WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban mass transit

  1. Coherent Network Optimizing of Rail-Based Urban Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient public transport is more than ever a crucial factor when it comes to the quality of life and competitiveness of many cities and regions in Asia. In recent years, the rail-based urban mass transit has been regarded as one of the key means to overcoming the great challenges in Chinese megacities. The purpose of this study is going to develop a coherent network optimizing for rail-based urban mass transit to find the best alternatives for the user and to demonstrate how to meet sustainable development needs and to match the enormous capacity requirements simultaneously. This paper presents an introduction to the current situation of the important lines, and transfer points in the metro system Shanghai. The insufficient aspects are analyzed and evaluated; while the optimizing ideas and measurements are developed and concreted. A group of examples are used to illustrate the approach. The whole study could be used for the latest reference for other megacities which have to be confronted with the similar situations and processes with enormous dynamic travel and transport demands.

  2. Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Bing-Yu; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. Analyses indicate that levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area. Kaohsiung City had the highest levels of O, SO, and particulate matter 2.5 or 10 µm in diameter (PM and PM). Clear downward trends for CO, NO, PM, PM, and especially SO concentrations were found in the surveyed areas, whereas O showed no decrease. Both O and PM concentrations showed similar bimodal seasonal distributions. Taiwan's air quality has improved significantly since 1993, indicating the effectiveness of promoting air pollution strategies and policies by the TEPA. Air pollution had an obvious improvement in Taipei area after the MRT system began operations in 1996. Because global climate may potentially affect urban air pollution in Taiwan, further study to clarify the mechanisms by which air pollution may affect human health and other biological effects is warranted. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Mass transit ridership and self-reported hearing health in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Sherman, Martin F; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E; McAlexander, Tara P; Neitzel, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users.

  4. Imperiling urban environment through varying air pollution rein in measures and mass transit policies - a case study of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Gargantuan expansion of big cities has increased motor vehicular tremendously. Lahore, a primitive green city is now gripped with swelling motor vehicular air pollution. Mass public transport, a back bone of city transportation network, due to erroneous running significantly contributes toward motor vehicular air pollution. Policy initiatives of the Government to curb motor vehicular air pollution are merely focused upon reduction of air pollution at source by the use of technology and clean fuel programmes. The policies for introduction of mass transit remained imprecise which lead to rise in transportation demand and increase in surfeit emission; Half-baked policies normally stem out to get political popularity which imperils urban environment. The paper highlights inconsistent policy measures and unsound air pollution control strategies adopted in big cities of Pakistan. Furthermore it gives guidance for sustainable mass transit policy measures. (author)

  5. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  6. Summary of development and recommendations for a quality assurance program for the procurement and manufacture of urban mass transit operating equipment and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A viable quality program for the urban mass transit industry, and a management approach to ensure compliance with the program are outlined. Included are: (1) a set of guidelines for quality assurance to be imposed on transit authorities, and a management approach to ensure compliance with them; (2) a management approach to be used by the transit authorities (properties) for assuring compliance with the QA guidelines; and (3) quality assurance guidelines to be imposed by properties and umta for procurement of hardware and systems.

  7. Mass transit development for small urban areas; a case study: Tompkins County, N. Y. Second-year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyburg, A.H.

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of the second-year effort within a three-year research project to develop a transportation planning methodology for small urban areas concerned with the provision of public transportation service. This phase of the research concentrates on problems of access to health services, transportation service for the disadvantaged, potential coordination and integration of existing transportation systems, alternative systems designs and their evaluation, and suitable marketing and monitoring programs for public transportation service in small urban areas. This effort, together with elements of the first-year research will culminate in the preparation of a transit planning manual suitable for use by the transportation planner in small to medium-size urban areas.

  8. China's Urban Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Clifton

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Chinese urbanization is proceeding rapidly in step with population growth and a structural shift in employment patterns. Discusses governmental policies and economic reforms that enhance the urbanization process. Describes four extended metropolitan areas and maintains they will be the models for future urbanization. (CFR)

  9. Towards a sustainable urban transition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza; Cappellaro, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Never as today the discourse about uncertainty is permeating and affecting traditional paradigms of urban planning. Predictable futures are no longer possible, sufficient to understand it in the long term and adequate. If the future looks uncertain, the debate on sustainable development has...... contributed to render the situation even more complex and planning practitioners are now navigating between an unclear perception of future risks and the hope for results and visions for long-term perspectives of urban futures. Among scholars engaged in the study of sustainable transitions in urban areas......, the ‘systeminc thinking’ has irrupted in town. A new vocabulary of ‘the city’ as a systemic and functional hub of technology, economy, and social organization has replaced an integral view on the urban complexity. This article returns back to the urban as an integral project. It aims to contribute understanding...

  10. Intermediaries in sustainable urban transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    ´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that interme-diary actors have the potential to reach a broader scope of citizens due to their particular role in between public au-thorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory...... processes in sustainable urban management and the paper explores the development of communities of practise as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of involving citizens and how they contribute to the development of new actor configurations in urban social...... the development of new practises plays a part in multi level transitions. Empirically, the article is based on case studies from Denmark of local environmental centres, green guides etc. that have performed innovative forms of involving citizens in sustainable urban development. The empirical material...

  11. Urban Mass Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, K. E.

    This bibliography is part of a series of Environmental Resource Packets prepared under a grant from EXXON Education Foundation. The most authoritative and accessible references in the urban transportation field are reviewed. The authors, publisher, point of view, level, and summary are given for each reference. The references are categorized…

  12. Performance of Urban Transit in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hashem R. Al-Masaeid; Amir Shtayat

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transit has essential and active role for sustainable and balanced socio-economic and environmental development. This study investigated the performance of urban public transit services in three major cities in Jordan, including Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. Accessibility, mobility, productivity, punctuality, waiting time and comfort of public transit were investigated in the study. Data were obtained from Land Transport RegulatoryCommission of Jordan, municipalities, and ...

  13. Hypocritical transitions? The challenge of urban sustainable mobility transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Nina

    of a sustainable mobility discourse can be traced in the policy documents, how mobility is framed, and which arguments are used to legitimate or envision strategies and planning practices. Is Fredericia performing a transition towards low-carbon mobility? The paper will draw on concepts from transition theory...... urban complexity within transition processes. Transitions are always taking place, but the question is which direction they take and if these directions are in line with a planning approach for sustainable mobility....

  14. Governance of urban transitions: towards sustainable resource efficient urban infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swilling, Mark; Hajer, Maarten

    2017-12-01

    The transition to sustainable resource efficient cities calls for new governance arrangements. The awareness that the doubling of the global urban population will result in unsustainable levels of demand for natural resources requires changes in the existing socio-technical systems. Domestic material consumption could go up from 40 billion tons in 2010, to 89 billion tons by 2050. While there are a number of socio-technical alternatives that could result in significant improvements in the resource efficiency of urban systems in developed and developing countries (specifically bus-rapid transit, district energy systems and green buildings), we need to rethink the urban governance arrangements to get to this alternative pathway. We note modes of urban governance have changed over the past century as economic and urban development paradigms have shifted at the national and global levels. This time round we identify cities as leading actors in the transition to more sustainable modes of production and consumption as articulated in the Sustainable Development Goals. This has resulted in a surge of urban experimentation across all world regions, both North and South. Building on this empirically observable trend we suggest this can also be seen as a building block of a new urban governance paradigm. An ‘entrepreneurial urban governance’ is proposed that envisages an active and goal-setting role for the state, but in ways that allows broader coalitions of urban ‘agents of change’ to emerge. This entrepreneurial urban governance fosters and promotes experimentation rather than suppressing the myriad of such initiatives across the globe, and connects to global city networks for systemic learning between cities. Experimentation needs to result in a contextually appropriate balance between economic, social, technological and sustainable development. A full and detailed elaboration of the arguments and sources for this article can be found in chapter 6 of Swilling M et

  15. Reconfiguring Urban Sustainability Transitions, Analysing Multiplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Hodson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cities, and the networked infrastructures that sustain urban life, are seen as crucial sites for creating more sustainable futures. Yet, although there are many plans, the realisation of sustainable urban infrastructures on the ground is uneven. To develop better ways of understanding why this is the case, the paper makes a conceptual contribution by engaging with current understanding of urban sustainability transitions, using urban sustainable mobility as a reference point. It extends these insights to argue that urban transitions are not about technological or social innovation per se, but about how multiple innovations are experimented with, combined and reconfigured in existing urban contexts and how such processes are governed. There are potentially many ways in which urban sustainable mobility can be reconfigured contextually. Innovation is in the particular form of reconfiguration rather than individual technologies. To make analytical sense of this multiplicity, a preliminary framework is developed that offers the potential to think about urban transitions as contextual and reconfigurational. We argue that there is a need to embrace multiplicity and to understand its relationships to forms of reconfiguration, through empirical exploration and further theoretical and conceptual development. The preliminary framework is a contribution to doing so and we set out future directions for research.

  16. Urban transitions: On urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Ernstson H.; Leeuw S.E.V.D.; Redman C.L.; Meffert D.J.; Davis G.; Alfsen C.; Elmqvist T.

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities—New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix—the article analyz...

  17. Hawaiian hydrogen mass transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.W.; Russell, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint effort between the scientific and business communities; to create, make and have hydrogen fuel become the primary fuel of the future. Hawaii has abundant, unharnessed renewable resources yet imports almost all of its fuel. Initiating hydrogen production and industrial application in conjunction with a prototype pilot project such as this mass transit system would not only accomplish the joining of science and business but give an environmentally safe energy alternative to the state and people of Hawaii and hopefully the world

  18. Urban transitions: on urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, Henrik; van der Leeuw, Sander E; Redman, Charles L; Meffert, Douglas J; Davis, George; Alfsen, Christine; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities--New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix--the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  19. Energy-urban transition: The Mexican case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I present a study regarding the institutional conditions of Mexican cities based on a post-petroleum urban model that considers transport, architecture, urban planning and land use, renewable energy sources, energy saving and efficiency, and urban metabolism issues. The model was constructed with recommendations of authors and organizations that have analysed the energy dimension of cities under an energy-availability, environmental or petroleum-independent view. To make the study I sent a questionnaire to some local governments of all the country. The information indicates that Mexican cities do not have institutional conditions to manage the urban-energy transition that signify the end of cheap oil and the peak of world oil production.

  20. Symbolic Interactionism, Mass Panics and Urban Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The constructionist approach to social problems has developed a thesis about mass panics and urban legends as "unconstructed social problems". This thesis, advanced by the American sociologist Joel Best, and his analysis of the urban legend of Halloween sadism, have provided the model for studying three mass panics and two urban legends. The three panics in question are the mass exodus from Kraljevo because of a prophesy that the town would be destroyed in an earthquake, the mass fear of body parts thieves in three villages in Srem, and the panic over the appearance of a cannibal sect in the town of Šabac. The two urban legends involve the rich old emigrant whose acquaintance a child from a poor family made while dialling phone numbers at random, and the thieving postman who set up his own business in Russia with the stolen pension money he had been supposed to deliver.

  1. Thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungyoon Chun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea). College of Human Ecology, Department of Housing and Interior Design; Tamura, A. [Yokohama National University (Japan). Department of Architecture and Building Science

    2005-05-15

    This paper deals with thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces. This topic investigates thermal comfort during walking activities through transitional spaces-urban corridors, shopping streets, and open-ended passageways. The study involves a field study and a laboratory study with a sequenced walk through an environmental control chamber. Subjects in both studies wore the same clothing ensembles, walked the same speed, and evaluated their thermal comfort at 20 designated point in the field and in specific rooms in the control chamber. Air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity were measured concurrently as the thermal comfort votes completed. Findings revealed that the previously experienced temperatures determined thermal comfort at the following point in the sequence. Because thermal comfort at a point can be influenced widely by relative placement of temperatures in sequence, thermal comfort in transitional spaces can be adapted very widely compared to comfort inside of buildings. Thermal comfort along the experimental courses was evaluated by averaging the temperature of a course. (author)

  2. Energy transition and urban ecological inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamman, Philippe; Christen, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with social inequalities in the relationship to the environment, by looking at the capacity of actors to mobilize around renewable energy initiatives in the context of the energy transition. It is based on field surveys (qualitative and quantitative) on an urban scale, conducted between 2012 and 2015 in the metropolitan area of Strasbourg. We show that the emphasis on resident involvement masks the reality of rather prescriptive 'eco-innovations'; and that the differentiated relations of the inhabitants to the technical tools meant to materialize renewable energy reveal ecological inequalities that reinforce socio-economic division in the city

  3. Which transition comes first? Urban and demographic transitions in Belgium and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bocquier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several theories compete to explain the main drivers of urbanisation, past and present, in relation to both demographic transition and economic development. One hypothesis is that rural-to-urban migration is the driver of urbanisation; another is that urban mortality decline actually triggered urban transition. Objective: This paper reconsiders the relationship between demographic (vital migration and urban transitions by analysing the long-term contribution of natural and migratory movements to urban transition. The respective contributions of birth, death, and migration and their timing will indicate whether economic development, through labour force migration, or vital transition mainly determines urban transition. Methods: After examining the spatial dimension of the demographic transition theory, we use 19th and 20th century series on Sweden and Belgium to better identify the migration component of urban transition through the computation of growth difference between urban and rural areas, accounting for the often neglected reclassification effect. Results: In both Sweden and Belgium, migration is the direct or indirect (through reclassification engine of urban transition and its contribution precedes the onset of vital transition, while the vital transition has a secondary, unstable, and negative role in the urban transition. Conclusions: Changes in the economic sphere are reinstated as the underlying cause of population change, acting through the shift of human capital in space. Methodological consequences are then drawn for analysing vital and urban transitions in an increasingly interdependent world. Contribution: The paper contributes to the theoretical literature on urban and demographic transitions in relation to economic development. The proposed method evaluates migration contribution without having to measure it.

  4. Transition to a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus fleet for Canadian urban transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharme, P.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA), created by the Canadian Government as part of its 2000 Climate Change Action Plan, has commissioned MARCON-DDM's Hydrogen Intervention Team (HIT) to provide a roadmap for urban transit systems that wish to move to hydrogen fuel cell-powered bus fleets. HIT is currently in the process of gathering information from hydrogen technology providers, bus manufacturers, fuelling system providers and urban transit systems in Canada, the US and Europe. In September, HIT will be in a position to provide a preview of its report to the CTFCA, due for October 2004. The planned table of contents includes: TOMORROW'S FUEL CELL (FC) URBAN TRANSIT BUS - Powertrain, on-board fuel technologies - FC engine system manufacturers - Bus technical specifications, performances, operating characteristics - FC bus manufacturers TOMORROW'S FC TRANSIT PROPERTY - Added maintenance, facilities and fuelling infrastructure requirements - Supply chain implications - Environmental and safety issues - Alternative operational concepts PATHWAYS TO THE FUTURE - Choosing the future operational concept - 'Gap' assessment - how long from here to there? - Facilities and fleet adjustments, including fuelling infrastructure - Risk mitigation, code compliance measures TRANSITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS - Cost implications - Transition schedule (author)

  5. 城市轨道交通工程公私合作融资项目风险分析与管理%Risk Analysis and Management on PPP Project of Urban Mass Transit Financing Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛雪艳; 王建波

    2011-01-01

    公私合作(PPP)模式有效解决了政府部门在轨道交通建设方面资金不足的问题,但因其组织结构复杂、时间跨度长、牵扯面广而使潜在风险巨大.对PPP项目融资过程中的风险进行了分析,对其如何分担、管理进行了阐述.通过分析风险管理的概念、过程和框架,以及相应的风险防范与管理对策,为PPP模式在城市轨道交通中的应用提供有益的帮助.%PPP is a new project co-operation model, an effective solution to the government departments which ofter racer of insufficient funds in mass transit construction. However, because of the complexity, long time-span and wide range of the organizational structure, the potential risks are great. Therefore, the study on PPP model risks in project financing as well as their distribution and management is extremely important. This article analyzes the risks involved in project finance, then explaines how to share and manage the risks. By analyzing the concept of risk management, processe and framework, the corresponding prevention and management measures, this paper provides a useful reference for the application of PPP model in urban rail transit.

  6. Crashworthiness evaluation of mass transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Mass transit bus systems are an integral part of the national transportation network, serving more than 20.6 billion passenger-miles per year with a relatively low fatality rate. Bus occupant injuries are evenly distributed among crashes on all sides...

  7. Cable Connected Spinning Spacecraft, 1. the Canonical Equations, 2. Urban Mass Transportation, 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitchin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Work on the dynamics of cable-connected spinning spacecraft was completed by formulating the equations of motion by both the canonical equations and Lagrange's equations and programming them for numerical solution on a digital computer. These energy-based formulations will permit future addition of the effect of cable mass. Comparative runs indicate that the canonical formulation requires less computer time. Available literature on urban mass transportation was surveyed. Areas of the private rapid transit concept of urban transportation are also studied.

  8. Mass fractionation processes of transition metal isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. K.; Guo, Y.; Williams, R. J. P.; O'Nions, R. K.; Matthews, A.; Belshaw, N. S.; Canters, G. W.; de Waal, E. C.; Weser, U.; Burgess, B. K.; Salvato, B.

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry make it possible to utilise isotope variations of transition metals to address some important issues in solar system and biological sciences. Realisation of the potential offered by these new isotope systems however requires an adequate understanding of the factors controlling their isotope fractionation. Here we show the results of a broadly based study on copper and iron isotope fractionation during various inorganic and biological processes. These results demonstrate that: (1) naturally occurring inorganic processes can fractionate Fe isotope to a detectable level even at temperature ˜1000°C, which challenges the previous view that Fe isotope variations in natural system are unique biosignatures; (2) multiple-step equilibrium processes at low temperatures may cause large mass fractionation of transition metal isotopes even when the fractionation per single step is small; (3) oxidation-reduction is an importation controlling factor of isotope fractionation of transition metal elements with multiple valences, which opens a wide range of applications of these new isotope systems, ranging from metal-silicate fractionation in the solar system to uptake pathways of these elements in biological systems; (4) organisms incorporate lighter isotopes of transition metals preferentially, and transition metal isotope fractionation occurs stepwise along their pathways within biological systems during their uptake.

  9. Quantifying Urban Fragmentation under Economic Transition in Shanghai City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyuan You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability. However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of Shanghai (China, this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely sensed images and a set of landscape metrics; and economic transition is described by a set of indicators from three aspects (globalization, decentralization, and marketization. Results show that urban fragmentation presents an increasing linear trend. Multivariate regression identifies positive linear correlation between urban fragmentation and economic transition. More specifically, the relative influence is different for the three components of economic transition. The relative influence of decentralization is stronger than that of globalization and marketization. The joint influences of decentralization and globalization are the strongest for urban fragmentation. The demonstrated methodology can be applicable to other places after making suitable adjustment of the economic transition indicators and fragmentation metrics.

  10. General Vehicle Test Plan (GVTP) for Urban Rail Transit Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...

  11. Proceedings of the Federal Transit Administration's Urban Maglev Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Urban Maglev Workshop was held at FTA Headquarters in Washington, DC, on September 8-9, 2005. The key workshop goals were to review progress, share lessons learned among the grantees, and discuss future di...

  12. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  13. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  14. Stakeholder contributions through transitions towards urban sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soma, K.; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C.; Polman, N.B.P.

    2018-01-01

    The challenges for liveable, healthy and food secure cities worldwide are immense to future developments due to a worldwide increase in urban population, pressure on natural resources including water and biodiversity, climate change, as well as economic volatility. The quality of life in urban areas

  15. Energy Transition in the Nebular City: Connecting Transition Thinking, Metabolism Studies, and Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Juwet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transforming urban infrastructures is an essential part of creating more sustainable urban regions. But rethinking these complex systems requires a better understanding of their spatial dimensions and their relation with urban morphology and spatial structure. This paper addresses that gap by examining different conceptualizations of technical infrastructure and space in science, technology and society studies (STS, transition thinking, urban metabolism studies, and urban political ecology, and draws connections with the spatial perspective of urban planning and design. It illustrates and tests these concepts through the case of energy transition in the Flemish region of Belgium. Transport and supply networks have played a crucial role in facilitating, structuring, and reproducing the region’s characteristic dispersed and energy-intensive urban landscape. Bringing different disciplinary perspectives together, the research broadens the conceptualization of the spatial dimension in transition thinking, and identifies useful concepts and design parameters for urban design to engage with the technical and socio-political complexity of transforming urban infrastructure. It reveals the energy transition as an inherently spatial project, and explores the spatially and socio-politically transformative potential of the transition towards a new energy system.

  16. Energy Efficiency and Urban Renewal in the Economies in Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Paper notes the importance of energy consumption in agglomerations (65-70% in the economies in transition) and of related emissions. It assesses the technical and cost-effective potential for a 40% and more decrease in urban energy intensities and SO 2 /NO x emissions by 2020, resulting from a systematic approach to urban as well as energy planning. Compared to approaches worldwide, urban energy renewal in the economies in transition appears, as its beginning, characterized by a traditional focus on existing technological supply sub-systems such as district heating and co-generation. The obstacles to a more systematic approach, including demand side management, are slow progress in urban and energy reforms and a lack of acquaintance with modern planning tools. International cooperation is incommensurate with the long-term challenge of s ustainable urban development . (author)

  17. Scenarios for a urban energy transition. Actors, regulations, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debizet, Gilles; Blanco, Sylvie; Buclet, Nicolas; Forest, Fabrice; Gauthier, Caroline; La Branche, Stephane; Menanteau, Philippe; Schneuwly, Patrice; Tabourdeau, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Cities concentrate populations, consumptions, levers of actions, and are places of various experiments for energy transition. This book aims at giving an overview of possible scenarios of development of renewable energies in urban context. It is based on interviews of actors of the energy, building and urban planning sectors by researchers in town planning, management, technology, political and economic sciences. The authors examine what would occur if large companies would manage entire quarters, if local authorities would supervise production and supply, if the State would take control of all fields of action again, or if consumer cooperatives would exchange energy and pool productions. In its different chapters, the book presents four scenarios of energy coordination in urban context by 2040, discuss energy transition in urban spaces, discuss the perspectives of evolution towards more autonomous cities and quarters from an energetic point of view, and discuss business models and urban energetic innovations

  18. Strategic urban governance of transition in household practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Hansen, Trine Bang

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that urban governance is in different ways intertwined with transitions in socio-technical systems (see e.g. Bulkeley et al. 2011). For example, some local authorities attempt to gain degrees of influence and control over regimes in order to achieve territorial...... priorities (Hodson and Marvin 2010). It has been argued that such governance initiatives do seldom represent transition paths in themselves, due to the delimited focus on the urban scale (Geels 2011). However, these governance initiatives still represent important transition activities that need...... based on the work by Shove and Walker (2010), who note that practitioners are actively involved in making and reproducing socio-technical systems. We especially wish to put forward this point in relation to discussions about what role urban governance initiatives may play in transitions in socio...

