exposure to fecal bacteria have not been systematically explored. Using selective media, we examined feces from live and dead sea otters from California for specific enteric bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile and Escherichia coli O157:H7), and pathogens endemic to the marine environment (Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides). We evaluated statistical associations between detection of these pathogens in otter feces and demographic or environmental risk factors for otter exposure, and found that dead otters were more likely to test positive for C. perfringens, Campylobacter and V. parahaemolyticus than were live otters. Otters from more urbanized coastlines and areas with high freshwater runoff (near outflows of rivers or streams) were more likely to test positive for one or more of these bacterial pathogens. Other risk factors for bacterial detection in otters included male gender and fecal samples collected during the rainy season when surface runoff is maximal. Similar risk factors were reported in prior studies of pathogen exposure for California otters and their invertebrate prey, suggesting that land-sea transfer and/or facilitation of pathogen survival in degraded coastal marine habitat may be impacting sea otter recovery. Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health.

  18. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Jang, Spencer S.; Dodd, Erin M.; Dorfmeier, Elene; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack; Paradies, David; Worcester, Karen; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2009-01-01

    Although protected for nearly a century, California’s sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona. However, potential impacts from exposure to fecal bacteria have not been systematically explored. Using selective media, we examined feces from live and dead sea otters from California for specific enteric bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile and Escherichia coli O157:H7), and pathogens endemic to the marine environment (Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides). We evaluated statistical associations between detection of these pathogens in otter feces and demographic or environmental risk factors for otter exposure, and found that dead otters were more likely to test positive for C. perfringens, Campylobacter and V. parahaemolyticus than were live otters. Otters from more urbanized coastlines and areas with high freshwater runoff (near outflows of rivers or streams) were more likely to test positive for one or more of these bacterial pathogens. Other risk factors for bacterial detection in otters included male gender and fecal samples collected during the rainy season when surface runoff is maximal. Similar risk factors were reported in prior studies of pathogen exposure for California otters and their invertebrate prey, suggesting that land-sea transfer and/or facilitation of pathogen survival in degraded coastal marine habitat may be impacting sea otter recovery. Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health. PMID:19720009

  19. Transfer of hydrophobic contaminants in urban runoff particles to benthic organisms estimated by an in vitro bioaccessibility test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakajima, F.; Saito, K.; Isozaki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    An in vitro bioaccessibility test was applied for assessing the transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in road dust, into benthic organisms living in a receiving water body. The road dust is supposed to be urban runoff particles under wet weather conditions. Sodium dodecyl...... sulfate (SDS) solution was used as a hypothetical gut fluid. Pyrene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene were the main PAH species in the SIDS extractable fraction of road dust, as well as the whole extract. Benzo(ghi)perylene showed relatively low concentrations in the SIDS extract in spite of a high...... concentration in the original dust. The PAH composition in benthic organisms (polychaetes) did not correspond with that of the surrounding sediment and the PAHs detected were also detected in high concentrations in the SDS extract of road dust. When testing the toxicity of the extracted contaminants...

  20. Planning instruments to control urban growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2010-01-01

    It is challenging to plan and control urban development in peri-urban areas. But if no planning is done, the result will often be unsustainable, including widespread, dispersed and uncoordinated urban growth. Spatial planning based on zoning remains the most important planning instrument and its...... success depend on regional coordination. Incentive based instruments may contrbute to growth management, but only few examples are available and their effects on urban growth patterns yet to be seen....

  1. [The Influence of Runoff Pollution to DOM Features in an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Ji, Fang-ying; Lai, Ming-sheng; Xu, Xuan; Zhou, Wei-wei; Mao, Bo-lin; Yang, Ming-jia

    2015-03-01

    Combined with wastewater treatment process, the sewage in sunny and rainy day was collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was used to investigate the characteristic fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), fluorescence index (ƒ450/500) and fluorescence intensity ratio γ (A, C) of fulvic acid in ultraviolet and visible region were used to analyze the impact of rain runoff pollution on sewage DOM. According to the experimental data, the DOM fluorescence fingerprints of this wastewater treatment plant were quite different from typical municipal sewage, and the main component was tryptophan with low excitation wavelength (Peak S), then the tryptophan with long wavelength excitation (Peak T) followed. A2/O process had an approximative degradation of the protein-like both in sunny day and rainy day, but had a better degradation of fulvic-like, DOC and COD in rainy day than that in sunny day. Morever, the fluorescence peaks got red-shifted after the biological treatment. The differences of DOM fluorescence fingerprint between sunny and rainy day were significant, the fluorescence center of UV fulvic (Peak A) in rainy day getting blue-shifted obviously, shifting from 240 - 248/390 - 440 to 240 - 250/370 - 400 nm. Although the DOM types in sunny and rainy day were the same, the source of fulvic got more complex by runoff and the component ratio of DOM also changed. Compared with the sunny day, the proportion of Peak S in DOM dereased by 10%, and the proportion of Peak A increased by 7% in rainy day.

  2. Determination of the levels of some heavy metals in urban run-off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique Zinc, iron and cadmium were found in very concentration in the Urban sediment from these cities whilst for most of the locations, lead was found to be below the detection level. Iron has the highest mean concentration while lead had the lowest level.

  3. [Performance of Grass Swales for Controlling Pollution of Roadway Runoff in Field Experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-jie; Shen, Qing-ran; Li, Tian

    2015-06-01

    Two different styles of grass swales were built in new Binhu region of Hefei city to monitor the flux and quality of the influent and effluent water under actual precipitation conditions, in order to evaluate the performance of water quality purification and pollution load control for roadway runoff. The results showed that both of the grass swales could effectively remove the pollutants such as TSS, COD, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn in roadway runoff; the median EMC removal efficiencies of TSS and COD were 67.1%, 46.7% respectively,for facility I, and the median EMC removal efficiencies of TSS and COD were 78.6%, 58.6% respectively, for facility II; the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn in the effluent of facility II could meet the requirements of the surface water quality class V; release of nitrogen and phosphorus occurred in both facilities I and I[ in several rainfall events, mainly in heavy storms; the removal efficiencies of TP in the two grass swales were improved with the increase of influent concentration; the mean removal efficiencies of TP in facilities I and II were 14.7% and 45.4%, respectively; the load control performance of facility II for pollutants such as TSS, COD, TP, TN, NH4+ -N and NO3- -N was better than that of facility I; in the district with poor soil permeability and low ground slope, application of dry swale could achieve better performance in water quality control and pollution load reduction of roadway runoff.

  4. Introduction of inclined open channels for the control of surface runoff of slopes in road structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hniad O.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of water erosion induced by runoff speeds at the surface of the embankments causes their instability. Particularly in road environments, gullying on the slope's surface due to runoffs causes landslides, which in turn cause considerable damage and consequent disorders to the road network. The aim of this research is to put in place a new technology for superficial water drainage on slope surfaces. Our study has developed a methodology involving the change of the geometric configuration of the water flow, aiming at velocity control of the flows by choosing slanting waterways with small slopes coupled to vertical drains. A modelling of the proposed solution will evaluate its effectiveness as to prevent the erosive factor and to identify other factors that are responsible for slope disorders.

  5. Comparing the impact of time displaced and biased precipitation estimates for online updated urban runoff models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2013-01-01

    When an online runoff model is updated from system measurements, the requirements of the precipitation input change. Using rain gauge data as precipitation input there will be a displacement between the time when the rain hits the gauge and the time where the rain hits the actual catchment, due to the time it takes for the rain cell to travel from the rain gauge to the catchment. Since this time displacement is not present for system measurements the data assimilation scheme might already have updated the model to include the impact from the particular rain cell when the rain data is forced upon the model, which therefore will end up including the same rain twice in the model run. This paper compares forecast accuracy of updated models when using time displaced rain input to that of rain input with constant biases. This is done using a simple time-area model and historic rain series that are either displaced in time or affected with a bias. The results show that for a 10 minute forecast, time displacements of 5 and 10 minutes compare to biases of 60 and 100%, respectively, independent of the catchments time of concentration.

  6. Runoff erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Evelpidou, Niki (Ed.); Cordier, Stephane (Ed.); Merino, Agustin (Ed.); Figueiredo, Tomás de (Ed.); Centeri, Csaba (Ed.)

    2013-01-01

    Table of Contents PART I – THEORY OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 1 - RUNOFF EROSION – THE MECHANISMS CHAPTER 2 - LARGE SCALE APPROACHES OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 3 - MEASURING PRESENT RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 4 - MODELLING RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 5 - RUNOFF EROSION AND HUMAN SOCIETIES: THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL EROSION PART II - CASE STUDIES CASE STUDIES – INTRODUCTION: RUNOFF EROSION IN MEDITERRANEAN AREA CASE STUDY 1: Soil Erosion Risk...

  7. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  8. Water-quality characteristics of urban storm runoff at selected sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, February 2006 through November 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, C. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected at three watersheds in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 2006 through November 2009 for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff. The watersheds represented land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, and residential. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. Lead met or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 4 of 14 samples. Low level concentrations of mercury were detected in all 14 samples, and half were two to four times above the reporting limit of 0.02 micrograms per liter. The average dissolved phosphorus concentrations from each land use were two to four times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.05 milligrams per liter. Diazinon was detected in one sample at a concentration of 0.2 micrograms per liter. In the residential watershed, the largest at 216 acres, contaminant loads for 5 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents were highest, with 4 of these being nutrients. The industrial watershed, 97 acres, had the highest contaminant loads for 6 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents with 3 of these being metals, which is indicative of the type of land use. Zinc had the highest metal load (155 pounds per year) in the industrial watershed, compared to 36 pounds per year in the residential watershed, and 32 pounds per year in the established commercial watershed. The industrial watershed had the highest yields for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the established commercial watershed had

  9. Long forecast horizon to improve Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage system is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution in order to respond to increasing performance demand (e.g. reduction of Combined Sewer Overflow, protection of sensitive areas as bathing water etc.). The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA......) strategy was developed to operate Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) in order to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, the expected runoff volume based on a 2-hours radar forecast model and an estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecast....... However, such temporal horizon (1-2 hours) is relatively short when used for the operation of large storage facilities, which may require a few days to be emptied. This limits the performance of the optimization and control in reducing combined sewer overflow and in preparing for possible flooding. Based...

  10. Sewage pollution in urban stormwater runoff as evident from the widespread presence of multiple microbial and chemical source tracking markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Gernjak, W; Aryal, R; McCarthy, D; Palmer, A; Kolotelo, P; Toze, S

    2013-10-01

    The concurrence of human sewage contamination in urban stormwater runoff (n=23) from six urban catchments across Australia was assessed by using both microbial source tracking (MST) and chemical source tracking (CST) markers. Out of 23 stormwater samples human adenovirus (HAv), human polyomavirus (HPv) and the sewage-associated markers; Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH and Bacteroides HF183 were detected in 91%, 56%, 43% and 96% of samples, respectively. Similarly, CST markers paracetamol (87%), salicylic acid (78%) acesulfame (96%) and caffeine (91%) were frequently detected. Twenty one samples (91%) were positive for six to eight sewage related MST and CST markers and remaining two samples were positive for five and four markers, respectively. A very good consensus (>91%) observed between the concurrence of the HF183, HAv, acesulfame and caffeine suggests good predictability of the presence of HAv in samples positive for one of the three markers. High prevalence of HAv (91%) also suggests that other enteric viruses may also be present in the stormwater samples which may pose significant health risks. This study underscores the benefits of employing a set of MST and CST markers which could include monitoring for HF183, adenovirus, caffeine and paracetamol to accurately detect human sewage contamination along with credible information on the presence of human enteric viruses, which could be used for more reliable public health risk assessments. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is recommended that some degree of treatment of captured stormwater would be required if it were to be used for non-potable purposes. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An investigation of wash-off controlling parameters at urban and commercial monitoring sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, C; Gnecco, I; Lanza, L G; La Barbera, P

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the parameters of the wash-off function and the controlling hydrologic variables are investigated in this paper, assuming that the pollutant generation process basically depends on the watershed rainfall-runoff response characteristics. Data collected during an intense monitoring program carried out by the Department of Environmental Engineering of the University of Genova (Italy) within a residential area, an auto dismantler facility, a tourism terminal and a urban waste truck depot are used to this aim. The observed runoff events are classified into different TSS mass delivery processes and the occurrence of the first flush phenomenon is also investigated. The correlation between the mathematical parameters describing the exponential process and the hydrological parameters of the corresponding rainfall-runoff event is analysed: runoff parameters and in particular the maximum flow discharge over the time of concentration of the drainage network are proposed as the controlling factor for the total mass of pollutant that is made available for wash-off during each runoff event.

  12. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steven G.; Caldwell, Peter V.; Cohen, Erika C.; Sun, Shanlei; Aldridge, Heather D.; Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Zhang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the relative roles of climatic variables in altering annual runoff in the conterminous United States (CONUS) in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress Index model, WaSSI) driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models. The results suggest that precipitation has been the primary control of runoff variation during the latest decades, but the role of temperature will outweigh that of precipitation in most regions if future climate change follows the projections of climate models instead of the historical tendencies. Besides these two key factors, increasing air humidity is projected to partially offset the additional evaporative demand caused by warming and consequently enhance runoff. Overall, the projections from 20 climate models suggest a high degree of consistency on the increasing trends in temperature, precipitation, and humidity, which will be the major climatic driving factors accounting for 43-50, 20-24, and 16-23 % of the runoff change, respectively. Spatially, while temperature rise is recognized as the largest contributor that suppresses runoff in most areas, precipitation is expected to be the dominant factor driving runoff to increase across the Pacific coast and the southwest. The combined effects of increasing humidity and precipitation may also surpass the detrimental effects of warming and result in a hydrologically wetter future in the east. However, severe runoff depletion is more likely to occur in the central CONUS as temperature effect prevails.

  13. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  14. Estimating the Effect of Urban Growth on Annual Runoff Volume Using GIS in the Erbil Sub-Basin of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammed Hameed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth and spread of impervious surfaces within urbanizing catchment areas pose signiificant threats to the quality of natural and built-up environments. Impervious surfaces prevent water infiltration into the soil, resulting in increased runoff generation. The Erbil Sub-basin was selected because the impervious cover is increasing rapidly and is affecting the hydrological condition of the watershed. The overall aim of this study is to examine the impact of urban growth and other changes in land use on runoff response during the study period of 1984 to 2014. The study describes long-term hydrologic responses within the rapidly developing catchment area of Erbil city, in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Data from six rainfall stations in and around the Erbil Sub-basin were used. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was also used to extract the distribution of the drainage network. Historical levels of urban growth and the corresponding impervious areas, as well as land use/land cover changes were mapped from 1984 to 2014 using a temporal satellite image (Landsat to determine land use/land cover changes. Land use/land cover was combined with a hydrological model (SCS-CN to estimate the volume of runoff from the watershed. The study indicates that the urbanization of the watershed has increased the impervious land cover by 71% for the period from 1984 to 2004 and by 51% from 2004 to 2014. The volume of runoff was 85% higher in 2014 as compared to 1984 due to the increase in the impervious surface area; this is attributed to urban growth. The study also points out that the slope of the watershed in the Erbil sub-basin should be taken into account in surface runoff estimation as the upstream part of the watershed has a high gradient and the land is almost barren with very little vegetation cover; this causes an increase in the velocity of the flow and increases the risk of flooding in Erbil city.

  15. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecosystem services of runoff marshes in urban lowland basins: proposals for their management and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armendáriz Laura C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of La Plata, Argentina, is situated in a low alluvial zone, with streams having insufficient drainage into the Río de la Plata estuary. In April 2013, a prodigious storm front caused unprecedented flooding in the city and environs that resulted in extensive loss of life and property, especially in the Del Gato stream basin. Through an analysis of water quality and the conditions of the habitat on the basis of the macroinvertebrates present as bioindicators of environmental quality, this work aims to contribute to a reevaluation of the role of the marshes adjacent to the stream as flood-alleviation elements, and then propose alternatives for flooding management in the basin. Consequently, quantitative seasonal samples of vegetation, sediments, and benthic organic matter were taken and limnologic parameters measured in three sectors of the basin having different land uses: rural, periurban, and urban-industrial. The macroinvertebrate assemblages, as analyzed through the application of ecological indices, exhibited a marked decline in richness and in the Pampean Biotic Index towards the low-lying basin. Principal-components analysis associated Site 1 with the dissolved-oxygen concentration, Site 2 with high nitrate values, and Site 3 with oxygen demands. Redundancy analysis indicated a positive relationship between Baetidae and Aeolosomatidae with the dissolved-oxygen concentration and between Enchytraeidae and Stratiomyidae with the conductivity. These marshes are fundamental in maintaining good environmental conditions and attenuating the effects of the flooding that is predicted to become increasingly catastrophic in this region as the climate changes.

  17. [Effect of the Runoff-sediment Control of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir on DOC Transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ling; Wang, Ming-shi; Dong, Yu-long

    2015-04-01

    The sampling was carried out in Sanmenxia hydrological station, Xiaolangdi hydrological station and Huayuankou hydrological station from November 2011 to October 2012. The impact of the runoff-sediment control of the Xiaolangdi reservoir on DOC transport,was analyzed. The results were as follows. DOC contents in Sanmenxia station, Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station were 1.97-2.71 mg-L(-1), 1.87-2.76 mg x L(-1) and 2.07-2.93 mg x L(-1), respectively, during the normal operation period of Xiaolangdi Reservoir and Sanmenxia reservoir, and the DOC content in the three reservoirs had obvious seasonal change. DOC contents in the three stations were 2.14-3.32 mg x L(-1), 2.21-2.84 mg x L(-1) and 2.11-2.84 mg x L(-1), respectively, during the runoff-sediment control, and the DOC content in the sediment-releasing period of reservoir was higher than that in the water-releasing period of reservoir. DOC content had no significant correlation with TSS and flow either during the normal operation or during the water-sediment regulation of the reservoir. But the DOC content had significant correlation with water temperature during the normal operation of the reservoir. DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was similar to that in Xiaolangdi station from November to March. DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was obviously less than that in Xiaolangdi station from April to July. And the DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was much higher than that in Xiaolangdi station from August to October. The result showed that DOC was retained from August to October by Xiaolangdi reservoir and discharged from Xiaolangdi reservoir from April to July. The yearly DOC fluxes were 8.6 x 10(10), 9.0 x 10(10) and 9.7 x 10(10) g respectively in Sanmenxia station, Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station. The DOC flux of Sanmenxia station was the highest in September, which accounted for 22.0% of the yearly DOC flux, and the DOC flux of Xiaolangdi station was the highest in June, which accounted for 17.6% of the

  18. Topographical controls on soil moisture distribution and runoff response in a first order alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Gobbi, Alberto; Mantese, Nicola; Borga, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological processes driving runoff generation in mountain basins depend on a wide number of factors which are often strictly interconnected. Among them, topography is widely recognized as one of the dominant controls influencing soil moisture distribution in the root zone, depth to water table and location and extent of saturated areas possibly prone to runoff production. Morphological properties of catchments are responsible for the alternation between steep slopes and relatively flat areas which have the potentials to control the storage/release of water and hence the hydrological response of the whole watershed. This work aims to: i) identify the role of topography as the main factor controlling the spatial distribution of near-surface soil moisture; ii) evaluate the possible switch in soil moisture spatial organization between wet and relatively dry periods and the stability of patterns during triggering of surface/subsurface runoff; iii) assess the possible connection between the develop of an ephemeral river network and the groundwater variations, examining the influence of the catchment topographical properties on the hydrological response. Hydro-meteorological data were collected in a small subcatchment (Larch Creek Catchment, 0.033 km²) of Rio Vauz basin (1.9 km²), in the eastern Italian Alps. Precipitation, discharge, water table level over a net of 14 piezometric wells and volumetric soil moisture at 0-30 cm depth were monitored continuously during the late spring-early autumn months in 2007 and 2008. Soil water content at 0-6 and 0-20 cm depth was measured manually during 22 field surveys in summer 2007 over a 44-sampling point experimental plot (approximately 3000 m²). In summer 2008 the sampling grid was extended to 64 points (approximately 4500 m²) and 28 field surveys were carried out. The length of the ephemeral stream network developed during rainfall events was assessed by a net of 24 Overland Flow Detectors (OFDs), which are able to

  19. Partial Least Squares Regression for Determining the Control Factors for Runoff and Suspended Sediment Yield during Rainfall Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufang Fang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistics are commonly used to identify the factors that control the dynamics of runoff or sediment yields during hydrological processes. However, one issue with the use of conventional statistical methods to address relationships between variables and runoff or sediment yield is multicollinearity. The main objectives of this study were to apply a method for effectively identifying runoff and sediment control factors during hydrological processes and apply that method to a case study. The method combines the clustering approach and partial least squares regression (PLSR models. The case study was conducted in a mountainous watershed in the Three Gorges Area. A total of 29 flood events in three hydrological years in areas with different land uses were obtained. In total, fourteen related variables were separated from hydrographs using the classical hydrograph separation method. Twenty-nine rainfall events were classified into two rainfall regimes (heavy Rainfall Regime I and moderate Rainfall Regime II based on rainfall characteristics and K-means clustering. Four separate PLSR models were constructed to identify the main variables that control runoff and sediment yield for the two rainfall regimes. For Rainfall Regime I, the dominant first-order factors affecting the changes in sediment yield in our study were all of the four rainfall-related variables, flood peak discharge, maximum flood suspended sediment concentration, runoff, and the percentages of forest and farmland. For Rainfall Regime II, antecedent condition-related variables have more effects on both runoff and sediment yield than in Rainfall Regime I. The results suggest that the different control factors of the two rainfall regimes are determined by the rainfall characteristics and thus different runoff mechanisms.

  20. A comparative study of the grain-size distribution of surface dust and stormwater runoff quality on typical urban roads and roofs in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenyao; Liu, Jin; Aini, Guzhanuer; Gong, Yongwei

    2016-02-01

    The deposition of pollutants on impervious surfaces is a serious problem associated with rapid urbanization, which results in non-point-source pollution. Characterizing the build-up and wash-off processes of pollutants in urban catchments is essential for urban planners. In this paper, the spatial variation and particle-size distributions of five heavy metals and two nutrients in surface dust were analyzed, and the runoff water first-flush effect (FF30) and event-mean concentrations (EMCs) of 10 common constituents were characterized. The relationships between runoff variables and stormwater characteristics were examined from three typical urban impervious surfaces in Beijing, China. Dust on road surfaces with smaller grain sizes had higher pollutant concentrations, whereas concentrations of Mn, Zn, Fe, and TP in roof surface dust increased with grain size. Particles with grain sizes of 38-74 and 125-300 μm contributed most to the total pollutant load in roads, while particles with the smallest grain sizes (roads. The maximum intensity (I max) and the antecedent dry days (ADD) were critical parameters for EMCs in roads, while ADD was the only dominant parameter for EMCs on our studied roof. The rainfall intensity (RI) and maximum intensity (I max) were found to be the parameters with the strongest correlation to the first-flush effect on both roads and roofs. Significant correlations of total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in runoff with grain-size fractions of surface dust indicated that coarser particles (74-300 μm) are most likely to contribute to the solid-phase pollutants, and finer particles (<38 μm) are likely the main source of dissolved pollutants.