  19. Sustainable urban development and the multi-level transition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Vogel, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations......, a transition toward sustainable urban development is a matter of changing the composition of existing multisegmented land use and transportation regimes. Those well-experienced forms of built environment and transport infrastructure that are in line with sustainability objectives should be strengthened while...... those that are not should be actively constrained and reduced. Urban development in a Danish provincial city is used as a case to illustrate some of the points made in the theoretical part of the article. Due to the wide gap between present conditions and those required to realize a sustainable urban...

  20. Rock mass classification system : transition from RMR to GSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is expected to replace the rock mass rating : (RMR) system with the Geological Strength Index (GSI) system for classifying and estimating : engineering properties of rock masses. This transition is motivat...

  1. Realistic control considerations for electromagnetically levitated urban transit vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, J R

    1976-04-01

    A discussion is given of realistic control considerations of suspension dynamics and vehicle/guideway interaction for electromagnetically-levitated urban transit vehicles in the context of revenue applications. The emphasis is on safety, reliability, and maintainability rather than performance. An example urban transit system is described, and the following considerations of dynamics and control are examined: stability, magnet force requirements, magnet airgap requirements, vehicle ride, and component failures. It is shown that it is a formidable problem to ensure suspension stability under all conditions; that operation on curves is a critical magnet and control system design case; that operation of the magnets in the non-linear regime is unavoidable and that component failures will be a major problem. However, good vehicle ride is to be expected. It is concluded that magnetic levitation suspension technology requires substantial development effort before it can be considered suitable for revenue operation.

  2. An assessment of transit ridership: increased suburban to urban public transportation options in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Suburban development is occurring near urban areas across America. Often these communities are : separated by large masses of land with no linkage to the urban core. Referred to as urban sprawl, this type : of development causes a challenge for trans...

  3. The Topological Analysis of Urban Transit System as a Small-World Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaosheng Yang; Huxing Zhou; Peng Gao; Hong Chen; Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a topological analysis of urban transit system based on a functional representation network constructed from the urban transit system in Beijing. The representation gives a functional view on nodes named a transit line. Statistical measures are computed and introduced in complex network analysis. It shows that the urban transit system forms small-world networks and exhibits properties different from random networks and regular networks. Furthermore, the topological propert...

  4. Globalising Dublin: indicators of an urban society in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh M. Moore

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation – political, economic or cultural - is controlled from, but is simultaneously shaping, urban places. Much of the recent research on globalisation and urban transformati-on has focused on the emergence of an international urban system. Within this system, the role and place of Dublin has been highly contested. This is due in part to the unique way in which the city has attempted to re-position itself within a global framework, but is also due to the difficulty in defining what actually constitutes a world city. Friedmann (1986 argues that one of the key characteristics of these places is that they become destination points for both domestic and international migrants, while Sassen (1991 argues that they are typified by significant socio-spatial polarisation. This paper examines some of the ways in which Dublin, a former peripheral city in global terms, is becoming increasingly embedded in the global urban system. It highlights how the city is beginning to exemplify many of the eco-nomic, social and cultural characteristics associated with ‘world cities’ and discusses a suitable framework for understanding this transition.

  5. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  6. GO RIO: Achieving Universal Access to Mass Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ted, Jr.; Castaneda-Calleros, Russell

    2009-01-01

    GO RIO is a universal access, mass-transit program that has been offered to all students who are registered full-time at Rio Hondo College. Through an agreement with five local transit agencies, full-time students can obtain a pass that provides full access seven days a week throughout the entire semester.

  7. Understanding Mass Atrocity Prevention during Periods of Democratic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McLoughlin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of why some countries experience mass atrocities during periods of democratic transition, while others do not. Scholars have long regarded democracy as an important source of stability and protection from mass atrocities such as genocide, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing. But democratic transition itself is fraught with the heightened risk of violent conflict and even mass atrocities. Indeed, a number of studies have identified regimes in transition as containing the highest risk of political instability and mass atrocities. What is overlooked is the question of how and why some regimes undergo such transitions without experiencing mass atrocities, despite the presence of a number of salient risk factors, including state-based discrimination, inter-group tension and horizontal inequality. Utilizing a new analytical framework, this article investigates this lacuna by conducting a comparative analysis of two countries—one that experienced atrocities (Burundi during transition, and one that did not (Guyana. How countries avoid such violence during transition has the potential to yield insights for the mitigation of risk associated with mass atrocity crimes.

  8. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  9. Guidebook : managing operating costs for rural and small urban public transit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This guidebook is a resource for rural and small urban transit agency managers to use in better understanding, predicting, and managing operational costs. Doing so can improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of public transit in the...

  10. Urban Transit System Microbial Communities Differ by Surface Type and Interaction with Humans and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tiffany; Joice, Regina; Vallarino, Jose; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Hartmann, Erica M; Shafquat, Afrah; DuLong, Casey; Baranowski, Catherine; Gevers, Dirk; Green, Jessica L; Morgan, Xochitl C; Spengler, John D; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Public transit systems are ideal for studying the urban microbiome and interindividual community transfer. In this study, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile microbial communities on multiple transit surfaces across train lines and stations in the Boston metropolitan transit system. The greatest determinant of microbial community structure was the transit surface type. In contrast, little variation was observed between geographically distinct train lines and stations serving different demographics. All surfaces were dominated by human skin and oral commensals such as Propionibacterium , Corynebacterium , Staphylococcus , and Streptococcus . The detected taxa not associated with humans included generalists from alphaproteobacteria, which were especially abundant on outdoor touchscreens. Shotgun metagenomics further identified viral and eukaryotic microbes, including Propionibacterium phage and Malassezia globosa . Functional profiling showed that Propionibacterium acnes pathways such as propionate production and porphyrin synthesis were enriched on train holding surfaces (holds), while electron transport chain components for aerobic respiration were enriched on touchscreens and seats. Lastly, the transit environment was not found to be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Our results suggest that microbial communities on transit surfaces are maintained from a metapopulation of human skin commensals and environmental generalists, with enrichments corresponding to local interactions with the human body and environmental exposures. IMPORTANCE Mass transit environments, specifically, urban subways, are distinct microbial environments with high occupant densities, diversities, and turnovers, and they are thus especially relevant to public health. Despite this, only three culture-independent subway studies have been performed, all since 2013 and all with widely differing designs and conclusions. In this study, we

  11. Demystifying governance and its role for transitions in urban social–ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Muñoz-Erickson; L.K. Campbell; D.L. Childers; J.M. Grove; D.M. Iwaniec; S.T.A. Pickett; Michelle Romolini; Erika S. Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    Governance is key to sustainable urban transitions. Governance is a system of social, power, and decision-making processes that acts as a key driver of resource allocation and use, yet ecologists even urban ecologists–seldom consider governance concepts in their work. Transitions to more sustainable futures are becoming increasingly important to the management of many...

  12. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g −1 to 3631 ng g −1 during the period of 1978–2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. - Highlights: • Introduced a mass balance model for soil PAHs accumulation with urbanization. • Reconstructed the historical data of PAH accumulation in soil of Beijing, China. • The soil PAH concentrations would be doubled in the following 40 years. • The composition of PAH emissions were shifting to light PAH species. - Introduced a regression modeling approach to predict the changes of PAH concentrations in urban soil

  13. 23 CFR 810.210 - Authorization for use and occupancy by mass transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization for use and occupancy by mass transit. 810... TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit Projects § 810.210 Authorization for use and occupancy by mass transit. (a) Upon being authorized...

  14. Canadian cities in transition: new sources of urban difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry S. Bourne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities, increasingly, are the principal arenas in which global, national and local forces intersect.Canadian cities are no exception. Those cities are currently undergoing a series ofprofound and irreversible transitions as a result of external forces originating from differentsources and operating at different spatial scales. Specifically, this paper argues that Canadiancities are being transformed in a markedly uneven fashion through the intersection ofchanges in national and regional economies, the continued demographic transition, andshifts in government policy on the one hand, and through increased levels and new sourcesof immigration, and the globalization of capital and trade flows, on the other hand. Theseshifts, in turn, are producing new patterns of external dependence, a more fragmented urbansystem, and continued metropolitan concentration. They are also leading to increased socioculturaldifferences, with intense cultural diversity in some cities juxtaposed with homogeneityin other cities, and to new sets of urban winners and losers. In effect, these transitionsare creating new sources of difference - new divides - among and within the country=surban centres, augmenting or replacing the traditional divides based on city-size, location inthe heartland or periphery, and local economic base.

  15. Emittance growth due to negative-mass instability above transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, King-Yuen.

    1994-08-01

    Due to space-charge effect, there is a growth of bunch emittance across transition as a result of negative-mass instability. The models of growth at cutoff frequency and growth from high-frequency Schottky noise are reviewed. The difficulties of performing reliable simulations are discussed. An intuitive self-bunching model for estimating emittance growth is presented

  16. The Rapid Urban Growth Triad: A New Conceptual Framework for Examining the Urban Transition in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Farrell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the urban transition is a universal event that unfolds in all countries, the determinants, patterns, and outcomes do not necessarily follow a uniform process. With the urban transition being basically completed in developed countries around the turn of the 21st century, the growth of cities today is almost entirely confined to developing countries. Still, much of our conceptual understanding of this process is derived from earlier accounts, with definitions rooted in a historical context. This has resulted in common misconceptions such as a tendency to view the growth of cities primarily as an outcome of rural to urban migration, neglecting the growing contributions of urban natural population increase and reclassification of rural areas. A tendency to treat the components of urban growth in isolation has created a rift within the urban studies discourse, preventing any real theorization of their combined impacts and the interplay among them. Applying a systems thinking approach, this paper introduces a multidisciplinary framework for conceptualizing rapid urban growth in developing countries. The framework offers explanatory power to previously neglected components of urban growth and serves as a diagnostic for examining the urban transition—ultimately revealing new policy levers for managing it in a sustainable way.

  17. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known

  18. Mass transit: devising a research-based marketing plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, D.J.; Wotruba, T.R.

    1977-08-01

    This study presents a marketing planning procedural model that can be operationally used by marketing managers. The model enables the user to assess his company's performance on the various attributes of the marketing mix and to design a marketing program that caters to the needs of his marketplace. The model is applied here specifically to mass transit and is tested empirically. Within this context, it permits transit marketing to aim at increasing the probabilities of (i) greater usage on the part of existing riders and (ii) attracting prospects and converting them into actual customers.

  19. Mass transit: devising a research-based marketing plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, D J; Wotruba, T R

    1977-08-01

    This study presents a marketing planning procedural model that can be operationally used by marketing managers. The model enables the user to assess his company's performance on the various attributes of the marketing mix and to design a marketing program that caters to the needs of his marketplace. The model is applied here specifically to mass transit and is tested empirically. Within this context, it permits transit marketing to aim at increasing the probabilities of (i) greater usage on the part of existing riders and (ii) attracting prospects and converting them into actual customers.

  20. From bosonic topological transition to symmetric fermion mass generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; He, Yin-Chen; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Xu, Cenke

    2018-03-01

    A bosonic topological transition (BTT) is a quantum critical point between the bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and the trivial phase. In this work, we investigate such a transition in a (2+1)-dimensional lattice model with the maximal microscopic symmetry: an internal SO (4 ) symmetry. We derive a description for this transition in terms of compact quantum electrodynamics (QED) with four fermion flavors (Nf=4 ). Within a systematic renormalization group analysis, we identify the critical point with the desired O (4 ) emergent symmetry and all expected deformations. By lowering the microscopic symmetry, we recover the previous Nf=2 noncompact QED description of the BTT. Finally, by merging two BTTs we recover a previously discussed theory of symmetric mass generation, as an SU (2 ) quantum chromodynamics-Higgs theory with Nf=4 flavors of SU (2 ) fundamental fermions and one SU (2 ) fundamental Higgs boson. This provides a consistency check on both theories.

  1. City Planning Evolution - Urban Development Directions in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Grigorovschi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban evolution post 1989 has a series of specific characteristics mainly on a spatial-territorial plane. Determination of the main developing factors and urban evolution directions (dimensions, rhythm, expansion level, centrifugal and axial character, concentric, centripetal, functional evolution, tendencies and social implications, etc. represents a necessity and obligation for action from professionals in urban and landscaping fields. This necessity even arises from the perspective of the need for realizing strategies, planning, documentation and urban studies, which must intervene correctively in the evolution of areas with structural problems and to guide urban evolution towards the main goal namely the growth in residential quality of life in human settlements.

  2. [Has the urban transition ended in sub-Saharan Africa?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, P

    1999-01-01

    In 1950, 28% of the world¿s population lived in cities. At that point, localities larger than 10,000 inhabitants were home to 0.7 billion people, of whom 36% were in developing countries. However, according to UN projections, the rate of urbanization will reach 47.4% in 2000, with cities housing 2.9 billion people, of whom 68.7% will be in developing countries. Africa, like other continents, is urbanizing. Although Africa is among the world¿s least urbanized regions, it is nonetheless the continent with the highest rate of urbanization. Urban population growth reached its height during the 1950s, then the urban population in the region multiplied by a factor of 10 during 1950-90, far outpacing the rate of overall population growth on the continent. However, during the 1980s and 1990s, urban growth in Africa declined sharply. The author discusses urbanization in Africa devoid of industrialization, declining rates of urban population growth in the region, the uncertain future of urbanization in Africa, and how future urbanization in Africa depends upon the role the continent will play in the global economy.

  3. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  4. Peer grouping and performance measurement to improve rural and urban transit in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rural and small urban transit systems in Texas will become even more important with predicted changes in : population trends. Rural demographic trends indicate growth in the number of persons age 65 and over : coupled with a decrease in population de...

  5. Rural and urban transit district benchmarking : effectiveness and efficiency guidance document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rural and urban transit systems have sought ways to compare performance across agencies, : identifying successful service delivery strategies and applying these concepts to achieve : successful results within their agency. Benchmarking is a method us...

  6. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : transit system data test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing transit system data for the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) National Evaluation under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA...

  7. Miami urban partnership agreement (UPA) Pines Boulevard transit signal priority evaluation .report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The Miami Urban Partnership Agreement included the conversion of high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-95 to high occupancy toll : (HOT) lanes and additional express bus service. It also included funding for the installation of transit signal prior...

  8. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields

  9. Dynamic plan modelling and visualization : converting an urban development plan into a transition scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Jessurun, A.J.; Sadowski - Rasters, G.; Tidafy, T; Dorta, T

    2009-01-01

    Application of 3D models in urban planning practice is still limited to visualization of existing or newly designed situations. Municipalities are looking for possibilities to communicate the transition process of the urban development area with the citizens. A prototype system was developed to

  10. Potential Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions from Optimizing Urban Transit Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Public transit systems with efficient designs and operating plans can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to low-occupancy transportation modes, but many current transit systems have not been designed to reduce environmental impacts. This ...

  11. Net effects of gasoline price changes on transit ridership in U.S. urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using panel data of transit ridership and gasoline prices for ten selected U.S. urbanized areas over the time period of 2002 to 2011, : this study analyzes the effect of gasoline prices on ridership of the four main transit modesbus, light rail, h...

  12. From Problems to Potentials : The Urban Energy Transition of Gruž, Dubrovnik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Martin, C.L.; Keeffe, Greg; Pulselli, Riccardo; Vandevyvere, Han

    2018-01-01

    IIn the challenge for a sustainable society, carbon-neutrality is a critical objective for all cities in the coming decades. In the EU City-zen project, academic partners collaborate to develop an urban energy transition methodology, which supports cities in making the energy transition to

  13. The Urban Transition Performance of Resource-Based Cities in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Resource-based cities face unique challenges when undergoing urban transitions because their non-renewable resources will eventually be exhausted. In this article, we introduce a new method of evaluating the urban transition performance of resource-based cities from economic, social and eco-environmental perspectives. A total of 19 resource-based cities in Northeast China are studied from 2003 to 2012. The results show that resource-based cities in Jilin and Liaoning provinces performed better than those in Heilongjiang province. Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Baishan were ranked as the top three resource-based cities; and Jixi, Yichun and Heihe were ranked last. Multi-resource and petroleum resource-based cities performed better than coal and forestry resource-based cities. We also analyzed the factors influencing urban transition performance using the method of the geographic detector. We found that capital input, road density and location advantage had the greatest effects on urban transition performance, followed by urban scale, remaining resources and the level of sustainable development; supporting policies and labor input had the smallest effects. Based on these insights, we have formulated several recommendations to facilitate urban transitions in China’s resource-based cities.

  14. Passenger flow analysis of Beijing urban rail transit network using fractal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Chen, Peiwen; Chen, Feng; Wang, Zijia

    2018-04-01

    To quantify the spatiotemporal distribution of passenger flow and the characteristics of an urban rail transit network, we introduce four radius fractal dimensions and two branch fractal dimensions by combining a fractal approach with passenger flow assignment model. These fractal dimensions can numerically describe the complexity of passenger flow in the urban rail transit network and its change characteristics. Based on it, we establish a fractal quantification method to measure the fractal characteristics of passenger follow in the rail transit network. Finally, we validate the reasonability of our proposed method by using the actual data of Beijing subway network. It has been shown that our proposed method can effectively measure the scale-free range of the urban rail transit network, network development and the fractal characteristics of time-varying passenger flow, which further provides a reference for network planning and analysis of passenger flow.

  15. QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-08-22

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.

  16. An Empirical Study on Transit-Oriented Low-Carbon Urban Land Use Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Yi; Luo, Xiao; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Low-carbon urban development is a hot spot of global concerns for fighting against climate change for China, transportation sector has a significant contribution to urban CO2 emissions, while the emissions are still increasing. Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) strategies provide a novel approach...... for urban planners to facilitate the urban carbon mitigation from transportation sector in long-term. While TOD strategies are emerging cases, they are merely qualitatively discussed in China, lacking practical indicators and quantitative verification for supporting the real urban plan...... population and transportation accessibility with Geographic Weighted Regression model. Results highlight that TOD can effectively improve the transportation network with higher accessibility and lower urban carbon emissions. The outcomes of this study provide critical insights to the recent practice...

  17. Elemental mass size distribution of the Debrecen urban aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Dobos, E.; Borbely-Kiss, I.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Size distribution is one of the basic properties of atmospheric aerosol. It is closely related to the origin, chemical composition and age of the aerosol particles, and it influences the optical properties, environmental effects and health impact of aerosol. As part of the ongoing aerosol research in the Group of Ion Beam Applications of the Atomki, elemental mass size distribution of urban aerosol were determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique. Aerosol sampling campaigns were carried out with 9-stage PIXE International cascade impactors, which separates the aerosol into 10 size fractions in the 0.05-30 ?m range. Five 48-hours long samplings were done in the garden of the Atomki, in April and in October, 2007. Both campaigns included weekend and working day samplings. Basically two different kinds of particles could be identified according to the size distribution. In the size distribution of Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ba, Ti, Mn and Co one dominant peak can be found around the 3 m aerodynamic diameter size range, as it is shown on Figure 1. These are the elements of predominantly natural origin. Elements like S, Cl, K, Zn, Pb and Br appears with high frequency in the 0.25-0.5 mm size range as presented in Figure 2. These elements are originated mainly from anthropogenic sources. However sometimes in the size distribution of these elements a 2 nd , smaller peak appears at the 2-4 μm size ranges, indicating different sources. Differences were found between the size distribution of the spring and autumn samples. In the case of elements of soil origin the size distribution was shifted towards smaller diameters during October, and a 2 nd peak appeared around 0.5 μm. A possible explanation to this phenomenon can be the different meteorological conditions. No differences were found between the weekend and working days in the size distribution, however the concentration values were smaller during the weekend

  18. Urban Sewage Sludge, Sustainability, and Transition for Eco-City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Chan, Felix T. S.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of urban sewage sludge is of vital importance for mitigating the risks of environmental contaminations, and the negative effects on human health. However, there are usually various different technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge; thus, it is difficult for decision......-makers/stakeholders to select the most sustainable technology among multiple alternatives. This study aims at developing a generic multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainability assessment of the technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge. A generic criteria system including both hard and soft criteria...... in economic, environmental, social and technological aspects was developed for sustainability assessment. The improved analytic hierarchy process method, namely Best-Worst method, was employed to determine the weights of the criteria and the relative priorities of the technologies with respect to the soft...

  19. Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Buerkert, Andreas; Hoffmann, Ellen M; Schlecht, Eva; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-11-06

    Historically, farmers and hunter-gatherers relied directly on ecosystem services, which they both exploited and enjoyed. Urban populations still rely on ecosystems, but prioritize non-ecosystem services (socioeconomic). Population growth and densification increase the scale and change the nature of both ecosystem- and non-ecosystem-service supply and demand, weakening direct feedbacks between ecosystems and societies and potentially pushing social-ecological systems into traps that can lead to collapse. The interacting and mutually reinforcing processes of technological change, population growth and urbanization contribute to over-exploitation of ecosystems through complex feedbacks that have important implications for sustainable resource use.

  20. Understanding Transitions Toward Sustainable Urban Water Management: Miami, Las Vegas, Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Manago, K. F.; Treuer, G.; Deslatte, A.; Koebele, E.; Ernst, K.

    2016-12-01

    Cities in the United States face numerous threats to their long-term water supplies including preserving ecosystems, competing uses, and climate change. Yet, it is unclear why only some cities have transitioned toward more sustainable water management. These transitions include strategies such as water conservation, water supply portfolio diversification, long-term planning, and integrated resource management. While the circumstances that motivate or moderate transition may vary greatly across cities' physical and institutional contexts, identifying common factors associated with transition can help resource managers capitalize on windows of opportunity for change. To begin the process of identifying such factors, we ask two questions: 1) what combinations of conditions are associated with water management transitions?, and 2) what are the outcomes of these transitions? We examine three cases of utility-level water management in Miami, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles to create data-driven narratives detailing each city's transition. These narratives systematically synthesize multiple data sources to enable cross-case comparison and provide insights into how and why cities transition. Using the foundational concepts from the exposure-based theory of urban change, we focus our analysis on three broad categories of variables that influence urban water management transition: biophysical, political, and regulatory exposures. First, we compare these factors across time and across cities using metrics that standardize diverse data sources. Next, we incorporate qualitative factors that capture a city's unique conditions by integrating these metrics with salient contextual information. Then, through cross-city comparison, we identify factors associated with transition.