  1. Effects of urban grass coverage on rainfall-induced runoff in Xi'an loess region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation experiments were conducted to investigate the regulatory effects of grass coverage on rainfall-runoff processes. A total of 80 grass blocks planted with well-grown manilagrass, together with their root systems, were sampled from an eastern suburban area of Xi'an City in the northwest arid area of China and sent to a laboratory for rainfall simulation experiments. The runoff and infiltration processes of a slope with different grass coverage ratios and vegetation patterns were analyzed. The results show that the runoff coefficient decreases with the increase of the grass coverage ratio, and the influence of grass coverage on the reduction of runoff shows a high degree of spatial variation. At a constant grass coverage ratio, as the area of grass coverage moves downward, the runoff coefficient, total runoff, and flood peak discharge gradually decrease, and the flood peak occurs later. With the increase of the grass coverage ratio, the flood peak discharge gradually decreases, and the flood peak occurs later as well. In conclusion, a high grass coverage ratio with the area of grass coverage located at the lower part of the slope will lead to satisfactory regulatory effects on rainfall-induced runoff.

  2. A Computed River Flow-Based Turbine Controller on a Programmable Logic Controller for Run-Off River Hydroelectric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Jidin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.

  3. Using a hybrid model to predict solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff with controlled drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juxiu; Hu, Bill X; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The mixing layer theory is not suitable for predicting solute transfer from initially saturated soil to surface runoff water under controlled drainage conditions. By coupling the mixing layer theory model with the numerical model Hydrus-1D, a hybrid solute transfer model has been proposed to predict soil solute transfer from an initially saturated soil into surface water, under controlled drainage water conditions. The model can also consider the increasing ponding water conditions on soil surface before surface runoff. The data of solute concentration in surface runoff and drainage water from a sand experiment is used as the reference experiment. The parameters for the water flow and solute transfer model and mixing layer depth under controlled drainage water condition are identified. Based on these identified parameters, the model is applied to another initially saturated sand experiment with constant and time-increasing mixing layer depth after surface runoff, under the controlled drainage water condition with lower drainage height at the bottom. The simulation results agree well with the observed data. Study results suggest that the hybrid model can accurately simulate the solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff under controlled drainage water condition. And it has been found that the prediction with increasing mixing layer depth is better than that with the constant one in the experiment with lower drainage condition. Since lower drainage condition and deeper ponded water depth result in later runoff start time, more solute sources in the mixing layer are needed for the surface water, and larger change rate results in the increasing mixing layer depth.

  4. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  5. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relative roles of climatic variables in altering annual runoff in the conterminous United States (CONUS in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress Index model, WaSSI driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 climate models. The results suggest that precipitation has been the primary control of runoff variation during the latest decades, but the role of temperature will outweigh that of precipitation in most regions if future climate change follows the projections of climate models instead of the historical tendencies. Besides these two key factors, increasing air humidity is projected to partially offset the additional evaporative demand caused by warming and consequently enhance runoff. Overall, the projections from 20 climate models suggest a high degree of consistency on the increasing trends in temperature, precipitation, and humidity, which will be the major climatic driving factors accounting for 43–50, 20–24, and 16–23 % of the runoff change, respectively. Spatially, while temperature rise is recognized as the largest contributor that suppresses runoff in most areas, precipitation is expected to be the dominant factor driving runoff to increase across the Pacific coast and the southwest. The combined effects of increasing humidity and precipitation may also surpass the detrimental effects of warming and result in a hydrologically wetter future in the east. However, severe runoff depletion is more likely to occur in the central CONUS as temperature effect prevails.

  6. First stages of zinc runoff in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meraz, E.; Veleva, L.; Acosta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently used metals in building application are Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel. The zinc has a relatively good atmospheric resistance, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective layer. However, some of the zinc corrosion products can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process is called metal runoff. In order to estimate el zinc runoff in humid tropical climate, since its firs stages, samples of pure zinc and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed during 2 years in outdoor atmosphere (rural and urban). The data reveal high annual values of zinc runoff (8,20-12,40±0.30 g/m''2 ano), being this process 80% of total mass loss of corroded zinc. The runoff and corrosion processes are more accelerated for zinc, than that of galvanized steel. The principal factors that control the runoff process are discussed. (Author) 48 refs

  7. Requirements for Vertically Installed Runoff Control Boards for the “Paddy Field Dam” and Appropriate Orifice Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuki, Yoshikawa; Hideyuki, Koide; Shin-Ichi, Misawa

    While the “Paddy Field Dam” project has been recognized as an effective flood control measure, there are some cases in which the runoff control boards are vertically installed on the opening of the drainage boxes without careful consideration of the orifice shape and size. The important criteria for the runoff control boards to be satisfied are: 1. to maintain a sufficient peak runoff control function, 2. to avoid excessive ponding causing overflow, 3. to minimize the influence to the ordinary water management, and 4. to reserve sufficient orifice area to avoid blockage of the orifice with floating litters. The purpose of this study is to examine proper shapes and sizes of the orifice to satisfy the criteria for the vertically installed runoff control boards through experiments and simulations. Given the condition that the orifice has sufficient area to avoid overflow with 10 and 20 year return period rainfall event (criteria 2), the simulation results show that the orifice with horizontally wider shapes has advantages over the square or circular shapes in terms of the criteria 1 and 3. The disadvantage of the horizontally wider shapes is the blockage of the orifice with floating litters (criteria 4). In conclusion, we proposed to secure sufficient vertical distance to avoid this problem by setting a lower limit on the vertical distance and then determine the widest horizontal distance to optimize all the criteria. In addition, we have constructed the “Orifice Design Assist Tool” on the basis of the examinations in this study.

  8. Aquifer recharge with stormwater runoff in urban areas: Influence of vadose zone thickness on nutrient and bacterial transfers from the surface of infiltration basins to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Jérémy; Cournoyer, Benoit; Vienney, Antonin; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian

    2018-05-16

    Stormwater infiltration systems (SIS) have been built in urban areas to reduce the environmental impacts of stormwater runoff. Infiltration basins allow the transfer of stormwater runoff to aquifers but their abilities to retain contaminants depend on vadose zone properties. This study assessed the influence of vadose zone thickness (VZT) on the transfer of inorganic nutrients (PO 4 3- , NO 3 - , NH 4 + ), dissolved organic carbon (total -DOC- and biodegradable -BDOC-) and bacteria. A field experiment was conducted on three SIS with a thin vadose zone (zone (>10 m). Water samples were collected at three times during a rainy period of 10 days in each infiltration basin (stormwater runoff), in the aquifer impacted by infiltration (impacted groundwater) and in the same aquifer but upstream of the infiltration area (non-impacted groundwater). Inorganic nutrients, organic matter, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured on all water samples. Bacterial community structures were investigated on water samples through a next-generation sequencing (NGS) scheme of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V5-V6). The concentrations of DO and phosphate measured in SIS-impacted groundwaters were significantly influenced by VZT due to distinct biogeochemical processes occurring in the vadose zone. DOC and BDOC were efficiently retained in the vadose zone, regardless of its thickness. Bacterial transfers to the aquifer were overall low, but data obtained on day 10 indicated a significant bacterial transfer in SIS with a thin vadose zone. Water transit time and water saturation of the vadose zone were found important parameters for bacterial transfers. Most bacterial taxa (>60%) from impacted groundwaters were not detected in stormwater runoff and in non-impacted groundwaters, indicating that groundwater bacterial communities were significantly modified by processes associated with infiltration (remobilization of bacteria from vadose zone and/or species sorting). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  9. Rainfall-runoff characteristics and effects of increased urban density on streamflow and infiltration in the eastern part of the San Jacinto River basin, Riverside County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Joel R.

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the rainfall-runoff characteristics of the eastern part of the San Jacinto River Basin and to estimate the effects of increased urbanization on streamflow, channel infiltration, and land-surface infiltration, a long-term (1950?98) time series of monthly flows in and out of the channels and land surfaces were simulated using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- FORTRAN (HSPF) rainfall-runoff model. Channel and land-surface infiltration includes rainfall or runoff that infiltrates past the zone of evapotranspiration and may become ground-water recharge. The study area encompasses about 256 square miles of the San Jacinto River drainage basin in Riverside County, California. Daily streamflow (for periods with available data between 1950 and 1998), and daily rainfall and evaporation (1950?98) data; monthly reservoir storage data (1961?98); and estimated mean annual reservoir inflow data (for 1974 conditions) were used to calibrate the rainfall-runoff model. Measured and simulated mean annual streamflows for the San Jacinto River near San Jacinto streamflow-gaging station (North-South Fork subbasin) for 1950?91 and 1997?98 were 14,000 and 14,200 acre-feet, respectively, a difference of 1.4 percent. The standard error of the mean for measured and simulated annual streamflow in the North-South Fork subbasin was 3,520 and 3,160 acre-feet, respectively. Measured and simulated mean annual streamflows for the Bautista Creek streamflow-gaging station (Bautista Creek subbasin) for 1950?98 were 980 acre-feet and 991 acre-feet, respectively, a difference of 1.1 percent. The standard error of the mean for measured and simulated annual streamflow in the Bautista Creek subbasin was 299 and 217 acre-feet, respectively. Measured and simulated annual streamflows for the San Jacinto River above State Street near San Jacinto streamflow-gaging station (Poppet subbasin) for 1998 were 23,400 and 23,500 acre-feet, respectively, a difference of 0.4 percent. The simulated

  10. Long-term characterization of residential runoff and assessing potential surrogates of fecal indicator organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reano, Dane C; Haver, Darren L; Oki, Lorence R; Yates, Marylynn V

    2015-05-01

    Investigations into the microbiological impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies, especially during storm conditions, have yielded general paradigms that influence runoff abatement and control management strategies. To determine whether these trends are present in other runoff sources, the physical, chemical, and microbiological components of residential runoff from eight neighborhoods in Northern and Southern California were characterized over the course of five years. Sampling occurred regularly and during storm events, resulting in 833 data sets. Analysis of runoff data assisted in characterizing residential runoff, elucidating differences between dry and storm conditions, and identifying surrogates capable of assessing microbiological quality. Results indicate that although microbial loading increases during storm events similar to urban runoff, annual microbial loading in these study sites principally occurs during dry conditions (24% storm, 76% dry). Generated artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models assessed surrogate performance by accurately predicting Escherichia coli concentrations from validation data sets (R(2) = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively), but required input from other fecal indicator organism (FIO) variables to maintain performance (R(2) = 0.27 and 0.18, respectively, without FIO). This long-term analysis of residential runoff highlights characteristics distinct from urban runoff and establishes necessary variables for determining microbiological quality, thus better informing future management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated Urban Flood Analysis considering Optimal Operation of Flood Control Facilities in Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, M. S.; Choi, J. H.; Yuk, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    eavy rainfall has become a recent major cause of urban area flooding due to the climate change and urbanization. To prevent property damage along with casualties, a system which can alert and forecast urban flooding must be developed. Optimal performance of reducing flood damage can be expected of urban drainage facilities when operated in smaller rainfall events over extreme ones. Thus, the purpose of this study is to execute: A) flood forecasting system using runoff analysis based on short term rainfall; and B) flood warning system which operates based on the data from pump stations and rainwater storage in urban basins. In result of the analysis, it is shown that urban drainage facilities using short term rainfall forecasting data by radar will be more effective to reduce urban flood damage than using only the inflow data of the facility. Keywords: Heavy Rainfall, Urban Flood, Short-term Rainfall Forecasting, Optimal operating of urban drainage facilities. AcknowledgmentsThis research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B066744-05) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  12. Runoff generation in a Mediterranean semi-arid landscape: Thresholds, scale, rainfall and catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Fabian; Schmidt, Sebastian; Sauter, Martin; Lange, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Surface runoff acts as an integrated response of catchment characteristics and hydrological processes. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, a lack of runoff data has hindered a better understanding of runoff generation processes on the catchment scale, despite the importance of surface runoff as a water resource or flood hazard. Our main aim was to identify and explain differences in catchment runoff reactions across a variety of scales. Over a period of five years, we observed runoff in ephemeral streams of seven watersheds with sizes between 3 and 129 km2. Landuse and surface cover types (share of vegetation, bare soil and rock outcrops) were derived from aerial images by objective classification techniques. Using data from a dense rainfall network we analysed the effects of scale, catchment properties and aridity on runoff generation. Thereby we extracted rainfall and corresponding runoff events from our time-series to calculate event based rainfall characteristics and catchment runoff coefficients. Soil moisture observations provided additional information on antecedent moisture conditions, infiltration characteristics and the evolution of saturated areas. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that the proportion of Hortonian overland flow increases with aridity, we found that in our area the largest share (> 95 %) of runoff is generated by saturation excess overland flow in response to long lasting, rainfall events of high amount. This was supported by a strong correlation between event runoff and precipitation totals. Similar rainfall thresholds (50 mm) for runoff generation were observed in all investigated catchments. No scale effects on runoff coefficients were found; instead we identified up to three-fold runoff coefficients in catchments with larger extension of arid areas, higher percentage of rock outcrops and urbanization. Comparing two headwater catchments with noticeable differences in extent of olive orchards, no difference in runoff generation was

  13. A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO MITIGATING URBAN STORM WATER RUNOFF VIA DEVELOPMENT PLANS BASED ON LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We advocate an approach to reduce the anticipated increase in stormwater runoff from conventional development by demonstrating a low-impact development that incorporates hydrologic factors into an expanded land suitability analysis. This methodology was applied to a 3 hectare exp...

  14. Diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads in precipitation and urban and agricultural storm runoff during January and February 2001 in the San Joaquin River basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Kratzer, Charles R.; Majewski, Michael S.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    The application of diazinon and chlorpyrifos on dormant orchards in 2001 in the San Joaquin River Basin was 24 percent less and 3.2 times more than applications in 2000, respectively. A total of 16 sites were sampled during January and February 2001 storm events: 7 river sites, 8 precipitation sites, and 1 urban storm drain. The seven river sites were sampled weekly during nonstorm periods and more frequently during storm runoff from a total of four storms. The monitoring of storm runoff at a city storm drain in Modesto, California, occurred simultaneously with the collection of precipitation samples from eight sites during a January 2001 storm event. The highest concentrations of diazinon occurred during the storm periods for all 16 sites, and the highest concentrations of chlorpyrifos occurred during weekly nonstorm sampling for the river sites and during the January storm period for the urban storm drain and precipitation sites. A total of 60 samples (41 from river sites, 10 from precipitation sites, and 9 from the storm drain site) had diazinon concentrations greater than 0.08 ?g/L, the concentration being considered by the California Department of Fish and Game as its criterion maximum concentration for the protection of aquatic habitats. A total of 18 samples (2 from river sites, 9 from precipitation sites, and 7 from the storm drain site) exceeded the equivalent California Department of Fish and Game guideline of 0.02 ?g/L for chlorpyrifos. The total diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2001 was 23.8 pounds active ingredient; of this amount, 16.9 pounds active ingredient were transported by four storms, 1.06 pounds active ingredient were transported by nonstorm events, and 5.82 pounds active ingredient were considered to be baseline loads. The total chlorpyrifos load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2001 was 2.17 pounds active ingredient; of this amount, 0.702 pound active

  15. Development and evaluation of best management practices (BMPS) for highway runoff pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Polluted storm water runoff is commonly transported through Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s). Currently, : sufficient information is not available on development and evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) within an MS4 : boundary...

  16. Development of a modular streamflow model to quantify runoff contributions from different land uses in tropical urban environments using Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshgi, Ali; Schmitter, Petra; Chui, Ting Fong May; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-06-01

    The decrease of pervious areas during urbanization has severely altered the hydrological cycle, diminishing infiltration and therefore sub-surface flows during rainfall events, and further increasing peak discharges in urban drainage infrastructure. Designing appropriate waster sensitive infrastructure that reduces peak discharges requires a better understanding of land use specific contributions towards surface and sub-surface processes. However, to date, such understanding in tropical urban environments is still limited. On the other hand, the rainfall-runoff process in tropical urban systems experiences a high degree of non-linearity and heterogeneity. Therefore, this study used Genetic Programming to establish a physically interpretable modular model consisting of two sub-models: (i) a baseflow module and (ii) a quick flow module to simulate the two hydrograph flow components. The relationship between the input variables in the model (i.e. meteorological data and catchment initial conditions) and its overall structure can be explained in terms of catchment hydrological processes. Therefore, the model is a partial greying of what is often a black-box approach in catchment modelling. The model was further generalized to the sub-catchments of the main catchment, extending the potential for more widespread applications. Subsequently, this study used the modular model to predict both flow components of events as well as time series, and applied optimization techniques to estimate the contributions of various land uses (i.e. impervious, steep grassland, grassland on mild slope, mixed grasses and trees and relatively natural vegetation) towards baseflow and quickflow in tropical urban systems. The sub-catchment containing the highest portion of impervious surfaces (40% of the area) contributed the least towards the baseflow (6.3%) while the sub-catchment covered with 87% of relatively natural vegetation contributed the most (34.9%). The results from the quickflow

  17. Controls on Biogeochemical Cycling of Nitrogen in Urban Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, P. H.; Hutyra, L.; Decina, S.; Rao, P.; Gately, C.

    2017-12-01

    Rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition are declining across much of the United States and Europe, yet they remain substantially elevated by almost an order of magnitude over pre-industrial levels and occur as hot spots in urban areas. We measured atmospheric inputs of inorganic and organic nitrogen in multiple urban sites around the Boston Metropolitan area, finding that urban rates are substantially elevated compared to nearby rural areas, and that the range of these atmospheric inputs are as large as observed urban to rural gradients. Within the City of Boston, the variation in deposition fluxes can be explained by traffic intensity, vehicle emissions, and spring fertilizer additions. Throughfall inputs of nitrogen are approximately three times greater than bulk deposition inputs in the city, demonstrating that the urban canopy amplifies rates of nitrogen reaching the ground surface. Similar to many other metropolitan areas of the United States, the City of Boston has 25% canopy cover; however, 25% of this tree canopy is located above impervious pavement. Throughfall inputs that do not have soil below the canopy to retain excess nitrogen may lead to greater inputs of nitrogen into nearby waterways through runoff. Most measurement stations for atmospheric nitrogen deposition are intentionally located away from urban areas and point sources of pollution to capture regional trends. Our data show that a major consequence of this network design is that hotspots of nitrogen deposition and runoff into urban and coastal waterways is likely underestimated to a significant degree. A more complete determination of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and its fate in urban ecosystems is critical for closing regional nitrogen budgets and for improving our understanding of biogeochemical nitrogen cycling across multiple spatial scales.

  18. Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Effects of Raindrop Impact on Runoff and Infiltration from Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rain drop impact causes soil crust formation which, in turn, reduces infiltration rates and increases runoff, contributing to soil erosion, downstream flooding and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. This impulse breaks larger soil aggregates into smaller particles and disperses soil from its original position. The displaced soil particles self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming the crust. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Very little research has sought to quantify the effect that canopies and mulch can have on this phenomenon. This presentation presents preliminary findings from ongoing study conducted using rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to discuss green infrastructure facility maintenance and design strategies, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  19. Application of Sargassum biomass to remove heavy metal ions from synthetic multi-metal solutions and urban storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Teo, Ting Ting; Balasubramanian, R; Joshi, Umid Man

    2009-05-30

    The ability of Sargassum sp. to biosorb four metal ions, namely lead, copper, zinc, and manganese from a synthetic multi-solute system and real storm water runoff has been investigated for the first time. Experiments on synthetic multi-solute systems revealed that Sargassum performed well in the biosorption of all four metal ions, with preference towards Pb, followed by Cu, Zn, and Mn. The solution pH strongly affected the metal biosorption, with pH 6 being identified as the optimal condition for achieving maximum biosorption. Experiments at different biosorbent dosages revealed that good biosorption capacity as well as high metal removal efficiency was observed at 3g/L. The biosorption kinetics was found to be fast with equilibrium being attained within 50 min. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, Sargassum exhibited maximum uptakes of 214, 67.5, 24.2 and 20.2mg/g for lead, copper, zinc, and manganese, respectively in single-solute systems. In multi-metal systems, strong competition between four metal ions in terms of occupancy binding sites was observed, and Sargassum showed preference in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn. The application of Sargassum to remove four heavy metal ions in real storm water runoff revealed that the biomass was capable of removing the heavy metal ions. However, the biosorption performance was slightly lower compared to that of synthetic metal solutions. Several factors were responsible for this difference, and the most important factor is the presence of other contaminants such as anions, organics, and other trace metals in the runoff.

  20. Approach and case-study of green infrastructure screening analysis for urban stormwater control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Timothy T

    2018-03-01

    Urban stormwater control is an urgent concern in megacities where increased impervious surface has disrupted natural hydrology. Water managers are increasingly turning to more environmentally friendly ways of capturing stormwater, called Green Infrastructure (GI), to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) that degrades local water quality. A rapid screening approach is described to evaluate how GI strategies can reduce the amount of stormwater runoff in a low-density residential watershed in New York City. Among multiple possible tools, the L-THIA LID online software package, using the SCS-CN method, was selected to estimate relative runoff reductions expected with different strategies in areas of different land uses in the watershed. Results are sensitive to the relative areas of different land uses, and show that bioretention and raingardens provide the maximum reduction (∼12%) in this largely residential watershed. Although commercial, industrial and high-density residential areas in the watershed are minor, larger runoff reductions from disconnection strategies and porous pavement in parking lots are also possible. Total stormwater reductions from various combinations of these strategies can reach 35-55% for individual land uses, and between 23% and 42% for the entire watershed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effects of urbanization and stormwater control measures on streamflows in the vicinity of Clarksburg, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Lee; Jarnagin, Taylor; Hogan, Dianna; Loperfido, J. V.; Shuster, William

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the efficacy of revised watershed management methods is important to mitigating the impacts of urbanization on streamflow. We evaluated the influence of land use change, primarily as urbanization, and stormwater control measures on the relationship between precipitation and stream discharge over an 8-year period for five catchments near Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland, USA. A unit-hydrograph model based on a temporal transfer function was employed to account for and standardize temporal variation in rainfall pattern, and properly apportion rainfall to streamflow at different time lags. From these lagged relationships, we quantified a correction to the precipitation time series to achieve a hydrograph that showed good agreement between precipitation and discharge records. Positive corrections appeared to include precipitation events that were of limited areal extent and therefore not captured by our rain gages. Negative corrections were analysed for potential causal relationships. We used mixed-model statistical techniques to isolate different sources of variance as drivers that mediate the rainfall–runoff dynamic before and after management. Seasonal periodicity mediated rainfall–runoff relationships, and land uses (i.e. agriculture, natural lands, wetlands and stormwater control measures) were statistically significant predictors of precipitation apportionment to stream discharge. Our approach is one way to evaluate actual effectiveness of management efforts in the face of complicating circumstances and could be paired with cost data to understand economic efficiency or life cycle aspects of watershed management. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Evaluation of Maximum a Posteriori Estimation as Data Assimilation Method for Forecasting Infiltration-Inflow Affected Urban Runoff with Radar Rainfall Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas W. Pedersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High quality on-line flow forecasts are useful for real-time operation of urban drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This requires computationally efficient models, which are continuously updated with observed data to provide good initial conditions for the forecasts. This paper presents a way of updating conceptual rainfall-runoff models using Maximum a Posteriori estimation to determine the most likely parameter constellation at the current point in time. This is done by combining information from prior parameter distributions and the model goodness of fit over a predefined period of time that precedes the forecast. The method is illustrated for an urban catchment, where flow forecasts of 0–4 h are generated by applying a lumped linear reservoir model with three cascading reservoirs. Radar rainfall observations are used as input to the model. The effects of different prior standard deviations and lengths of the auto-calibration period on the resulting flow forecast performance are evaluated. We were able to demonstrate that, if properly tuned, the method leads to a significant increase in forecasting performance compared to a model without continuous auto-calibration. Delayed responses and erratic behaviour in the parameter variations are, however, observed and the choice of prior distributions and length of auto-calibration period is not straightforward.

  3. Estimating Subcatchment Runoff Coefficients using Weather Radar and a Downstream Runoff Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate...... the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over...... the catchment and downstream runoff measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level....

  4. Estimating subcatchment runoff coefficients using weather radar and a downstream runoff sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R; Bassø, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and downstream runoff measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level.

  5. Urban Studies: A Study of Bibliographic Access and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barbara E.

    This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…

  6. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, K H; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Muda, Z C; Beddu, S; Abidin, M R Z

    2013-01-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  7. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  8. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  9. Estimating risks for water-quality exceedances of total-copper from highway and urban runoff under predevelopment and current conditions with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Jones, Susan C.; Dunn, Christopher N.; Van Weele, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The stochastic empirical loading and dilution model (SELDM) was used to demonstrate methods for estimating risks for water-quality exceedances of event-mean concentrations (EMCs) of total-copper. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate stormflow, total-hardness, suspended-sediment, and total-copper EMCs as stochastic variables. These simulations were done for the Charles River Basin upstream of Interstate 495 in Bellingham, Massachusetts. The hydrology and water quality of this site were simulated with SELDM by using data from nearby, hydrologically similar sites. Three simulations were done to assess the potential effects of the highway on receiving-water quality with and without highway-runoff treatment by a structural best-management practice (BMP). In the low-development scenario, total copper in the receiving stream was simulated by using a sediment transport curve, sediment chemistry, and sediment-water partition coefficients. In this scenario, neither the highway runoff nor the BMP effluent caused concentration exceedances in the receiving stream that exceed the once in three-year threshold (about 0.54 percent). In the second scenario, without the highway, runoff from the large urban areas in the basin caused exceedances in the receiving stream in 2.24 percent of runoff events. In the third scenario, which included the effects of the urban runoff, neither the highway runoff nor the BMP effluent increased the percentage of exceedances in the receiving stream. Comparison of the simulated geometric mean EMCs with data collected at a downstream monitoring site indicates that these simulated values are within the 95-percent confidence interval of the geometric mean of the measured EMCs.

  10. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  11. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  12. Assessment of stormwater runoff management practices and BMPs under soil sealing: A study case in a peri-urban watershed of the metropolitan area of Rome (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanatesi, Fabio; Petroselli, Andrea; Ripa, Maria Nicolina; Leone, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    By 2006, almost 100,000 km 2 of EU soil (2.3% of the whole territory) had been sealed, with a per capita quota of 200 m 2 of sealed surface for each EU citizen. Italy, in 2016, recorded a soil sealing rate of 2.8% of the entire territory. In this context, the urban expansion which occurred in past decades is considered one of the main causes of the increase in flood frequency and intensity in small catchments, causing both social and financial damage. In the present paper, the positive impact of introducing Best Management Practices (BMPs) at urban scale is assessed, with particular regard to the decreasing of flood prone areas. A suburban watershed of the metropolitan area of Rome has been selected for a study case, as its soil sealing rate can be considered paradigmatic at this scale. Starting from the analysis of rainfall events occurring between 2008 and 2011 which caused millions of euros worth of damage, and using a high resolution data set in a GIS environment, two scenarios, with and without BMP introduction, are evaluated applying a rainfall-runoff model and a bidimensional hydraulic model. From a comparison of the flood maps with and without the introduction of BMPs, it was determined that in 90% of the circumstances the employment of the BMPs would completely remove the hydraulic risk, while in the remaining 10% the BMP would at least reduce the areas subjected to flooding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Urbanization and Flood Control on Sediment Discharge of a Southern California River, Evidence of a Dilution Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J. A.; Orzech, K. M.; Rubin, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The southern California landscape has undergone dramatic urbanization and population growth during the past 60 years and currently supports almost 20 million inhabitants. During this time, rivers of the region have been altered with damming, channel straightening and hardening, and water transfer engineering. These changes have drastically altered water and sediment discharge from most of the region's drainage basins. Here we focus on changes in sediment discharge from the largest watershed of southern California, the Santa Ana River. Order-of-magnitude drops in the suspended sediment rating curves (the relationship between suspended sediment concentration and instantaneous river discharge) are observed between 1967 and 2001, long after the construction of a major flood control dam in 1941. These sediment concentration decreases do not, however, represent alteration of the total sediment flux from the basin (a common interpretation of sediment rating curves), but rather a dilution of suspended sediment by increases (approx. 4x) in stormwater discharge associated with urbanization. Increases in peak and total stormwater discharge are consistent with runoff patterns from urbanizing landscapes, supporting our hypothesis that the diluting water originated from stormwater runoff generated in urban areas both up- and downstream of dams. Our dilution hypothesis is further supported with water and sediment budgets, dilution calculations, and suspended and bed grain size information.

  14. Influence of urban runoff, inappropriate waste disposal practices and World War II on the heavy metal status of sediments in the southern half of Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, CNMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, Gary R.W.; Emborski, Carmen A.; Habana, Nathan C.; Starmer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. • This area is chronically impacted by stormwater discharges all along the coast. • Generally, the study identified moderate metal enrichment that attenuated seawards. • Mercury distributions within the lagoon also seemed to reflect past WWII activities. • Additional Pb, Cu and Zn inputs at the S end of the lagoon came from an old dumpsite. - Abstract: Heavy metals were examined in sediments from the southern half of Saipan Lagoon. These waters provided tactical access for US troops during WWII and were heavily shelled at the time. Mercury profiles in sediments were, to some extent, reflective of this event. Samples from the southern end of the lagoon, where an old post-war dumpsite once existed, were found to be substantially enriched with Pb, Cu and Zn. Further north, the lagoon was primarily impacted by urban runoff. Metal enrichment in sediments from this region was generally highest at storm drain outlets and attenuated seawards. Moderate enrichment was rarely exceeded for any element other than Hg beyond the 50 m mark. Sediment quality guidelines used to flag potentially adverse ecological health effects revealed no PEL exceedances. TEL exceedances for Pb and Cu were identified in sediments near the former dumpsite. The public health implications of the data are briefly addressed

  15. Nonlinear and threshold-dominated runoff generation controls DOC export in a small peat catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, C.; Broder, T.; Biester, H.

    2017-03-01

    We used a relatively simple two-layer, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model to simultaneously simulate streamflow and stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in a small lead and arsenic contaminated upland peat catchment in northwestern Germany. The model procedure was informed by an initial data mining analysis, in combination with regression relationships of discharge, DOC, and element export. We assessed the internal model DOC processing based on stream DOC hysteresis patterns and 3-hourly time step groundwater level and soil DOC data for two consecutive summer periods in 2013 and 2014. The parsimonious model (i.e., few calibrated parameters) showed the importance of nonlinear and rapid near-surface runoff generation mechanisms that caused around 60% of simulated DOC load. The total load was high even though these pathways were only activated during storm events on average 30% of the monitoring time—as also shown by the experimental data. Overall, the drier period 2013 resulted in increased nonlinearity but exported less DOC (115 kg C ha-1 yr-1 ± 11 kg C ha-1 yr-1) compared to the equivalent but wetter period in 2014 (189 kg C ha-1 yr-1 ± 38 kg C ha-1 yr-1). The exceedance of a critical water table threshold (-10 cm) triggered a rapid near-surface runoff response with associated higher DOC transport connecting all available DOC pools and subsequent dilution. We conclude that the combination of detailed experimental work with relatively simple, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry models not only allowed the model to be internally constrained but also provided important insight into how DOC and tightly coupled pollutants or trace elements are mobilized.

  16. The new urban politics as a politics of carbon control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Andrew E G; Gibbs, David; While, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    The new urban politics (NUP) literature has helped to draw attention to a new generation of entrepreneurial urban regimes involved in the competition to attract investment to cities. Interurban competition often had negative environmental consequences for the urban living place. Yet knowledge of the environment was not very central to understanding the NUP. Entrepreneurial urban regimes today are struggling to deal with climate change and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon reduction strategies could have profound implications for interurban competition and the politics of urban development. This paper explores the rise of a distinctive low-carbon urban polity—carbon control—and examines its potential ramifications for a new environmental politics of urban development (NEPUD). The NEPUD signals the growing centrality of carbon control in discourses, strategies and struggles around urban development. Using examples from cities in the US and Europe, the paper examines how these new environmental policy considerations are being mainstreamed in urban development politics. Alongside competitiveness, the management of carbon emissions represents a new yet at the same time contestable mode of calculation in urban governance.

  17. Urban Water Management Considering Reclaimed Wastewater and Runoff as a New Water Resource for City of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedeh Abdolghafoorian

    2012-12-01

    According to this study, improving wastewater treatment plants and control of water quality in canals and streams in order to substitute these two new resource for freshwater and groundwater have positive environmental and economic effects. The examples of environmental benefits are reducing pollution loads to receiving streams, adjusting increasing water demand and preventing groundwater level drawdown especially in the period of drought. In addition to the environmental benefits, although improving wastewater treatment plants and control of water quality in canals and streams need considerable investments, long usage of these two new recourses is more worthwhile.

  18. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (runoff pollution control.

  19. Assessing the controls of the snow energy balance and water available for runoff in a rain-an-snow environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam B. Mazurkiewicz; David G. Callery; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2008-01-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA» has quantified...

  20. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Waste Pit Area storm water runoff control, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This report evaluates remedial action alternatives at the Feed Materials production Center in response to the need to contain contaminated storm water runoff. The storm water is being contaminated as it falls over a radioactive/chemical waste pit which contains uranium contaminated wastes. Alternatives considered include no action, surface capping, surface capping with lateral drainage, runoff collection and treatment, and source removal

  1. A BMP selection process based on the granulometry of runoff solids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the methodology and results of the field survey carried out to characterise the pollution associated with the stormwater runoff from an urban catchment in Galicia (Spain). Various instruments were installed in the control section of this catchment measuring some 55 ha and located in the separate sewer ...

  2. Rooftop runoff as a source of contamination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, Dennis J

    2009-10-15

    Scientific reports concerning chemical and microbiological contaminant levels of rainwater runoff from rooftop collection in both urban and rural areas are reviewed. This alternative source of water has been documented to often contain substantial amounts of contaminants. Studies describing levels of heavy metal contamination specific to runoff from rooftop catchment areas containing exposed metal surfaces are discussed. Depending upon the intended use, scientific evidence is also accumulating that various treatments and disinfections will be required prior to release of roof-runoff water either into surface waters or for more direct consumer usage. For microbial contamination, current proposed standards and guidelines regarding this type of water source are shown to vary widely worldwide. Scientific literature reveals a lack of clarity regarding water quality guidelines and health related standards for certain types of rooftop runoff. Studies suggests that rainwater collection systems which are properly designed, maintained, and treated may provide a valuable supplement to existing water supplies by reducing demand on community water supplies/infrastructure costs, enhancing effective management of storm water runoff, and increasing restoration of underground reservoirs through controlled infiltration.

  3. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  4. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R. [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Spolek, Graig A., E-mail: graig@cecs.pdx.edu [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: > Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. > Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  5. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Spolek, Graig A.

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: → Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. → Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  6. Multivariate autoregressive modelling and conditional simulation of precipitation time series for urban water models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Matallana, J.A.; Leopold, U.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    Precipitation is the most active flux and major input of hydrological systems. Precipitation controls hydrological states (soil moisture and groundwater level), and fluxes (runoff, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge).
    Hence, precipitation plays a paramount role in urban water systems.

  7. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard Short-term measures for runoff water control on sloping land (temporary ditches and grass strips in controlling soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The agronomic measures made obligatory by the cross-compliance Standard Temporary measures for runoff water control on sloping land included in the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF decree on cross compliance until 2008, and by Standard 1.1 Creation of temporary ditches for the prevention of soil erosion in the 2009 decree, certainly appear to be useful for the control of soil erosion and runoff. The efficacy of temporary drainage ditches and of grass strips in controlling runoff and erosion has been demonstrated in trials conducted in field test plots in Italy. When level temporary drainage ditches are correctly built, namely with an inclination of not more than 2.5% in relation to the maximum hillslope gradient, they allow the suspended sediment eroded upstream to settle in the ditches, retaining the material carried away on the slope and, as a result, reducing the quantity of sediment delivered to the hydrographic network. In particular, among all the results, the erosion and runoff data in a trial conducted in Guiglia (Modena showed that in corn plots, temporary drainage ditches reduced soil erosion by 94%, from 14.4 Mg ha-1 year-1 (above the limit established by the NRCS-USDA of 11.2 Mg ha-1 year-1 to 0.8 Mg ha-1 year-1 (within the NRCS limit and also within the more restrictive limit established by the OECD of 6.0 Mg ha-1 year-1. With respect to the grass buffer strips the most significant research was carried out in Volterra. This research demonstrated their efficacy in reducing erosion from 8.15 Mg ha-1 to 1.6 Mg ha-1, which is approximately 5 times less than the erosion observed on bare soil. The effectiveness of temporary drainage ditches was also assessed through the application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE erosion model to 60 areas under the control of the Agency for Agricultural Payments (AGEA in 2009, comparing the risk of erosion in these sample areas by simulating the presence and

  8. Analysis of the sensitivity to rainfall spatio-temporal variability of an operational urban rainfall-runoff model in a multifractal framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2011-12-01

    In large urban areas, storm water management is a challenge with enlarging impervious areas. Many cities have implemented real time control (RTC) of their urban drainage system to either reduce overflow or limit urban contamination. A basic component of RTC is hydraulic/hydrologic model. In this paper we use the multifractal framework to suggest an innovative way to test the sensitivity of such a model to the spatio-temporal variability of its rainfall input. Indeed the rainfall variability is often neglected in urban context, being considered as a non-relevant issue at the scales involve. Our results show that on the contrary the rainfall variability should be taken into account. Universal multifractals (UM) rely on the concept of multiplicative cascade and are a standard tool to analyze and simulate with a reduced number of parameters geophysical processes that are extremely variable over a wide range of scales. This study is conducted on a 3 400 ha urban area located in Seine-Saint-Denis, in the North of Paris (France). We use the operational semi-distributed model that was calibrated by the local authority (Direction Eau et Assainnissement du 93) that is in charge of urban drainage. The rainfall data comes from the C-Band radar of Trappes operated by Météo-France. The rainfall event of February 9th, 2009 was used. A stochastic ensemble approach was implemented to quantify the uncertainty on discharge associated to the rainfall variability occurring at scales smaller than 1 km x 1 km x 5 min that is usually available with C-band radar networks. An analysis of the quantiles of the simulated peak flow showed that the uncertainty exceeds 20 % for upstream links. To evaluate a potential gain from a direct use of the rainfall data available at the resolution of X-band radar, we performed similar analysis of the rainfall fields of the degraded resolution of 9 km x 9 km x 20 min. The results show a clear decrease in uncertainty when the original resolution of C

  9. Urban stormwater source control policies: why and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petrucci

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater source control is becoming a common strategy for urban stormwater management in many countries. It relies on regulations or other policy instruments compelling or inciting implementation, for each new urban development, of small-scale facilities to locally store and manage stormwater. Local authorities that pioneered source control since the 1980s have already observed that small-scale facilities systematically implemented over a catchment are able to influence its hydrological behaviour. This capability is the main strength of source control, as it allows compensation for the negative effects of urbanization. Yet, it also represents its main risk: if initial decision-making is not sufficiently accurate, source control can produce long-term negative effects. Because of its current spreading, source control will acquire an increasing role as a driver of hydrological changes in urban catchments, and the directions of these changes depend on current policy-making practices. This paper presents an analysis and a critical discussion of the main objectives that policy-makers attribute to stormwater source control. The investigation is based on a sample of French case studies, completed by a literature review for international comparison. It identifies four main objectives, some typical of urban stormwater management and some more innovative: flood reduction, receiving waters protection, sustainable development, costs reduction. The discussion focuses on how current policy-making practices are able to translate these objectives in concrete policy instruments, and on which knowledge and tools could improve this process. It is shown that for some objectives, basic knowledge is available, but the creation of policy instruments which are effective at the catchment scale and adapted to local conditions is still problematic. For other objectives, substantial lacks of knowledge exist, casting doubts on long-term effectiveness of current policy

  10. Modeling the eutrophication of two mature planted stormwater ponds for runoff control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    A model, targeting eutrophication of stormwater detention ponds was developed and applied to sim-ulate pH, dissolved oxygen and the development of algae and plant biomass in two mature plantedwetponds for run off control. The model evaluated algal and plant biomass growth into three groupsnamely;...

  11. Contour hedgerows and grass strips in erosion and runoff control in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinama, J.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Ong, C.K.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.; Gichuki, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    Most early alley cropping studies in semi-arid Kenya were on fairly flat land while there is an increase in cultivated sloping land. The effectiveness of aging contour hedgerows and grass strips for erosion control on an about 15% slope of an Alfisol was compared. The five treatments were Senna

  12. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  13. Coupling Modified Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis and Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN Models to Simulate Surface Runoff: Application to the Main Urban Area of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land surface characteristics, including soil type, terrain slope, and antecedent soil moisture, have significant impacts on surface runoff during heavy precipitation in highly urbanized areas. In this study, a Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA method is modified to extract high-precision impervious surface, vegetation, and soil fractions. In the modified LSMA method, the representative endmembers are first selected by combining a high-resolution image from Google Earth; the unmixing results of the LSMA are then post-processed to reduce errors of misclassification with Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. The modified LSMA is applied to the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI image from 18 October 2015 of the main urban area of Guangzhou city. The experimental result indicates that the modified LSMA shows improved extraction performance compared with the conventional LSMA, as it can significantly reduce the bias and root-mean-square error (RMSE. The improved impervious surface, vegetation, and soil fractions are used to calculate the composite curve number (CN for each pixel according to the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN model. The composite CN is then adjusted with regional data of the terrain slope and total 5-day antecedent precipitation. Finally, the surface runoff is simulated with the SCS-CN model by combining the adjusted CN and real precipitation data at 1 p.m., 4 May 2015.

  14. Long-range downstream effects of urban runoff and acid mine drainage in the Debed River, Armenia: insights from lead isotope modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkjian, Robert; Dunlap, Charles; Flegal, A. Russell

    2004-01-01

    Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions measured along 80 km of the Debed River in the Republic of Armenia provide new insights into the geochemical and physical controls on riparian Pb transport by allowing comparison of the long-range, downstream impacts of acid mine drainage with runoff from an industrialized city. The modern background Pb concentration in Armenian surface waters is estimated to be ∼0.01 μg/L, based on analyses of remote alpine rivers in Armenia. The lead concentration in the Debed River is 8 μg/L (800 times background) after passing through Vanadzor, the second largest industrial city in Armenia; it then decreases to 1 μg/L before the Debed River flows into the Alaverdi mining district. There, the Debed River receives waters from two mining drainage streams with Pb concentrations >3000 μg/L, but those concentrations decrease 3 orders of magnitude to ∼3 μg/L by the time the river exits Armenia and flows into the Republic of Georgia. Isotope mixing plots show shifts in Pb isotope composition as the river flows out of Vanadzor, evidencing the mixture of an average terrestrial Pb composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ∼ 1.17; 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ∼ 2.45) with past leaded gasoline and other industrial Pb emissions retained in the river's sediments within that region ( 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ≤ 2.45). The isotopic composition again shifts (e.g., 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ≥ 2.46) as the river passes through the Alaverdi mining district, where isotopic ratios in the water are characteristic of Pb in the area's massive sulfide deposits. Modeling both downstream elemental concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions further resolves the physical and chemical behavior of the contaminants in the river system. A multi-element model of concentration gradients in the acid mine drainage streams indicates Pb is attenuated by Al(OH) 3 precipitation (54% of the loss) and by adsorption onto other particles settling out of the water column (46% of the loss). Modeling of Pb

  15. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...... of separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678ha) located in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and runoff...... measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level. The number of potential subcatchments is limited by the number of available rainfall events with a sufficient spatial variability....

  16. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  17. Modelling the ability of source control measures to reduce inundation risk in a community-scale urban drainage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chao; Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Hao; Shao, Weiwei; Xia, Lin; Xiang, Chenyao; Zhou, Jinjun

    2018-06-01

    Urban inundation is a serious challenge that increasingly confronts the residents of many cities, as well as policymakers, in the context of rapid urbanization and climate change worldwide. In recent years, source control measures (SCMs) such as green roofs, permeable pavements, rain gardens, and vegetative swales have been implemented to address flood inundation in urban settings, and proven to be cost-effective and sustainable. In order to investigate the ability of SCMs on reducing inundation in a community-scale urban drainage system, a dynamic rainfall-runoff model of a community-scale urban drainage system was developed based on SWMM. SCMs implementing scenarios were modelled under six design rainstorm events with return period ranging from 2 to 100 years, and inundation risks of the drainage system were evaluated before and after the proposed implementation of SCMs, with a risk-evaluation method based on SWMM and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Results show that, SCMs implementation resulting in significantly reduction of hydrological indexes that related to inundation risks, range of reduction rates of average flow, peak flow, and total flooded volume of the drainage system were 28.1-72.1, 19.0-69.2, and 33.9-56.0 %, respectively, under six rainfall events with return periods ranging from 2 to 100 years. Corresponding, the inundation risks of the drainage system were significantly reduced after SCMs implementation, the risk values falling below 0.2 when the rainfall return period was less than 10 years. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of SCMs on mitigating inundation, and quantified the potential of SCMs on reducing inundation risks in the urban drainage system, which provided scientific references for implementing SCMs for inundation control of the study area.

  18. Probabilistic Forecasting for On-line Operation of Urban Drainage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland

    This thesis deals with the generation of probabilistic forecasts in urban hydrology. In particular, we focus on the case of runoff forecasting for real-time control (RTC) on horizons of up to two hours. For the generation of probabilistic on-line runoff forecasts, we apply the stochastic grey...... and forecasts have on on-line runoff forecast quality. Finally, we implement the stochastic grey-box model approach in a real-world real-time control (RTC) setup and study how RTC can benefit from a dynamic quantification of runoff forecast uncertainty....