  1. On Financing of Urban Transition viewed from the Oresund Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin; Snällfot, David

    2014-01-01

    The “urban transition” agenda is as a conglomerate of ambitions derived from international policy documents and as applied in the Oresund area. Encompassing locally set goals for (i) climate change mitigation; (ii) energy efficiency; and (iii) human wellbeing in the built environment. Its...

  2. THE PROBLEM OF URBAN LAND MASS VALUATION OBJECTIVENESS AND WAYS OF SOLVING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAPIKOVSKYI O. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Implementation of prudent investment, urban planning and fiscal policy is possible only if there is knowledge of the real value of land in the entire city, which is obtained by the mass appraisal of urban land. The implementation of this important social function puts strict requirements for urban land mass valuation results objectiveness and comparability, stated in the international sectoral standards and regulations. Purpose. The aim of the article is to determine the basic requirements to urban land mass valuation results objectiveness maintenance and to analyse the compliance of the normative monetary valuation with these requirements. Conclusion. The problem of urban land mass valuation objectiveness can be considered through the prism of the ontological, epistemological and logical aspects, compliance with which allows the anticipation of the expected improvement of this valuation methodological apparatus efficiency.

  3. Urban agriculture in the transition to low carbon cities through urban greening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Thornbush

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture presents an opportunity to extend food production to cities. This could enhance food security, particularly in developing countries, and allow for adaptation to growing urbanization. This review paper examines current trends in urban agriculture from a global perspective as a mitigation-adaptation approach to climate change adaptation in the midst of a growing world population. Employing vegetation as a carbon capture and storage system encapsulates a soft-engineering strategy that can be easily deployed by planners and environmental managers. In this review, urban agriculture is presented as a land-use solution to counteract the effects of urbanization, and as a means to establish a continuum between cities and the countryside. It espouses the usefulness of urban agriculture to enhance food security while sequestering carbon. As part of urban greening (including newer approaches, such as green roofs and gardens as well as more established forms of greening, such as forests and parks, urban agriculture offers traditionally rural services in cities, thereby contributing to food resources as well as working to alleviate pressing social issues like poverty. It also provides a way to reduce stress on farmland, and creates opportunities for employment and community-building. As part of greening, urban agriculture provides a buffer for pollution and improves environmental (and well as human health and well-being. This review begins by addressing the physical factors of adopting urban agriculture, such as climate change and development, land use and degradation, technology and management, and experimental findings as well as human factors investigated in the published literature. As such, it presents an integrated approach to urban agriculture that is part of a social-ecological perspective.

  4. Residential mobility, socioeconomic context and body mass index in a cohort of urban South African adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Carren; Griffiths, Paula L.; Richter, Linda M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who are changing residence, as well as their social and economic circumstances may experience lifestyle changes that have an effect on body composition outcomes such as undernutrition, overweight or obesity. This paper uses data from Birth to Twenty, a birth cohort of South African urban children, to determine the relationship between residential mobility and body mass index (BMI) amongst Black adolescents aged 15 (n=1613), and to examine the role of changes in household socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the sample was 25% in females and 8% in males. Amongst the females, a strong positive association between residential mobility and BMI was observed for those who also experienced an increase in household SES between birth and 15 years (β=0.42, SE=0.13), while no effect was identified for males. The study shows the potential for environmental change and increased resources to influence the risk for obesity. It also highlights the value in considering the range of social environmental factors and changes across the early life course that might play a part in evolving nutritional patterns in urban transitioning environments. PMID:23211581

  5. Safety issues in urban transit facilities for hydrogen-fueled buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.H.; Ducharme, P.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA), created by the Canadian Government as part of its 2000 Climate Change Action Plan, has commissioned MARCON-DDM's Hydrogen Intervention Team (HIT) to provide a roadmap for urban transit systems that wish to move to hydrogen fuel cell-powered bus fleets. HIT is currently in the process of gathering information from hydrogen technology providers, bus manufacturers, fuelling system providers and urban transit systems in Canada, the US and Europe. In September, HIT will be in a position to provide a hands-on perspective of the introduction of fuel-cell buses in the Canadian environment. Part of the process of adding hydrogen-fueled busses to urban transit systems involves phasing in the new technology to minimize the economic cost. This involves substituting hydrogen buses into the normal bus procurement life cycle and maximizing the use of existing facilities for garaging, maintenance and fueling. Using a schematic outline of an urban transit system, this presentation will outline the safety issues specific to hydrogen in such systems, particularly for garaging, maintenance and fueling components. It will then outline how safety of these component is addressed in current and proposed codes, standards and recommended practices. Based on these requirements the impact of the introduction of hydrogen-fueled buses on each component of the transit system will be addressed in terms of the adaptations of current facilities and practices or the requirements for new facilities and practices. (author)

  6. Institutions in transitioning peri-urban communities: spatial differences in groundwater access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sharlene L.; Hermans, Leon M.

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization creates challenges for water management in an evolving socio-economic context. This is particularly relevant in transitioning peri-urban areas like Khulna, Bangladesh where competing demands have put pressure on local groundwater resources. Users are unable to sufficiently meet their needs through existing institutions. These institutions provide the rules for service provision and act as guidelines for actors to resolve their water related issues. However, the evolving peri-urban context can produce fragmented institutional arrangements. For example in Khulna, water supply is based on urban and rural boundaries that has created water access issues for peri-urban communities. This has motivated local actors to manage their groundwater needs in various ways. General institutional theories are well developed in literature, yet little is known about institutions in transitioning peri-urban areas. Institutions that fail to adapt to changing dynamics run the risk of becoming obsolete or counter-productive, hence the need for investigating institutional change mechanisms in this context. This paper examines peri-urban case studies from Khulna using the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to demonstrate how institutions have contributed to spatial differences in groundwater access with local actors investing in formal and informal institutional change as a means of accessing groundwater.

  7. Transitioning from Targeted to Comprehensive Mass Spectrometry Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Jacob D; Feeney, Caitlin M; Patel, Jinal; Lu, Xiaodong; Mani, D R

    2016-11-01

    Targeted proteomic assays are becoming increasingly popular because of their robust quantitative applications enabled by internal standardization, and they can be routinely executed on high performance mass spectrometry instrumentation. However, these assays are typically limited to 100s of analytes per experiment. Considerable time and effort are often expended in obtaining and preparing samples prior to targeted analyses. It would be highly desirable to detect and quantify 1000s of analytes in such samples using comprehensive mass spectrometry techniques (e.g., SWATH and DIA) while retaining a high degree of quantitative rigor for analytes with matched internal standards. Experimentally, it is facile to port a targeted assay to a comprehensive data acquisition technique. However, data analysis challenges arise from this strategy concerning agreement of results from the targeted and comprehensive approaches. Here, we present the use of genetic algorithms to overcome these challenges in order to configure hybrid targeted/comprehensive MS assays. The genetic algorithms are used to select precursor-to-fragment transitions that maximize the agreement in quantification between the targeted and the comprehensive methods. We find that the algorithm we used provided across-the-board improvement in the quantitative agreement between the targeted assay data and the hybrid comprehensive/targeted assay that we developed, as measured by parameters of linear models fitted to the results. We also found that the algorithm could perform at least as well as an independently-trained mass spectrometrist in accomplishing this task. We hope that this approach will be a useful tool in the development of quantitative approaches for comprehensive proteomics techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Urbanization and environmental change during the economic transition on the Mongolian Plateau: Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peilei; Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet

    2016-01-01

    Driven by drastic socioeconomic changes in China and Mongolia, urbanization has become one of the most significant driving forces in the transformation of the Mongolian Plateau in the past 30 years. Using Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar as case studies, we developed a holistic approach to examine the socioeconomic and natural driving forces for urbanization and to investigate the impact on the urban environment. We used a multidisciplinary approach and relied on a variety of data sources to assess the changes of the landscape and environment of the two cities. We detected a rapid urbanization in Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar, both in terms of urban population growth and urban land expansion, from 1990 to 2010, with a much faster speed in 2000-2010. The local geo-physical conditions have constrained the spatial direction of expansion. Ulaanbaatar lagged behind Hohhot for about a decade when measured by indicators of urban population and urban land. Both cities have a degraded urban environment and a growing air pollution epidemic. While Hohhot had worse air pollution than Ulaanbaatar in the early 2000s, the gap between the two cities became smaller after 2010. The research presented here highlights the following as key determinants for urbanization and environmental change: (1) the co-evolution of urbanization, economic development, and environmental change; (2) the urbanization of transitional economies driven by the change of the economic structure, i.e., the development by both manufacturing and tertiary sectors and the change in the primary sector; and (3) the recent institutional changes and increased integration with the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Urban Rail Transit Facilities Affect Housing Prices? Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit facilities play a critical role in citizen’s social activities (e.g., residence, work and education. Using panel data on housing prices and urban rail transit facilities for 35 Chinese cities for 2002 to 2013, this study constructs a panel data model to evaluate the effect of rail transit facilities on housing prices quantitatively. A correlation test reveals significant correlations between housing prices and rail transit facilities. Empirical results demonstrate that rail transit facilities can markedly elevate real estate prices. Quantitatively, a 1% increase in rail transit mileage improves housing prices by 0.0233%. The results highlight the importance of other factors (e.g., per capita GDP, land price, investment in real estate and population density in determining housing prices. We also assess the effects of expectations of new rail transit lines on housing prices, and the results show that expectation effects are insignificant. These findings encourage Chinese policy makers to take rail transit facilities into account in achieving sustainable development of real estate markets.

  10. Nutrition Transition and Biocultural Determinants of Obesity among Cameroonian Migrants in Urban Cameroon and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Amougou, Norbert; Ponty, Amandine; Loinger-Beck, Juliette; Nkuintchua, Téodyl; Monteillet, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Holdsworth, Michelle; Pasquet, Patrick

    2017-06-29

    Native of rural West Cameroon, the Bamiléké population is traditionally predisposed to obesity. Bamiléké who migrated to urban areas additionally experience the nutrition transition. We investigated the biocultural determinants of obesity in Bamiléké who migrated to urban Cameroon (Yaoundé), or urban France (Paris). We conducted qualitative interviews ( n = 36; 18 men) and a quantitative survey ( n = 627; 266 men) of adults using two-stage sampling strategy, to determine the association of dietary intake, physical activity and body weight norms with obesity of Bamiléké populations in these three socio-ecological areas (rural Cameroon: n = 258; urban Cameroon: n = 319; urban France: n = 50). The Bamiléké valued overweight and traditional energy-dense diets in rural and urban Cameroon. Physical activity levels were lower, consumption of processed energy-dense food was frequent and obesity levels higher in new migrants living in urban Cameroon and France. Female sex, age, duration of residence in urban areas, lower physical activity and valorisation of overweight were independently associated with obesity status. This work argues in favour of local and global health policies that account for the origin and the migration trajectories to prevent obesity in migrants.

  11. The Declining and the Thriving Neighborhoods : Urban Regeneration in the Chinese Context of Migration and Economic Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, L.; Huang, Xin; Yang, Qiao; Tieben, Hendrik; Geng, Yan; Rossini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, one of the major changes in urban development strategies of the first-tier cities in China is the increasing focus on urban regeneration. To cope with the magnitude of migration and challenges of economic transition, these cities are forced to find new models of urban

  12. Exploring synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapidly urbanizing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many urban areas around the world, Durham and Orange counties in North Carolina, USA are experiencing population growth and sprawl that is putting stress on the transportation system. Light rail and denser transit-oriented development are being considered as possible solutio...

  13. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jun Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  14. Vulnerability Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Networks: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel (Jian Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit is developing rapidly in major cities of China and has become a key component of urban transport. Nevertheless, the security and reliability in operation are significant issues that cannot be neglected. In this paper, the network and station vulnerabilities of the urban rail transit system were analyzed based on complex network and graph theories. A vulnerability evaluation model was proposed by accounting metro interchange and passenger flow and further validated by a case study of Shanghai Metro with full-scale network and real-world traffic data. It is identified that the urban rail transit network is rather robust to random attacks, but is vulnerable to the largest degree node-based attacks and the highest betweenness node-based attacks. Metro stations with a large node degree are more important in maintaining the network size, while stations with a high node betweenness are critical to network efficiency and origin-destination (OD connectivity. The most crucial stations in maintaining network serviceability do not necessarily have the highest passenger throughput or the largest structural connectivity. A comprehensive evaluation model as proposed is therefore essential to assess station vulnerability, so that attention can be placed on appropriate nodes within the metro system. The findings of this research are of both theoretical and practical significance for urban rail transit network design and performance evaluation.

  15. A Qualitative Study of Characteristics, Competencies, and Strategies of Transition Staff Working with Urban Latino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Lorenzo, Omayra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore characteristics, competencies, and strategies of transition program employment representatives who attain successful employment outcomes for urban Latino/a youths with disabilities. This study employed in-depth interviewing as a method of data collection. The central research question guiding…

  16. Instructor guide : managing operating cost for rural and small urban transit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop is to provide rural and small urban transit managers and staff with tools to analyze, track, predict, and manage operational costs. The workshop will have a beginning and ending general session, and will provide six sessio...

  17. Urban IDPs and Poverty: Analysis of the Effect of Mass Forced Displacement on Urban Poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Oruc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of mass forced displacement on urban poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The process of displacement in Bosnia and Herzegovina involved “forced evictions”, implying no choice in displacement decision, meaning that this type of rural-urban migration was not a rational decision driven by economic motives. Consequently, this can possibly lead to a larger incidence of poverty among displaced people. The paper starts with a discussion of the specific features of the process of forced displacement and their possibly different effect on urban poverty compared to voluntary migration, based on qualitative evidence collected through interviews with people who experienced forced displacement during the conflict in the 1990s. Then, the probit model of determinants of poverty, based on the Living Standards Measurement Survey data, was estimated in order to provide empirical evidence of the effect of mass forced displacement on urban poverty, as well as the difference in the poverty incidence among displaced people compared to voluntary migrants. The results suggest that consumption is significantly lower among displaced households, while incidence of poverty is not affected by displacement status. The evidence also contributes to the migration literature by providing specific results about the relationship between mass forced displacement and urban poverty.

  18. Multiperiod Hierarchical Location Problem of Transit Hub in Urban Agglomeration Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid urbanization in developing countries, urban agglomeration area (UAA forms. Also, transportation demand in UAA grows rapidly and presents hierarchical feature. Therefore, it is imperative to develop models for transit hubs to guide the development of UAA and better meet the time-varying and hierarchical transportation demand. In this paper, the multiperiod hierarchical location problem of transit hub in urban agglomeration area (THUAA is studied. A hierarchical service network of THUAA with a multiflow, nested, and noncoherent structure is described. Then a multiperiod hierarchical mathematical programming model is proposed, aiming at minimizing the total demand weighted travel time. Moreover, an improved adaptive clonal selection algorithm is presented to solve the model. Both the model and algorithm are verified by the application to a real-life problem of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China. The results of different scenarios in the case show that urban population migration has a great impact on the THUAA location scheme. Sustained and appropriate urban population migration helps to reduce travel time for urban residents.

  19. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Chaoqun; Liu Yejin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will often be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Towards a green urban economy? Unravelling urban sustainability transitions from a regime perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.; Meerow, S.

    2012-01-01

    The current debate about sustainability transitions has embraced the multi-level perspective as a useful methodological tool for assessing the dynamics that are at play between landscape, regime and niche. As a consequence, the thinking about socio-technical transitions has gradually shifted in

  1. Urban Water Innovation Network (UWIN): Transitioning Toward Sustainbale Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, M.

    2015-12-01

    City water systems are at risk of disruption from global social and environmental hazards, which could have deleterious effects on human health, property, and loss of critical infrastructure. The Urban Water Innovation Network (UWIN), a consortium of 14 academic institutions and other key partners across the U.S., is working to address challenges that threaten urban water systems across the nation. UWIN's mission is to create technological, institutional and management solutions to help communities increase the resilience of their water systems and enhance their preparedness for responding to water crisis. The network seeks solutions that achieve widespread adoption consistent with inclusive, equitable and sustainable urban development. The integrative and adaptive analysis framework of UWIN is presented. The framework identifies a toolbox of sustainable solutions by simultaneously minimizing pressures, enhancing resilience to extreme events, and maximizing cobenefits. The benefits of sustainable urban water solutions for linked urban ecosystems, economies, and arrangements for environmental justice and social equity, will be discussed. The network encompasses six U.S. regions with varying ecohydrologic and climatic regimes ranging from the coastal moist mid-latitude climates of the Mid-Atlantic to the subtropical semi-arid deserts of the Southwest. These regions also represent a wide spectrum of demographic, cultural, and policy settings. The opportunities for cross-site assessments that facilitate the exploration of locally appropriate solutions across regions undergoing various development trajectories will be discussed.

  2. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrous, Matthew George; Adamic, Mary Louise; Olson, John Eric; Baeck, D. L.; Fox, R. V.; Hahn, P. A.; Jenson, D. D.; Lister, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the project, New Paradigms for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Raising the Scientific Profile and Improved Performance for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is to ensure that the ongoing isotope ratio determination capability within the U.S. Department of Energy complex is the world's best for application to nonproliferation. This report spells out the progress of Task 4, Transition of TIMS to AMS for Iodine Analysis, of the larger project. The subtasks under Task 4 and the accomplishments throughout the three year project life cycle are presented in this report. Progress was made in optimization of chemical extraction, determination of a detection limit for 127Iodine, production of standard materials for AMS analysis quality assurance, facilitation of knowledge exchange with respect to analyzing iodine on an AMS, cross comparison with a world-leading AMS laboratory, supercritical fluid extraction of iodine for AMS analysis and electrodeposition of seawater as a direct method of preparation for iodine analysis by AMS--all with the goal of minimizing the time required to stand up an AMS capability for iodine analysis of exposed air filters at INL. An effective extraction method has been developed and demonstrated for iodine analysis of exposed air filters. Innovative techniques to accomplish the cathode preparation for AMS analysis were developed and demonstrated and published. The known gap of a lack of available materials for reference standards in the analysis of iodine by AMS was filled by the preparation of homogenous materials that were calibrated against NIST materials. A minimum limit on the amount of abundant isotope in a sample was determined for AMS analysis. The knowledge exchange occurred with fantastic success. Scientists engaged the international AMS community at conferences, as well as in their laboratories for collaborative work. The supercritical fluid extraction work has positive

  3. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Matthew George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adamic, Mary Louise [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Olson, John Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baeck, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, R. V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hahn, P. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jenson, D. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lister, T. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the project, New Paradigms for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Raising the Scientific Profile and Improved Performance for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is to ensure that the ongoing isotope ratio determination capability within the U.S. Department of Energy complex is the world’s best for application to nonproliferation. This report spells out the progress of Task 4, Transition of TIMS to AMS for Iodine Analysis, of the larger project. The subtasks under Task 4 and the accomplishments throughout the three year project life cycle are presented in this report. Progress was made in optimization of chemical extraction, determination of a detection limit for 127Iodine, production of standard materials for AMS analysis quality assurance, facilitation of knowledge exchange with respect to analyzing iodine on an AMS, cross comparison with a world-leading AMS laboratory, supercritical fluid extraction of iodine for AMS analysis and electrodeposition of seawater as a direct method of preparation for iodine analysis by AMS--all with the goal of minimizing the time required to stand up an AMS capability for iodine analysis of exposed air filters at INL. An effective extraction method has been developed and demonstrated for iodine analysis of exposed air filters. Innovative techniques to accomplish the cathode preparation for AMS analysis were developed and demonstrated and published. The known gap of a lack of available materials for reference standards in the analysis of iodine by AMS was filled by the preparation of homogenous materials that were calibrated against NIST materials. A minimum limit on the amount of abundant isotope in a sample was determined for AMS analysis. The knowledge exchange occurred with fantastic success. Scientists engaged the international AMS community at conferences, as well as in their laboratories for collaborative work. The supercritical fluid extraction work has positive

  4. Resilience in the Transition Towns Movement. Towards a new Urban Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resilience, a concept typical in the natural sciences, has for some years been part of vocabulary of spatial planning but it is as yet relatively unexplored. Its common definition still represents resilience as the capacity of a system to absorb disturbances and to reorganise itself, by returning to the original state. Complexity theory shows that resilience is a bottom-up process, closely related to self-organization of a system, which could change the role of institutions and community in urban governance. Recently, the concept of resilience has been associated with the Transition Towns movement, a bottom-up initiative promoted by civil society. Better known as “urban initiatives for the transition”, they are a set of bottom-up practices of urban management, aimed at achieving a self-sufficient and “zero impact” model of urban development. In this perspective, the research question is: could this new paradigm of development and spatial organization really be a new approach in urban governance? The paper focuses on the epistemological dimension of the concept of resilience in spatial planning. The purpose is to understand the extent of innovation in planning practices and urban governance. In particular, the first part of the paper provides a review of the theoretical framework of resilience and the second analyzes the Transition Towns movement, with particular reference to the role of stakeholders. The main aim is to study the implications of the concept of resilience in spatial planning and, in particular, how it translates in the Transition Town experiences. The related outcome is to reflect on the perspective of institutional innovation, in terms of new urban governance. 

  5. The urban health transition hypothesis: empirical evidence of an avian influenza Kuznets curve in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James Herbert

    2013-04-01

    The literature on development has focused on the concept of transition in understanding the emergent challenges facing poor but rapidly developing countries. Scholars have focused extensively on the health and urban transitions associated with this change and, in particular, its use for understanding emerging infectious diseases. However, few have developed explicit empirical measures to quantify the extent to which a transitions focus is useful for theory, policy, and practice. Using open source data on avian influenza in 2004 and 2005 and the Vietnam Census of Population and Housing, this paper introduces the Kuznets curve as a tool for empirically estimating transition and disease. Findings suggest that the Kuznets curve is a viable tool for empirically assessing the role of transitional dynamics in the emergence of new infectious diseases.

  6. The Geography of Solar Photovoltaics (PV and a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early phases of a 21st century energy transition that involves distributed generation technologies employing low or zero carbon emission power sources and their take-up within Australia, with particular reference to the major cities and solar photovoltaics (PV. This transition is occurring in a nation with significant path dependency to overcome in relation to fossil fuel use. Tracking the diffusion of solar PV technology within Australia over the past decade provides a basis for assessing those factors underpinning its exponential growth and its associated geography of diffusion. Positive evidence that there are pathways for cities to decarbonise is apparent but there appear to be different pathways for different city forms with lower density suburban areas showing the biggest take-up of household-based energy technologies. This suggests a model for the low carbon urban transition involving combinations of simple technological changes and harder structural changes, depending upon which parts of the urban fabric are in focus. This is being called a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory.