  19. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  20. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  1. The relative importance of different grass components in controlling runoff and erosion on a hillslope under simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changjia; Pan, Chengzhong

    2018-03-01

    The effects of vegetation cover on overland flow and erosion processes on hillslopes vary with vegetation type and spatial distribution and the different vegetation components, including the above- and below-ground biomass. However, few attempts have been made to quantify how these factors affect erosion processes. Field experimental plots (5 m × 2 m) with a slope of approximately 25° were constructed and simulated rainfall (60 mm hr-1) (Rainfall) and simulated rainfall combined with upslope overland flow (20 L min-1) (Rainfall + Flow) were applied. Three grass species were planted, specifically Astragalus adsurgens (A. adsurgens), Medicago sativa (M. sativa) and Cosmos bipinnatus (C. bipinnatus). To isolate and quantify the relative contributions of the above-ground grass parts (stems, litter cover and leaves) and the roots to reducing surface runoff and erosion, each of the three grass species was subjected to three treatments: intact grass control (IG), no litter or leaves (only the grass stems and roots were reserved) (NLL), and only roots remaining (OR). The results showed that planting grass significantly reduced overland flow rate and velocity and sediment yield, and the mean reductions were 21.8%, 29.1% and 67.1%, respectively. M. sativa performed the best in controlling water and soil losses due to its thick canopy and dense, fine roots. Grasses reduced soil erosion mainly during the early stage of overland flow generation. The above-ground grass parts primarily contributed to reducing overland flow rate and velocity, with mean relative contributions of 64% and 86%, respectively. The roots played a predominant role in reducing soil erosion, with mean contribution of 84%. Due to the impact of upslope inflow, overland flow rate and velocity and sediment yield increased under the Rainfall + Flow conditions. The results suggest that grass species on downslope parts of semi-arid hillslopes performed better in reducing water and soil losses. This study is

  2. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Peter V. Caldwell; Erika C. Cohen; Shanlei Sun; Heather D. Aldridge; Decheng Zhou; Liangxia Zhang; Yang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relative roles of cli- matic variables in altering annual runoff in the contermi- nous United States (CONUS) in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress In- dex model, WaSSI) driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercompar- ison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5)...

  3. Mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn in surface runoff sediments in the urban catchment area of Guwahati, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Upama; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2018-03-01

    The sediments in stormwater runoff are recognised as the major sink of the heavy metals and affect the soil quality in the catchment. The runoff sediments are also important in the management of contaminant transport to receiving water bodies. In the present work, stormwater during several major rain events was collected from nine principal locations of Guwahati, India. The solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and was investigated for the total contents of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn as well as their distribution among the prominent chemical phases. Sequential extraction procedure was used for the chemical fractionation of the metals that contains five steps. The total metal concentration showed the trend, Cd < Co < Cu < Cr < Zn < Mn. The relative distribution of the metals showed that Cd was available mostly in the exchangeable and the carbonate bound fractions, which were the most mobile and high-risk fractions. Co with medium mobility was also found to be in the high-risk category. On the other hand, the mobilities of Cu and Zn were relatively low and these were, therefore, the least bioavailable metals in the runoff sediments falling in medium-risk category.

  4. Controlling Nonpoint Pollution in Virginia’s Urbanizing Areas: An Institutional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-20

    programs. As John Naisbitt has stated in his book, Megatrends , "The most reliable way to anticipate the future is by understanding the present.’" Therefore...Virginia’s cit- izenry must be considered. Naisbitt, John, Megatrends , Warner Books, New York, N.Y., 1984, p. xxiii. INTRODUCTION 3...available for the above biological and chemical processes to take place. Findings of the NURP (Nationwide Urban Runoff Program) studies show that

  5. Realistic control considerations for electromagnetically levitated urban transit vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, J R

    1976-04-01

    A discussion is given of realistic control considerations of suspension dynamics and vehicle/guideway interaction for electromagnetically-levitated urban transit vehicles in the context of revenue applications. The emphasis is on safety, reliability, and maintainability rather than performance. An example urban transit system is described, and the following considerations of dynamics and control are examined: stability, magnet force requirements, magnet airgap requirements, vehicle ride, and component failures. It is shown that it is a formidable problem to ensure suspension stability under all conditions; that operation on curves is a critical magnet and control system design case; that operation of the magnets in the non-linear regime is unavoidable and that component failures will be a major problem. However, good vehicle ride is to be expected. It is concluded that magnetic levitation suspension technology requires substantial development effort before it can be considered suitable for revenue operation.

  6. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  7. Soils - Potential Runoff

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  8. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  9. Nonpoint Source: Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization increases the variety and amount of pollutants carried into our nation's waters. Pavement and compacted landscapes do not allow rain and snow melt to soak into the ground. List of typical pollutants from Urban runoff.

  10. Urban resident attitudes toward rodents, rodent control products, and environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...

  11. A simple rainfall-runoff model for the single and long term hydrological performance of green roofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    Green roofs are being widely implemented for storm water control and runoff reduction. There is need for incorporating green roofs into urban drainage models in order to evaluate their impact. These models must have low computational costs and fine time resolution. This paper aims to develop...... a model of green roof hydrological performance. A simple conceptual model for the long term and single event hydrological performance of green roofs, shows to be capable of reproducing observed runoff measurements. The model has surface and subsurface storage components representing the overall retention...... capacity of the green roof. The runoff from the system is described by the non-linear reservoir method and the storage capacity of the green roof is continuously re-established by evapotranspiration. Runoff data from a green roof in Denmark are collected and used for parameter calibration....

  12. Safety Impacts of the Actuated Signal Control at Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyuk Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To reduce travel time, the actuated signal controls have been implemented at urban intersections. However, the safety impacts of actuated signal controls thus far have rarely been examined. In this assessment of the safety impact of urban intersections with semi-actuated signal controls, the safety performance functions and EB approaches were applied. The semi-actuated signal controls have increased injuries and total crashes in all crash types by around 5.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Regarding the most common crash types, such as angle, sideswipe & rear-end, and head-on crashes, semi-actuated signal controls have been seen to decrease injuries by 7.7%. Total crashes have been reduced by over 9.2% through the use of semi-actuated signal controls. This may be result of optimal signal timings considering traffic conditions during peak time periods. In conclusion, safety impact factors which have been established in this study can be used to improve safety and minimize travel times using semi-actuated signal controls.

  13. Plot and field scale soil moisture dynamics and subsurface wetness control on runoff generation in a headwater in the Ore Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zehe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of an innovative sampling strategy to assess soil moisture dynamics in a headwater of the Weißeritz in the German eastern Ore Mountains. A grassland site and a forested site were instrumented with two Spatial TDR clusters (STDR that consist of 39 and 32 coated TDR probes of 60 cm length. Distributed time series of vertically averaged soil moisture data from both sites/ensembles were analyzed by statistical and geostatistical methods. Spatial variability and the spatial mean at the forested site were larger than at the grassland site. Furthermore, clustering of TDR probes in combination with long-term monitoring allowed identification of average spatial covariance structures at the small field scale for different wetness states. The correlation length of soil water content as well as the sill to nugget ratio at the grassland site increased with increasing average wetness and but, in contrast, were constant at the forested site. As soil properties at both the forested and grassland sites are extremely variable, this suggests that the correlation structure at the forested site is dominated by the pattern of throughfall and interception. We also found a very strong correlation between antecedent soil moisture at the forested site and runoff coefficients of rainfall-runoff events observed at gauge Rehefeld. Antecedent soil moisture at the forest site explains 92% of the variability in the runoff coefficients. By combining these results with a recession analysis we derived a first conceptual model of the dominant runoff mechanisms operating in this catchment. Finally, we employed a physically based hydrological model to shed light on the controls of soil- and plant morphological parameters on soil average soil moisture at the forested site and the grassland site, respectively. A homogeneous soil setup allowed, after fine tuning of plant morphological parameters, most of the time unbiased predictions of the observed

  14. Interactive urban design using integrated planning requirements control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Tabak, V.; Achten, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Urban planning and urban design are separated disciplines. As a consequence, there is hardly any feedback from the urban design process to the urban planning process. To improve interaction between these two, an interactive urban design (IUD) tool has been developed. The tool is implemented in a

  15. Effects of rates and time of zeolite application on controlling runoff generation and soil loss from a soil subjected to a freeze-thaw cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Behzadfar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many factors such as freeze-thaw (FT cycle influence soil behavior. Application of soil amendments can play an important role on runoff time commencement (RT, volume (RV and soil loss (SL on soils subjected to FT cycles. However, limited studies have been documented on this subject. The present study was therefore carried out under rainfall simulation circumstances to investigate the effect of different rates of zeolite application to control the effects of FT on basic hydrological variables such as runoff production and soil loss. Towards this attempt, the effect of application of different rates of 250, 500 and 750 g m−2 of zeolite applied before, during and after the occurrence of FT cycle on RT, RV and SL was assessed in a completely randomized design. Treatments were set up in two categories viz. control (without zeolite application, and three rates and times of zeolite application in small 0.25 m2-experimental plots in three replications. The results showed that application of zeolite had significant effects on hydrological behavior of soil induced by FT cycles. Application rate of 750 g m−2 prior to FT cycle increased RT and reduced RV and SL at rates of 644%, 68% and 91%, respectively. The results also verified that zeolite could successfully mitigate the impacts of FT cycle on the main soil hydrological variables of soil profile induced by FT cycle. It is accordingly recommended to employ zeolite as an effective amendment to control soil erosion in steep and degraded rangelands where surface soil is exposed to rainfall and runoff.

  16. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Deborah A; Johnson, Gwynn R; Spolek, Graig A

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Output improvement of Sg. Piah run-off river hydro-electric station with a new computed river flow-based control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jidin, Razali; Othman, Bahari

    2013-06-01

    The lower Sg. Piah hydro-electric station is a river run-off hydro scheme with generators capable of generating 55MW of electricity. It is located 30km away from Sg. Siput, a small town in the state of Perak, Malaysia. The station has two turbines (Pelton) to harness energy from water that flow through a 7km tunnel from a small intake dam. The trait of a run-off river hydro station is small-reservoir that cannot store water for a long duration; therefore potential energy carried by the spillage will be wasted if the dam level is not appropriately regulated. To improve the station annual energy output, a new controller based on the computed river flow has been installed. The controller regulates the dam level with an algorithm based on the river flow derived indirectly from the intake-dam water level and other plant parameters. The controller has been able to maintain the dam at optimum water level and regulate the turbines to maximize the total generation output.

  18. Output improvement of Sg. Piah run-off river hydro-electric station with a new computed river flow-based control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jidin, Razali; Othman, Bahari

    2013-01-01

    The lower Sg. Piah hydro-electric station is a river run-off hydro scheme with generators capable of generating 55MW of electricity. It is located 30km away from Sg. Siput, a small town in the state of Perak, Malaysia. The station has two turbines (Pelton) to harness energy from water that flow through a 7km tunnel from a small intake dam. The trait of a run-off river hydro station is small-reservoir that cannot store water for a long duration; therefore potential energy carried by the spillage will be wasted if the dam level is not appropriately regulated. To improve the station annual energy output, a new controller based on the computed river flow has been installed. The controller regulates the dam level with an algorithm based on the river flow derived indirectly from the intake-dam water level and other plant parameters. The controller has been able to maintain the dam at optimum water level and regulate the turbines to maximize the total generation output.

  19. Rainwater runoff from building facades : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Derome, D.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Rainwater runoff from building facades is a complex process governed by a wide range of urban, building, material and meteorological parameters. Given this complexity and the wide range of influencing parameters, it is not surprising that despite research efforts spanning over almost a century,

  20. Evaluation of Maximum a Posteriori Estimation as Data Assimilation Method for Forecasting Infiltration-Inflow Affected Urban Runoff with Radar Rainfall Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied Pedersen, Jonas; Lund, Nadia Schou Vorndran; Borup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    High quality on-line flow forecasts are useful for real-time operation of urban drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This requires computationally efficient models, which are continuously updated with observed data to provide good initial conditions for the forecasts. This paper...... period of time that precedes the forecast. The method is illustrated for an urban catchment, where flow forecasts of 0–4 h are generated by applying a lumped linear reservoir model with three cascading reservoirs. Radar rainfall observations are used as input to the model. The effects of different prior...

  1. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  2. Adsorption by and artificial release of zinc and lead from porous concrete for recycling of adsorbed zinc and lead and of porous concrete to reduce urban non-point heavy metal runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Yanbe, Miyu

    2018-04-01

    This report describes the use of porous concrete at the bottom of a sewage trap to prevent runoff of non-point heavy metals into receiving waters, and, secondarily, to reduce total runoff volume during heavy rains in urbanized areas while simultaneously increasing the recharge volume of heavy-metal-free water into underground aquifers. This idea has the advantage of preventing clogging, which is fundamentally very important when using pervious materials. During actual field experiments, two important parameters were identified: maximum adsorption weight of lead and zinc by the volume of porous concrete, and heavy metal recovery rate by artificial acidification after adsorption. To understand the effect of ambient heavy metal concentration, a simple mixing system was used to adjust the concentrations of lead and zinc solutions. The concrete blocks used had been prepared for a previous study by Harada & Komuro (2010). The results showed that maximum adsorption depended on the ambient concentration, expressed as the linear isothermal theory, and that recovery depended on the final pH value (0.5 or 0.0). The dependence on pH is very important for recycling the porous concrete. A pH of 0.5 is important for recycling both heavy metals, especially zinc, (8.0-22.1% of lead and 42-74% of zinc) and porous concrete because porous concrete has not been heavily damaged by acid. However, at a pH of 0.0, the heavy metals could be recovered: 30-60% of the lead and 75-125% of the zinc. At a higher pH, such as 2.0, no release of heavy metals occurred, indicating the safety to the environment of using porous concrete, because the lowest recorded pH of rainfall in Japan is. 4.0. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metamodeling as a tool to size vegetative filter strips for surface runoff pollution control in European watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvernet, Claire; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Carluer, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, a significant presence of contaminants is found in surface water, partly due to pesticide applications. Vegetative filter strips or buffer zones (VFS), often located along rivers, are a common best management practice (BMP) to reduce non point source pollution of water by reducing surface runoff. However, they need to be adapted to the agro-ecological and climatic conditions, both in terms of position and size, in order to be efficient. The TOPPS-PROWADIS project involves European experts and stakeholders to develop and recommend BMPs to reduce pesticide transfer by drift or runoff in several European countries. In this context, IRSTEA developed a guide accompanying the use of different tools, which allows designing site-specific VFS by simulating their efficiency to limit transfers using the mechanistic model VFSMOD. This method which is very complete assumes that the user provides detailed field knowledge and data, which are not always easily available. The aim of this study is to assist the buffer sizing by using a unique tool with a reduced set of parameters, adapted to the available information from the end-users. In order to fill in the lack of real data in many practical applications, a set of virtual scenarios was selected to encompass a large range of agro-pedo-climatic conditions in Europe, considering both the upslope agricultural field and the VFS characteristics. As a first step first, in this work we present scenarios based on North-West of France climate consisting of different rainfall intensities and durations, hillslope lengths and slopes, humidity conditions, a large set of field rainfall/runoff characteristics for the contributing area, and several shallow water table depths and soil types for the VFS. The sizing method based on the mechanistic model VFSMOD was applied for all these scenarios, and a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) of the VFS optimal length was performed for all the input parameters in order to understand their

  4. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland for stormwater runoff and domestic sewage treatment on the banks of a polluted urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weijie; Li, Zhu; Cheng, Shuiping; Liang, Wei; He, Feng; Wu, Zhenbin

    2014-01-01

    To examine the performance of a constructed wetland system on stormwater runoff and domestic sewage (SRS) treatment in central east China, two parallel pilot-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems were operated for one year. Each ICW consisted of a down-flow bed, an up-flow bed and a horizontal subsurface flow bed. The average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 63.6, 91.9, 38.7, 43.0 and 70.0%, respectively, and the corresponding amounts of pollutant retention were approximately 368.3, 284.9, 23.2, 44.6 and 5.9 g m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. High hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 200 mm/d and low water temperatures (<15 °C) resulted in significant decrease in removals for TP and NH4(+)-N, but had no significant effects on removals of COD and TSS. These results indicated that the operation of this ICW at higher HLR (200 mm/d) might be effective and feasible for TSS and COD removal, but for acceptable removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus it should be operated at lower HLR (100 mm/d). This kind of ICW could be employed as an effective technique for SRS treatment.

  5. Runoff estimation in residencial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Regina de Almeida Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the watershed runoff caused by extreme events that often result in the flooding of urban areas. The runoff of a residential area in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil was estimated using the Curve-Number method proposed by USDA-NRCS. The study also investigated current land use and land cover conditions, impermeable areas with pasture and indications of the reforestation of those areas. Maps and satellite images of Residential Riverside I Neighborhood were used to characterize the area. In addition to characterizing land use and land cover, the definition of the soil type infiltration capacity, the maximum local rainfall, and the type and quality of the drainage system were also investigated. The study showed that this neighborhood, developed in 1974, has an area of 792,700 m², a population of 1361 inhabitants, and a sloping area covered with degraded pasture (Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak located in front of the residential area. The residential area is located in a flat area near the Paraiba do Sul River, and has a poor drainage system with concrete pipes, mostly 0.60 m in diameter, with several openings that capture water and sediments from the adjacent sloping area. The Low Impact Development (LID system appears to be a viable solution for this neighborhood drainage system. It can be concluded that the drainage system of the Guaratinguetá Riverside I Neighborhood has all of the conditions and characteristics that make it suitable for the implementation of a low impact urban drainage system. Reforestation of Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak can reduce the basin’s runoff by 50% and minimize flooding problems in the Beira Rio neighborhood.

  6. Off site transport of fungicides with snowmelt and rainfall runoff from golf course fairway turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds; inferring contaminant contributions from residential, urban, and recreational sources. Golf course turf often requires multiple applications of pesticides at rates that exceed...

  7. Environmental monitoring of carbaryl applied in urban areas to control the glassy-winged sharpshooter in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Johanna; Goh, Kean S; Li, Linying; Feng, Hsiao; Hernandez, Jorge; White, Jane

    2003-03-01

    Carbaryl insecticide was applied by ground spray to plants in urban areas to control a serious insect pest the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), newly introduced in California. To assure there are no adverse impacts to human health and the environment from the carbaryl applications, carbaryl was monitored in tank mixtures, air, surface water, foliage and backyard fruits and vegetables. Results from the five urban areas - Porterville, Fresno, Rancho Cordova, Brentwood and Chico - showed there were no significant human exposures or impacts on the environment. Spray tank concentrations ranged from 0.1-0.32%. Carbaryl concentrations in air ranged from none detected to 1.12 microg m(-3), well below the interim health screening level in air of 51.7 microg m(-3). There were three detections of carbaryl in surface water near application sites: 0.125 ppb (parts per billion) from a water treatment basin; 6.94 ppb from a gold fish pond; and 1737 ppb in a rain runoff sample collected from a drain adjacent to a sprayed site. The foliar dislodgeable residues ranged from 1.54-7.12 microg cm(-2), comparable to levels reported for safe reentry of 2.4 to 5.6 microg cm(-2) for citrus. Carbaryl concentrations in fruits and vegetables ranged from no detectable amounts to 7.56 ppm, which were below the U.S. EPA tolerance, allowable residue of 10 ppm.

  8. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.

    2009-01-01

    representing agricultural, forest and urban land surfaces in physically based hydrological modeling makes it possible to reproduce much of the observed variability (48–73%) in stream flow (Q − Qb) when data and modeling is applied at an effective spatial resolution capable of representing land surface...... variability in eddy covariance latent heat fluxes. The “effective” spatial resolution needed to adopt local-scale model parameters for spatial-deterministic hydrological modeling was assessed using a high-spatial resolution (30 m) variogram analysis of the NDVI. The use of the NDVI variogram to evaluate land...

  9. Syndromic management and STI control in urban Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L Clark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs, but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru.We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003-05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies.Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men.In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries.

  10. Syndromic Management and STI Control in Urban Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru. Methodology We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003–05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies. Findings Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men. Conclusions In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries. PMID:19779620

  11. Contribution to the study of the behaviour, in the urban environment, during the runoff of rainwater, of the fission products emitted during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioch, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the context of research into the environmental consequences of a serious accident occurring on a pressurized water reactor, this paper concerns the experimental study of behaviour of five fission products (caesium, strontium, iodine, ruthenium and tellurium) in the urban environment under the action of rainwater. Stable or radioactive multiple-element aerosols were produced. Their physicochemical characteristics and their solubility in rainwater were studied. Caesium and rubidium forms solutions totally and quickly, while strontium is partially soluble (approximately 50 %) and iodine is only slightly soluble. The behaviour of fission products on five urban surfaces was then studied. Batch experiments showed that the retention of dissolved forms of radioelements varied according to the material. The reactions involved are ion exchange reactions. The presence of certain ions in water (in particular NH 4 + ) increase the desorption of radioelements. Using a laboratory rainfall simulator, the re-entrainment of fission products by rainwater was examined. Two modes of deposition and two intensities of rainfall were simulated. The desorption of radioelements is greater after wet deposition and remobilization is reduced by an increase in intensity of rainfall. An addition of NH 4 + in water is especially effective in the case of wet depositions. Suggestions are made in order to improve experimental protocols and continue the research. (author). 75 refs., 51 figs., 69 tabs., 14 appends

  12. Geochemical fingerprints and controls in the sediments of an urban river: River Manzanares, Madrid (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Eduardo de; Charlesworth, Susanne; Ordonez, Almudena; Seijas, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    The geochemical fingerprint of sediment retrieved from the banks of the River Manzanares as it passes through the City of Madrid is presented here. The river collects the effluent water from several Waste Water Treatment (WWT) plants in and around the city, such that, at low flows, up to 60% of the flow has been treated. A total of 18 bank-sediment cores were collected along the course of the river, down to its confluence with the Jarama river, to the south-east of Madrid. Trace and major elements in each sample were extracted following a double protocol: (a) 'Total' digestion with HNO 3 , HClO 4 and HF; (b) 'Weak' digestion with sodium acetate buffered to pH=5 with acetic acid, under constant stirring. The digests thus obtained were subsequently analysed by ICP-AES, except for Hg which was extracted with aqua regia and sodium chloride-hydroxylamine sulfate, and analysed by Cold Vapour-AAS. X-ray diffraction was additionally employed to determine the mineralogical composition of the samples. Uni- and multivariate analyses of the chemical data reveal the influence of Madrid on the geochemistry of Manzanares' sediments, clearly manifested by a marked increase in the concentration of typically 'urban' elements Ag, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, downstream of the intersection of the river with the city's perimeter. The highest concentrations of these elements appear to be associated with illegal or accidental dumping of waste materials, and with the uncontrolled incorporation of untreated urban runoff to the river. The natural matrix of the sediment is characterised by fairly constant concentrations of Ce, La and Y, whereas changes in the lithology intersected by the river cause corresponding variations in Ca-Mg and Al-Na contents. In the final stretch of the river, the presence of carbonate materials seems to exert a strong geochemical control on the amount of Zn and, to a lesser extent, Cu immobilised in the sediments. This fact suggests that a variable but significant

  13. Influences of Different Land Use Spatial Control Schemes on Farmland Conversion and Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management. PMID:25915897

  14. Influences of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management.

  15. Modeling of technical soil-erosion control measures and its impact on soil erosion off-site effects within urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Tomas; Devaty, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents results of surface runoff, soil erosion and sediment transport modeling using Erosion 3D software - physically based mathematical simulation model, event oriented, fully distributed. Various methods to simulate technical soil-erosion conservation measures were tested, using alternative digital elevation models of different precision and resolution. Ditches and baulks were simulated by three different approaches, (i) by change of the land-cover parameters to increase infiltration and decrease flow velocity, (ii) by change of the land-cover parameters to completely infiltrate the surface runoff and (iii) by adjusting the height of the digital elevation model by "burning in" the channels of the ditches. Results show advantages and disadvantages of each approach and conclude suitable methods for combinations of particular digital elevation model and purpose of the simulations. Further on a set of simulations was carried out to model situations before and after technical soil-erosion conservation measures application within a small catchment of 4 km2. These simulations were focused on quantitative and qualitative assessment of technical soil-erosion control measures impact on soil erosion off-site effects within urban areas located downstream of intensively used agricultural fields. The scenarios were built upon a raster digital elevation model with spatial resolution of 3 meters derived from LiDAR 5G vector point elevation data. Use of this high-resolution elevation model allowed simulating the technical soil-erosion control measures by direct terrain elevation adjustment. Also the structures within the settlements were emulated by direct change in the elevation of the terrain model. The buildings were lifted up to simulate complicated flow behavior of the surface runoff within urban areas, using approach of Arévalo (Arévalo, 2011) but focusing on the use of commonly available data without extensive detailed editing. Application of the technical

  16. Analysis of factors controlling soil phosphorus loss with surface runoff in Huihe National Nature Reserve by principal component and path analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Bu, He; Wo, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss with surface runoff accounts for the P input to and acceleration of eutrophication of the freshwater. Many studies have focused on factors affecting P loss with surface runoff from soils, but rarely on the relationship among these factors. In the present study, rainfall simulation on P loss with surface runoff was conducted in Huihe National Nature Reserve, in Hulunbeier grassland, China, and the relationships between P loss with surface runoff, soil properties, and rainfall conditions were examined. Principal component analysis and path analysis were used to analyze the direct and indirect effects on P loss with surface runoff. The results showed that P loss with surface runoff was closely correlated with soil electrical conductivity, soil pH, soil Olsen P, soil total nitrogen (TN), soil total phosphorus (TP), and soil organic carbon (SOC). The main driving factors which influenced P loss with surface runoff were soil TN, soil pH, soil Olsen P, and soil water content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated that the standard multiple regression equation for P loss with surface runoff and each main factor was Y = 7.429 - 0.439 soil TN - 6.834 soil pH + 1.721 soil Olsen-P + 0.183 soil water content (r = 0.487, p runoff. The effect of physical and chemical properties of undisturbed soils on P loss with surface runoff was discussed, and the soil water content and soil Olsen P were strongly positive influences on the P loss with surface runoff.

  17. Hydrological control of large hurricane-induced lahars: evidence from rainfall-runoff modeling, seismic and video monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Lucia; Coviello, Velio; Borselli, Lorenzo; Márquez-Ramírez, Víctor-Hugo; Arámbula-Mendoza, Raul

    2018-03-01

    The Volcán de Colima, one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico, is commonly affected by tropical rains related to hurricanes that form over the Pacific Ocean. In 2011, 2013 and 2015 hurricanes Jova, Manuel and Patricia, respectively, triggered tropical storms that deposited up to 400 mm of rain in 36 h, with maximum intensities of 50 mm h -1. The effects were devastating, with the formation of multiple lahars along La Lumbre and Montegrande ravines, which are the most active channels in sediment delivery on the south-southwest flank of the volcano. Deep erosion along the river channels and several marginal landslides were observed, and the arrival of block-rich flow fronts resulted in damages to bridges and paved roads in the distal reaches of the ravines. The temporal sequence of these flow events is reconstructed and analyzed using monitoring data (including video images, seismic records and rainfall data) with respect to the rainfall characteristics and the hydrologic response of the watersheds based on rainfall-runoff numerical simulation. For the studied events, lahars occurred 5-6 h after the onset of rainfall, lasted several hours and were characterized by several pulses with block-rich fronts and a maximum flow discharge of 900 m3 s -1. Rainfall-runoff simulations were performer using the SCS-curve number and the Green-Ampt infiltration models, providing a similar result in the detection of simulated maximum watershed peaks discharge. Results show different behavior for the arrival times of the first lahar pulses that correlate with the simulated catchment's peak discharge for La Lumbre ravine and with the peaks in rainfall intensity for Montegrande ravine. This different behavior is related to the area and shape of the two watersheds. Nevertheless, in all analyzed cases, the largest lahar pulse always corresponds with the last one and correlates with the simulated maximum peak discharge of these catchments. Data presented here show that flow pulses

  18. Runoff from armored slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Models exist for calculating overland flow on hillsides but no models have been found which explicitly deal with runoff from armored slopes. Flow on armored slopes differs from overland flow, because substantial flow occurs beneath the surface of the rock layer at low runnoff, and both above and below the surface for high runoff. In addition to the lack of a suitable model, no estimates of the PMP exist for such small areas and for very short durations. This paper develops a model for calculating runoff from armored embankments. The model considers the effect of slope, drainage area and ''flow concentration'' caused by irregular grading or slumping. A rainfall-duration curve based on the PMP is presented which is suitable for very small drainage areas. The development of the runoff model and rainfall-duration curve is presented below, along with a demonstration of the model on the design of a hypothetical tailings embankment

  19. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. A two-stage storage routing model for green roof runoff detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesuviano, Gianni; Sonnenwald, Fred; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs have been adopted in urban drainage systems to control the total quantity and volumetric flow rate of runoff. Modern green roof designs are multi-layered, their main components being vegetation, substrate and, in almost all cases, a separate drainage layer. Most current hydrological models of green roofs combine the modelling of the separate layers into a single process; these models have limited predictive capability for roofs not sharing the same design. An adaptable, generic, two-stage model for a system consisting of a granular substrate over a hard plastic 'egg box'-style drainage layer and fibrous protection mat is presented. The substrate and drainage layer/protection mat are modelled separately by previously verified sub-models. Controlled storm events are applied to a green roof system in a rainfall simulator. The time-series modelled runoff is compared to the monitored runoff for each storm event. The modelled runoff profiles are accurate (mean Rt(2) = 0.971), but further characterization of the substrate component is required for the model to be generically applicable to other roof configurations with different substrate.

  1. The Effectiveness of Planning Control on Urban Growth: Evidence from Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl presents a serious challenge for sustainable urban land use. Urban planning attempts to guarantee sustainable urban development and proper use of land resources. However, a large gap usually exists between planning and actual development. This paper aims to analyze the evolutionary characteristics of urban form and the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban planning from 1964 to 2013, using the case of Hangzhou, China. We proposed a framework that included remote sensing, landscape metrics, and control effectiveness indexes. The results indicated that urban planning failed to perform effectively in Hangzhou, reflected by the uncontrolled urban sprawl during all the planning periods. The low effectiveness of planning was resulted from multiple factors, including historical economic events that made expansion unexpected, functional orientation of planning which drove fragmented suburbanization, the ineffective methods for forecasting population and land use, and the influences by the market forces. The findings deepen the understanding of the impacts of urban planning, and provide references for making rational urban management decisions and sustainable urban land management.

  2. Estimation of Runoff for Ozat Catchment using RS and GIS Based SCS-CN Method

    OpenAIRE

    Dipesh B. Chavda1,; Jaydip J. Makwana*2,; Hitesh V. Parmar3; Arvind N. Kunapara2; Girish V. Prajapati

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of runoff in a watershed is a prerequisite for design of hydraulic structures, reservoir operation and for soil erosion control measures. Water resource planning and management is important and critical issue in arid and semi-arid regions. Runoff from a watershed affected by several geo-morphological parameters and for a particular watershed land use change can affect the runoff volume and runoff rate significantly. Several methods are investigated to estimate the surface runoff fr...

  3. The Modern Management of Urban Planning and the Controlling Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    <正> Since 1980s,with the further reform of political and economic systems,the urban construc-tion in our country has undergone great changes,greater than ever.Such changes pose a series ofnew problems to urban planning:How should planning be suitable for the development of moderncities?How should planning management coordinate with urban planning?How to carry out ur-ban planning under new situations? etc.The answers to these problems lie in one point:urbanplanning and plann ing management must be restructured.Only when the former is well com-bined with the latter can the above problems be solved satisfactorily.This article provides someviews in this respect.

  4. Dominant control of agriculture and irrigation on urban heat island in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Mishra, Vimal; Buzan, Jonathan; Kumar, Rohini; Shindell, Drew; Huber, Matthew

    2017-10-25

    As is true in many regions, India experiences surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect that is well understood, but the causes of the more recently discovered Urban Cool Island (UCI) effect remain poorly constrained. This raises questions about our fundamental understanding of the drivers of rural-urban environmental gradients and hinders development of effective strategies for mitigation and adaptation to projected heat stress increases in rapidly urbanizing India. Here we show that more than 60% of Indian urban areas are observed to experience a day-time UCI. We use satellite observations and the Community Land Model (CLM) to identify the impact of irrigation and prove for the first time that UCI is caused by lack of vegetation and moisture in non-urban areas relative to cities. In contrast, urban areas in extensively irrigated landscapes generally experience the expected positive UHI effect. At night, UHI warming intensifies, occurring across a majority (90%) of India's urban areas. The magnitude of rural-urban temperature contrasts is largely controlled by agriculture and moisture availability from irrigation, but further analysis of model results indicate an important role for atmospheric aerosols. Thus both land-use decisions and aerosols are important factors governing, modulating, and even reversing the expected urban-rural temperature gradients.

  5. Hydrological simulation approaches for BMPs and LID practices in highly urbanized area and development of hydrological performance indicator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-wei Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes hydrological change and increases stormwater runoff volumes, leading to flooding, erosion, and the degradation of instream ecosystem health. Best management practices (BMPs, like detention ponds and infiltration trenches, have been widely used to control flood runoff events for the past decade. However, low impact development (LID options have been proposed as an alternative approach to better mimic the natural flow regime by using decentralized designs to control stormwater runoff at the source, rather than at a centralized location in the watershed. For highly urbanized areas, LID stormwater management practices such as bioretention cells and porous pavements can be used to retrofit existing infrastructure and reduce runoff volumes and peak flows. This paper describes a modeling approach to incorporate these LID practices and the two BMPs of detention ponds and infiltration trenches in an existing hydrological model to estimate the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on the surface runoff. The modeling approach has been used in a parking lot located in Lenexa, Kansas, USA, to predict hydrological performance of BMPs and LID practices. A performance indicator system including the flow duration curve, peak flow frequency exceedance curve, and runoff coefficient have been developed in an attempt to represent impacts of BMPs and LID practices on the entire spectrum of the runoff regime. Results demonstrate that use of these BMPs and LID practices leads to significant stormwater control for small rainfall events and less control for flood events.

  6. Comparision by Simulation of Different Approaches to the Urban Traffic Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Jan; Tichý, T.; Bělinová, Z.; Kapitán, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 26-30 ISSN 1899-8208 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030603 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : traffic * ITS * telematics * urban traffic control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/prikryl-comparision by simulation of different approaches to the urban traffic control.pdf

  7. Integrated urban malaria control: a case study in dar es salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas de Castro, Marcia; Yamagata, Yoichi; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jurg; Keiser, Jennifer; Singer, Burton H

    2004-08-01

    The rapid growth of cities in sub-Saharan Africa, much of it driven by rural-urban migration, is associated with complex transformations of these ecosystems and an intricate set of challenges for malaria control. Urban malaria transmission is substantially less intense and much more focal than in rural and peri-urban settings. However, the danger of epidemics is higher and the presence of substantial non-immune populations places people of all ages at comparable levels of risk. The limited number of breeding sites in urban centers suggests that prevention strategies based on vector control, with emphasis on environmental management, should be a central feature of urban malaria control programs. We focus on malaria in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Following a brief review of the 100-year history of malaria control in this urban center, we describe and evaluate a control program that operated from 1988 to 1996 as a consequence of a bilateral agreement between the governments of Tanzania and Japan. We present an innovative urban malaria risk mapping methodology based on high-resolution aerial photography with ground-based validation. This strategy clarifies that remote sensing technology at a level of resolution of one meter is essential if this kind of information is to play a role in guiding the detailed specification of intervention strategies for urban malaria control. The Tanzania-Japan multiple-intervention malaria control program, adaptively implemented over time, is described and evaluated with implications for urban malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa more generally. Copyright 2004 The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

  8. Assessing the impact of revegetation and weed control on urban sensitive bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Carla L; McKinney, Matthew; Mustin, Karen; Shanahan, Danielle F; Possingham, Hugh P

    2017-06-01

    Nature in cities is concentrated in urban green spaces, which are key areas for urban biodiversity and also important areas to connect people with nature. To conserve urban biodiversity within these natural refugia, habitat restoration such as weed control and revegetation is often implemented. These actions are expected to benefit biodiversity, although species known to be affected by urbanization may not be interacting with restoration in the ways we anticipate. In this study, we use a case study to explore how urban restoration activities impact different bird species. Birds were grouped into urban sensitivity categories and species abundance, and richness was then calculated using a hierarchical species community model for individual species responses, with "urban class" used as the hierarchical parameter. We highlight variable responses of birds to revegetation and weed control based on their level of urban sensitivity. Revegetation of open grassy areas delivers significant bird conservation outcomes, but the effects of weed control are neutral or in some cases negative. Specifically, the species most reliant on remnant vegetation in cities seem to remain stable or decline in abundance in areas with weed control, which we suspect is the result of a simplification of the understorey. The literature reports mixed benefits of weed control between taxa and between locations. We recommend, in our case study site, that weed control be implemented in concert with replanting of native vegetation to provide the understory structure preferred by urban sensitive birds. Understanding the impacts of revegetation and weed control on different bird species is important information for practitioners to make restoration decisions about the allocation of funds for conservation action. This new knowledge can be used both for threatened species and invasive species management.

  9. The Idiosyncrasies of Storage and Implications for Catchment Runoff (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.

    2010-12-01

    Because water goes into storage when it rains, perhaps the entire concept of a direct rainfall-runoff process is erroneous and misleading. Perhaps the runoff generation process is merely the conversion of storage to runoff. Using this perspective as a foundation, it then becomes important to understand how catchments retain water, where this storage is distributed and what controls the distribution of this storage. There is a growing body of observational evidence that the idiosyncrasies of storage in the catchment are crucial for runoff generation. These idiosyncrasies are important enough that some hydrologists are questioning assumptions of steady state, linearity, and topographic control in existing theories and algorithms of runoff generation. For instance, thresholds that control the release of water have been identified at many scales and in many landscapes. Hysteresis in storage-runoff relationships at all scales manifest because of these thresholds. Because storage thresholds at a range of scales are now known to be important for runoff response, connectivity has become an important concept crucial to interpreting catchment runoff response. There appears to be growing acceptance of such ideas as thresholds, hysteresis and connectivity in the hydrological literature. Theoretical development and model parameterization have begun, but there remains much work to resolve these field observations. In particular, our community should strive to investigate the relevance of storage-runoff relationships partly through innovative measurement techniques and the development of model structures appropriate for the requisite testing of these theories in a diversity of landscapes.

  10. In-Service Performance and Costs of Methods to Control Urban Rail System Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    This study evaluates the acoustic and economic effectiveness of five methods of controlling wheel/rail noise and vibration on urban rail transit systems, namely: rail grinding, wheel truing, resilient wheels, ring-damped wheels, and welded vs. jointe...

  11. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Aquatic Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic Buffers serve as natural boundaries between local waterways and existing development. The model and example ordinaces below provide suggested language or technical guidance designed to create the most effective stream buffer zones possible.

  12. Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spromberg, Julann A; Baldwin, David H; Damm, Steven E; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Huff, Michael; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Davis, Jay W; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-04-01

    Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated.We exposed otherwise healthy coho spawners to: (i) artificial storm water containing mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, at or above concentrations previously measured in urban run-off; (ii) undiluted storm water collected from a high traffic volume urban arterial road (i.e. highway run-off); and (iii) highway run-off that was first pre-treated via bioinfiltration through experimental soil columns to remove pollutants.We find that mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons - conventional toxic constituents in urban storm water - are not sufficient to cause the spawner mortality syndrome. By contrast, untreated highway run-off collected during nine distinct storm events was universally lethal to adult coho relative to unexposed controls. Lastly, the mortality syndrome was prevented when highway run-off was pretreated by soil infiltration, a conventional green storm water infrastructure technology.Our results are the first direct evidence that: (i) toxic run-off is killing adult coho in urban watersheds, and (ii) inexpensive mitigation measures can improve water quality and promote salmon survival. Synthesis and applications . Coho salmon, an iconic species with exceptional economic and cultural significance, are an ecological sentinel for the harmful effects of untreated urban run-off. Wild coho populations cannot withstand the high rates of

  13. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    water temperature changes associated with urbanization, heated surface runoff associated with urbanization, how temperature changes associated with urbanization can affect stream biota, interactive effects of urbanizaiton and climate change.

  14. Infiltration of runoff rainwater and transfer of the associated pollutants in the urban ground - towards a global and multi-disciplinary approach; Infiltration des eaux de ruissellement pluvial et transfert de polluants associes dans le sol urbain - vers une approche globale et pluridisciplinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, I.

    1999-12-01

    Storm water run-off infiltration now appears as a supplementary or alternative strategy to gravitational drainage systems. The present study sought to draw up a framework to represent pollutant transfer in such infiltration, this phenomenon being governed by various physical, chemical and biological processes. Study of the literature was able on the one hand to specify urban storm water run-off pollution, and, on the other, to identify the various possible processes undergone or induced during infiltration in the soil. It was noted that experimentation in this area requires certain extra input, whether, at laboratory level, for studying interactions effects between several pollutants and several processes, or, in the field, for a better account of soil heterogeneity and of integration of various elementary phenomena. Nevertheless, the state of knowledge regarding these levels and various scientific areas made it possible to identify the main parameters seeming to govern pollutant transfer. A representation was drawn up of the soil underlying a storm water run-off infiltration system, and a experimental framework proposed both to validate and to enhance the present model. (author)

  15. Robust Economic Control Decision Method of Uncertain System on Urban Domestic Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kebai; Ma, Tianyi; Wei, Guo

    2018-03-31

    As China quickly urbanizes, urban domestic water generally presents the circumstances of both rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. A robust economic control decision method for dynamic uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. It is developed based on the internal model principle and pole allocation method, and it is applied to an urban domestic water supply system with rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. To achieve this goal, first a multiplicative model is used to describe the urban domestic water demand. Then, a capital stock and a labor stock are selected as the state vector, and the investment and labor are designed as the control vector. Next, the compensator subsystem is devised in light of the internal model principle. Finally, by using the state feedback control strategy and pole allocation method, the multivariable robust economic control decision method is implemented. The implementation with this model can accomplish the urban domestic water supply control goal, with the robustness for the variation of parameters. The methodology presented in this study may be applied to the water management system in other parts of the world, provided all data used in this study are available. The robust control decision method in this paper is also applicable to deal with tracking control problems as well as stabilization control problems of other general dynamic uncertain systems.

  16. Stormwater Volume Control to Prevent Increases in Lake Flooding and Dam Failure Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Urban expansion is not often considered a major factor contributing to dam failure. But if urbanization occurs without mitigation of the hydrologic impacts, the risk of dam failure will increase. Of particular concern are increases in the volume of storm runoff resulting from increases in the extent of impervious surfaces. Storm runoff volumes are not regulated for much the U.S, and where they are, the required control is commonly less than 100%. Unmitigated increases in runoff volume due to urbanization can pose a risk to dams. A recent technical advisory committee of Dane County has recommended that the county require 100% control of stormwater volumes for new developments. The primary motivation was to prevent increases in the water levels in the Yahara Lakes, slowly draining lakes that are highly sensitive to runoff volume. The recommendations included the use of "volume trading" to achieve efficient compliance. Such recommendations should be considered for other slowly draining lakes, including those created by artificial structures.

  17. An Overview of Rainfall-Runoff Model Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report explores rainfall-runoff models, their generation methods, and the categories under which they fall. Runoff plays an important role in the hydrological cycle by returning excess precipitation to the oceans and controlling how much water flows into stream systems. Mode...

  18. TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF USING WET POND AND WETLAND MESOCOSMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban stormwater runoff is being recognized as a major source of pollutants to receiving waters and a number of recent investigations have evaluated stormwater runoff quality and best management practices to minimize pollutant input to receiving waters. Particle-bound contaminant...

  19. Stochastic rainfall-runoff forecasting: parameter estimation, multi-step prediction, and evaluation of overflow risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic runoff forecasts generated by stochastic greybox models can be notably useful for the improvement of the decision-making process in real-time control setups for urban drainage systems because the prediction risk relationships in these systems are often highly nonlinear. To date...... the identification of models for cases with noisy in-sewer observations. For the prediction of the overflow risk, no improvement was demonstrated through the application of stochastic forecasts instead of point predictions, although this result is thought to be caused by the notably simplified setup used...

  20. Efficient predictive model-based and fuzzy control for green urban mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidnejad, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we develop efficient predictive model-based control approaches, including model-predictive control (MPC) andmodel-based fuzzy control, for application in urban traffic networks with the aim of reducing a combination of the total time spent by the vehicles within the network and the

  1. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  2. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change

  3. Examining perimeter gating control of urban traffic networkswith locally adaptive traffic signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Gao, X.; Gayah, V.V.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, urban traffic is controlled by traffic lights. Recent findings of the Macroscopic or Network Fundamental Diagram (MFD or NFD) have led to the development of novel traffic control strategies that can be applied at a networkwide level. One pertinent example is perimeter flow control

  4. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  5. Investigating runoff efficiency in upper Colorado River streamflow over past centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing concerns about the impact of warming temperatures on water resources, more attention is being paid to the relationship between runoff and precipitation, or runoff efficiency. Temperature is a key influence on Colorado River runoff efficiency, and warming temperatures are projected to reduce runoff efficiency. Here, we investigate the nature of runoff efficiency in the upper Colorado River (UCRB) basin over the past 400 years, with a specific focus on major droughts and pluvials, and to contextualize the instrumental period. We first verify the feasibility of reconstructing runoff efficiency from tree-ring data. The reconstruction is then used to evaluate variability in runoff efficiency over periods of high and low flow, and its correspondence to a reconstruction of late runoff season UCRB temperature variability. Results indicate that runoff efficiency has played a consistent role in modulating the relationship between precipitation and streamflow over past centuries, and that temperature has likely been the key control. While negative runoff efficiency is most common during dry periods, and positive runoff efficiency during wet years, there are some instances of positive runoff efficiency moderating the impact of precipitation deficits on streamflow. Compared to past centuries, the 20th century has experienced twice as many high flow years with negative runoff efficiency, likely due to warm temperatures. These results suggest warming temperatures will continue to reduce runoff efficiency in wet or dry years, and that future flows will be less than anticipated from precipitation due to warming temperatures.