  7. ScienceToGo.org: The Strengths and Weaknesses of Communicating Climate Change through Mass Transit Advertising Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Wilson, R.; Rabkin, D.; Thompson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Engaging urban populations with climate change science is a difficult challenge since cities can seem so removed from the `natural environment.' However, mass transit provides an inherent means of communicating environmental messages with a cross section of the urban population. The Out of Home Media (OHM) spaces found on platforms and inside train cars provide a potentially effective means of bringing informal science learning opportunities directly to an underserved STEM audience. Our team felt that any messaging curriculum for a coastal urban subway system must complement the scary reality of the impacts of a changing climate (i.e. rising sea levels) with current examples of how the city is preparing for a more sustainable future. Urban areas such as Boston must develop adaptation and mitigation strategies that will help them not only survive, but thrive in a changing environment. In 2013-14, ScienceToGo.org ran a series of 12 engaging posters and placards staring `Ozzie the Ostrich' on the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority's Red and Orange subway lines targeting an audience of more than 400,000 riders per day. The 12 month curriculum was divided into three phases: reality, relevance, and hope. During the presentation, we will present the results of our quasi-experimental research which identifies, quantifies, and explains the observed impacts of the campaign on adult riders. The strengths and weaknesses of the communication strategy will be discussed. Finally, we will conclude with some recommendations for how this work could improve and inform other urban informal science learning initiatives.

  8. OT1_ipascucc_1: Understanding the Origin of Transition Disks via Disk Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, I.

    2010-07-01

    Transition disks are a distinguished group of few Myr-old systems caught in the phase of dispersing their inner dust disk. Three different processes have been proposed to explain this inside-out clearing: grain growth, photoevaporation driven by the central star, and dynamical clearing by a forming giant planet. Which of these processes lead to a transition disk? Distinguishing between them requires the combined knowledge of stellar accretion rates and disk masses. We propose here to use 43.8 hours of PACS spectroscopy to detect the [OI] 63 micron emission line from a sample of 21 well-known transition disks with measured mass accretion rates. We will use this line, in combination with ancillary CO millimeter lines, to measure their gas disk mass. Because gas dominates the mass of protoplanetary disks our approach and choice of lines will enable us to trace the bulk of the disk mass that resides beyond tens of AU from young stars. Our program will quadruple the number of transition disks currently observed with Herschel in this setting and for which disk masses can be measured. We will then place the transition and the ~100 classical/non-transition disks of similar age (from the Herschel KP "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems") in the mass accretion rate-disk mass diagram with two main goals: 1) reveal which gaps have been created by grain growth, photoevaporation, or giant planet formation and 2) from the statistics, determine the main disk dispersal mechanism leading to a transition disk.

  9. Work organization, health, and obesity in urban transit operators: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Marnie; Choi, BongKyoo; Schnall, Peter L

    2017-11-01

    Urban transit operators have high rates of obesity, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk-factors compared to other occupations. There have been few qualitative studies exploring the interrelationships between the organization of transit work, stress, and health including obesity, from the perspective of operators. Five focus groups were conducted at five Divisions in a transit authority in Southern California and included 65 bus and rail operators. Operators reported a great deal of stress related to their work, including 1) time pressures and lack of recovery time; 2) long work shifts and overtime; 3) feeling unsafe when dealing with the public; 4) lack of respect from supervisors and management. Operators believed stressful working conditions negatively impacted their health and weight. This qualitative study yielded new as well as confirmatory data about stress and transit work organization, health, and weight in operators. This study will add to future survey research and interventions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. FTA Low-speed urban maglev research program lessons learned : March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In 1999, the Federal Transit Administration initiated the Low-Speed Urban Magnetic Levitation (UML) Program to develop magnetic levitation technology that offers a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass tran...

  11. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 1 : executive summary of final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  12. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 2 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  13. Perception of the Transition Zones from Urban to Suburban Area Using Mobile Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Magris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road users adjust their driving behavior based on the perception of the route and the surrounding environment. The eye-tracking technology allows interpreting the driver behavior, analyzing aspects otherwise not considered in the design stage. This technology has been used for transition zone analysis at town entrances along the SP 610 “Selice Montanara”, to verify the efficiency of gateway created to reduce the input speed in urban areas. Results show that the installation of traffic calming measures at transition zones leads to a change of the environment perception by drivers, and consequently safety increase.

  14. Development and application of resilient wheels in urban rail transit vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan WEN

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit vehicles have been more and more attractive to people as a kind of fast, comfortable, energy-saving, environmental protection and safe transportation. But because of the vehicle noise and vibration, urban rail vehicles also face severe challenges. The research of resilient wheels has been continuously developed and improved. Based on the review of development background and structure sorts of resilient wheels, the advantages of resilient wheels are described, and the research status of noise and vibration reducing, infinite element strength analysis, vehicle dynamic analysis and the wheel-rail wear of resilient wheels are discussed. Taking the low-floor LRVs (light rail vehicles in domestic and overseas as example, the development and application of the resilient wheels in city rail transit is described, and the application prospects of the resilient wheels in LRVs in domestic and the future research direction of elastic wheel are discussed.

  15. Urban planning, public transit and related initiatives for more sustainable transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The characteristics of ten Canadian cities and their transportation systems were summarized. The need to conserve resources and to maintain environmental quality has lead to initiatives aimed at achieving more sustainable urban transportation. The most promising initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and achieve other sustainability objectives were described. Ways to overcome the most significant barriers were suggested. Since suburban areas are generally automobile-dependant, the major challenge is how to retrofit these areas with high quality transit services. A corollary objective is to achieve more compact, mixed-use urban structure and pedestrian-friendly streetscapes, thereby reducing average trip distances and making it feasible for the transit, walking and cycling modes to be used more extensively. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-01-01

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations. PMID:29558379

  17. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (<400 m or urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations.

  18. MASS TRANSIT: FTA Could Relieve New Starts Program Funding Constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Much of this investment has come through the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) New Starts program, which helps pay for certain rail, bus, and trolley projects through full-funding grant agreements...

  19. Mass transit sustainability in the Saint Louis region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It has been often suggested that the definition of insanity is doing the same thing and expecting a different outcome. Unfortunately a : dispassionate evaluation of the current state of public transit in the United States would easily fit this defini...

  20. Measuring Transit Oriented Development of Existing Urban Areas around Metro Stations in Faridabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Pal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population in Indian cities is encouraging auto reliance and having unsafe economic, social and environmental consequences. Land-use-change patterns are the outcome of the complex relations between the human and the physical surroundings. To address these issues the planners are moving beyond land use planning to a sustainable development. Transit and Land use planning are important components to achieve sustainable future of urban development. TOD is a planning tool to encourage this integration. This paper discusses the land use scenario and opportunity around four Metro transit stations in Faridabad city. Different methods and various sets of indicators are considered to evaluate and measure TOD index in this study. This study will evaluate and measure the Faridabad city in the context of land use around Metro Stations to support TOD. This paper seeks to answer how to promote walkable communities, compact and transit-oriented development (TOD that incorporates mixed land use development, including neighbourhood schools, retail and business related space and a mix range of housing types within walkable distance. This paper concludes that the stations area which had a low TOD score needs to have policy for improvement. If planned efficiently, TODs can realize the sustainable development with considerable change in the urban development that focuses on pedestrian based neighbourhood planning.

  1. Government, market and community in urban solid waste management; problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.; Post, J.

    2004-01-01

    -Post, Johan and Isa Baud (2004) Government, market and community in urban solid waste management; problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development? in: Baud, Isa., Johan. Post and Christine Furedy (2004) Solid Waste Management and Rec

  2. Urban Community Planning in the Context of Transition in China: Theory Interpretation and Practice Exploration Based on Relationship Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Jiayan  LIU

    2017-01-01

    Along with a full-scale transition in both the urban development pattern and the socio-economic development in China, the planning of urban residential pace has experienced a significant transition process from the residential area planning in traditional Danwei system, to the commercial housing estate planning in marketized housing system, then to the springing up of contemporary community planning. On the basis of an analysis of the primary goal, form, and limitations of community planning ...

  3. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  4. Tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions in the design of urban transit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, Julia B; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Recent investments in the transit sector to address greenhouse gas emissions have concentrated on purchasing efficient replacement vehicles and inducing mode shift from the private automobile. There has been little focus on the potential of network and operational improvements, such as changes in headways, route spacing, and stop spacing, to reduce transit emissions. Most models of transit system design consider user and agency cost while ignoring emissions and the potential environmental benefit of operational improvements. We use a model to evaluate the user and agency costs as well as greenhouse gas benefit of design and operational improvements to transit systems. We examine how the operational characteristics of urban transit systems affect both costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The research identifies the Pareto frontier for designing an idealized transit network. Modes considered include bus, bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail transit (LRT), and metro (heavy) rail, with cost and emissions parameters appropriate for the United States. Passenger demand follows a many-to-many travel pattern with uniformly distributed origins and destinations. The approaches described could be used to optimize the network design of existing bus service or help to select a mode and design attributes for a new transit system. The results show that BRT provides the lowest cost but not the lowest emissions for our large city scenarios. Bus and LRT systems have low costs and the lowest emissions for our small city scenarios. Relatively large reductions in emissions from the cost-optimal system can be achieved with only minor increases in user travel time. (letter)

  5. Does rapid urbanization aggravate health disparities? Reflections on the epidemiological transition in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Kroll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all

  6. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  7. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, U.

    1988-07-01

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  8. Proceedings of the Canadian Urban Transit Association Annual Conference 2001 : Sailing Toward New Horizons. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Annual Canadian Urban Transit Association Conference attracted speakers from both Canada and the United States. The topics discussed during the 17 sessions fell in the broad categories of smart growth and urban transit, innovation and new ideas in the transit industry, urban transportation and climate change, the future of transit and the environment, as well as active transportation and its impact on human health. It is felt that public transit should represent the primary solution to urban mobility, with the aim of achieving sustainable transportation. Urban transit and the various means by which it can have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and global climate change were discussed in great depth. Community growth has spurred the demand for additional transportation, and presents challenges particular to each community. Discussions also focused on the resulting air quality and pollution problems along with some proposed solutions. Clean fuels, such as compressed natural gas, propane and methanol were also touched upon, as were emerging technologies in the fields of vehicle and new propulsion technologies. The impact of public transit on public health, from the point of view of air quality, climate change and safety was discussed. A total of 35 papers were presented at this conference, of which 9 were processed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  9. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Gou, Zhonghua; Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-03-20

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking-e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network-often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800-1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (transit stations.

  10. Activity-Based Costing Application in an Urban Mass Transport Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesko Boris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic overview of the application of Activity-Based Costing in an urban mass transport company which operates land public transport via buses and trolleys within the city. The case study was conducted using the Activity-Based Methodology in order to calculate the true cost of individual operations and to measure the profitability of particular transport lines. The case study analysis showed the possible effects of the application of the Activity-Based Costing for an urban mass transport company as well as the limitations of using the ABC methodology in the service industry. With regards to the application of the ABC methodology, the primary limitation of the accuracy of the conclusions is the quality of the non-financial information which had to be gathered throughout the implementation process. A basic limitation of the accurate data acquisition is the nature of the fare system of the transport company which does not allow the identification of the route that is taken by an individual passenger. The study illustrates the technique of ABC in urban mass transport and provides a real company example of information outputs of the ABC system. The users indicated that, the ABC model is very useful for profitability reporting and profit management. Also, the paper shows specific application of the Activity-Based Methodology in conditions of urban mass transport companies with regional specifics.

  11. From Problems to Potentials—The Urban Energy Transition of Gruž, Dubrovnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy van den Dobbelsteen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge for a sustainable society, carbon-neutrality is a critical objective for all cities in the coming decades. In the EU City-zen project, academic partners collaborate to develop an urban energy transition methodology, which supports cities in making the energy transition to sustainable lifestyles and carbon neutrality. As part of the project, so-called Roadshows are organised in cities that wish to take the first step toward zero-energy living. Each Roadshow is methodologically composed to allow sustainability experts from across Europe to co-create designs, strategies and timelines with local stakeholders in order to reach this vital goal. Following a precursory investigative student workshop (the SWAT Studio, Dubrovnik was the third city to host the Roadshow in November 2016. During these events the characteristics of Dubrovnik, and the district of Gruž in particular, were systematically analysed, leading to useful insights into the current problems and potentials of the city. In close collaboration with local stakeholders, the team proposed a series of interventions, validated by the calculation of carbon emission, to help make Gruž, and in its wake the whole city of Dubrovnik, net zero energy and zero carbon. The vision presented to the inhabitants and its key city decision makers encompassed a path towards an attainable sustainable future. The strategies and solutions proposed for the Dubrovnik district of Gruž were able to reduce the current carbon sequestration compensation of 1200 hectares of forestland to only 67 hectares, an area achievable by urban reforestation projects. This paper presents the City-zen methodology of urban energy transition and that of the City-zen Roadshow, the analysis of the city of Dubrovnik, proposed interventions and the carbon impact, as calculated by means of the carbon accounting method discussed in the paper.

  12. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): Observing Mass Loss on Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Arika; Fleming, Brian; France, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is an NUV spectrograph packaged into a 6U CubeSat, designed to characterize the interaction between exoplanetary atmospheres and their host stars. CUTE will conduct a transit spectroscopy survey, gathering data over multiple transits on more than 12 short-period exoplanets with a range of masses and radii. The instrument will characterize the spectral properties of the transit light curves to atomic and molecular absorption features predicted to exist in the upper atmospheres of these planets, including Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, and OH. The shape and evolution of these spectral light curves will be used to quantify mass loss rates, the stellar drives of that mass loss, and the possible existence of exoplanetary magnetic fiends. This poster presents the science motivation for CUTE, planned observation and data analysis methods, and expected results.

  13. Electromechanical phase transition of a dielectric elastomer tube under internal pressure of constant mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Che

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The electromechanical phase transition for a dielectric elastomer (DE tube has been demonstrated in recent experiments, where it is found that the unbulged phase gradually changed into bulged phase. Previous theoretical works only studied the transition process under pressure control condition, which is not consistent with the real experimental condition. This paper focuses on more complex features of the electromechanical phase transition under internal pressure of constant mass. We derive the equilibrium equations and the condition for coexistent states for a DE tube under an internal pressure, a voltage through the thickness and an axial force. We find that under mass control condition the voltage needed to maintain the phase transition increases as the process proceeds. We analyze the entire process of electromechanical phase transition and find that the evolution of configurations is also different from that for pressure control condition.

  14. Body Mass Index and Self-Perception of Overweight and Obesity in Rural, Urban and Rural-to-Urban Migrants: PERU MIGRANT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Pillay, Timesh D.; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare self-reported weight and body mass index (BMI) in order to determine discrepancies between subjective and objective obesity-related markers, and possible explanatory factors of overweight and obesity underestimation, in urban, rural and migrant populations. Materials and Methods: Data from the PERU MIGRANT study, a cross-sectional study, in low-income settings, of urban, migrant (rural-to-urban), and rural groups, including BMI, self-reported weight and ...

  15. Urbanization, Agricultural Intensification, and Habitat Alteration in Vietnam: Modeling Transitional Development and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.; Saksena, S.; Spencer, J.; Finucane, M.; Sultana, N.

    2012-12-01

    Our overarching hypothesis is that new risks, in this case the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, emerge during transitions between stages of development. Moreover, these risks are not coincidental but occur precisely because of the in-between nature of the coupled human-natural system at the point when things are neither traditional nor modern but resemble the state of chaos, release and reorganization. We are testing this hypothesis in Vietnam using demographic, social, economic, and environmental data collected in national censuses and analyzed at commune and district levels to identify communes and districts that are traditional, modern, and transitional (peri-urban). Using data from the 2006 agricultural census that capture both the changing nature of the built environment (types of sanitation systems) and the loss of and diversification of agriculture systems (percent of households whose major source of income is from agriculture, and percent of land under agriculture, forests, and aquaculture), and a normalized difference vegetation index from 2006 Landsat images we created a national scale urbanicity map for Vietnam. Field work in the summer of 2011 showed this map to be an accurate (approximately 85%) approximation of traditional (rural), transitional (periurban), and modern (urban) communes. Preliminary results suggest that over 7% of the country's land area and roughly 15% of its population resides in periurban neighborhoods, and that these areas do have a statistically significant greater incidence of AVI as measured in chicken deaths than traditional and modern communes (Table 1). Transitional neighborhoods such as these force planners to ask two questions. To what extent does the dichotomy of urban/rural makes sense in the context of Vietnam, when large areas and parts of the population are caught between the two? Second, how can planners and policy makers effectively provide for basic public goods and services in these contexts?Classification of places

  16. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  17. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating Urban Forms for Comparison Studies in the Massing Design Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Wee Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce five performance indicators to facilitate the comparison of urban massing design in the early design stages. The five simple indicators are based on existing studies and cover three main performance areas that are sensitive to urban form changes: solar, ventilation, and connectivity potentials. The first three indicators—the non-solar heated façade to floor area index, daylight façade to floor area index, and photovoltaics envelope to floor area index—measure the solar potential. The frontal area index measures the ventilation potential and the route-directness index measures the connectivity potential. The indicators are simple to use, as they only require urban geometry data for their calculation. We demonstrate the indicators in two case studies; variations in the values of these indicators show that they are sensitive to urban form changes and can be used in comparative studies to identify better performing urban forms among massing designs. We implement the indicators as an open-source Python library, Pyliburo, that designers and researchers can readily access and integrate into their existing design workflows.

  19. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  20. Vulnerability analysis and passenger source prediction in urban rail transit networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Wang

    Full Text Available Based on large-scale human mobility data collected in San Francisco and Boston, the morning peak urban rail transit (URT ODs (origin-destination matrix were estimated and the most vulnerable URT segments, those capable of causing the largest service interruptions, were identified. In both URT networks, a few highly vulnerable segments were observed. For this small group of vital segments, the impact of failure must be carefully evaluated. A bipartite URT usage network was developed and used to determine the inherent connections between urban rail transits and their passengers' travel demands. Although passengers' origins and destinations were easy to locate for a large number of URT segments, a few show very complicated spatial distributions. Based on the bipartite URT usage network, a new layer of the understanding of a URT segment's vulnerability can be achieved by taking the difficulty of addressing the failure of a given segment into account. Two proof-of-concept cases are described here: Possible transfer of passenger flow to the road network is here predicted in the cases of failures of two representative URT segments in San Francisco.

  1. Simulation and evaluation of urban rail transit network based on multi-agent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urban rail transit is a complex and dynamic system, which is difficult to be described in a global mathematical model for its scale and interaction. In order to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of passenger flow distribution and evaluate the effectiveness of transportation strategies, a new and comprehensive method depicted such dynamic system should be given. This study therefore aims at using simulation approach to solve this problem for subway network. Design/methodology/approach: In this thesis a simulation model based on multi-agent approach has been proposed, which is a well suited method to design complex systems. The model includes the specificities of passengers’ travelling behaviors and takes into account of interactions between travelers and trains. Findings: Research limitations/implications: We developed an urban rail transit simulation tool for verification of the validity and accuracy of this model, using real passenger flow data of Beijing subway network to take a case study, results show that our simulation tool can be used to analyze the characteristic of passenger flow distribution and evaluate operation strategies well. Practical implications: The main implications of this work are to provide decision support for traffic management, making train operation plan and dispatching measures in emergency. Originality/value: A new and comprehensive method to analyze and evaluate subway network is presented, accuracy and computational efficiency of the model has been confirmed and meet with the actual needs for large-scale network.

  2. A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaptation strategies in urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, C F; Elle, M; Jensen, M B; Mikkelsen, P S

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a 'more sustainable and integrated urban water management cycle'. But Danish municipalities and utility companies are struggling to bring such solutions into practice. 'Green infrastructure', for example, requires the consideration of a larger range of aspects related to the urban context than the traditional urban water system optimization. There is the need for standardized methods and guidelines to organize transdisciplinary processes where different types of knowledge and perspectives are taken into account. On the basis of the macro-meso-micro pattern inspired by complexity science and transition theory, we developed a conceptual framework to organize processes addressing the complexity characterizing urban water management in the context of climate change. In this paper the framework is used to organize a research process aiming at understanding and unfolding urban dynamics for sustainable transition. The final goal is to enable local authorities and utilities to create the basis for managing and catalysing the technical and organizational innovation necessary for a sustainable transition towards climate change adaptation in urban areas.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Current and Former Smoking among Urban Transit Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B. Cunradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transit workers constitute a blue-collar occupational group that have elevated smoking rates relative to other sectors of employed adults in the United States. This study analyzed cross-sectional tobacco survey data from 935 workers (60% African American; 37% female employed at an urban public transit agency in California. Prevalence of current and former smoking was 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Younger workers were less likely than older workers to be current or former smokers. Having a complete home smoking ban was associated with decreased likelihood of being a smoker [odds ratio (OR = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.01–0.17], as were neutral views about whether it is easy for a smoker to take a smoking break during their shift (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.28–0.88. Current smoking among the sample is > 50% higher than the adult statewide prevalence. Potential points of intervention identified in this study include perceived ease of worksite smoking breaks and establishing home smoking bans. Tailored cessation efforts focusing on older transit workers more likely to smoke are needed to reduce tobacco-related disparities in this workforce. Keywords: blue-collar workers, health disparities, smoking

  4. Corporatization of the water sector: Implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten; Brown, Norman R.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of climate change, the Danish water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand....... A more direct collaboration of the national regulator of competitive performances with government institutions and other non-governmental actors might be an effective answer to such challenges....... the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to SUWM. On the base of a preliminary literature review we...... identify the rationales for and drawbacks of corporatization and compare them with the critical factors to build institutional capacity for SUWM. Preliminary results suggest that corporatization is expected to create a range of challenges that might hinder the transition towards more SUWM approaches...

  5. A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaptation strategies in urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten; Jensen, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    for standardized methods and guidelines to organize transdisciplinary processes where different types of knowledge and perspectives are taken into account. On the basis of the macro-meso-micro pattern inspired by complexity science and transition theory, we developed a conceptual framework to organize processes...... addressing the complexity characterizing urban water management in the context of climate change. In this paper the framework is used to organize a research process aiming at understanding and unfolding urban dynamics for sustainable transition. The final goal is to enable local authorities and utilities...

  6. NGOs fostering transitions towards sustainable urban sanitation in low-income countries : Insights from transition management and development studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welie, M.J.; Romijn, H.A.