  6. Effective post-construction best management practices (BMPs) to infiltrate and retain stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Performance analyses of newly constructed linear BMPs in retaining stormwater run-off from 1 in. precipitation in : post-construction highway applications and urban areas were conducted using numerical simulations and field : observation. A series of...

  7. Impacts of Spatial Distribution of Impervious Areas on Runoff Response of Hillslope Catchments: Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzes variations in the model-projected changes in catchment runoff response after urbanization that stem from variations in the spatial distribution of impervious areas, interevent differences in temporal rainfall structure, and antecedent soil moisture (ASM). In t...

  8. Mitigation of severe urban haze pollution by a precision air pollution control approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaocai; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Liqiang; Wu, Yujie; Wang, Si; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Zeng, Liming; Zhang, Xiaoye; Cao, Junji; Alapaty, Kiran; Wong, David C; Pleim, Jon; Mathur, Rohit; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Seinfeld, John H

    2018-05-25

    Severe and persistent haze pollution involving fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations reaching unprecedentedly high levels across many cities in China poses a serious threat to human health. Although mandatory temporary cessation of most urban and surrounding emission sources is an effective, but costly, short-term measure to abate air pollution, development of long-term crisis response measures remains a challenge, especially for curbing severe urban haze events on a regular basis. Here we introduce and evaluate a novel precision air pollution control approach (PAPCA) to mitigate severe urban haze events. The approach involves combining predictions of high PM 2.5 concentrations, with a hybrid trajectory-receptor model and a comprehensive 3-D atmospheric model, to pinpoint the origins of emissions leading to such events and to optimize emission controls. Results of the PAPCA application to five severe haze episodes in major urban areas in China suggest that this strategy has the potential to significantly mitigate severe urban haze by decreasing PM 2.5 peak concentrations by more than 60% from above 300 μg m -3 to below 100 μg m -3 , while requiring ~30% to 70% less emission controls as compared to complete emission reductions. The PAPCA strategy has the potential to tackle effectively severe urban haze pollution events with economic efficiency.

  9. Analysis of the Impact of Urban Microclimate on Air Conditioning Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of urban heat island effect (UHIE, high humidity and other urban microclimate, temperature of city central area rises. This causes that the actual air-conditioning energy consumption (ACEC in the urban central area is much higher than that in the suburbs. Load control of air-conditioners (ACs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity, and it can greatly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. In this paper, a simplified second order transfer function control model of ACs is presented, and its parameters will be influenced by the ambient temperature and urban microclimate. The temperature is obtained by using the temperature inversion algorithm of the heat island effect. Then, the heat index is calculated by combining temperature and humidity. The ambient temperature index of urban central area is modified based on the above microclimate, and the second order linear time invariant model of aggregated ACs is upgraded to the linear time varying model. Furthermore, the consequent parameter changes of the second order transfer function model are studied and the influence of urban microclimate on AC load control is analyzed. The proposed method is verified on numerical examples

  10. Economic Impact of Intelligent Dynamic Control in Urban Outdoor Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the possible energy savings in various approaches to outdoor lighting modernization. Several solutions implementable using currently-available systems are presented and discussed. An innovative approach using real-time sensor data is also presented in detail, along with its formal background, based on Artificial Intelligence methods (rule-based systems and graph transformations. The efficiency of all approaches has been estimated and compared using real-life data recorded at an urban setting. The article also presents other aspects which influence the efficiency and feasibility of intelligent lighting projects, including design quality, design workload and conformance to standards.

  11. Evaluating the Hydrologic Performance of Low Impact Development Scenarios in a Micro Urban Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Han, Rongqing; Shi, Tuo; Qu, Xiuqi; Wu, Yilin

    2018-01-01

    As urbanization progresses, increasingly impervious surfaces have changed the hydrological processes in cities and resulted in a major challenge for urban stormwater control. This study uses the urban stormwater model to evaluate the performance and costs of low impact development (LID) scenarios in a micro urban catchment. Rainfall-runoff data of three rainfall events were used for model calibration and validation. The pre-developed (PreDev) scenario, post-developed (PostDev) scenario, and three LID scenarios were used to evaluate the hydrologic performance of LID measures. Using reduction in annual runoff as the goal, the best solutions for each LID scenario were selected using cost-effectiveness curves. The simulation results indicated that the three designed LID scenarios could effectively reduce annual runoff volumes and pollutant loads compared with the PostDev scenario. The most effective scenario (MaxPerf) reduced annual runoff by 53.4%, followed by the sponge city (SpoPerf, 51.5%) and economy scenarios (EcoPerf, 43.1%). The runoff control efficiency of the MaxPerf and SpoPerf scenarios increased by 23.9% and 19.5%, respectively, when compared with the EcoPerf scenario; however, the costs increased by 104% and 83.6%. The reduction rates of four pollutants (TSS, TN, TP, and COD) under the MaxPerf scenario were 59.8–61.1%, followed by SpoPerf (53.9–58.3%) and EcoPerf (42.3–45.4%), and the costs of the three scenarios were 3.74, 3.47 and 1.83 million yuan, respectively. These results can provide guidance to urban stormwater managers in future urban planning to improve urban water security. PMID:29401747

  12. Environmental and biological controls of urban tree transpiration in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E. B.; McFadden, J.; Montgomery, R.

    2009-12-01

    Urban trees provide a variety of ecosystem services to urban and suburban areas, including carbon uptake, climate amelioration, energy reduction, and stormwater management. Tree transpiration, in particular, modifies urban water budgets by providing an alternative pathway for water after rain events. The relative importance of environmental and biological controls on transpiration are poorly understood in urban areas, yet these controls are important for quantifying and scaling up the ecosystem services that urban trees provide at landscape and regional scales and predicting how urban ecosystems will respond to climate changes. The objectives of our study were to quantify the annual cycle of tree transpiration in an urban ecosystem and to determine how different urban tree species and plant functional types respond to environmental drivers. We continuously measured whole-tree transpiration using thermal dissipation sap flow at four urban forest stands that were broadly representative of the species composition and tree sizes found in a suburban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota. A total of 40 trees, representing different species, plant functional types, successional stages, and xylem anatomy, were sampled throughout the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons (April-November). At each site we monitored soil moisture, air temperature, and relative humidity continuously, and we measured leaf area index weekly. Urban tree transpiration was strongly correlated with diurnal changes in vapor pressure deficit and photosynthetically active radiation and with seasonal changes in leaf area index. We found that plant functional type better explained species differences in transpiration per canopy area than either successional stage or xylem anatomy, largely due to differences in canopy structure between conifer and broad-leaf deciduous trees. We also observed inter-annual differences in transpiration rates due to a mid-season drought and longer growing

  13. Resilience of Urban Smart Grids Involving Multiple Control Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent control of energy distribution grids is implemented via a hierarchy of control loops with different input values and different control targets, which also work on different time-scales. This control is enabled by a bi-directional communication flow, which can be interrupted due to ICT...

  14. Design, Modeling And Control Of Steering And Braking For An Urban Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maciua, Dragos

    1996-01-01

    This report describes research which involved the design modification, modeling and control of automatic steering and braking systems for an urban electric vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with four-wheel independent drive, four-wheel independent braking and four-wheel steering. Control algorithms were developed for steering and braking. Simulation results show the feasibility of the algorithms.

  15. Multi-agent control of urban transportation networks and of hybrid systems with limited information sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing efficient methods for control of large-scale systems by employing state-of-the-art control methods and optimization techniques. This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, we address dynamic traffic routing for urban transportation networks. In the second

  16. Improving runoff prediction using agronomical information in a cropped, loess covered catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Van Dijk, Paul; Jetten, Victor; Schwob, Matthieu; Payraudeau, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Predicting runoff hot spots and hot-moments within a headwater crop-catchment is of the utmost importance to reduce adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems by adapting land use management to control runoff. Reliable predictions of runoff patterns during a crop growing season remain challenging. This

  17. The "rule of halves" does not apply in Peru: awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes in rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Alana G; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-06-01

    To determine the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes by migration status. Cross-sectional study, secondary analyses of the PERU MIGRANT study. Rural, rural-to-urban migrants, and urban participants. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were calculated using weights to account for participant's group size. Of 205 of the 987 (weighted prevalence 24.1%, 95% confidence interval: 21.1%-27.1%) participants identified as hypertensive, 48.3% were aware of their diagnosis, 40% of them were receiving treatment, and 30.4% of those receiving treatment were controlled. Diabetes was present in 33 of the 987 (weighted prevalence 4.6%, 95% confidence interval: 3.1%-6%), and diabetes awareness, treatment, and control were 71.1%, 40.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Suboptimal control rates, defined as those not meeting blood pressure or glycaemia targets among those with the condition, were 95.1% for hypertension and 97% for diabetes. Higher awareness, treatment, and control rates, for both hypertension and diabetes, were observed in rural-to-urban migrants and urban participants compared with rural participants. However, treatment rates were much lower among migrants compared with the urban group. These results identify major unmet needs in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes. Particular challenges are lack of awareness of both hypertension and diabetes in rural areas, and poor levels of treatment and control among people who have migrated from rural into urban areas.

  18. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2017-09-05

    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  19. Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatari, Sabrina; Yu, Ziwen; Montalto, Franco A

    2011-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and a stochastic urban watershed model. We estimate annual energy savings and avoided GHG emissions of 7.3 GJ and 0.4 metric tons, respectively, for a LID strategy implemented in a neighborhood in New York City. Annual savings are small compared to the energy and GHG intensity of the LID materials, resulting in slow environmental payback times. This preliminary analysis suggests that if implemented throughout an urban watershed, LID strategies may have important energy cost savings to WPCF, and can make progress towards reducing their carbon footprint. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Region-Urbanicity Differences in Locus of Control: Social Disadvantage, Structure, or Cultural Exceptionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara; Sutton, April

    2014-11-01

    People with internal rather than external locus of control experience better outcomes in multiple domains. Previous studies on spatial differences in control within America only focused on the South, relied on aggregate level data or historical evidence, or did not account for other confounding regional distinctions (such as variation in urbanicity). Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find differences in adolescents' loci of control depending on their region and urbanicity are largely attributable to differences in their social background, and only minimally to structural differences (i.e., differences in the qualities of adolescents' schools). Differences that persist net of differences across adolescents and their schools suggest the less internal control of rural Southern adolescents, and the more internal control of rural and urban Northeastern adolescents, may be due to cultural distinctions in those areas. Results indicate region is more closely associated than urbanicity with differences in locus of control, with Western and Northeastern cultures seemingly fostering more internal control than Midwestern and Southern cultures. These findings contribute to research on spatial variation in a variety of psychological traits.

  1. Environmental Impact of Introducing Aromatic-Shrub Strips in Almond Orchards under Semiarid Climate (SE Spain): implications for Erosion and Agricultural Runoff Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran-Zuazo, V. H.; Rodriguez-Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Francia-Martinez, J. R.; Martinez-Raya, A.; Carceles-Rodriguez, B.; Arroyo-Panadero, L.; Casado, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Erosion degrades soil quality in natural, agricultural, and forest ecosystems, thereby reducing the productivity of the land. Semi-natural vegetation and diverse cropping systems have been converted into monocultures with low tree densities, leaving the soil unprotected. Soil loss, runoff, and nutrient loss over a four-year period were monitored in hillside erosion plots with almond trees under different soil-management systems. (Author)

  2. Environmental Impact of Introducing Aromatic-Shrub Strips in Almond Orchards under Semiarid Climate (SE Spain): implications for Erosion and Agricultural Runoff Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran-Zuazo, V. H.; Rodriguez-Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Francia-Martinez, J. R.; Martinez-Raya, A.; Carceles-Rodriguez, B.; Arroyo-Panadero, L.; Casado, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion degrades soil quality in natural, agricultural, and forest ecosystems, thereby reducing the productivity of the land. Semi-natural vegetation and diverse cropping systems have been converted into monocultures with low tree densities, leaving the soil unprotected. Soil loss, runoff, and nutrient loss over a four-year period were monitored in hillside erosion plots with almond trees under different soil-management systems. (Author)

  3. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  4. Landform design conditions Runoff and erosion control on reclaimed areas; Diseno de la Morfologia y Red de Drenaje en la Restaurationes Mineras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Landform construction in Utrillas coal field, where the MFUSA Company is operating, is based on the runoff sharing out, making up different hydrological catchment. Artificial slopes, flat platforms, and the dram age network, with channels and small ponds, compose reclaimed cathments, which are connected to the natural drainage network. The goal of the project is to set up some tools for Landform design, i. e. hydrological and erosion models. The models give a quantitative base for predicting the long-term stability of reclaimed catchments. Empirical values of the parameters have been obtained by measuring runoff and sediments rates at the slope and catchments level. Runoff is predicted by applying the Curve Number Method. RUSLE 1.06, Rusle for Mined Lands, Construction Sites and Reclaimed Lands, is applied for soil erosion prediction at slope scale and MUSLE at catchment scale. It is explained the methodology for applying these models in others coal fields. Finally rules for conservation and management of the reclaimed catchments are given, emphasizing the influence of the Mediterranean-Continental climate. (Author)

  5. Biophysical control of whole tree transpiration under an urban environment in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhandong; Tang, Jianwu; Caldwell, Peter; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2011-05-01

    SummaryUrban reforestation in China has led to increasing debate about the impact of urban trees and forests on water resources. Although transpiration is the largest water flux leaving terrestrial ecosystems, little is known regarding whole tree transpiration in urban environments. In this study, we quantified urban tree transpiration at various temporal scales and examined the biophysical control of the transpiration pattern under different water conditions to understand how trees survive in an urban environment. Concurrent with microclimate and soil moisture measurements, transpiration from C edrus deodara(Roxb)Loud ., Zelkova schneideriana Hend.-Mazz., Euonymus bungeanus Maxim., and Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et cheng was measured over a 2-year period using thermal dissipation probe (TDP) techniques. The average monthly transpiration rates reached 12.78 ± 0.73 (S.E.) mm, 1.79 ± 0.16 mm, 10.18 ± 0.55 mm and 19.28 ± 2.24 mm for C. deodara, Z.schneideriana, E. bungeanus and M. glyptostroboides, respectively. Transpiration rates from M. glyptostroboides reported here may need further study as this species showed much higher sap flows and greater transpiration fluctuation under different environmental conditions than other species. Because of deep soil moisture supply, summer dry spells did not reduce transpiration rates even when tree transpiration exceeded rainfall. While vapor pressure deficit ( VPD) was the dominant environmental factor on transpiration, trees controlled canopy conductance effectively to limit transpiration in times of water stress. Our results provide evidence that urban trees could adopt strong physiological control over transpiration under high evaporative demands to avoid dehydration and can make use of water in deeper soil layers to survive summer dry spells. Moreover, urban trees have the ability to make the best use of precipitation when it is limited, and are sensitive to soil and air dryness.

  6. A glacier runoff extension to the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Van Beusekom; R. J. Viger

    2016-01-01

    A module to simulate glacier runoff, PRMSglacier, was added to PRMS (Precipitation Runoff Modeling System), a distributed-parameter, physical-process hydrological simulation code. The extension does not require extensive on-glacier measurements or computational expense but still relies on physical principles over empirical relations as much as is feasible while...

  7. Influence of urbanization pattern on stream flow of a peri-urban catchment under Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Coelho, Celeste A. O.

    2015-04-01

    control streamflow particularly during dry periods. Winter runoff was 2-4 times higher than total river flow in the summer dry season in highly urbanized areas, but was 21-fold higher in winter in the least urbanized sub-catchment, denoting greater flow connectivity enhanced by increased soil moisture. Although impermeable surfaces are prone to generate overland flow, the proximity to the stream network is an important parameter determining their hydrological impacts. During the monitoring period, the enlargement of 2% of the urban area at downslope locations in the Covões sub-catchment, led to a 6% increase in the runoff coefficient. In contrast, the urban area increase from 9 to 25% mainly in upslope parts of the Quinta sub-catchment did not increase the peak streamflow due to downslope infiltration and surface retention opportunities. Despite impermeable surfaces enhance overland flow, some urban features (e.g. walls and road embankments) promote surface water retention. The presence of artificial drainage systems, on the other hand, enhances flow connectivity, leading to increasing peak flow and quicker response times (~10 minutes versus 40-50 minutes) as in the Covões sub-catchment. Urbanization impact on streamflow responses may be minimized through planning the land-use mosaic so as to maximize infiltration opportunities. Knowledge of the influence of distinct urban mosaics on flow connectivity and stream discharge is therefore important to landscape managers and should guide urban planning in order to minimize flood hazards.

  8. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  9. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0–15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15–60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. - Highlights: ► Pb concentrations in highway runoff ranged from 0.5 to 752 mg/L. ► 78% of total lead concentration in highway runoff was in particulate form. ► Pb deposited on highway sites was mostly within 0 to 15 cm of soil column. ► Pb concentration in highway runoff and top soil was strongly correlated. ► Current Pb concentration in highway runoff is up to 11 times lower than late 1980s. - Most Pb deposited on soil near highways is within the top 15 cm. This Pb is the major sources of Pb concentration in highway runoff that has substantially been reduced since lead phase-out era.

  10. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drai......An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored...... and their uncertainty contributed to further improving the performance of drainage systems. The results of this paper will contribute to the wider usage of global RTC methods in the management of urban drainage networks....

  11. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster demonstrating the use of genotyping in urban tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. de Vries (Gerard); R.M. van Hest (Reinier); C.C.A. Burdo (Conny); D. van Soolingen (Dick); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates offers better opportunities to study links between tuberculosis (TB) cases and can highlight relevant issues in urban TB control in low-endemic countries. Methods: A medium-sized molecular cluster of TB cases with

  12. After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Moberg, D. Paul; Brown, Roger; Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Ismael; Flores, Nydia I.; Burke, Melissa P.; Coover, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated a culturally representative parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low-income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either either to an after-school, multifamily support…

  13. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  14. Community perception regarding rabies prevention and stray dog control in urban slums in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mrudu; Riyaz Basha, S; Thangaraj, Selvi

    2012-12-01

    The lack of community awareness about rabies control is a major issue that thwarts efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess community knowledge and attitudes about rabies, rabies prevention and stray dog control in an urban slum community and (2) to determine the factors that influence rabies awareness in urban slums. Using a systematic random sampling strategy, 185 participants were selected from 8 urban slums. The data were collected by direct interview using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. In the study population, 74.1% of the participants had heard about rabies, and 54.1% knew that rabies is a fatal disease. Only 33.5% of the interviewees felt that people in the community had a role to play in controlling the stray dog population. Gender, age and educational status were significantly associated with rabies awareness. Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances in greenhouse automation and controlled environment agriculture: A transition to plant factories and urban farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse cultivation has evolved from simple covered rows of open-fields crops to highly sophisticated controlled environment agriculture (CEA) facilities that projected the image of plant factories for urban farming. The advances and improvements in CEA have promoted the scientific solutions for ...

  16. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  17. Increase of Investment Appeal of Projects for Noise Control Measures in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, A. V.; Ignatyeva, V. O.

    2017-11-01

    The authors analyzed the contemporary noise pollution level in the large cities of the Russian Federation. The article identifies the factors causing the reduction of acoustically comfortable urban territories. It states the task for the increase of investment appeal of the projects aimed at noise control measures adoption.

  18. Bureaucracy and Pupil Control Orientation and Behavior in Urban Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunenburg, Fred C.; Mankowsky, Scarlett A.

    Data collected from 297 teachers and 7,376 students in 20 urban high schools were used to examine relationships between dimensions of bureaucratic structure and pupil control orientation and behavior. Results of the analyses revealed two distinct patterns of rational organization. Hierarchy, rules, impersonality, and centralization comprised the…

  19. Does higher body mass index contribute to worse asthma control in an urban population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerisme-Beaty, Emmanuelle M; Karam, Sabine; Rand, Cynthia; Patino, Cecilia M; Bilderback, Andrew; Riekert, Kristin A; Okelo, Sande O.; Diette, Gregory B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic findings support a positive association between asthma and obesity. Objective Determine whether obesity or increasing level of body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma control in an ethnically diverse urban population. Methods Cross sectional assessment of asthma control was done in asthmatics recruited from primary care offices using four different validated asthma control questionnaires: the Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (ACCI), the Asthma Control Test (ACT), the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Asthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire (ATAQ). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between obesity and increasing BMI level and asthma control. Results Of 292 subjects mean age of 47 years, the majority were women (82%) and African American (67%). There was a high prevalence of obesity with 63%, with only 15% being normal weight. The mean score from all four questionnaires showed an average sub-optimal asthma control (mean score/maximum possible score): ACCI (8.3/19), ACT (15.4/ 25), ACQ (2.1/ 6), and ATAQ (1.3/ 4). Regression analysis showed no association between obesity or increasing BMI level and asthma control using all four questionnaires. This finding persisted even after adjusting for FEV1, smoking status, race, gender, selected co-morbid illnesses, and long-term asthma controller use. Conclusion Using four validated asthma control questionnaires, we failed to find an association between obesity and asthma control in an urban population with asthma. Weight loss may not be an appropriate strategy to improve asthma control in this population. Capsule Summary Using four different validated asthma control measures, there was no association between obesity or increasing body mass index and asthma control in a largely obese urban outpatient minority population. PMID:19615731

  20. An ecosystem approach to malaria control in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasquilla Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a research project aimed at strengthening local government and the community for a sustainable malaria control strategy. The project began with a baseline diagnosis of malaria prevalence, a KAP survey, entomology, and health services delivery, after which an epidemiological study was performed to identify risk factors associated with malaria, thereafter used to plan intervention measures. A program evaluation was conducted five years later. By using an ecosystem approach to reanalyze data, this paper discusses how malaria arises from a complex interaction of cultural, economic, ecological, social, and individual factors. Intervention measures require an intersectorial and transdisciplinary approach that does not exist at the moment. Health sector leadership is limited, and there is no true community participation. Implications for research, including the use of qualitative and quantitative methods, study design, and complexity of data analysis are discussed. Finally, implications for malaria control are discussed, stressing the differences between the ecosystem and integrated disease control approaches.

  1. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  2. Multiagent reinforcement learning for urban traffic control using coordination graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyer, L.; Whiteson, S.; Bakker, B.; Vlassis, N.

    2008-01-01

    Since traffic jams are ubiquitous in the modern world, optimizing the behavior of traffic lights for efficient traffic flow is a critically important goal. Though most current traffic lights use simple heuristic protocols, more efficient controllers can be discovered automatically via multiagent

  3. [A review of green roof performance towards management of roof runoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-ping; Huang, Pei; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Gao, Chi

    2015-08-01

    Green roof has a significant influence on reducing runoff volume, delaying runoff-yielding time, reducing the peak flow and improving runoff quality. This paper addressed the related research around the world and concluded from several aspects, i.e., the definition of green roof of different types, the mechanism how green roof manages runoff quantity and quality, the ability how green roof controls roof runoff, and the influence factors of green roof toward runoff quantity and quality. Afterwards, there was a need for more future work on research of green roof toward roof runoff, i.e., vegetation selection of green roof, efficient construction model selection of green roof, the regulating characteristics of green roof on roof runoff, the value assessment of green roof on roof runoff, analysis of source-sink function of green roof on the water pollutants of roof runoff and the research on the mitigation measures of roof runoff pollution. This paper provided a guideline to develop green roofs aiming to regulating roof runoff.

  4. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE AVERAGE RUNOFF IN THE IZA AND VIȘEU WATERSHEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORVÁTH CS.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The average runoff represents the main parameter with which one can best evaluate an area’s water resources and it is also an important characteristic in al river runoff research. In this paper we choose a GIS methodology for assessing the spatial evolution of the average runoff, using validity curves we identifies three validity areas in which the runoff changes differently with altitude. The tree curves were charted using the average runoff values of 16 hydrometric stations from the area, eight in the Vișeu and eight in the Iza river catchment. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on altitudinal intervals. By integrating the curves functions in to GIS we created an average runoff map for the area; from which one can easily extract runoff data using GIS spatial analyst functions. The study shows that from the three areas the highest runoff corresponds with the third zone but because it’s small area the water volume is also minor. It is also shown that with the use of the created runoff map we can compute relatively quickly correct runoff values for areas without hydrologic control.

  5. Factors influencing the control strategy of hybrid drive of urban public transport buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, Dalibor; Mruzek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of each drives is dependent on many factors. Hybrid drives and specially the drives of urban public transport may be affected by other factors given by transport infrastructure or operational conditions. These factors condition the suitable configuration of the individual elements of hybrid drive and the establishment of good control strategy of such drive. The study of influencing factors of the control strategy is the aim of this paper. (full text)

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus associating with different size suspended solids in roof and road runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junliang; Ren, Yufen; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Liding; Liu, Gangcai

    2015-10-01

    Roofs and roads, accounting for a large portion of the urban impervious land surface, have contributed significantly to urban nonpoint pollution. In this study, in Beijing, China, roof and road runoff are sampled to measure the suspended solids (SS), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contained in particles with different sizes. The SS content in the road runoff (151.59 mg/L) was sevenfold that in the roof runoff (21.13 mg/L, p runoff than in road runoff. The small particulates in the range of 0.45-50 μm consisted of 59 % SS in the roof runoff and 94 % SS in the road runoff. P was mainly attached to particle sizes of 10-50 μm in the roof (73 %) and road (48 %) runoffs, while N was mainly in a dissolved phase state in both runoffs. So, the different associations of N and P raise a challenge in preventing stormwater pollution in urban environments.

  7. The ‘rule of halves’ does not apply in Peru: Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Alana G.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes by migration status. Design Cross-sectional study, secondary analyses of the PERU MIGRANT study. Patients Rural, rural-to-urban migrants, and urban participants. Main outcome measures Awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were calculated using weights to account for participant’s group size. Results Of the 205/987 (weighted prevalence 24.1%, 95%CI: 21.1%–27.1%) participants identified as hypertensive 48.3% were aware of their diagnosis, 40% of them were receiving treatment, and 30.4% of those receiving treatment were controlled. Diabetes was present in 33/987 (weighted prevalence 4.6%, 95%CI: 3.1%–6%) and diabetes awareness, treatment and control were 71.1%, 40.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Sub-optimal control rates, defined as those not meeting blood pressure or glycaemia targets among those with the condition, were 95.1% for hypertension and 97% for diabetes. Higher awareness, treatment and control rates, for both hypertension and diabetes, were observed in rural-to-urban migrants and urban participants compared to rural participants. However, treatment rates were much lower among migrants compared to the urban group. Conclusions These results identify major unmet needs in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes. Particular challenges are lack of awareness of both hypertension and diabetes in rural areas, and poor levels of treatment and control among people who have migrated from rural into urban areas. PMID:23680809

  8. Personal networks and locus of control in large urban centers of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Grande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between locus of control and interpersonal relations structures in Argentina. After a representative sample (n = 1500 of households in seven major urban centers (>200,000 inhabitants, it examines the relationship between the externality of locus of control and different aspects of personal networks of each respondent. The results show that people having more relations experiment lower levels of externality of locus of control. Likewise, lower levels of externality are informed when personal ties outside the neighborhood are available, as well as ties high educational level. In this regard, significant associations are verified between control and personal relations structures.

  9. Fate of phosphorus fractions in an adsorptive-filter subject to intra- and inter-event runoff phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Christian; Sansalone, John

    2012-07-30

    In-situ filtration of phosphorus (P) and particulate matter (PM) transported in runoff is increasingly implemented for urban source areas. While monitoring of filter response is commonly based on an event mean of total phosphorus (TP), this study examines the fate of specific P fractions through intra- and inter-event phenomena. This continuous filter monitoring program includes 15 wet weather loadings and the dry weather periods between these events. Aqueous P adsorption and PM-bound P (suspended, settleable and sediment) filtration phenomena are examined for runoff events from a landscaped carpark with biogenic loads in Gainesville (GNV), FL. Filter response is compared to a similar aluminum oxide Al-Ox modified media filter subject to anthropogenic loads from an urban paved source area in Baton Rouge (BTR), LA. Results for the GNV filter indicate that while intra-event settleable, sediment and dissolved P fractions are controlled by the filter, the suspended P fraction remained relatively mobile compared to the other P fractions. P adsorption is primarily influenced by intra-event flow rates, contact times, runoff volume, pH and by the inter-event chemistry of runoff stored in the filter. P effluent partitioning is dominated by the suspended PM as a consequence of effective adsorption by the filter. Inter-event phenomena generate decreasing redox with commensurate increases in alkalinity, conductivity as well as dissolved P as a consequence of re-partitioning. Dissolved P fate suggests that filters should be designed and managed to remain aerobic between wet weather events. For effective separation of suspended P and PM fractions by passive filters with low driving head, sustainability of performance, including head loss {<3 kPa}, requires upstream volumetric attenuation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 29 CFR 102.70 - Runoff election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Runoff election. 102.70 Section 102.70 Labor Regulations... Runoff election. (a) The regional director shall conduct a runoff election, without further order of the... objections are filed as provided in § 102.69. Only one runoff shall be held pursuant to this section. (b...

  11. 5 CFR 2422.28 - Runoff elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runoff elections. 2422.28 Section 2422.28... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.28 Runoff elections. (a) When a runoff may be held. A runoff election is required in an election involving at least three (3) choices, one of...

  12. The urban forest and ecosystem services: impact on urban water, heat, and pollution cycles at the tree, street, and city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. J. Livesley; E. G. McPherson; C. Calfapietra

    2016-01-01

    Many environmental challenges are exacerbated within the urban landscape, such as stormwater runoff and flood risk, chemical and particulate pollution of urban air, soil and water, the urban heat island, and summer heat waves. Urban trees, and the urban forest as a whole, can be managed to have an impact on the urban water, heat, carbon and pollution cycles. However,...

  13. Nonlinear Differential Equations and Feedback Control Design for the Urban-Rural Resident Pension Insurance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijian

    2015-12-01

    Facing many problems of the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in China, one should firstly make sure that this system can be optimized. This paper, based on the modern control theory, sets up differential equations as models to describe the urban-rural resident pension insurance system, and discusses the globally asymptotic stability in the sense of Liapunov for the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in the new equilibrium point. This research sets the stage for our further discussion, and it is theoretically important and convenient for optimizing the urban-rural resident pension insurance system.

  14. Analysing the influence of human activity on runoff in the Weihe River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changing runoff patterns can have profound effects on the economic development of river basins. To assess the impact of human activity on runoff in the Weihe River basin, principal component analysis (PCA was applied to a set of 17 widely used indicators of economic development to construct general combined indicators reflecting different types of human activity. Grey relational analysis suggested that the combined indicator associated with agricultural activity was most likely to have influenced the changes in runoff observed within the river basin during 1994–2011. Curve fitting was then performed to characterize the relationship between the general agricultural indicator and the measured runoff, revealing a reasonably high correlation (R2 = 0.393 and an exponential relationship. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of the 17 individual indicators on the measured runoff, confirming that indicators associated with agricultural activity had profound effects whereas those associated with urbanization had relatively little impact.

  15. Application of eco-friendly tools and eco-bio-social strategies to control dengue vectors in urban and peri-urban settings in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Thongyuan, Suporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Aumchareoun, Worawit; Koyadun, Surachart; Kittayapong, Rungrith; Butraporn, Piyarat

    2012-12-01

    Dengue is considered one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Thailand. Its incidence is increasing despite routine implementation of national dengue control programmes. This study, conducted during 2010, aimed to demonstrate an application of integrated, community-based, eco-bio-social strategies in combination with locally-produced eco-friendly vector control tools in the dengue control programme, emphasizing urban and peri-urban settings in eastern Thailand. Three different community settings were selected and were randomly assigned to intervention and control clusters. Key community leaders and relevant governmental authorities were approached to participate in this intervention programme. Ecohealth volunteers were identified and trained in each study community. They were selected among active community health volunteers and were trained by public health experts to conduct vector control activities in their own communities using environmental management in combination with eco-friendly vector control tools. These trained ecohealth volunteers carried out outreach health education and vector control during household visits. Management of public spaces and public properties, especially solid waste management, was efficiently carried out by local municipalities. Significant reduction in the pupae per person index in the intervention clusters when compared to the control ones was used as a proxy to determine the impact of this programme. Our community-based dengue vector control programme demonstrated a significant reduction in the pupae per person index during entomological surveys which were conducted at two-month intervals from May 2010 for the total of six months in the intervention and control clusters. The programme also raised awareness in applying eco-friendly vector control approaches and increased intersectoral and household participation in dengue control activities. An eco-friendly dengue vector control programme was successfully implemented in

  16. Application of eco-friendly tools and eco-bio-social strategies to control dengue vectors in urban and peri-urban settings in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Thongyuan, Suporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Aumchareoun, Worawit; Koyadun, Surachart; Kittayapong, Rungrith; Butraporn, Piyarat

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is considered one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Thailand. Its incidence is increasing despite routine implementation of national dengue control programmes. This study, conducted during 2010, aimed to demonstrate an application of integrated, community-based, eco-bio-social strategies in combination with locally-produced eco-friendly vector control tools in the dengue control programme, emphasizing urban and peri-urban settings in eastern Thailand. Methodology Three different community settings were selected and were randomly assigned to intervention and control clusters. Key community leaders and relevant governmental authorities were approached to participate in this intervention programme. Ecohealth volunteers were identified and trained in each study community. They were selected among active community health volunteers and were trained by public health experts to conduct vector control activities in their own communities using environmental management in combination with eco-friendly vector control tools. These trained ecohealth volunteers carried out outreach health education and vector control during household visits. Management of public spaces and public properties, especially solid waste management, was efficiently carried out by local municipalities. Significant reduction in the pupae per person index in the intervention clusters when compared to the control ones was used as a proxy to determine the impact of this programme. Results Our community-based dengue vector control programme demonstrated a significant reduction in the pupae per person index during entomological surveys which were conducted at two-month intervals from May 2010 for the total of six months in the intervention and control clusters. The programme also raised awareness in applying eco-friendly vector control approaches and increased intersectoral and household participation in dengue control activities. Conclusion An eco-friendly dengue vector control

  17. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Among Elderly Persons in an Urban Slum of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The increasing proportion of elderly persons is contributing to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. The residents of urban slums are more vulnerable due to poverty and lack of access to health care. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes in elderly persons in an urban slum and to assess their awareness, treatment and control of this condition. Materials and Methods : All persons aged 60 years and above, residing in an urban slum of Delhi, were included in this cross-sectional community- based study. Data were collected on sociodemographic variables. The participants′ awareness and treatment of diabetes was recorded. Their fasting blood sugar was estimated using an automated glucometer. Diabetes was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was ≥126 mg/dL, or if the participant was taking treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting blood glucose was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was 110-125 mg/dL. Results: Among the 474 participants studied, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 18.8% (95% CI 15.3-21.5. It decreased with increasing age, and was higher among women. The prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 19.8% (95% CI 16.3-23.7. It was higher among women. One-third of the diabetic participants were aware of their condition; two-thirds of these were on treatment and three-fourths of those on treatment had controlled fasting blood sugar level. The awareness, treatment and control were better among women. Conclusions : Diabetes is common among elderly persons in urban slums. Its magnitude and low awareness warrant effective public health interventions for their treatment and control.

  18. Runoff of pyrethroid insecticides from concrete surfaces following simulated and natural rainfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Haver, Darren; Rust, Michael; Gan, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Intensive residential use of insecticides has resulted in their ubiquitous presence as contaminants in urban surface streams. For pest eradication, urban hard surfaces such as concrete are often directly treated with pesticides, and wind/water can also carry pesticides onto hard surfaces from surrounding areas. This study expanded on previous bench-scale studies by considering pesticide runoff caused by irrigation under dry weather conditions and rain during the wet season, and evaluated the effects of pesticide residence time on concrete, single versus recurring precipitations, precipitation intensity, and concrete surface conditions, on pesticide transferability to runoff water. Runoff from concrete 1 d after pesticide treatment contained high levels of bifenthrin (82 μg/L) and permethrin (5143 μg/L for cis and 5518 μg/L for trans), indicating the importance of preventing water contact on concrete after pesticide treatments. Although the runoff transferability quickly decreased as the pesticide residence time on concrete increased, detectable residues were still found in runoff water after 3 months (89 d) exposure to hot and dry summer conditions. ANOVA analysis showed that precipitation intensities and concrete surface conditions (i.e., acid wash, silicone seal, stamping, and addition of microsilica) did not significantly affect the pesticide transferability to runoff. For concrete slabs subjected to natural rainfalls during the winter wet season, pesticide levels in the runoff decreased as the time interval between pesticide application and the rain event increased. However, bifenthrin and permethrin were still detected at 0.15-0.17 and 0.75-1.15 μg/L in the rain runoff after 7 months (221 d) from the initial treatment. In addition, pesticide concentrations showed no decrease between the two rainfall events, suggesting that concrete surfaces contaminated by pesticides may act as a reservoir for pesticide residues, leading to sustained urban runoff

  19. Front-loading urban stormwater management for success – a perspective incorporating current studies on the implementation of retrofit low-impact development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent work into the implementation of low-impact development and green infrastructure suggests that a decentralized, source-control approach has the potential to significantly reduce urban stormwater runoff quantity. We posit that the factors of increasing public participation i...

  20. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.

  1. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J

    2016-01-01

    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  2. Non-linear, connectivity and threshold-dominated runoff-generation controls DOC and heavy metal export in a small peat catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, Christian; Broder, Tanja; Biester, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils act as important carbon sinks, but they also release large amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the aquatic system. The DOC export is strongly tied to the export of soluble heavy metals. The accumulation of potentially toxic substances due to anthropogenic activities, and their natural export from peat soils to the aquatic system is an important health and environmental issue. However, limited knowledge exists as to how much of these substances are mobilized, how they are mobilized in terms of flow pathways and under which hydrometeorological conditions. In this study, we report from a combined experimental and modelling effort to provide greater process understanding from a small, lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) contaminated upland peat catchment in northwestern Germany. We developed a minimally parameterized, but process-based, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model applied to simulate detailed hydrometric and biogeochemical data. The model was based on an initial data mining analysis, in combination with regression relationships of discharge, DOC and element export. We assessed the internal model DOC-processing based on stream-DOC hysteresis patterns and 3-hourly time step groundwater level and soil DOC data (not used for calibration as an independent model test) for two consecutive summer periods in 2013 and 2014. We found that Pb and As mobilization can be efficiently predicted from DOC transport alone, but Pb showed a significant non-linear relationship with DOC, while As was linearly related to DOC. The relatively parsimonious model (nine calibrated parameters in total) showed the importance of non-linear and rapid near-surface runoff-generation mechanisms that caused around 60% of simulated DOC load. The total load was high even though these pathways were only activated during storm events on average 30% of the monitoring time - as also shown by the experimental data. Overall, the drier period 2013 resulted in increased nonlinearity, but

  3. The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter, four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (p<0.05. Average runoff yield was 29.5% and 31.3% less than bare-soil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R = 0.99, p<0.05, and the efficiency in runoff reduction by litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by 72.9 and 5.4 times, respectively. The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately 96.7% when rainfall intensity increased from 5.7 to 75.6 mm h-1. Broadleaf and needle leaf litter showed similarly relevant effects on runoff and soil erosion control, since no significant differences (p≤0.05 were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (p<0.05 with sediment yield. These results suggest that the protective role of leaf litter in runoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes.

  4. Green Roof for Stormwater Management in a Highly Urbanized Area: The Case of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization changes natural pervious surfaces to hard, impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings and roofs. These modifications significantly affect the natural hydrologic cycle by increasing stormwater runoff rates and volume. Under these circumstances, green roofs offer multiple benefits including on-site stormwater management that mimics the natural hydrologic conditions in an urban area. It can retain a large amount of rainwater for a longer time and delay the peak discharge. However, there is very limited research that has been carried out on the retrofitted green roof for stormwater management for South Korean conditions. This study has investigated the performance of retrofitted green roofs for stormwater management in a highly urbanized area of Seoul, the capital city of Korea. In this study, various storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to check the performance of the green roof with controlling the runoff in urban areas. Results also allowed us to conclude that the retention mainly depends on the intensity and duration of the rain events. From the analysis, average runoff retention on the green roof was 10% to 60% in different rain events. The application of an extensive green roof provides promising results for stormwater management in the highly urbanized area of Seoul.

  5. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  6. Biocide Runoff from Building Facades: Degradation Kinetics in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Fernández-Calviño, David; Brandt, Kristian K; Storgaard, Morten S; Sanderson, Hans; Bester, Kai

    2017-04-04

    Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted runoff water (up to several mg L -1 biocides) being infiltrated into the soil surrounding houses. In the present study the degradation rates in soil of 11 biocides used for the protection of building materials were determined in laboratory microcosms. The results show that some biocides are degraded rapidly in soil (e.g., isothiazolinones: T 1/2 soils; thus, rainfall events control how often new input to the soil occurs. Time intervals between rainfall events in Northern Europe are shorter than degradation half-lives even for many rapidly degraded biocides. Consequently, residues of some biocides are likely to be continuously present due to repeated input and most biocides can be considered as "pseudo-persistent"-contaminants in this context. This was verified by (sub)urban soil screening, where concentrations of up to 0.1 μg g -1 were detected for parent compounds as well as terbutryn degradation products in soils below biocide treated facades.

  7. Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shivani; Sharma, Nandini; Joshi, Kulanand; Aggarwal, Nishi; Kannan, Anjur Tupil

    2014-01-17

    The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net

  8. Roofing Materials Assessment: Investigation of Five Metals in Runoff from Roofing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Nancy; Granuke, Kyle; McCall, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    To assess the contribution of five toxic metals from new roofing materials to stormwater, runoff was collected from 14 types of roofing materials and controls during 20 rain events and analyzed for metals. Many of the new roofing materials evaluated did not show elevated metals concentrations in the runoff. Runoff from several other roofing materials was significantly higher than the controls for arsenic, copper, and zinc. Notably, treated wood shakes released arsenic and copper, copper roofing released copper, PVC roofing released arsenic, and Zincalume® and EPDM roofing released zinc. For the runoff from some of the roofing materials, metals concentrations decreased significantly over an approximately one-year period of aging. Metals concentrations in runoff were demonstrated to depend on a number of factors, such as roofing materials, age of the materials, and climatic conditions. Thus, application of runoff concentrations from roofing materials to estimate basin-wide releases should be undertaken cautiously.

  9. Co-control of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J Jason; Osnaya, Patricia; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Julia; Fernández, Adrián

    2004-07-01

    This study addresses the synergies of mitigation measures to control urban air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in developing integrated "co-control" strategies for Mexico City. First, existing studies of emissions reduction measures--PROAIRE (the air quality plan for Mexico City) and separate GHG studies--are used to construct a harmonized database of options. Second, linear programming (LP) is developed and applied as a decision-support tool to analyze least-cost strategies for meeting co-control targets for multiple pollutants. We estimate that implementing PROAIRE measures as planned will reduce 3.1% of the 2010 metropolitan CO2 emissions, in addition to substantial local air pollutant reductions. Applying the LP, PROAIRE emissions reductions can be met at a 20% lower cost, using only the PROAIRE measures, by adjusting investments toward the more cost-effective measures; lower net costs are possible by including cost-saving GHG mitigation measures, but with increased investment. When CO2 emission reduction targets are added to PROAIRE targets, the most cost-effective solutions use PROAIRE measures for the majority of local pollutant reductions, and GHG measures for additional CO2 control. Because of synergies, the integrated planning of urban-global co-control can be beneficial, but we estimate that for Mexico City these benefits are often small.

  10. River runoff influences on the Central Mediterranean overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, N.; Oddo, P.; Ciliberti, S. A.; Coppini, G.

    2018-03-01

    The role of riverine freshwater inflow on the Central Mediterranean Overturning Circulation (CMOC) was studied using a high-resolution ocean model with a complete distribution of rivers in the Adriatic and Ionian catchment areas. The impact of river runoff on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea basins was assessed by a twin experiment, with and without runoff, from 1999 to 2012. This study tries to show the connection between the Adriatic as a marginal sea containing the downwelling branch of the anti-estuarine CMOC and the large runoff occurring there. It is found that the multiannual CMOC is a persistent anti-estuarine structure with secondary estuarine cells that strengthen in years of large realistic river runoff. The CMOC is demonstrated to be controlled by wind forcing at least as much as by buoyancy fluxes. It is found that river runoff affects the CMOC strength, enhancing the amplitude of the secondary estuarine cells and reducing the intensity of the dominant anti-estuarine cell. A large river runoff can produce a positive buoyancy flux without switching off the antiestuarine CMOC cell, but a particularly low heat flux and wind work with normal river runoff can reverse it. Overall by comparing experiments with, without and with unrealistically augmented runoff we demonstrate that rivers affect the CMOC strength but they can never represent its dominant forcing mechanism and the potential role of river runoff has to be considered jointly with wind work and heat flux, as they largely contribute to the energy budget of the basin. Looking at the downwelling branch of the CMOC in the Adriatic basin, rivers are demonstrated to locally reduce the volume of Adriatic dense water formed in the Southern Adriatic Sea as a result of increased water stratification. The spreading of the Adriatic dense water into the Ionian abyss is affected as well: dense waters overflowing the Otranto Strait are less dense in a realistic runoff regime, with respect to no runoff experiment, and

  11. Impact of green roofs on stormwater quality in a South Australian urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-02-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly important component of water sensitive urban design systems and can potentially improve the quality of urban runoff. However, there is evidence that they can occasionally act as a source rather than a sink for pollutants. In this study, the water quality of the outflow from both intensive and extensive green roof systems were studied in the city of Adelaide, South Australia over a period of nine months. The aim was to examine the effects of different green roof configurations on stormwater quality and to compare this with runoff from aluminium and asphalt roofs as control surfaces. The contaminant concentrations in runoff from both intensive and extensive green roofs generally decreased during the study period. A comparison between the two types of green roof showed that except for some events for EC, TDS and chloride, the values of the parameters such as pH, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate and potassium in intensive green roof outflows were higher than in the outflows from the extensive green roofs. These concentrations were compared to local, state, national and international water quality guidelines in order to investigate the potential for outflow runoff from green roofs to be reused for potable and non-potable purposes. The study found that green roof outflow can provide an alternative water source for non-potable purposes such as urban landscape irrigation and toilet flushing. © 2013.