    Globally, 756 million people in urban areas have no access to improved sanitation, while the urban population is increasing rapidly. Providing toilets has often not been a sustainable solution because of failure to link them to the necessary service infrastructure. Resolving urban sanitation

  7. Bus Rapid Transit system’s influence on urban development: An inquiry to Boston and Seoul BRT systems’ technical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogi, Lutfi

    2018-03-01

    This article explores the relation between bus rapid transit (BRT) system and urban development. This article was written through a multi-staged comprehensive literature review. It includes a general overview of widely acknowledged BRT technical characteristics. It explains the approach taken in understanding the relation between BRT system provision and urban development around the system. Findings regarding the influence of Boston Silver Line 4 and 5 and Seoul BRT systems on urban development around the systems are quoted and used as case studies. Investigation on the technical characteristics of Boston SL4/5 and Seoul BRT systems are provided. This article shows that the two BRT systems that influence urban development around the systems have technical characteristics that enable the BRT systems to have high performance. However, while the quoted BRT systems can influence urban development, they have significantly different performance.

  8. Suitability assessment of the urban water management transition in the Indonesian context - A case study of Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholihah, Mar'atus; Anityasari, Maria; Maftuhah, Diesta Iva

    2017-06-01

    The rapidly growing urban population, the increasing impact of climate change, and the constantly decreasing availability of the good quality water become the major triggers that force urban water professionals to continuously focus on sustainable urban water management (SUWM). The city as a focal point of population growth in the world has become a critical object for its resiliency, not only in terms of the environmental deterioration but also of the water supplies security. As a response to the current condition, the framework of urban water management transition has been introduced as a sort of transformation for a city to achieve SUWM. Water Sensitive City (WSC) is the ultimate goal of this framework which integrates water access and supply security, public health protection, flood prevention, environmental protection and livability, and economic sustainability. Recently, the urban water management transition and WSC concept are going to be implemented in some cities in Indonesia, including Surabaya. However, in addition to provide a wide range of benefits, the implementation of WSC also brings challenges. In terms of geographical and social aspect, public policy, and the citizen behavior, the cities in Indonesia are undoubtedly different with those in Australian where the concept was developed. Hence, assessing the suitability of urban water management transition in the Indonesian context can be perceived as the most important phase in this whole plan. A case study of Surabaya would be identified as a baseline to measure whether the proposed sequence of urban water management transition is suitable for Indonesian local context. The research aimed to assess the suitability of the framework to be implemented in Indonesia and to propose the modified framework which is more suitable for local context in Indonesia.

  9. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  10. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  11. Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: The Transition from Gaseous to Rocky Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcy, G.W.; et al., [Unknown; Hekker, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements of the host stars. Based on an analysis of the Kepler brightness measurements,

  12. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias mountains, Alaska

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gulick, S.P.S.; Jaeger, J.M.; Mix, A.C.; Asahi, H.; Bahlburg, H.; Belanger, C.L.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Childress, L.; Cowan, E.; Drab, L.; Forwick, M.; Fukumura, A.; Ge, S.; Gupta, S.M.; Kioka, A.; Konno, S.; LeVay, L.J.; Marz, C.; Matsuzaki, K.M.; McClymont, E.L.; Moy, C.; Muller, J.; Nakamura, A.; Ojima, T.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Ridgway, K.D.; Romero, O.E.; Slagle, A.L.; Stoner, J.S.; St-Onge, G.; Suto, I.; Walczak, M.D.; Worthington, L.L.; Bailey, I.; Enkelmann, E.; Reece, R.; Swartz, J.M.

    the onset of quasi-periodic (~100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2–0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50–80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent...

  13. Controls on mass loss and nitrogen dynamics of oak leaf litter along an urban-rural land-use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V. Pouyat; Margaret M. Carreiro

    2003-01-01

    Using reciprocal leaf litter transplants, we investigated the effects of contrasting environments (urban vs. rural) and intraspecific variations in oak leaf litter quality on mass loss rates and nitrogen (N) dynamics along an urban-rural gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Differences in earthworm abundances and temperature had previously been documented...

  14. Characterization of urban aerosol in Cork city (Ireland) using aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Martin, D.; Healy, R. M.; O'Connor, I. P.; Kourtchev, I.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.; O'Dowd, C.

    2013-05-01

    Ambient wintertime background urban aerosol in Cork city, Ireland, was characterized using aerosol mass spectrometry. During the three-week measurement study in 2009, 93% of the ca. 1 350 000 single particles characterized by an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS) were classified into five organic-rich particle types, internally mixed to different proportions with elemental carbon (EC), sulphate and nitrate, while the remaining 7% was predominantly inorganic in nature. Non-refractory PM1 aerosol was characterized using a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS) and was also found to comprise organic aerosol as the most abundant species (62%), followed by nitrate (15%), sulphate (9%) and ammonium (9%), and chloride (5%). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the HR-ToF-AMS organic matrix, and a five-factor solution was found to describe the variance in the data well. Specifically, "hydrocarbon-like" organic aerosol (HOA) comprised 20% of the mass, "low-volatility" oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) comprised 18%, "biomass burning" organic aerosol (BBOA) comprised 23%, non-wood solid-fuel combustion "peat and coal" organic aerosol (PCOA) comprised 21%, and finally a species type characterized by primary {m/z} peaks at 41 and 55, similar to previously reported "cooking" organic aerosol (COA), but possessing different diurnal variations to what would be expected for cooking activities, contributed 18%. Correlations between the different particle types obtained by the two aerosol mass spectrometers are also discussed. Despite wood, coal and peat being minor fuel types used for domestic space heating in urban areas, their relatively low combustion efficiencies result in a significant contribution to PM1 aerosol mass (44% and 28% of the total organic aerosol mass and non-refractory total PM1, respectively).

  15. Characterization of urban aerosol in Cork city (Ireland using aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient wintertime background urban aerosol in Cork city, Ireland, was characterized using aerosol mass spectrometry. During the three-week measurement study in 2009, 93% of the ca. 1 350 000 single particles characterized by an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS were classified into five organic-rich particle types, internally mixed to different proportions with elemental carbon (EC, sulphate and nitrate, while the remaining 7% was predominantly inorganic in nature. Non-refractory PM1 aerosol was characterized using a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS and was also found to comprise organic aerosol as the most abundant species (62%, followed by nitrate (15%, sulphate (9% and ammonium (9%, and chloride (5%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the HR-ToF-AMS organic matrix, and a five-factor solution was found to describe the variance in the data well. Specifically, "hydrocarbon-like" organic aerosol (HOA comprised 20% of the mass, "low-volatility" oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA comprised 18%, "biomass burning" organic aerosol (BBOA comprised 23%, non-wood solid-fuel combustion "peat and coal" organic aerosol (PCOA comprised 21%, and finally a species type characterized by primary extit{m/z}~peaks at 41 and 55, similar to previously reported "cooking" organic aerosol (COA, but possessing different diurnal variations to what would be expected for cooking activities, contributed 18%. Correlations between the different particle types obtained by the two aerosol mass spectrometers are also discussed. Despite wood, coal and peat being minor fuel types used for domestic space heating in urban areas, their relatively low combustion efficiencies result in a significant contribution to PM1 aerosol mass (44% and 28% of the total organic aerosol mass and non-refractory total PM1, respectively.

  16. Nuclear quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-mass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, S.; Li, Z. P.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2018-03-01

    Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape-phase transitions in odd-mass Eu isotopes are explored starting from excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a core-quasiparticle coupling Hamiltonian based on energy density functionals. As functions of the physical control parameter—the number of nucleons—theoretical low-energy spectra, two-neutron separation energies, charge isotope shifts, spectroscopic quadrupole moments, and E 2 reduced transition matrix elements accurately reproduce available data and exhibit more-pronounced discontinuities at neutron number N =90 compared with the adjacent even-even Sm and Gd isotopes. The enhancement of the first-order quantum phase transition in odd-mass systems can be attributed to a shape polarization effect of the unpaired proton which, at the critical neutron number, starts predominantly coupling to Gd core nuclei that are characterized by larger quadrupole deformation and weaker proton pairing correlations compared with the corresponding Sm isotopes.

  17. Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkkönen, P; Pai, P; Maynard, A; Lehtinen, K E J; Hämeri, K; Rechkemmer, P; Ramachandran, G; Prasad, B; Kulmala, M

    2005-07-15

    Fine particle number concentration (D(p)>10 nm, cm(-3)), mass concentrations (approximation of PM(2.5), microg m(-3)) and indoor/outdoor number concentration ratio (I/O) measurements have been conducted for the first time in 11 urban households in India, 2002. The results indicate remarkable high indoor number and mass concentrations and I/O number concentration ratios caused by cooking. Besides cooking stoves that used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene as the main fuel, high indoor concentrations can be explained by poor ventilation systems. Particle number concentrations of more than 300,000 cm(-3) and mass concentrations of more than 1000 microg m(-3) were detected in some cases. When the number and mass concentrations during cooking times were statistically compared, a correlation coefficient r>0.50 was observed in 63% of the households. Some households used other fuels like wood and dung cakes along with the main fuel, but also other living activities influenced the concentrations. In some areas, outdoor combustion processes had a negative impact on indoor air quality. The maximum concentrations observed in most cases were due to indoor combustion sources. Reduction of exposure risk and health effects caused by poor indoor air in urban Indian households is possible by improving indoor ventilation and reducing penetration of outdoor particles.

  18. Predicting runoff induced mass loads in urban watersheds: Linking land use and pyrethroid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Kazue; Lau, Sim-Lin; Nonezyan, Michael; McElroy, Elizabeth; Wolfe, Becky; Suffet, Irwin H; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-10-01

    Pyrethroid pesticide mass loadings in the Ballona Creek Watershed were calculated using the volume-concentration method with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore potential relationships between urban land use, impervious surfaces, and pyrethroid runoff flowing into an urban stream. A calibration of the GIS volume-concentration model was performed using 2013 and 2014 wet-weather sampling data. Permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were detected as the highest concentrations; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and cyfluthrin were the most frequently detected synthetic pyrethroids. Eight neighborhoods within the watershed were highlighted as target areas based on a Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA) in GIS. Water phase concentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) were calculated from the reported usage. The need for stricter BMP and consumer product controls was identified as a possible way of reducing the detections of pyrethroids in Ballona Creek. This model has significant implications for determining mass loadings due to land use influence, and offers a flexible method to extrapolate data for a limited amount of samplings for a larger watershed, particularly for chemicals that are not subject to environmental monitoring. Offered as a simple approach to watershed management, the GIS-volume concentration model has the potential to be applied to other target pesticides and is useful for simulating different watershed scenarios. Further research is needed to compare results against other similar urban watersheds situated in mediterranean climates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B; Lipton, Rob; Banerjee, Aniruddha

    2007-12-20

    Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol. The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983-85 and 1993-95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic), job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory), time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time. Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55). Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

  20. Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Aniruddha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol. Methods The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983–85 and 1993–95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic, job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time. Results Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55. Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

  1. Particle growth in an isoprene-rich forest: Influences of urban, wildfire, and biogenic air masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, Matthew J.; Schmidt, Stephanie A.; Gardner, Daniel J.; Bondy, Amy L.; May, Nathaniel W.; Bertman, Steven B.; Pratt, Kerri A.; Ault, Andrew P.

    2018-04-01

    Growth of freshly nucleated particles is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and has been studied within a variety of environments around the world. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the sources of the precursor gases leading to particle growth, particularly in isoprene-rich forests. In this study, particle growth events were observed from the 14 total events (31% of days) during summer measurements (June 24 - August 2, 2014) at the Program for Research on Oxidants PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) tower within the forested University of Michigan Biological Station located in northern Michigan. Growth events were observed within long-range transported air masses from urban areas, air masses impacted by wildfires, as well as stagnant, forested/regional air masses. Growth events observed during urban-influenced air masses were prevalent, with presumably high oxidant levels, and began midday during periods of high solar radiation. This suggests that increased oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) likely contributed to the highest observed particle growth in this study (8 ± 2 nm h-1). Growth events during wildfire-influenced air masses were observed primarily at night and had slower growth rates (3 ± 1 nm h-1). These events were likely influenced by increased SO2, O3, and NO2 transported within the smoke plumes, suggesting a role of NO3 oxidation in the production of semi-volatile compounds. Forested/regional air mass growth events likely occurred due to the oxidation of regionally emitted BVOCs, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes, which facilitated multiday growth events also with slower rates (3 ± 2 nm h-1). Intense sulfur, carbon, and oxygen signals in individual particles down to 20 nm, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), suggest that H2SO4 and secondary organic aerosol contributed to particle growth. Overall, aerosol

  2. Managing the Accessibility on Mass Public Transit: the Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siman Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Public transit services (PTS improve mobility and accessibility, and reduce car dependence. It is ideal if PTS are financially sustainable, with affordable fares and expedient quality. The success of PTS on accessibility improvement can be reflected by their level of patronage: do travelers choose to use them in lieu of their private cars? PTS in Hong Kong are renowned for their quality and profitability, superbly addressing the accessibility need for the city; they carry over 90% of the 11 million daily trips. A comparison of the per capita train-car and bus-vehicle kilometer run of PTS in Hong Kong with those in London and Singapore, however, suggests that it is not purely the supply that affects the use or accessibility of PTS in Hong Kong. By tracing and analyzing the development of PTS in Hong Kong over the past two decades, we found evidence that the high level of accessibility on mass public transit in the territory can be attributed to the land use policy of developing compact, high-density township, accompanying transport policies of granting high priority to the development of mass transit facilities and providing ways to ensure the financial viability of privately operated PTS, especially the innovative approach of integrating the development of public transport facility and property so as to exploit their synergy. In this paper, we study and highlight elements that contribute to the development of high accessibility on mass public transit in Hong Kong.

  3. Role of urbanization and air pollution in adolescent asthma: a mass screening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R S; Sung, F C; Huang, S L; Gou, Y L; Ko, Y C; Gou, H W; Shaw, C K

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma in school children in Taiwan is increasing. This study used mass screening among middle school children in Taiwan to determine the prevalence of asthma and related factors. Data were collected from parents using a self-reported questionnaire and from children using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video questionnaire. Six study teams conducted the survey nationwide in 1995-1996, with the assistance of middle school nurses and teachers. Among the 1,018,031 students at 795 middle schools who returned questionnaires, 8.5% had a history of asthma (ranging in prevalence from 4.2% to 13% in 25 areas). The prevalence of asthma was higher in boys than in girls (10.0% vs 7%) and was highest in more urbanized areas (11.2%), followed by moderately urbanized areas (7.4%) and less urbanized and rural areas (6.5%). Controlling for age, family smoking, family incense burning, and parental education level, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that children living in an area with heavy air pollution were more likely to have asthma than those in an area with no or light pollution (odds ratio, OR = 2.01 and 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.94-2.09 based on parental ranking of pollution level, or OR = 1.30 and 95% CI = 1.18-1.42 based on pollution level reported by the Environmental Protection Administration). Adolescent asthma in Taiwan is most prevalent in the most urbanized areas and decreases in prevalence in less urbanized areas. This study also found that higher parental education level and higher area air pollution were associated with higher adolescent asthma prevalence.

  4. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  5. Toward a better understanding of the impact of mass transit air pollutants on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Pawan; Szulejko, Jan E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Junaid, Muhammad Faisal; Uchimiya, Minori; Chambers, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion regarding the effects of TRAP on local environments and pedestrian health in low and high traffic-density environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Near-infrared Variability in the 2MASS Calibration Fields: A Search for Planetary Transit Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavchan, Peter; Jura, M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Gallagher, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometric calibration observations cover approximately 6 square degrees on the sky in 35 'calibration fields,' each sampled in nominal photometric conditions between 562 and 3692 times during the 4 years of the 2MASS mission. We compile a catalog of variables from the calibration observations to search for M dwarfs transited by extrasolar planets. We present our methods for measuring periodic and nonperiodic flux variability. From 7554 sources with apparent K(sub s) magnitudes between 5.6 and 16.1, we identify 247 variables, including extragalactic variables and 23 periodic variables. We have discovered three M dwarf eclipsing systems, including two candidates for transiting extrasolar planets.

  7. E2 and M1 Transition Probabilities in Odd Mass Hg Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, V; Baecklin, A; Fogelberg, B; Malmskog, S G

    1969-10-15

    L- and M-subshell ratios have been measured for the 39.5 keV transition in {sup 193}Hg and the 37.1 and 16.2 keV transitions in {sup 195}Hg yielding 0.38 {+-} 0.12 , <0.02 and 0.08 {+-} 0.03 per cent E2, respectively. The half-lives of the 39.5 keV level in {sup 193}Hg and the 53.3 and 37.1 keV levels in {sup 195}Hg have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, yielding values of 0.63 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.03 and <0.05 nsec respectively. A systematic compilation of reduced E2 and M1 transition probabilities in odd mass Pt, Hg and Pb nuclei is given and compared to theoretical predictions.

  8. Improving polio vaccination during supplementary campaigns at areas of mass transit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Sunil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, children who are traveling during mass immunization campaigns for polio represent a substantial component of the total target population. These children are not easily accessible to health workers and may thus not receive vaccine. Vaccination activities at mass transit sites (such as major intersections, bus depots and train stations, can increase the proportion of children vaccinated but the effectiveness of these activities, and factors associated with their success, have not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in Jyotiba Phule Nagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India, conducted in June 2006. We used trends in the vaccination results from the June activities to plan the timing, locations, and human resource requirements for transit vaccination activities in two out of the seven blocks in the district for the July 2006 supplementary immunization activity (SIA. In July, similar data was collected and for the first time vaccination teams also recorded the proportion of children encountered each day who were vaccinated (a new monitoring system. Results In June, out of the 360,937 total children vaccinated, 34,643 (9.6% received vaccinations at mass transit sites. In the July SIA, after implementation of a number of changes based on the June monitoring data, 36,475 children were vaccinated at transit sites (a 5.3% increase. Transit site vaccinations in July increased in the two intervention blocks from 18,194 to 21,588 (18.7% and decreased from 16,449 to 14,887 (9.5% in the five other blocks. The new monitoring system showed the proportion of unvaccinated children at street intersection transit sites in the July campaign decreased from 24% (1,784/7,405 at the start of the campaign to 3% (143/5,057 by the end of the SIA, consistent with findings from the more labor-intensive post-vaccination coverage surveys routinely performed by the program. Conclusions Analysis of

  9. Models of fuel masses transition during second stage of the accident on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapon, A.

    2002-01-01

    In ISPE NASU of Ukraine are developed mathematical models and software, which allow to research the processes of fuel masses transition during the accident at ChNPP. We found out, that the main reason of accident on ChNPP is the happening in the reactor of crisis of heat exchange of the second sort, instead of the effect positive output of reactivity from displacers of rods of system of emergency protection, as is accepted in official version

  10. Trip time prediction in mass transit companies. A machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    João M. Moreira; Alípio Jorge; Jorge Freire de Sousa; Carlos Soares

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how trip time prediction can be useful foroperational optimization in mass transit companies and which machine learningtechniques can be used to improve results. Firstly, we analyze which departmentsneed trip time prediction and when. Secondly, we review related work and thirdlywe present the analysis of trip time over a particular path. We proceed by presentingexperimental results conducted on real data with the forecasting techniques wefound most adequate, and concl...

  11. urbanization and climate chang carbon dioxide emission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    t efficient public urban mass transit that involves low carbon emissi individual car usage should be discouraged. ent, automobile density, climate change, global warming, greenhou e change .... Lagos, Port Harcourt, Abuja and Kano (Federal.

  12. Barriers to Physical Activity in a Mass Transit Population: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhibha M; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The physical inactivity epidemic continues be one of the greatest public health challenges in contemporary society in the United States. The transportation industry is at greater risk of physical inactivity, compared with individuals in other sectors of the workforce. The aim of this study was to use the Nominal Group Technique, a focus group technique, to examine mass transit employees' perceptions of the barriers to physical activity at their worksite. Three focus groups (n = 31) were conducted to examine mass transit employees' perceptions of barriers to physical activity at the worksite. Salient barriers included (1) changing work schedules, (2) poor weather conditions, and (3) lack of scheduled and timely breaks. Findings were consistent with previous research demonstrating shift work, poor weather, and lack of breaks can negatively impact mass transit employees' ability to be physically active. Although physical activity barriers for this population have been consistent for the last 20 years, public health practice and policy have not changed to address these barriers. Future studies should include conducing focus groups stratified by job classification (eg, operators, maintenance, and clerical) along with implementing and evaluating worksite-based physical activity interventions and policy changes.

  13. Bridging the Response to Mass Shootings and Urban Violence: Exposure to Violence in New Haven, Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Alycia; O'Connor Duffany, Kathleen; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Thomas, Jordan; Greene, Ann; Arora, Anita; Agnoli, Alicia; Gan, Geliang; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2017-03-01

    We have described self-reported exposure to gun violence in an urban community of color to inform the movement toward a public health approach to gun violence prevention. The Community Alliance for Research and Engagement at Yale School of Public Health conducted community health needs assessments to document chronic disease prevalence and risk, including exposure to gun violence. We conducted surveys with residents in six low-income neighborhoods in New Haven, Connecticut, using a neighborhood-stratified, population-based sample (n = 1189; weighted sample to represent the neighborhoods, n = 29 675). Exposure to violence is pervasive in these neighborhoods: 73% heard gunshots; many had family members or close friends hurt (29%) or killed (18%) by violent acts. Although all respondents live in low-income neighborhoods, exposure to violence differs by race/ethnicity and social class. Residents of color experienced significantly more violence than did White residents, with a particularly disparate increase among young Black men aged 18 to 34 years. While not ignoring societal costs of horrific mass shootings, we must be clear that a public health approach to gun violence prevention means focusing on the dual epidemic of mass shootings and urban violence.

  14. Does higher body mass index contribute to worse asthma control in an urban population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerisme-Beaty, Emmanuelle M; Karam, Sabine; Rand, Cynthia; Patino, Cecilia M; Bilderback, Andrew; Riekert, Kristin A; Okelo, Sande O.; Diette, Gregory B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic findings support a positive association between asthma and obesity. Objective Determine whether obesity or increasing level of body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma control in an ethnically diverse urban population. Methods Cross sectional assessment of asthma control was done in asthmatics recruited from primary care offices using four different validated asthma control questionnaires: the Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (ACCI), the Asthma Control Test (ACT), the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Asthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire (ATAQ). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between obesity and increasing BMI level and asthma control. Results Of 292 subjects mean age of 47 years, the majority were women (82%) and African American (67%). There was a high prevalence of obesity with 63%, with only 15% being normal weight. The mean score from all four questionnaires showed an average sub-optimal asthma control (mean score/maximum possible score): ACCI (8.3/19), ACT (15.4/ 25), ACQ (2.1/ 6), and ATAQ (1.3/ 4). Regression analysis showed no association between obesity or increasing BMI level and asthma control using all four questionnaires. This finding persisted even after adjusting for FEV1, smoking status, race, gender, selected co-morbid illnesses, and long-term asthma controller use. Conclusion Using four validated asthma control questionnaires, we failed to find an association between obesity and asthma control in an urban population with asthma. Weight loss may not be an appropriate strategy to improve asthma control in this population. Capsule Summary Using four different validated asthma control measures, there was no association between obesity or increasing body mass index and asthma control in a largely obese urban outpatient minority population. PMID:19615731

  15. Transitional Disks Associated with Intermediate-Mass Stars: Results of the SEEDS YSO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.; Fukagawa, M.; Maruta, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Wisniewski, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Currie, T.; McElwain, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are where planets form, grow, and migrate to produce the diversity of exoplanet systems we observe in mature systems. Disks where this process has advanced to the stage of gap opening, and in some cases central cavity formation, have been termed pre-transitional and transitional disks in the hope that they represent intermediate steps toward planetary system formation. Recent reviews have focussed on disks where the star is of solar or sub-solar mass. In contrast to the sub-millimeter where cleared central cavities predominate, at H-band some T Tauri star transitional disks resemble primordial disks in having no indication of clearing, some show a break in the radial surface brightness profile at the inner edge of the outer disk, while others have partially to fully cleared gaps or central cavities. Recently, the Meeus Group I Herbig stars, intermediate-mass PMS stars with IR spectral energy distributions often interpreted as flared disks, have been proposed to have transitional and pre-transitional disks similar to those associated with solar-mass PMS stars, based on thermal-IR imaging, and sub-millimeter interferometry. We have investigated their appearance in scattered light as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS), obtaining H-band polarimetric imagery of 10 intermediate-mass stars with Meeus Group I disks. Augmented by other disks with imagery in the literature, the sample is now sufficiently large to explore how these disks are similar to and differ from T Tauri star disks. The disk morphologies seen in the Tauri disks are also found for the intermediate-mass star disks, but additional phenomena are found; a hallmark of these disks is remarkable individuality and diversity which does not simply correlate with disk mass or stellar properties, including age, including spiral arms in remnant envelopes, arms in the disk, asymmetrically and potentially variably shadowed outer disks, gaps, and one disk

  16. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stéphane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry

    2009-12-17

    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Because such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M[symbol:see text]), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b (refs 8, 9), but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55M[symbol:see text]), and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R[symbol:see text]), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We find that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen-helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. The atmosphere is probably escaping hydrodynamically, indicating that it has undergone significant evolution during its history. The star is small and only 13 parsecs away, so the planetary atmosphere is amenable to study with current observatories.

  17. Forecasting Method for Urban Rail Transit Ridership at Station Level Using Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct forecasting method for Urban Rail Transit (URT ridership at the station level is not able to reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors. Also, population is inappropriately expressed in this method since it is not uniformly distributed by area. In this paper, a new variable, population per distance band, is considered and a back propagation neural network (BPNN model which can reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors is proposed to forecast ridership. Key predictors are obtained through partial correlation analysis. The performance of the proposed model is compared with three other benchmark models, which are linear model with population per distance band, BPNN model with total population, and linear model with total population, using four measures of effectiveness (MOEs, maximum relative error (MRE, smallest relative error (SRE, average relative error (ARE, and mean square root of relative error (MSRRE. Also, another model for contribution rate of population per distance band to ridership is formulated based on the BPNN model with nonpopulation variables fixed. Case studies with Japanese data show that BPNN model with population per distance band outperforms other three models and the contribution rate of population within special distance band to ridership calculated through the contribution rate model is 70%~92.9% close to actual statistical value. The result confirms the effectiveness of models proposed in this paper.

  18. Calculation Method for Load Capacity of Urban Rail Transit Station considering Cascading Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The load capacity of urban rail transit station is of great significance to provide reference in station design and operation management. However, it is difficult to carry out quantitative calculation quickly and accurately due to the complex interaction among passenger behaviors, facility layout, and the limit capacity of single facility. In this paper, the association network of facilities is set up based on the analysis of passenger service chain in station. Then the concept of cascading failure is introduced to the dynamic calculation model of load capacity, which is established on the user-equilibrium allocation model. The solution algorithm is optimized with node attack strategy of complex network to effectively reduce the computational complexity. Finally, a case study of Lujiabang Road Station in Shanghai is carried out and compared with the simulation results of StaPass, verifying the feasibility of this approach. The proposed method can not only search for the bottleneck of capacity, but also help to trace the loading variation of facilities network in different scenarios, providing theoretical supports on passenger flow organization.

  19. Grassroots Initiatives as Sustainability Transition Pioneers: Implications and Lessons for Urban Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gernert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This review explores the current evidence on the role and success factors of grassroots initiatives in sustainability transitions, with special attention given to social innovations and the transformation of urban food systems, a field that is still rather scantly dealt with in literature compared to technological innovations in other sectors such as energy. In addition to their contributions to get the necessary transformation towards sustainable futures off the ground, the preconditions for grassroots initiatives to thrive are presented—as well as limitations regarding their possibilities and the challenges they face. Increasingly, the importance of civil society and social movements in facilitating societal transformation is recognized by both researchers and policy makers. Within their radical niches, grassroots initiatives do not have to adhere to the logics of the wider systems in which they are embedded. This allows them to experiment with diverse solutions to sustainability challenges such as local food security and sovereignty. By means of democratic, inclusive and participatory processes, they create new pathways and pilot a change of course. Nevertheless, upscaling often comes at the loss of the transformative potential of grassroots initiatives.

  20. REVISITING ρ1 CANCRI e: A NEW MASS DETERMINATION OF THE TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Barnes, Stuart I.; Robertson, Paul; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Caldwell, Caroline; Gullikson, Kevin; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a mass determination for the transiting super-Earth ρ 1 Cancri e based on nearly 700 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. This extensive RV data set consists of data collected by the McDonald Observatory planet search and published data from Lick and Keck observatories. We obtained 212 RV measurements with the Tull Coudé Spectrograph at the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m Telescope and combined them with a new Doppler reduction of the 131 spectra that we have taken in 2003-2004 with the High-Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for the original discovery of ρ 1 Cancri e. Using this large data set we obtain a five-planet Keplerian orbital solution for the system and measure an RV semi-amplitude of K = 6.29 ± 0.21 m s –1 for ρ 1 Cnc e and determine a mass of 8.37 ± 0.38 M ⊕ . The uncertainty in mass is thus less than 5%. This planet was previously found to transit its parent star, which allowed them to estimate its radius. Combined with the latest radius estimate from Gillon et al., we obtain a mean density of ρ = 4.50 ± 0.20 g cm –3 . The location of ρ 1 Cnc e in the mass-radius diagram suggests that the planet contains a significant amount of volatiles, possibly a water-rich envelope surrounding a rocky core.

  1. Is mass drug administration against lymphatic filariasis required in urban settings? The experience in Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam, Dung D; de Souza, Dziedzom K; D'Souza, Susan; Opoku, Millicent; Sanda, Safiya; Nazaradden, Ibrahim; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Davies, Emmanuel; Elhassan, Elisabeth; Molyneux, David H; Bockarie, Moses J; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2017-10-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), launched in 2000, has the target of eliminating the disease as a public health problem by the year 2020. The strategy adopted is mass drug administration (MDA) to all eligible individuals in endemic communities and the implementation of measures to reduce the morbidity of those suffering from chronic disease. Success has been recorded in many rural endemic communities in which elimination efforts have centered. However, implementation has been challenging in several urban African cities. The large cities of West Africa, exemplified in Nigeria in Kano are challenging for LF elimination program because reaching 65% therapeutic coverage during MDA is difficult. There is therefore a need to define a strategy which could complement MDA. Thus, in Kano State, Nigeria, while LF MDA had reached 33 of the 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) there remained eleven 'urban' LGAs which had not been covered by MDA. Given the challenges of achieving at least 65% coverage during MDA implementation over several years in order to achieve elimination, it may be challenging to eliminate LF in such settings. In order to plan the LF control activities, this study was undertaken to confirm the LF infection prevalence in the human and mosquito populations in three urban LGAs. The prevalence of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) of Wuchereria bancrofti was assessed by an immuno-chromatography test (ICT) in 981 people in three urban LGAs of Kano state, Nigeria. Mosquitoes were collected over a period of 4 months from May to August 2015 using exit traps, gravid traps and pyrethrum knock-down spray sheet collections (PSC) in different households. A proportion of mosquitoes were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using dissection, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that none of the 981 subjects (constituted of West Africa may not be of significant importance

  2. Key Role of Nitrate in Phase Transitions of Urban Particles: Implications of Important Reactive Surfaces for Secondary Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiaxing; Liu, Lei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Min; Shi, Zongbo; Li, Yongjie; Zhang, Xiaoye; Chen, Jianmin; Li, Weijun

    2018-01-01

    Ammonium sulfate (AS) and ammonium nitrate (AN) are key components of urban fine particles. Both field and model studies showed that heterogeneous reactions of SO2, NO2, and NH3 on wet aerosols accelerated the haze formation in northern China. However, little is known on phase transitions of AS-AN containing haze particles. Here hygroscopic properties of laboratory-generated AS-AN particles and individual particles collected during haze events in an urban site were investigated using an individual particle hygroscopicity system. AS-AN particles showed a two-stage deliquescence at mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) and full deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and three physical states: solid before MDRH, solid-aqueous between MDRH and DRH, and aqueous after DRH. During hydration, urban haze particles displayed a solid core and aqueous shell at RH = 60-80% and aqueous phase at RH > 80%. Most particles were in aqueous phase at RH > 50% during dehydration. Our results show that AS content in individual particles determines their DRH and AN content determines their MDRH. AN content increase can reduce MDRH, which indicates occurrence of aqueous shell at lower RH. The humidity-dependent phase transitions of nitrate-abundant urban particles are important to provide reactive surfaces of secondary aerosol formation in the polluted air.

  3. Search for $\\beta$-transitions with the lowest decay energy for a determination of the neutrino mass

    CERN Multimedia

    From a variety of $\\beta$-transitions only those with decay energies of a few keV and smaller are considered suitable for a determination of the neutrino mass on a sub-eV level. The decay energy of a transition can be very small, if, e.g., in an allowed $\\beta$-decay or electron-capture transition, a nuclear excited state of the daughter nuclide is populated whose energy is very close to the mass difference of the transition nuclides. Investigation of these transitions can also be useful for the assessment of a validity of the current $\\beta$-decay theory in the region of vanishingly small decay energies. The authors of this proposal have found several such $\\beta$-transitions whose decay energies are expected to be extremely small. In order to assess the suitability of these $\\beta$-transitions for the determination of the neutrino mass, measurements of the mass differences of the transition nuclides must be carried out with a sub-keV uncertainty. Presently, only high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry...

  4. Dynamic freeze-in: impact of thermal masses and cosmological phase transitions on dark matter production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Breitbach, Moritz; Kopp, Joachim; Mittnacht, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    The cosmological abundance of dark matter can be significantly influenced by the temperature dependence of particle masses and vacuum expectation values. We illustrate this point in three simple freeze-in models. The first one, which we call kinematically induced freeze-in, is based on the observation that the effective mass of a scalar temporarily becomes very small as the scalar potential undergoes a second order phase transition. This opens dark matter production channels that are otherwise forbidden. The second model we consider, dubbed vev-induced freeze-in, is a fermionic Higgs portal scenario. Its scalar sector is augmented compared to the Standard Model by an additional scalar singlet, S, which couples to dark matter and temporarily acquires a vacuum expectation value (a two-step phase transition or "vev flip-flop"). While ≠ 0, the modified coupling structure in the scalar sector implies that dark matter production is significantly enhanced compared to the = 0 phases realised at very early times and again today. The third model, which we call mixing-induced freeze-in, is similar in spirit, but here it is the mixing of dark sector fermions, induced by non-zero , that temporarily boosts the dark matter production rate. For all three scenarios, we carefully dissect the evolution of the dark sector in the early Universe. We compute the DM relic abundance as a function of the model parameters, emphasising the importance of thermal corrections and the proper treatment of phase transitions in the calculation.

  5. MODEL-INDEPENDENT STELLAR AND PLANETARY MASSES FROM MULTI-TRANSITING EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher

    2013-01-01

    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity (RV) measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find that the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up RV measurements are collected. We conclude that this analysis would be optimal for systems discovered by next-generation missions similar to TESS or PLATO, which will target bright stars that are amenable to efficient RV follow-up.

  6. Is mass drug administration against lymphatic filariasis required in urban settings? The experience in Kano, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung D Pam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF, launched in 2000, has the target of eliminating the disease as a public health problem by the year 2020. The strategy adopted is mass drug administration (MDA to all eligible individuals in endemic communities and the implementation of measures to reduce the morbidity of those suffering from chronic disease. Success has been recorded in many rural endemic communities in which elimination efforts have centered. However, implementation has been challenging in several urban African cities. The large cities of West Africa, exemplified in Nigeria in Kano are challenging for LF elimination program because reaching 65% therapeutic coverage during MDA is difficult. There is therefore a need to define a strategy which could complement MDA. Thus, in Kano State, Nigeria, while LF MDA had reached 33 of the 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs there remained eleven 'urban' LGAs which had not been covered by MDA. Given the challenges of achieving at least 65% coverage during MDA implementation over several years in order to achieve elimination, it may be challenging to eliminate LF in such settings. In order to plan the LF control activities, this study was undertaken to confirm the LF infection prevalence in the human and mosquito populations in three urban LGAs.The prevalence of circulating filarial antigen (CFA of Wuchereria bancrofti was assessed by an immuno-chromatography test (ICT in 981 people in three urban LGAs of Kano state, Nigeria. Mosquitoes were collected over a period of 4 months from May to August 2015 using exit traps, gravid traps and pyrethrum knock-down spray sheet collections (PSC in different households. A proportion of mosquitoes were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using dissection, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR.The results showed that none of the 981 subjects (constituted of <21% of children 5-10 years old tested

  7. Energy transition or incremental change? Green policy agendas and the adaptability of the urban energy regime in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monstadt, Jochen; Wolff, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on recent research in urban policy studies and social studies of technology, this paper examines the capability of urban energy regimes in adapting to environmental policy pressures. Focusing on the case of the City of Los Angeles, we critically analyze the transformative capacity of the city's recent energy and climate policies and the innovation patterns of its urban infrastructure regime. This case study suggests that despite considerable success in switching from coal to renewable energies, the patterns of sociotechnical change in Los Angeles still tend to supplement and sustain the existing regime. Sociotechnical change in Los Angeles tends to unfold incrementally through adjustments within the established patterns of the existing regime. - Highlights: • Theory-guided case study on the transition of the urban energy regime in Los Angeles. • Evaluation of the transformative capacity of environmental policies. • Assessment of the adaptability and innovation patterns of urban infrastructure regimes. • The policy changes have sustained the existing regime and unfold incrementally

  8. Screening new psychoactive substances in urban wastewater using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariño, Iria; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bagnati, Renzo; Martins, Claudia P B; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of drug residues in urban wastewater could complement epidemiological studies in detecting the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), a continuously changing group of drugs hard to monitor by classical methods. We initially selected 52 NPS potentially used in Italy based on seizure data and consumption alerts provided by the Antidrug Police Department and the National Early Warning System. Using a linear ion trap-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer, we designed a suspect screening and a target method approach and compared them for the analysis of 24 h wastewater samples collected at the treatment plant influents of four Italian cities. This highlighted the main limitations of these two approaches, so we could propose requirements for future research. A library of MS/MS spectra of 16 synthetic cathinones and 19 synthetic cannabinoids, for which analytical standards were acquired, was built at different collision energies and is available on request. The stability of synthetic cannabinoids was studied in analytical standards and wastewater, identifying the best analytical conditions for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first stability data on NPS. Few suspects were identified in Italian wastewater samples, in accordance with recent epidemiological data reporting a very low prevalence of use of NPS in Italy. This study outlines an analytical approach for NPS identification and measurement in urban wastewater and for estimating their use in the population.

  9. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  10. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  11. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  12. Identification of aerosol types over an urban site based on air-mass trajectory classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, G. V.; Devara, P. C. S.; Aher, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Columnar aerosol properties retrieved from MICROTOPS II Sun Photometer measurements during 2010-2013 over Pune (18°32‧N; 73°49‧E, 559 m amsl), a tropical urban station in India, are analyzed to identify aerosol types in the atmospheric column. Identification/classification is carried out on the basis of dominant airflow patterns, and the method of discrimination of aerosol types on the basis of relation between aerosol optical depth (AOD500 nm) and Ångström exponent (AE, α). Five potential advection pathways viz., NW/N, SW/S, N, SE/E and L have been identified over the observing site by employing the NOAA-HYSPLIT air mass back trajectory analysis. Based on AE against AOD500 nm scatter plot and advection pathways followed five major aerosol types viz., continental average (CA), marine continental average (MCA), urban/industrial and biomass burning (UB), desert dust (DD) and indeterminate or mixed type (MT) have been identified. In winter, sector SE/E, a representative of air masses traversed over Bay of Bengal and Eastern continental Indian region has relatively small AOD (τpλ = 0.43 ± 0.13) and high AE (α = 1.19 ± 0.15). These values imply the presence of accumulation/sub-micron size anthropogenic aerosols. During pre-monsoon, aerosols from the NW/N sector have high AOD (τpλ = 0.61 ± 0.21), and low AE (α = 0.54 ± 0.14) indicating an increase in the loading of coarse-mode particles over Pune. Dominance of UB type in winter season for all the years (i.e. 2010-2013) may be attributed to both local/transported aerosols. During pre-monsoon seasons, MT is the dominant aerosol type followed by UB and DD, while the background aerosols are insignificant.

  13. Mass extinction efficiency and extinction hygroscopicity of ambient PM2.5 in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Ma, Xin; He, Yujie; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yungang; Sheng, Li; Hu, Jiangkai; Yan, Naiqiang

    2017-07-01

    The ambient PM 2.5 pollution problem in China has drawn substantial international attentions. The mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and hygroscopicity factor (f(RH)) of PM 2.5 can be readily applied to study the impacts on atmospheric visibility and climate. The few previous investigations in China only reported results from pilot studies and are lack of spatial representativeness. In this study, hourly average ambient PM 2.5 mass concentration, relative humidity, and atmospheric visibility data from China national air quality and meteorological monitoring networks were retrieved and analyzed. It includes 24 major Chinese cities from nine city-clusters with the period of October 2013 to September 2014. Annual average extinction coefficient in urban China was 759.3±258.3Mm -1 , mainly caused by dry PM 2.5 (305.8.2±131.0Mm -1 ) and its hygroscopicity (414.6±188.1Mm -1 ). High extinction coefficient values were resulted from both high ambient PM 2.5 concentration (68.5±21.7µg/m 3 ) and high relative humidity (69.7±8.6%). The PM 2.5 mass extinction efficiency varied from 2.87 to 6.64m 2 /g with an average of 4.40±0.84m 2 /g. The average extinction hygroscopic factor f(RH=80%) was 2.63±0.45. The levels of PM 2.5 mass extinction efficiency and hygroscopic factor in China were in comparable range with those found in developed countries in spite of the significant diversities among all 24 cities. Our findings help to establish quantitative relationship between ambient extinction coefficient (visual range) and PM 2.5 & relative humidity. It will reduce the uncertainty of extinction coefficient estimation of ambient PM 2.5 in urban China which is essential for the research of haze pollution and climate radiative forcing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue in Mass Transit Rail Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ajeenah L

    2017-08-01

    Sleep and work schedules differ considerably between rail workers and the broader U.S. workforce. Due to extended work hours and night shift schedules, train and engine service workers who operate passenger trains or move freight are most vulnerable to fatigue. This article addresses the need for comprehensive fatigue risk management systems (FRMS) for rail operators. Using a transactional ergonomic perspective, FRMS are discussed with a focus on fatigue education and administrative controls to reduce feelings of tiredness, low motivation, poor concentration, and low physical activity among mass transit rail operators. Recommendations for intervention implementation and evaluation are provided.

  15. Discovery of Transition Rules for Cellular Automata Using Artificial Bee Colony and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms in Urban Growth Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Naghibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced method in urban growth modeling to discover transition rules of cellular automata (CA using the artificial bee colony (ABC optimization algorithm. Also, comparisons between the simulation results of CA models optimized by the ABC algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithms (PSO as intelligent approaches were performed to evaluate the potential of the proposed methods. According to previous studies, swarm intelligence algorithms for solving optimization problems such as discovering transition rules of CA in land use change/urban growth modeling can produce reasonable results. Modeling of urban growth as a dynamic process is not straightforward because of the existence of nonlinearity and heterogeneity among effective involved variables which can cause a number of challenges for traditional CA. ABC algorithm, the new powerful swarm based optimization algorithms, can be used to capture optimized transition rules of CA. This paper has proposed a methodology based on remote sensing data for modeling urban growth with CA calibrated by the ABC algorithm. The performance of ABC-CA, PSO-CA, and CA-logistic models in land use change detection is tested for the city of Urmia, Iran, between 2004 and 2014. Validations of the models based on statistical measures such as overall accuracy, figure of merit, and total operating characteristic were made. We showed that the overall accuracy of the ABC-CA model was 89%, which was 1.5% and 6.2% higher than those of the PSO-CA and CA-logistic model, respectively. Moreover, the allocation disagreement (simulation error of the simulation results for the ABC-CA, PSO-CA, and CA-logistic models are 11%, 12.5%, and 17.2%, respectively. Finally, for all evaluation indices including running time, convergence capability, flexibility, statistical measurements, and the produced spatial patterns, the ABC-CA model performance showed relative improvement and therefore its superiority was

  16. Revisiting ρ1 Cancri e: A New Mass Determination of the Transiting Super-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endl, Michael; Robertson, Paul; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Caldwell, Caroline; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Barnes, Stuart I.; Gullikson, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    We present a mass determination for the transiting super-Earth ρ1 Cancri e based on nearly 700 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. This extensive RV data set consists of data collected by the McDonald Observatory planet search and published data from Lick and Keck observatories. We obtained 212 RV measurements with the Tull Coudé Spectrograph at the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m Telescope and combined them with a new Doppler reduction of the 131 spectra that we have taken in 2003-2004 with the High-Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for the original discovery of ρ1 Cancri e. Using this large data set we obtain a five-planet Keplerian orbital solution for the system and measure an RV semi-amplitude of K = 6.29 ± 0.21 m s-1 for ρ1 Cnc e and determine a mass of 8.37 ± 0.38 M ⊕. The uncertainty in mass is thus less than 5%. This planet was previously found to transit its parent star, which allowed them to estimate its radius. Combined with the latest radius estimate from Gillon et al., we obtain a mean density of ρ = 4.50 ± 0.20 g cm-3. The location of ρ1 Cnc e in the mass-radius diagram suggests that the planet contains a significant amount of volatiles, possibly a water-rich envelope surrounding a rocky core. Based partly on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  17. Pocket Money: Influence on Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, V C; Amudhan, A; Sivaprakasam, P; Rathnaprabhu, V

    2014-12-01

    To explore the influence of pocket money on Dental Caries and Body Mass Index. A cross-sectional study was conducted wherein urban adolescent schoolchildren of age 13-18(n=916) were selected by two stage random sampling technique. Dental caries was measured using the DMFT Index. The children's nutritional status was assessed by means of anthropometric measurements. Body Mass Index using weight and height of children was evaluated using the reference standard of the WHO 2007. RESULTS showed that 50% of children receive pocket money from parents. The average amount received was Rs. 360/month. There was a significant correlation between age and amount of money received (r=0.160, p=.001). The average amount received by male children was significantly higher (Rs. 400) when compared to female children (Rs. 303). It was observed that income of the family (>30,000 Rs./month) and socioeconomic status (Upper class) was significantly dependent on the amount of money received by children (ppocket money or not. When BMI categories and pocket money were considered, statistically significant difference was seen among overweight and obese and normal weight children (ppocket money from parents could influence their eating habits in turn affect general health. Parents and teachers should motivate children on healthy spending of their pocket money.