  12. A semi-urban case study of small scale variability of rainfall and run-off, with C- and X-band radars and the fully distributed hydrological model Multi-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Souza, Bianca; da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of urban hydrology results both from that of urban systems and the extreme rainfall variability. The latter can display strongly localised rain cells that can be extremely damaging when hitting vulnerable parts of urban systems. This paper investigates this complexity on a semi-urban sub-catchment - located in Massy (South of Paris, France) - of the Bievre river, which is known for its frequent flashfloods. Advanced geo-processing techniques were used to find the ideal pixel size for this 6.326km2 basin. C-band and X-band radar data are multifractally downscaled at various resolutions and input to the fully distributed hydrological model Multi-Hydro. The latter has been developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. It integrates validated modules dealing with surface flow, saturated and unsaturated surface flow, and sewer flow. The C-band radar is located in Trappes, approx. 21km East of the catchment, is operated by Méteo-France and has a resolution of 1km x 1km x 5min. The X-band radar operated by Ecole des Ponts Paris Tech on its campus has a resolution of 125m x 125m x 3.4min. The performed multifractal downscaling enables both the generation of large ensemble realizations and easy change of resolution (e.g. down to 10 m in the present study). This in turn allows a detailed analysis of the impacts of small scale variability and the required resolution to obtain accurate simulations, therefore predictions. This will be shown on two rainy episodes over the chosen sub-catchment of the Bievre river.

  13. The effects of antecedent dry days on the nitrogen removal in layered soil infiltration systems for storm run-off control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang-Woo; Yoon, Min-Hyuk; Song, Kyung-Guen; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of antecedent dry days (ADD) on nitrogen removal efficiency were investigated in soil infiltration systems, with three distinguishable layers: mulch layer (ML), coarse soil layer (CSL) and fine soil layer (FSL). Two sets of lab-scale columns with loamy CSL (C1) and sandy CSL (C2) were dosed with synthetic run-off, carrying chemical oxygen demand of 100 mg L(-1) and total nitrogen of 13 mg L(-1). The intermittent dosing cycle was stepwise adjusted for 5, 10 and 20 days. The influent ammonium and organic nitrogen were adsorbed to the entire depth in C1, while dominantly to the FSL in C2. In both columns, the effluent ammonium concentration increased while the organic nitrogen concentration decreased, as ADD increased from 5 to 20 days. The effluent of C1 always showed nitrate concentration exceeding influent, caused by nitrification, by increasing amounts as ADD increased. However, the wash-out of nitrate in C1 was not distinct in terms of mass since the effluent flow rate was only 25% of the influent. In contrast, efficient reduction (>95%) of nitrate loading was observed in C2 under ADD of 5 and 10 days, because of insignificant nitrification in the CSL and denitrification in the FSL. However, for the ADD of 20 days, a significant nitrate wash-out appeared in C2 as well, possibly because of the re-aeration by the decreasing water content in the FSL. Consequently, the total nitrogen load escaping with the effluent was always smaller in C2, supporting the effectiveness of sandy CSL over loamy FSL for nitrogen removal under various ADDs.

  14. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fuzhong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. Methods In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. Results 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Conclusion Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to

  15. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Yanwei; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M; Dai, Di; Li, Fuzhong; Wu, Junqing; Xiang, Haiqing

    2007-09-18

    The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to policymaking and legislation for tobacco control in China.

  16. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fill and spill drives runoff connectivity over frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, A. E.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Snowmelt-runoff processes on frozen ground are poorly understood at the hillslope scale. This is especially true for hillslopes on the northern Great Plains of North America where long periods of snow-covered frozen ground with very shallow slopes mask any spatial patterns and process controls on connectivity and hillslope runoff generation. This study examines a 4.66 ha (46,600 m2) hillslope on the northern Great Plains during the 2014 spring snowmelt season to explore hillslope runoff processes. Specifically, we explore the spatial patterns of runoff production source areas and examine how surface topography and patterns of snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil water content, and thawed layer depth - which we measured on a 10 m grid across our 46,600 m2 hillslope - affect melt water partitioning and runoff connectivity. A key question was whether or not the controls on connectivity are consistent with the fill and spill mechanism found in rain-dominated and unfrozen soil domains. The contrast between the slow infiltration rates into frozen soil and the relatively fast rates of snowmelt delivery to the soil surface resulted in water accumulation in small depressions under the snowpack. Consequently, infiltration was minimal over the 12 day melt period. Instead, nested filling of micro- and meso-depressions was followed by macro-scale, whole-slope spilling. This spilling occurred when large patches of ponded water exceeded the storage capacity behind downslope micro barriers in the surface topography, and flows from them coalesced to drive a rapid increase in runoff at the hillslope outlet. These observations of ponded water and flowpaths followed mapable fill and spill locations based on 2 m resolution digital topographic analysis. Interestingly, while surface topography is relatively unimportant under unfrozen conditions at our site because of low relief and high infiltrability, surface topography shows episodically critical importance for connectivity and

  18. [The control of urban growth in Mexico City. Suppositions regarding poor planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, A G; Olvera, G

    1991-01-01

    It is argued that mechanisms for planning land use and controlling urban expansion in Mexico City have failed to achieve their aims. Although in theory Mexico's urban planning process has recently attempted to go beyond purely physical aspects to include socioeconomic dimensions, it has in fact been inflexible and oriented to exclusively to technical and administrative aspects, to the detriment of social distribution goals. Planning instruments have not included important aspects such as specific mechanisms for altering employment structures or income levels or mechanisms for providing access to land or housing to the most disadvantaged groups. The urban planning process in Mexico City, instead of assuming a socially compensatory role in favor of disadvantaged groups, has maintained the status quo or discriminated in favor of the already advantaged. The spatial and technical orientation or urban planning in Mexico City does not leave room for a well-defined social policy. The population of the Mexico City metropolitan Zone increased from 3 million in 1950 to 18 million in 1985, while its total area increased from 11,750 hectares in 1940 to 125,000 in 1985. Transfer of population from the Federal District to the conurban municipios of the state of Mexico has been very significant since the 1970s. Around 20% of the total area of metropolitan Mexico City has been settled through illegal means, with communal and ejido lands accounting for a large share. Settlements on some 60% of lands in metroplitan Mexico City were illegal or irregular at some time. Low income housing is the cheapest form for the government because the frequently illegal status of settlers prevents them from making any demands for services or equipment for the 1st several years. Construction is undertaken and financed almost entirely by the settlers themselves, freeing the government of responsibility in regard to the constitutionally mandated right of all Mexicans to housing. The Urban Development

  19. Escoamento superficial na interação: cobertura vegetal e práticas de controle de erosão Erosion losses from runoff: interaction of soil cover and erosion control practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. R. de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O escoamento da água oriunda das terras agricultadas é o principal fator poluente dos mananciais hídricos nas áreas rurais. Devido a esse fato, faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de tecnologias que venham a reduzir descargas de resíduos indesejáveis. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se um experimento na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba - SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes condições de solo, (feijão, gramínea e solo nu e diferentes práticas de controle de erosão (sulco de infiltração, terraço de infiltração e sem práticas de controle de erosão, buscando-se estimar o escoamento superficial. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o em blocos aleatorizados, em esquema fatorial 3x3, perfazendo 9 tratamentos com 3 repetições. O período de coleta de dados pluviométricos foi de 06 de dezembro de 2007 a 11 de abril de 2008; para isto, utilizou-se de um pluviômetro, com 21,1 cm de diâmetro, instalado na área experimental. Observando-se as perdas de água, em relação às estruturas, tem-se em ordem decrescente de eficiência: Terraço, Sulco e Rampa; e com relação às coberturas, tem-se em ordem decrescente de eficiência: Feijão, Capim e Solo Nu.The flow of sediment from cropped land is the main pollutant of water sources in rural areas. Due to this fact, it is necessary to develop and implement technologies that will reduce water and sediment discharges. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted in the Department of Biosystems Engineering - ESALQ / USP, Piracicaba - SP with the objective to evaluate the effect of different soil cover (bean, grass and bare ground and erosion control practices (wide base terraces and infiltration furrows in slopes (no practices to control erosion while measuring water losses in runoff. The statistical design adopted was randomized blocks in a 3x3 factorial scheme resulting in 9 treatments with 3 replicates (blocks. The

  20. Predicting nonpoint stormwater runoff quality from land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of urban development on natural ecosystem processes has become an increasingly complex task for planners, environmental scientists, and engineers. As the built environment continues to grow, unregulated nonpoint pollutants from increased human activity and large-scale development severely stress urban streams and lakes resulting in their currently impaired or degraded state. In response, integrated water quality management programs have been adopted to address these unregulated nonpoint pollutants by utilizing best management practices (BMPs) that treat runoff as close to the source as possible. Knowing where to install effective BMPs is no trivial task, considering budget constraints and the spatially extensive nature of nonpoint stormwater runoff. Accordingly, this paper presents an initial, straightforward and cost-effective methodology to identify critical nonpoint pollutant source watersheds through correlation of water quality with land use. Through an illustrative application to metropolitan Denver, Colorado, it is shown how this method can be used to aid stormwater professionals to evaluate and specify retrofit locations in need of water quality treatment features reduce, capture and treat stormwater runoff prior to entering receiving waters. PMID:29742172

  1. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  2. Early pest development and loss of biological control are associated with urban warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2014-11-01

    Climate warming is predicted to cause many changes in ectotherm communities, one of which is phenological mismatch, wherein one species' development advances relative to an associated species or community. Phenological mismatches already lead to loss of pollination services, and we predict that they also cause loss of biological control. Here, we provide evidence that a pest develops earlier due to urban warming but that phenology of its parasitoid community does not similarly advance. This mismatch is associated with greater egg production that likely leads to more pests on trees. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  4. An optimal general type-2 fuzzy controller for Urban Traffic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Liaghat, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Urban traffic network model is illustrated by state-charts and object-diagram. However, they have limitations to show the behavioral perspective of the Traffic Information flow. Consequently, a state space model is used to calculate the half-value waiting time of vehicles. In this study......, a combination of the general type-2 fuzzy logic sets and the Modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (MBSA) techniques are used in order to control the traffic signal scheduling and phase succession so as to guarantee a smooth flow of traffic with the least wait times and average queue length. The parameters...

  5. Chemical control of vegetation on urban sites: agronomic and ecotoxicological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanin, G.; Otto, S.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the chemical control of spontaneous vegetation on urban sites is tackled. A method is presented to identify the best herbicides under both the agronomic and ecotoxicological aspects. Selection of the herbicides from the agronomic point of view is on the basis of the qualitative characteristics of the vegetation (life-form types periodicity types botanical composition), surveyed at 5 different times on the year while selection from the environmental viewpoint is based on an evaluation integrated with a series of ecotoxicological indices. The best solution was tested in a pilot area and the contamination of the water compartment evaluated both on entering and leaving the water treatment works

  6. Catchment & sewer network simulation model to benchmark control strategies within urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, Ramesh; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Fu, Guangtao

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a benchmark simulation model to evaluate control strategies for the urban catchment and sewer network. Various modules describing wastewater generation in the catchment, its subsequent transport and storage in the sewer system are presented. Global/local overflow based...... evaluation criteria describing the cumulative and acute effects are presented. Simulation results show that the proposed set of models is capable of generating daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as describing the effect of rain events on wastewater characteristics. Two sets of case studies...

  7. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H [Office de la protection de l` environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  8. Biophysical control of whole tree transpiration under an urban environment in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixin Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang; Zhandong Li; Jianwu Tang; Peter Caldwell; et al

    2011-01-01

    Urban reforestation in China has led to increasing debate about the impact of urban trees and forests on water resources. Although transpiration is the largest water flux leaving terrestrial ecosystems, little is known regarding whole tree transpiration in urban environments. In this study, we quantified urban tree transpiration at various temporal scales and examined...

  9. Influence of landscape mosaic on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment under Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Peri-urban areas tend to be characterized by patchy landscape mosaics of different land-uses. Although the impact of land-use changes on catchment hydrology have been widely investigated, the impact of mixed land-use patterns on the streamflow of peri-urban areas is still poorly understood. This study aims to (i) explore and quantify streamflow delivery from sub-catchments characterized by distinct landscape mosaics; (ii) assess the impact of different urbanization styles on hydrograph properties; and (iii) explore the influence of urbanization type on flow connectivity and stream discharge. The study was carried out in Ribeira dos Covões, a small (6.2km2) peri-urban catchment in central Portugal. The climate is Mediterranean, with a mean annual rainfall of 892mm. Catchment geology comprises sandstone (56%), limestone (41%) and alluvial deposits (3%). Soils developed on sandstone are generally deep (>3m) Fluvisols and Podsols, whereas on limestone the Leptic Cambisols are typically shallow (blocks and of high population density (9900 inhabitants km-2). The study uses hydrological data recorded over three hydrological years, starting in November 2010, in a monitoring network comprising eight streamflow gauging stations (instrumented with water level recorders) and five rainfall gauges. The gauging stations provide information on the discharge response to rainstorms of the catchment outlet and upstream sub-catchments of different size, urban pattern (in terms of percentage urban land-use and impervious area, distance to the stream network, and storm water management), and lithology (either sandstone or limestone). Annual storm runoff coefficients were lowest (13.7%) in catchments dominated by forest (>80%) and greatest (17.3-17.6%) in the most urbanized sub-catchments (49-53% urban). Impervious area seems to control streamflow particularly during dry periods. Winter runoff (streamflow per unit area) was 2-4 times higher than summer runoff in highly urbanized areas

  10. Run-off from roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg C and 45 deg C). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Caesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of caesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less-porous materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. This last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicates a removal of 44-86% of the caesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIO-F-423-DK(SD) under contract No. BIO-F-423-81-F. (author)

  11. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  12. Using ensemble weather forecast in a risk based real time optimization of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage system is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution in order to respond to increasing performance demand (e.g. reduction of Combined Sewer Overflow, protection of sensitive areas as bathing water etc.). The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA......) strategy was developed to operate Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) in order to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, the expected runoff volume based on a 2-hours radar forecast model and an estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecast....... However, such temporal horizon (1-2 hours) is relatively short when used for the operation of large storage facilities, which may require a few days to be emptied. This limits the performance of the optimization and control in reducing combined sewer overflow and in preparing for possible flooding. Based...

  13. Monitoring and Control of Urban Critical Infrastructures: A Novel Approach to System Design and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario La Manna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and control of urban critical infrastructures consists of the protection of assets such as houses, offices, government and private buildings, with low cost, high quality and high dependability. In order to satisfy all these requirements at the same time, the control of a number of assets has to be performed by means of automated systems based on networks of heterogeneous sensors. This new concept idea is based on the use of unmanned operations at each of the many remote assets (each asset is monitored through a network of sensors and a man-in-the-loop automated control in a central site (Operational Center, which performs alarm detection and system management.

  14. Design and Season Influence Nitrogen Dynamics in Two Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands Treating Nursery Irrigation Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. White

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CWs are used to remediate runoff from a variety of agricultural, industrial, and urban sources. CW remediation performance is often evaluated at the laboratory scale over durations less than one year. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of CW design (cell depth and residence time on nitrogen (N speciation and fate across season and years in two free water surface wetlands receiving runoff from irrigated plant production areas at an ornamental plant nursery. Water quality (mg·L−1 of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, dissolved oxygen and oxidation reduction potential was monitored at five sites within each of two CWs each month over four years. Nitrate-N was the dominant form of ionic N present in both CWs. Within CW1, a deep cell to shallow cell design, nitrate comprised 86% of ionic N in effluent. Within CW2, designed with three sequential deep cells, nitrate comprised only 66% of total N and ammonium comprised 27% of total N in CW2 effluent. Differences in ionic N removal efficacies and shifts in N speciation in CW1 and CW2 were controlled by constructed wetland design (depth and hydraulic retention time, the concentration of nutrients entering the CW, and plant species richness.

  15. Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waajen, Guido; van Oosterhout, Frank; Douglas, Grant; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-06-15

    Many urban ponds experience detrimental algal blooms as the result of eutrophication. During a two year field experiment, the efficacy of five in situ treatments to mitigate eutrophication effects in urban ponds was studied. The treatments targeted the sediment phosphorus release and were intended to switch the ponds from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear-water state with a low phytoplankton biomass. Two eutrophic urban ponds were each divided into six compartments (300-400 m(2); 210-700 m(3)). In each pond the following treatments were tested: dredging in combination with biomanipulation (involving fish biomass control and the introduction of macrophytes) with and without the addition of the flocculant polyaluminiumchloride, interception and reduction of sediment phosphorus release with lanthanum-modified bentonite (Phoslock(®)) in combination with biomanipulation with and without polyaluminiumchloride; biomanipulation alone; and a control. Trial results support the hypothesis that the combination of biomanipulation and measures targeting the sediment phosphorus release can be effective in reducing the phytoplankton biomass and establishing and maintaining a clear-water state, provided the external phosphorus loading is limited. During the experimental period dredging combined with biomanipulation showed mean chlorophyll-a concentrations of 5.3 and 6.2 μg L(-1), compared to 268.9 and 52.4 μg L(-1) in the control compartments. Lanthanum-modified bentonite can be an effective alternative to dredging and in combination with biomanipulation it showed mean chlorophyll-a concentrations of 5.9 and 7.6 μg L(-1). Biomanipulation alone did not establish a clear-water state or only during a limited period. As the two experimental sites differed in their reaction to the treatments, it is important to choose the most promising treatment depending on site specific characteristics. In recovering the water quality status of urban ponds, continuing

  16. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster demonstrating the use of genotyping in urban tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo Conny CA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates offers better opportunities to study links between tuberculosis (TB cases and can highlight relevant issues in urban TB control in low-endemic countries. Methods A medium-sized molecular cluster of TB cases with identical DNA fingerprints was used for the development of a visual presentation of epidemiologic links between cases. Results Of 32 cases, 17 (53% were linked to the index case, and 11 (34% to a secondary case. The remaining four (13% could not be linked and were classified as possibly caused by the index patient. Of the 21 cases related to the index case, TB developed within one year of the index diagnosis in 11 patients (52%, within one to two years in four patients (19%, and within two to five years in six patients (29%. Conclusion Cluster analysis underscored several issues for TB control in an urban setting, such as the recognition of the outbreak, the importance of reinfections, the impact of delayed diagnosis, the contribution of pub-related transmissions and its value for decision-making to extend contact investigations. Visualising cases in a cluster diagram was particularly useful in finding transmission locations and the similarities and links between patients.

  17. Potential Cardiovascular and Total Mortality Benefits of Air Pollution Control in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Moran, Andrew E; Coxson, Pamela G; Yang, Xueli; Liu, Fangchao; Cao, Jie; Chen, Kai; Wang, Miao; He, Jiang; Goldman, Lee; Zhao, Dong; Kinney, Patrick L; Gu, Dongfeng

    2017-10-24

    Outdoor air pollution ranks fourth among preventable causes of China's burden of disease. We hypothesized that the magnitude of health gains from air quality improvement in urban China could compare with achieving recommended blood pressure or smoking control goals. The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China projected coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause deaths in urban Chinese adults 35 to 84 years of age from 2017 to 2030 if recent air quality (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm, PM 2.5 ) and traditional cardiovascular risk factor trends continue. We projected life-years gained if urban China were to reach 1 of 3 air quality goals: Beijing Olympic Games level (mean PM 2.5 , 55 μg/m 3 ), China Class II standard (35 μg/m 3 ), or World Health Organization standard (10 μg/m 3 ). We compared projected air pollution reduction control benefits with potential benefits of reaching World Health Organization hypertension and tobacco control goals. Mean PM 2.5 reduction to Beijing Olympic levels by 2030 would gain ≈241,000 (95% uncertainty interval, 189 000-293 000) life-years annually. Achieving either the China Class II or World Health Organization PM 2.5 standard would yield greater health benefits (992 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 790 000-1 180 000] or 1 827 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 1 481 00-2 129 000] annual life-years gained, respectively) than World Health Organization-recommended goals of 25% improvement in systolic hypertension control and 30% reduction in smoking combined (928 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 830 000-1 033 000] life-years). Air quality improvement in different scenarios could lead to graded health benefits ranging from 241 000 life-years gained to much greater benefits equal to or greater than the combined benefits of 25% improvement in systolic hypertension control and 30% smoking reduction. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  19. Potential and limitations of modern equipment for real time control of urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campisano, A.; Cabot Ple, J.; Muschalla, D.

    2013-01-01

    Real Time Control (RTC) has become an accepted technique for improving the performance of Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) due to its flexibility and sustainability. Numerous implementations of RTC have been reported during the last decades. At the same time, guideline documents and state...... describes the specific components in detail. This comprises the introduction of available technologies for sensors, actuators, controllers and telemetry systems in the context of RTC and the discussion of their potential and limitations. Lessons learned from the field operational experiences and future......-of-the-art reports have been published. Whereas the general aspects and challenges of planning and installation of RTC systems are well covered, there is a lack of information about the adequate equipment for RTC of UDS. After identifying and briefly discussing the basic components of RTC systems for UDS, this paper...

  20. [Urbanization of Chagas disease in Peru: experiences in prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náquira, César

    2014-04-01

    In Peru, Chagas disease has an epidemiological significance in three macro-regions, one of them is the southern macro-region formed by the departments of Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna. In 1965 a successful control was performed by house spraying insecticides, however, the persistence of the vector made it necessary for a second control plan that was implemented in 2000 and followed the guidelines of CONAL Plan, based on the elimination of Triatoma infestans and screening in blood banks.This plan was successful in Tacna and Moquegua, therefore these departments were considered free of vectorial transmission by the Pan American Health Organization. A ssimilar situation has not been achieved in the department of Arequipa because of the presence, among other factors, of rural migration to the city, in this way the urbanization of Chagas disease is a new epidemiological scenario of which we need to know more.

  1. Time focused measurements of roof runoff quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriewer, A.; Horn, H.; Helmreich, B.

    2008-01-01

    Runoff properties and their changes during runoff of a 14 year old zinc roof were investigated. Zinc, lead, cadmium, pH value, rain intensity and electric conductivity have been measured for a period of one year. A runoff rate of 3.73 g/m 2 a and a volume weighted mean zinc concentration of 4.9 mg/L were determined. First flush behaviour was observed in 93% of runoff events. Low rain intensities are correlating with higher zinc concentrations in runoff, whereas the duration of antecedent dry periods could not directly be linked with initial zinc concentrations

  2. Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Loading Distributions and Their Correlation with Rainfall and Catchment Characteristics in a Rapidly Industrialized City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in devel