  18. How culture shapes the body: cultural consonance and body mass in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Oths, Kathryn S; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a model of how culture shapes the body, based on two studies conducted in urban Brazil. Research was conducted in 1991 and 2001 in four socioeconomically distinct neighborhoods. First, cultural domain analyses were conducted with samples of key informants. The cultural domains investigated included lifestyle, social support, family life, national identity, and food. Cultural consensus analysis was used to confirm shared knowledge in each domain and to derive measures of cultural consonance. Cultural consonance assesses how closely an individual matches the cultural consensus model for each domain. Second, body composition, cultural consonance, and related variables were assessed in community surveys. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of cultural consonance and body composition, controlling for standard covariates and competing explanatory variables. In 1991, in a survey of 260 individuals, cultural consonance had a curvilinear association with the body mass index that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In 2001, in a survey of 267 individuals, cultural consonance had a linear association with abdominal circumference that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In general, as cultural consonance increases, body mass index and abdominal circumference decline, more strongly for women than men. As individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, more closely approximate shared cultural models in socially salient domains, body composition also more closely approximates the cultural prototype of the body. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands of Urban Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE, ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes.

  20. Hybrid Evolutionary Metaheuristics for Concurrent Multi-Objective Design of Urban Road and Public Transit Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miandoabchi, Elnaz; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Dullaert, Wout; Szeto, W. Y.

    This paper addresses a bi-modal multi-objective discrete urban road network design problem with automobile and bus flow interaction. The problem considers the concurrent urban road and bus network design in which the authorities play a major role in designing bus network topology. The road network

  1. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  2. From Short Food Supply Chains to Sustainable Agriculture in Urban Food Systems: Food Democracy as a Vector of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Chiffoleau

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized nations, local food networks have generally been analyzed through alternative food systems, in spite of the fact that they are much more diverse than this would imply. In France, ‘short food chains’ are both a continuation of a long tradition and a recent trend which now extends beyond activists, to consumers and producers as well. This paper will explore the conditions under which these chains can change the practices and knowledge of ordinary actors in urban food systems, from producers to urban consumers and policy-makers, in the area of agriculture and sustainability. It will consider the case study of the creation and development of an urban open-air market which has been analyzed using intervention research with input from economic sociology. We will highlight how personal relations, which are encouraged by a participatory context, support the evolution of practices and knowledge. We will also illustrate how a system of produce labelling has emerged as a mediation resource, and has increased changes as well as participation within the re-territorialization of the urban food system. By describing a concrete expression of food democracy which is spreading in France via a free collective trademark, and by showing its role in the transition of ‘ordinary’ actors towards a more sustainable agriculture, this paper will shine new light onto local food chains as well as traditional short food chains, and will call for more research on the subject.

  3. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  4. [Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Wells, Jonathan C K; Smeeth, Liam

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries this article seeks to present, in context, different transitional processes which societies and populations are currently undergoing. Relevant factors for specific contexts such as Peru are described, including internal migration, urbanization and profiles of adversity in early life, all of them linked to chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity and overweight. The capacity-load model, which considers chronic disease risk in adulthood as a function of two generic traits, metabolic capacity and metabolic load, is described. The contribution of rural-to-urban migration to this problem is also presented. Finally, these topics are framed within pending challenges for public health in Peru.

  5. STUDY OF THE SITUATION OF MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE URBAN AREA OF VIÇOSA (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucci Resende de Souza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the relief goes by something larger than the observation at the way, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetable covering. However, the forms of the relief interfere as one of the main components of the atmosphere,being necessary its knowledge for the understanding of the dynamics of the area research object.The agreement of the relief passes for something more important that the comment of its form, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetal covering. However, the forms of the relief are inserting as the one of the main components of theenvironment, being necessary its knowledge for the agreement of the dynamic of the area research object.This knowledge is indispensable, because it is impossible to repress the occupation expansion of the spaces and much less to restraint environmental impacts caused by the men and the nature is not capable to regenerate all of the damaged spaces in a short space of time.Many of the inhabited spaces are fruits of segregation, which would be consequence of the exclusion that the effective economical system imposes to the people and spaces. On the other hand, the environmental problems are not correlated only with outlying neighborhoods, but they come very visible in places where constructions of high purchasing power prevail. But, one thing we can do is to prevent, the areas that are not busy, because it is viable naturally,environmentally and less expensive economically speaking. It is in this context, which the study of the mass movements can be of vital importance. The present work seeks to characterize the mass movements that happen in the urban area of Viçosa, with the objective to relate and to compare the rising done in the urban area of the municipal district at the scale 1: 5000 for Vieira in the year of 2000, in order to verify the evolution of the areas studied by the referred author, being analyzed these progressed or some

  6. Tensor form factor for the D → π(K) transitions with Twisted Mass fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubicz, Vittorio; Riggio, Lorenzo; Salerno, Giorgio; Simula, Silvano; Tarantino, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    We present a preliminary lattice calculation of the D → π and D → K tensor form factors fT (q2) as a function of the squared 4-momentum transfer q2. ETMC recently computed the vector and scalar form factors f+(q2) and f0(q2) describing D → π(K)lv semileptonic decays analyzing the vector current and the scalar density. The study of the weak tensor current, which is directly related to the tensor form factor, completes the set of hadronic matrix element regulating the transition between these two pseudoscalar mesons within and beyond the Standard Model where a non-zero tensor coupling is possible. Our analysis is based on the gauge configurations produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 flavors of dynamical quarks. We simulated at three different values of the lattice spacing and with pion masses as small as 210 MeV and with the valence heavy quark in the mass range from ≃ 0.7 mc to ≃ 1.2mc. The matrix element of the tensor current are determined for a plethora of kinematical conditions in which parent and child mesons are either moving or at rest. As for the vector and scalar form factors, Lorentz symmetry breaking due to hypercubic effects is clearly observed in the data. We will present preliminary results on the removal of such hypercubic lattice effects.

  7. The urban transition and the evolution of the medical care delivery system in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, P L; Bohland, J; Shumsky, N L

    1983-01-01

    This essay traces the evolution of the American urban medical care delivery system and examines the implications in terms of social and spatial variations in accessibility to medical care. It is suggested that the foundations of the present medical care delivery system were laid during the urban transformation which took place in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when changes in the division of labor, specialization, the role of the family, urban transportation technology and attitudes to social protectionism interacted with changes in science, medical technology and professional organization to produce radical changes in both the settings used to provide medical care and their relative accessibility to different sub-groups of the population. The medical care delivery system is thus interpreted largely as a product of the overall dynamic of urbanization rather than of scientific discovery, medical technology and the influence of key medical practitioners and professional organizations.

  8. The nutrition/excretion system of urban areas: socioecological regimes and transitions.

    OpenAIRE

    Esculier , Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows.The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we...

  9. Body mass index and self-perception of overweight and obesity in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Pillay, Timesh D; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare self-reported weight and body mass index (BMI) in order to determine discrepancies between subjective and objective obesity-related markers, and possible explanatory factors of overweight and obesity underestimation, in urban, rural and migrant populations. Data from the PERU MIGRANT study, a cross-sectional study, in low-income settings, of urban, migrant (rural-to-urban), and rural groups, including BMI, self-reported weight and socio-demographic indicators were analyzed. Percentage of concurrences between BMI and self-reported weight and Kappa coefficients for inter-rater agreement were calculated. Univariate and standardized descriptive analyses were performed to identify potential explanatory variables for weight underestimation in only overweight and obese individuals, using established BMI and waist circumference cut offs. 983 Participants-199 urban, 583 migrants and 201 rural-were analyzed. Based on BMI, overall prevalence of obesity was 20.1% (95% CI 17.6%-22.6%), and overweight was 38.3% (95% CI 35.2%-41.2%), with differences between study groups (poverweight category. In overweight and obese individuals, deprivation index (p = 0.016), age (p = 0.014) and waist circumference (poverweight, obesity, and underestimation of BMI status were found, with poor agreement between BMI and self-reported weight, showing the unawareness of weight status severity in this low-income setting.

  10. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  11. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J. Jr.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K. (Center for Fuel Cell Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 United States)

    2010-06-15

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions. (author)

  12. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  13. Microbial air quality in mass transport buses and work-related illness among bus drivers of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Sundhiyodhin, Viboonsri; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2004-06-01

    The air quality in mass transport buses, especially air-conditioned buses may affect bus drivers who work full time. Bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166 of the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority were randomly selected to investigate for microbial air quality. Nine air-conditioned buses and 2-4 open-air buses for each number of the bus (36 air-conditioned buses and 12 open-air buses) were included. Five points of in-bus air samples in each studied bus were collected by using the Millipore A ir Tester Totally, 180 and 60 air samples collected from air-conditioned buses and open-air buses were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The bus drivers who drove the studied buses were interviewed towards histories of work-related illness while working. The results revealed that the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied open-air buses ranged from 358.50 +/- 146.66 CFU/m3 to 506 +/- 137.62 CFU/m3; bus number 16 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which ranged from 93.33 +/- 44.83 CFU/m3 to 302 +/- 294.65 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. Whereas, the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied air-conditioned buses ranged from 115.24 +/- 136.01 CFU/m3 to 244.69 +/- 234.85 CFU/m3; bus numbers 16 and 67 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which rangedfrom 18.84 +/- 39.42 CFU/m3 to 96.13 +/- 234.76 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. When 180 and 60 studied air samples were analyzed in detail, it was found that 33.33% of the air samples from open-air buses and 6.11% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of bacterial counts (> 500 CFU/m3) while 6.67% of air samples from open-air buses and 2.78% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of fungal counts (> 500 CFU/m3). Data from the history of work-related illnesses among the studied bus drivers showed that 91.67% of open-air bus drivers and 57.28% of air-conditioned bus drivers had

  14. Positive School Climate Is Associated With Lower Body Mass Index Percentile Among Urban Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Schools are an important environmental context in children’s lives and are part of the complex web of factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Increasingly, attention has been placed on the importance of school climate (connectedness, academic standards, engagement, and student autonomy) as 1 domain of school environment beyond health policies and education that may have implications for student health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of school climate with body mass index (BMI) among urban preadolescents. METHODS Health surveys and physical measures were collected among fifth- and sixth-grade students from 12 randomly selected public schools in a small New England city. School climate surveys were completed district-wide by students and teachers. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the association between students’ BMI and schools’ climate scores. RESULTS After controlling for potentially confounding individual-level characteristics, a 1-unit increase in school climate score (indicating more positive climate) was associated with a 7-point decrease in students’ BMI percentile. CONCLUSIONS Positive school climate is associated with lower student BMI percentile. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this relationship and to explore whether interventions promoting positive school climate can effectively prevent and/or reduce obesity. PMID:25040118

  15. Characterization of urban aerosol using aerosol mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, M. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Griffin, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, C. H.; Lefer, B.; Rappenglück, B.

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter was measured during August and September of 2006 in Houston as part of the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project. Aerosol size and composition were determined using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer. Aerosol was dominated by sulfate (4.1 ± 2.6 μg m-3) and organic material (5.5 ± 4.0 μg m-3), with contributions of organic material from both primary (˜32%) and secondary (˜68%) sources. Secondary organic aerosol appears to be formed locally. In addition, 29 aerosol filter samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine relative concentrations of organic functional groups. Houston aerosols are less oxidized than those observed elsewhere, with smaller relative contributions of carbon-oxygen double bonds. These particles do not fit 1H NMR source apportionment fingerprints for identification of secondary, marine, and biomass burning organic aerosol, suggesting that a new fingerprint for highly urbanized and industrially influenced locations be established.

  16. Positive school climate is associated with lower body mass index percentile among urban preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-08-01

    Schools are an important environmental context in children's lives and are part of the complex web of factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Increasingly, attention has been placed on the importance of school climate (connectedness, academic standards, engagement, and student autonomy) as 1 domain of school environment beyond health policies and education that may have implications for student health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of school climate with body mass index (BMI) among urban preadolescents. Health surveys and physical measures were collected among fifth- and sixth-grade students from 12 randomly selected public schools in a small New England city. School climate surveys were completed district-wide by students and teachers. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the association between students' BMI and schools' climate scores. After controlling for potentially confounding individual-level characteristics, a 1-unit increase in school climate score (indicating more positive climate) was associated with a 7-point decrease in students' BMI percentile. Positive school climate is associated with lower student BMI percentile. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this relationship and to explore whether interventions promoting positive school climate can effectively prevent and/or reduce obesity. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  17. GIS-based Approaches to Catchment Area Analyses of Mass Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Catchment area analyses of stops or stations are used to investigate potential number of travelers to public transportation. These analyses are considered a strong decision tool in the planning process of mass transit especially railroads. Catchment area analyses are GIS-based buffer and overlay...... analyses with different approaches depending on the desired level of detail. A simple but straightforward approach to implement is the Circular Buffer Approach where catchment areas are circular. A more detailed approach is the Service Area Approach where catchment areas are determined by a street network...... search to simulate the actual walking distances. A refinement of the Service Area Approach is to implement additional time resistance in the network search to simulate obstacles in the walking environment. This paper reviews and compares the different GIS-based catchment area approaches, their level...

  18. Mechanism-based model of a mass rapid transit system: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Khoon, Lee Kee; Guang, Hung Gih; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our findings on the spatiotemporal dynamics within the mass rapid transit (MRT) system of Singapore. We show that the trip distribution of Origin-Destination (OD) station pairs follows a power-law, implying the existence of critical OD pairs. We then present and discuss the empirically validated agent-based model (ABM) we have developed. The model allows recreation of the observed statistics and the setting up of various scenarios and their effects on the system, such as increasing the commuter population and the propagation of travel delays within the transportation network. The proposed model further enables identification of bottlenecks that can cause the MRT to break down, and consequently provide foresight on how such disruptions can possibly be managed. This can potentially provide a versatile approach for transport planners and government regulators to make quantifiable policies that optimally balance cost and convenience as a function of the number of the commuting public.

  19. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  20. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Graefener, Goetz, E-mail: jsv@arm.ac.uk [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, BT61 9DG Armagh (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of {approx_equal}2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot{sub trans} between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the {approx}50 M{sub Sun} mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  1. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz

    2012-01-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of ≅2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot trans between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the ∼50 M ☉ mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  2. A study on maintenance reliability allocation of urban transit brake system using hybrid neuro-genetic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Chul Ho; Kim, Hyun Jun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Suh, Myung Won; Chu, Yul

    2007-01-01

    For reasonable establishing of maintenance strategies, safety security and cost limitation must be considered at the same time. In this paper, the concept of system reliability introduces and optimizes as the key of reasonable maintenance strategies. This study aims at optimizing component's reliability that satisfies the target reliability of brake system in the urban transit. First of all, constructed reliability evaluation system is used to predict and analyze reliability. This data is used for the optimization. To identify component reliability in a system, a method is presented in this paper which uses hybrid neuro-genetic technique. Feed-forward multi-layer neural networks trained by back propagation are used to find out the relationship between component reliability (input) and system reliability (output) of a structural system. The inverse problem can be formulated by using neural network. Genetic algorithm is used to find the minimum square error. Finally, this paper presents reasonable maintenance cycle of urban transit brake system by using optimal system reliability

  3. A narrative method for analyzing transitions in urban water management: The case of the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, Galen; Koebele, Elizabeth; Deslatte, Aaron; Ernst, Kathleen; Garcia, Margaret; Manago, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Although the water management sector is often characterized as resistant to risk and change, urban areas across the United States are increasingly interested in creating opportunities to transition toward more sustainable water management practices. These transitions are complex and difficult to predict - the product of water managers acting in response to numerous biophysical, regulatory, political, and financial factors within institutional constraints. Gaining a better understanding of how these transitions occur is crucial for continuing to improve water management. This paper presents a replicable methodology for analyzing how urban water utilities transition toward sustainability. The method combines standardized quantitative measures of variables that influence transitions with contextual qualitative information about a utility's unique decision making context to produce structured, data-driven narratives. Data-narratives document the broader context, the utility's pretransition history, key events during an accelerated period of change, and the consequences of transition. Eventually, these narratives should be compared across cases to develop empirically-testable hypotheses about the drivers of and barriers to utility-level urban water management transition. The methodology is illustrated through the case of the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and its transition toward more sustainable water management in the 2000s, during which per capita water use declined, conservation measures were enacted, water rates increased, and climate adaptive planning became the new norm.

  4. Low energy E0 transitions in odd-mass nuclei of the neutron deficient 180 < A < 200 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zganjar, E.F.; Kortelahti, M.O.; Wood, J.L.; Papanicolopulos, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The region of neutron-deficient nuclei near Z = 82 and N = 104 provides the most extensive example of low-energy shape coexistence anywhere on the mass surface. It is shown that E0 and E0 admixed transitions may be used as a fingerprint to identify shape coexistence in odd-mass nuclei. It is also shown that all the known cases of low energy E0 and E0 admixed transitions in odd-mass nuclei occur where equally low-lying O + states occur in neighboring even-even nuclei. A discussion of these and other relevant data as well as suggestions for new studies which may help to clarify and, more importantly, quantify the connection between E0 transitions and shape coexistence are presented. 60 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Band-to-band transitions, selection rules, effective mass, and excitonic contributions in monoclinic β -Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Alyssa; Korlacki, Rafał; Briley, Chad; Darakchieva, Vanya; Monemar, Bo; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Goto, Ken; Higashiwaki, Masataka; Schubert, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    We employ an eigenpolarization model including the description of direction dependent excitonic effects for rendering critical point structures within the dielectric function tensor of monoclinic β -Ga2O3 yielding a comprehensive analysis of generalized ellipsometry data obtained from 0.75-9 eV. The eigenpolarization model permits complete description of the dielectric response. We obtain, for single-electron and excitonic band-to-band transitions, anisotropic critical point model parameters including their polarization vectors within the monoclinic lattice. We compare our experimental analysis with results from density functional theory calculations performed using the Gaussian-attenuation-Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof hybrid density functional. We present and discuss the order of the fundamental direct band-to-band transitions and their polarization selection rules, the electron and hole effective mass parameters for the three lowest band-to-band transitions, and their excitonic contributions. We find that the effective masses for holes are highly anisotropic and correlate with the selection rules for the fundamental band-to-band transitions. The observed transitions are polarized close to the direction of the lowest hole effective mass for the valence band participating in the transition.

  6. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  7. Shape transition in Pt-nuclei with mass A ∼190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoli, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclei in mass region A ∼190 are well known for the prolate-oblate shape co-existence/transition phenomena. The shape coexistence phenomena has been observed in nuclei like Hg and Tl of this mass region. The calculations done for Pt nuclei in indicate a smooth shape change from prolate deformed "1"8"6Pt to nearly spherical "2"0"2"-"2"0"4 Pt through the region of triaxially deformed "1"8"8"-"1"9"8Pt and slightly oblate "2"0"0Pt. In these calculations, a change of shape from prolate to oblate is expected at A = 188. In recent high spin spectroscopic investigations, significant amount of reduced prolate collectivity has been observed in "1"8"8Pt. The level lifetimes provide valuable information about the nuclear shape and also the shape change with increase in spin along a band. So, to get clear signature of prolate to oblate shape inversion in Pt nuclei near A = 190, it is required to perform lifetime measurements. With this objective, the RDM lifetime measurements of high spin states have been done for various even-even Pt isotopes with masss A ≤ 186 over the years. The results obtained in these measurements are very encouraging and do indicate changing nuclear structure for Pt-isotopes with increasing mass at low spins. A gradual increase in B(E2) values upto 4"+ state and near constant nature there after in "1"8"8Pt, contrary to the other light neighboring Pt nuclei tends to indicate the volatile nature of deformation in Pt nuclei near A ∼ 190 which needs further theoretical investigations. (author)

  8. Transit-Oriented Development in China : How can it be planned in complex urban systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years most of the Chinese cities have shown a rapid decline in modal split of public transport as a consequence of rapid urbanization and motorization in the “socialist market economy”. It has been witnessed that cars flood into streets; road congestion, air pollution and traffic safety

  9. Advances in greenhouse automation and controlled environment agriculture: A transition to plant factories and urban farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse cultivation has evolved from simple covered rows of open-fields crops to highly sophisticated controlled environment agriculture (CEA) facilities that projected the image of plant factories for urban farming. The advances and improvements in CEA have promoted the scientific solutions for ...

  10. Pollutant Dispersion in Boundary Layers Exposed to Rural-to-Urban Transitions: Varying the Spanwise Length Scale of the Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, J. M.; Eisma, H. E.; Pourquie, M. J. B. M.; Elsinga, G. E.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Westerweel, J.

    2017-05-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence, have been used to investigate pollutant dispersion mechanisms in regions where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. The urban roughness was characterized by an array of rectangular obstacles in an in-line arrangement. The streamwise length scale of the roughness was kept constant, while the spanwise length scale was varied by varying the obstacle aspect ratio l / h between 1 and 8, where l is the spanwise dimension of the obstacles and h is the height of the obstacles. Additionally, the case of two-dimensional roughness (riblets) was considered in LES. A smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer of depth 10 h was used as the approaching flow, and a line source of passive tracer was placed 2 h upstream of the urban canopy. The experimental and numerical results show good agreement, while minor discrepancies are readily explained. It is found that for l/h=2 the drag induced by the urban canopy is largest of all considered cases, and is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In addition, due to the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identified that is responsible for street-canyon ventilation for the sixth street and onwards. Moreover, it is shown that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the canopy, while the streamwise length scale does not show a similar trend.

  11. Food shopping transition: socio-economic characteristics and motivations associated with use of supermarkets in a North African urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Bricas, Nicolas; Maire, Bernard; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the nutrition transition and associated changes in the food retail sector, to examine the socio-economic characteristics and motivations of shoppers using different retail formats (large supermarkets (LSM), medium-sized supermarkets (MSM) or traditional outlets) in Tunisia. Cross-sectional survey (2006). Socio-economic status, type of food retailer and motivations data were collected during house visits. Associations between socio-economic factors and type of retailer were assessed by multinomial regression; correspondence analysis was used to analyse declared motivations. Peri-urban area around Tunis, Tunisia, North Africa. Clustered random sample of 724 households. One-third of the households used LSM, two-thirds used either type of supermarket, but less than 5 % used supermarkets only. Those who shopped for food at supermarkets were of higher socio-economic status; those who used LSM were much wealthier, more often had a steady income or owned a credit card, while MSM users were more urban and had a higher level of education. Most households still frequently used traditional outlets, mostly their neighbourhood grocer. Reasons given for shopping at the different retailers were most markedly leisure for LSM, while for the neighbourhood grocer the reasons were fidelity, proximity and availability of credit (the latter even more for lower-income customers). The results pertain to the transition in food shopping practices in a south Mediterranean country; they should be considered in the context of growing inequalities in health linked to the nutritional transition, as they differentiate use and motivations for the choice of supermarkets v. traditional food retailers according to socio-economic status.

  12. Geospatial Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Transitions from 1986–2014 in a Peri-Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divine Odame Appiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, peri-urbanisation has led to the transformation of the rural landscape, changing rural land uses into peri-urban land uses, under varying driving factors. This paper analyzes the dynamic transitions among identified land use and land cover (LULC types in the Bosomtwe district of Ghana, from 1986 to 2014. An integrated approach of geo-information tools of satellite remote sensing in Earth Resource Data Analysis System (ERDAS Imagine 13 and ArcMap 10.2 Geographic Information System (GIS, with Markov chain analytical techniques were used to examine the combined forest land cover transitions, relative to build-up, recent fallows and grasslands and projected possible factors influencing the transitions under business as usual and unusual situations. Statistical analyses of the classified Landsat TM, ETM+ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (OLI/TIS indicated that over the period of 24 years, the Bosomtwe district has undergone a series of land use conversions with remarkable forest losses especially between 2002 and 2010. In 2010 dense forest cover was degraded to low forest by 4040 ha indicating 0.40% transition probability in the future. There was a remarkable increase of built-up/bare and concrete area with a 380% increment in the 1986–2002 transition periods. The application of the Markov futuristic land use dynamics by the years 2018 and 2028, projected from the 2014 LULC indicated a future steady decline in the area coverage of the dense forest to low forest category. This is currently being driven (as at the 2017 LULC trends, by the combined effects of increasing build up bare and concrete surface land uses as well as the expanding recent fallows and grassland. The paper concluded that the health of the ecosystem and biodiversity of the lake Bosomtwe need to be sustainably managed by the Bosomtwe district assembly.

  13. The manufacture of transit. Border control, urban trends and migrant trajectories in Nouadhibou (Mauritania)

    OpenAIRE

    Streiff-Fénart , Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This chapter examines different forms of migrant integration in Nouadhibou, Mauritania. In this town, the activities developed by transit migrants have been integrated in the local economic network, which is largely articulated around the activities of waves of earlier migrants that have been instilled with a renewed dynamism by newcomers. Since the implementation of border surveillance measures in 2006, transit migration has been identified as the target of specific (...

  14. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake and high bone turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Marlena C.; Kruger, Iolanthé Marike; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2011-01-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the Nor...

  15. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48–100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20–30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals. (letter)

  16. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  17. Unintended greenhouse gas consequences of lowering level of service in urban transit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, Julia B; Cheng, Han; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Public transit is often touted as a ‘green’ transportation option and a way for users to reduce their environmental footprint by avoiding automobile emissions, but that may not be the case when systems run well below passenger capacity. In previous work, we explored an approach to optimizing the design and operations of transit systems for both costs and emissions, using continuum approximation models and assuming fixed demand. In this letter, we expand upon our previous work to explore how the level of service for users impacts emissions. We incorporate travel time elasticities into the optimization to account for demand shifts from transit to cars, resulting from increases in transit travel time. We find that emissions reductions are moderated, but not eliminated, for relatively inelastic users. We consider two scenarios: the first is where only the agency faces an emissions budget; the second is where the entire city faces an emissions budget. In the latter scenario, the emissions reductions resulting from reductions in transit level of service are mitigated as users switch to automobile. (letter)

  18. Optimal trajectory planning and train scheduling for urban rail transit systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yihui; van den Boom, Ton; De Schutter, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book contributes to making urban rail transport fast, punctual and energy-efficient –significant factors in the importance of public transportation systems to economic, environmental and social requirements at both municipal and national levels. It proposes new methods for shortening passenger travel times and for reducing energy consumption, addressing two major topics: (1) train trajectory planning: the authors derive a nonlinear model for the operation of trains and present several approaches for calculating optimal and energy-efficient trajectories within a given schedule; and (2) train scheduling: the authors develop a train scheduling model for urban rail systems and optimization approaches with which to balance total passenger travel time with energy efficiency and other costs to the operator. Mixed-integer linear programming and pseudospectral methods are among the new methods proposed for single- and multi-train systems for the solution of the nonlinear trajectory planning problem which involv...

  19. Body mass index and self-perception of overweight and obesity in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare self-reported weight and body mass index (BMI in order to determine discrepancies between subjective and objective obesity-related markers, and possible explanatory factors of overweight and obesity underestimation, in urban, rural and migrant populations.Data from the PERU MIGRANT study, a cross-sectional study, in low-income settings, of urban, migrant (rural-to-urban, and rural groups, including BMI, self-reported weight and socio-demographic indicators were analyzed. Percentage of concurrences between BMI and self-reported weight and Kappa coefficients for inter-rater agreement were calculated. Univariate and standardized descriptive analyses were performed to identify potential explanatory variables for weight underestimation in only overweight and obese individuals, using established BMI and waist circumference cut offs.983 Participants-199 urban, 583 migrants and 201 rural-were analyzed. Based on BMI, overall prevalence of obesity was 20.1% (95% CI 17.6%-22.6%, and overweight was 38.3% (95% CI 35.2%-41.2%, with differences between study groups (p<0.001. Only 43% of the whole sample had matching self-reported weight and BMI status, whereas 54% underestimated and 3% overestimated their BMI category. Kappa coefficient, between BMI and self-reported weight, for the entire sample was 0.16, rural residents had the lowest coefficient (0.01 and the most underestimation, especially in the overweight category. In overweight and obese individuals, deprivation index (p = 0.016, age (p = 0.014 and waist circumference (p<0.001 were associated with weight underestimation.Overall, high levels of overweight, obesity, and underestimation of BMI status were found, with poor agreement between BMI and self-reported weight, showing the unawareness of weight status severity in this low-income setting.

  20. Body Mass Index and Self-Perception of Overweight and Obesity in Rural, Urban and Rural-to-Urban Migrants: PERU MIGRANT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Pillay, Timesh D.; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare self-reported weight and body mass index (BMI) in order to determine discrepancies between subjective and objective obesity-related markers, and possible explanatory factors of overweight and obesity underestimation, in urban, rural and migrant populations. Materials and Methods Data from the PERU MIGRANT study, a cross-sectional study, in low-income settings, of urban, migrant (rural-to-urban), and rural groups, including BMI, self-reported weight and socio-demographic indicators were analyzed. Percentage of concurrences between BMI and self-reported weight and Kappa coefficients for inter-rater agreement were calculated. Univariate and standardized descriptive analyses were performed to identify potential explanatory variables for weight underestimation in only overweight and obese individuals, using established BMI and waist circumference cut offs. Results 983 Participants–199 urban, 583 migrants and 201 rural–were analyzed. Based on BMI, overall prevalence of obesity was 20.1% (95% CI 17.6%–22.6%), and overweight was 38.3% (95% CI 35.2%–41.2%), with differences between study groups (prural residents had the lowest coefficient (0.01) and the most underestimation, especially in the overweight category. In overweight and obese individuals, deprivation index (p = 0.016), age (p = 0.014) and waist circumference (p<0.001) were associated with weight underestimation. Discussion Overall, high levels of overweight, obesity, and underestimation of BMI status were found, with poor agreement between BMI and self-reported weight, showing the unawareness of weight status severity in this low-income setting. PMID:23209688

  1. Info-Gap robustness pathway method for transitioning of urban drainage systems under deep uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischg, Jonatan; Goncalves, Mariana L R; Bacchin, Taneha Kuzniecow; Leonhardt, Günther; Viklander, Maria; van Timmeren, Arjan; Rauch, Wolfgang; Sitzenfrei, Robert

    2017-09-01

    In the urban water cycle, there are different ways of handling stormwater runoff. Traditional systems mainly rely on underground piped, sometimes named 'gray' infrastructure. New and so-called 'green/blue' ambitions aim for treating and conveying the runoff at the surface. Such concepts are mainly based on ground infiltration and temporal storage. In this work a methodology to create and compare different planning alternatives for stormwater handling on their pathways to a desired system state is presented. Investigations are made to assess the system performance and robustness when facing the deeply uncertain spatial and temporal developments in the future urban fabric, including impacts caused by climate change, urbanization and other disruptive events, like shifts in the network layout and interactions of 'gray' and 'green/blue' structures. With the Info-Gap robustness pathway method, three planning alternatives are evaluated to identify critical performance levels at different stages over time. This novel methodology is applied to a real case study problem where a city relocation process takes place during the upcoming decades. In this case study it is shown that hybrid systems including green infrastructures are more robust with respect to future uncertainties, compared to traditional network design.

  2. Singular behavior of the mass conductivity of liquid 4He in a superleak at the superfluid transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, A.; Bagley, M.

    1977-01-01

    From measurements of the damping of sound in liquid 4 He caused by fluid penetration into a porous medium at the superfluid transition T/sub lambda/s/, we have deduced a critical temperature dependence of the mass conductivity sigma of the form sigmainfinity (T-T/sub lambda s/)/sup -0.31 +- 0.03/

  3. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  4. Preliminary study of elemental mass size distribution of urban aerosol collected in Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Borbely-Kiss, I.; Kiss, A.Z.; Koltay, E.; Szabo, Gy.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Aerosol sampling campaigns were performed during January-February 1998 and August 1998 at an urban location (in the yard of the Institute of Nuclear Research), where aerosol sampling has been carried out continuously since 1991 with single stage Nuclepore filter holders, and since 1994 with 2-stage Gent stacked filter units (SFU). In the winter period in four weekdays 24-hours samplings were performed with a 7-stage PIXE International Cascade Impactor (PCI) and simultaneously with a SFU. On 19-25 August 1998, a week-long aerosol sampling campaign was carried out with the PCI (24-hour samplings), a SFU (24-hour samplings), and a streaker sampler (168-hour continuous sampling). For this period meteorological data were also obtained by a micro-meteorological station installed at the same location by the Radon Group. Elemental concentrations for Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb of the aerosol samples were determined by PIXE using the 2 MeV energy proton beam of the 5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator of the Institute. The obtained average elemental concentrations and the seasonal variation in the elemental concentrations show good correlation with the results obtained from the analysis of the samples collected in previous years. In winter the elemental concentrations are usually lower than in summer, except Cl. The Cl concentration in the coarse fraction is higher with a factor of 10 than in summer due to the salting of the roads and pavements. The summer period included a long weekend with a national holiday. During the weekend the elemental concentrations and also the total mass decreased, and in the beginning of the following week it started to increase. Size distribution: the impactor we have used separate the aerosol within the size range of 0.25 μm and 30 μm into 7 fractions. The mass size distribution for elements of natural origin, like Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Mn has one mode: the coarse mode. The

  5. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  6. Longitudinal Study of Body Mass Index in Young Males and the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Gutina, Anna; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Despite a growing understanding that the social determinants of health have an impact on body mass index (BMI), the role of fatherhood on young men's BMI is understudied. This longitudinal study examines BMI in young men over time as they transition from adolescence into fatherhood in a nationally representative sample. Data from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health supported a 20-year longitudinal analysis of 10,253 men beginning in 1994. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created and changes in BMI were examined based on fatherhood status (nonfather, nonresident father, resident father), fatherhood years, and covariates. Though age is positively associated with BMI over all years for all men, comparing nonresident and resident fathers with nonfathers reveals different trajectories based on fatherhood status. Entrance into fatherhood is associated with an increase in BMI trajectory for both nonresident and resident fathers, while nonfathers exhibit a decrease over the same period. In this longitudinal, population-based study, fatherhood and residence status play a role in men's BMI. Designing obesity prevention interventions for young men that begin in adolescence and carry through young adulthood should target the distinctive needs of these populations, potentially improving their health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. $W$ mass measurement and simulation of the transition radiation tracker at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2008-01-01

    At the time of writing, the final preparation toward LHC startup is ongoing. All the magnets of the machine have been installed and are currently being cooled. Most sub-detectors of the four experiments situated at the LHC ring are installed in their final positions and are being integrated into their respective data acquisition systems. This thesis concerns itself with the ATLAS experiment, focusing on a sub-detector called the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). Some attention is given to the hardware testing of the detector modules, but the main focus lies on the simulation of the detector and the comparison of the simulation with test-beam data, as well as with data collected during the commissioning phase using cosmic muons. There is little doubt that LHC will bring insight with respect to the understanding of the universe on the fundamental level. In particular, it is anticipated that light will be shed on the origin of mass which according to our current understanding proceeds via the Higgs mechanism. ...

  8. Magnetic phase transitions and large mass enhancement in single crystal CaFe4As3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao-Dong; Wu Wei; Zheng Ping; Wang Nan-Lin; Luo Jian-Lin

    2012-01-01

    High quality single crystal CaFe 4 As 3 was grown by using the Sn flux method. Unlike layered CaFe 2 As 2 , CaFe 4 As 3 crystallizes in an orthorhombic three-dimensional structure. Two magnetic ordering transitions are observed at ∼ 90 K and ∼ 27 K, respectively. The high temperature transition is an antiferromagnetic(AF) ordering transition. However, the low temperature transition shows complex properties. It shows a ferromagnetic-like transition when a field is applied along b-axis, while antiferromagnetism-like transition when a field is applied perpendicular to b-axis. These results suggest that the low temperature transition at 27 K is a first-order transition from an AF state to a canted AF state. In addition, the low temperature electron specific heat coefficient reaches as high as 143 mJ/mol·K 2 , showing a heavy fermion behavior. (rapid communication)

  9. Energy Saving Performance Analysis of An Inverter-based Regenerative Power Re-utilization Device for Urban Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Qiu, Zhiling; Hu, Leilei

    2018-04-01

    The inverter-based regenerative braking power utilization devices can re-utilize the regenerative energy, thus reduce the energy consumption of urban rail transit. In this paper the power absorption principle of the inverter-based device is introduced, then the key influencing factors of energy saving performance are analyzed based on the absorption model. The field operation data verified that the control DC voltage plays an important role and lower control DC voltage yields more energy saving. Also, the one year energy saving performance data of an inverter-based re-utilization device located in NanJing S8 line is provided, and more than 1.2 million kWh energy is recovered in the one year operation.

  10. Social Network Implications of Normative School Transitions in Non-Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Deborah A.; Gest, Scott D.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark; Moody, James

    2018-01-01

    This article expands research on normative school transitions (NSTs) from elementary to middle school or middle to high school by examining the extent to which they disrupt structures of friendship networks. Social network analysis is used to quantify aspects of connectedness likely relevant to student experiences of social support. Data were…

  11. Review of urban energy transition in the Netherlands and the role of smart energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the most important backgrounds and trends of the present energy supply system in the Netherlands. Options are discussed for the integration of renewable energy and the present policies are reviewed that stimulate the energy transition. Last, the role of smart energy

  12. Bangkok's transport ecosystem : some thoughts on transitions to sustainable urban mobility in an Asian megacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, F.H.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Romijn, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Much previous research on sustainability transitions highlights two things. 1) The empirical interrogation of contexts in Western Europe. 2) The importance of the national level by conceptualizing the nation-state as the unit ‘under transition’. This paper presents an account of sustainability

  13. Specific heat and electric conductivity of zirconium alloy with 2,5 mass% niobium in the range of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, V.V.; Pokrasin, M.A.; Chernov, A.I.; Semashko, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental investigation of specific heat and electric resistance of zirconium alloy with 2.5 mass% niobium in the range of phase transitions was conducted, using adiabatic calorimeter of original design, characterized by high sensitivity, efficiency and high accuracy. It was revealed that temperature dependence of specific heat was characterized by anomalous growth at 590 deg C, related with (α+β Nb )→(α+β Zr )-transition, and at 810 deg -related with (α+β Zr )→β Zr - transition. Temperature dependence of electric resistance was specific in the region of α+β Zr →β Zr phase transition. It was established that revealed anomalies were connected with high oxygen absorption at high temperatures. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Searching for the Transit of the Earth-mass Exoplanet Proxima Centauri b in Antarctica: Preliminary Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Gen; Jiang, Peng; Huang, Xingxing; Yu, Zhou-Yi; Yang, Ming; Jia, Minghao; Awiphan, Supachai; Pan, Xiang; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Jian; Li, Zhengyang; Du, Fujia; Li, Xiaoyan; Lu, Haiping; Zhang, Zhiyong; Tian, Qi-Guo; Li, Bin; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Shi, Xiheng; Wang, Ji; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Zhou, Hongyan

    2018-01-01

    Proxima Centauri is known as the closest star to the Sun. Recently, radial velocity (RV) observations revealed the existence of an Earth-mass planet around it. With an orbital period of ∼11 days, Proxima Centauri b is probably in the habitable zone of its host star. We undertook a photometric monitoring campaign to search for its transit, using the Bright Star Survey Telescope at the Zhongshan Station in Antarctica. A transit-like signal appearing on 2016 September 8 has been tentatively identified. Its midtime, T C = 2,457,640.1990 ± 0.0017 HJD, is consistent with the predicted ephemeris based on the RV orbit in a 1σ confidence interval. Time-correlated noise is pronounced in the light curve of Proxima Centauri, affecting the detection of transits. We develop a technique, in a Gaussian process framework, to gauge the statistical significance of a potential transit detection. The tentative transit signal reported here has a confidence level of 2.5σ. Further detection of its periodic signals is necessary to confirm the planetary transit of Proxima Centauri b. We plan to monitor Proxima Centauri in the next polar night at Dome A in Antarctica, taking advantage of continuous darkness. Kipping et al. reported two tentative transit-like signals of Proxima Centauri b observed by the Microvariability and Oscillation of Stars space telescope in 2014 and 2015. The midtransit time of our detection is 138 minutes later than that predicted by their transit ephemeris. If all of the signals are real transits, the misalignment of the epochs plausibly suggests transit timing variations of Proxima Centauri b induced by an outer planet in this system.

  15. Health co-benefits in mortality avoidance from implementation of the mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Soo Chen; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    The mass rapid transit (MRT) is the largest transport infrastructure project under the national key economic area (NKEA) in Malaysia. As urban rail is anticipated to be the future spine of public transport network in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city, it is important to mainstream climate change mitigation and public health benefits in the local transport development. This study quantifies the health co-benefits in terms of mortality among the urbanites when the first line of the 150 km MRT system in Kuala Lumpur commences by 2017. Using comparative health risk assessment, we estimated the potential health co-benefits from the establishment of the MRT system. We estimated the reduced CO2 emissions and air pollution (PM2.5) exposure reduction among the general population from the reduced use of motorized vehicles. Mortality avoided from traffic incidents involving motorcycles and passenger cars, and from increased physical activity from walking while using the MRT system was also estimated. A total of 363,130 tonnes of CO2 emissions could be reduced annually from the modal shift from cars and motorcycles to the MRT system. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentration could be reduced 0.61 μg/m3 annually (2%). This could avoid a total of 12 deaths, mostly from cardio-respiratory diseases among the city residents. For traffic injuries, 37 deaths could be avoided annually from motorcycle and passenger cars accidents especially among the younger age categories (aged 15-30). One additional death was attributed to pedestrian walking. The additional daily physical activity to access the MRT system could avoid 21 deaths among its riders. Most of the mortality avoided comes from cardiovascular diseases. Overall, a total of 70 deaths could be avoided annually among both the general population and the MRT users in the city. The implementation of the MRT system in Greater Kuala Lumpur could bring substantial health co-benefits to both the general population and the MRT users mainly from the

  16. Study on transfer optimization of urban rail transit and conventional public transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Sun, Quan Xin; Mao, Bao Hua

    2018-04-01

    This paper mainly studies the time optimization of feeder connection between rail transit and conventional bus in a shopping center. In order to achieve the goal of connecting rail transportation effectively and optimizing the convergence between the two transportations, the things had to be done are optimizing the departure intervals, shorting the passenger transfer time and improving the service level of public transit. Based on the goal that has the minimum of total waiting time of passengers and the number of start of classes, establish the optimizing model of bus connecting of departure time. This model has some constrains such as transfer time, load factor, and the convergence of public transportation grid spacing. It solves the problems by using genetic algorithms.

  17. Average opportunity-based accessibility of public transit systems to grocery stores in small urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Dharmadhikari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the accessibility of grocery stores to university students using the public transportation system, drawing from a case study of Fargo, North Dakota. Taking into consideration the combined travel time components of walking, riding, and waiting, this study measures two types of accessibilities: accessibility to reach a particular place and accessibility to reach the bus stop to ride the public transit system. These two accessibilities are interdependent and cannot perform without each other. A new method to calculate the average accessibility measure for the transit routes is proposed. A step-wise case study analysis indicates that one route provides accessibility to a grocery store in eight minutes. This also suggests that the North Dakota State University area has moderate accessibility to grocery stores.

  18. Review of urban energy transition in the Netherlands and the role of smart energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuwen, R.P. van; Wit, J.B. de; Smit, G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of backgrounds and trends of the energy supply system in the Netherlands. • Review of Dutch governance policies to support the energy transition. • Review of increasing energy efficiency and options for supply and storage of renewable energy. • Individual and collective approaches to integrate renewable energy in the built environment. • The role of smart energy management to integrate renewable energy into existing infrastructures. - Abstract: This paper gives a review of the most important backgrounds and trends of the present energy supply system in the Netherlands. Options are discussed for the integration of renewable energy and the present policies are reviewed that stimulate the energy transition. Last, the role of smart energy management as part of the integration of renewable energy into existing infrastructures is discussed.

  19. Transitions to adulthood in urban Kenya: A focus on adolescent migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Clark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Migration is often intrinsically tied to key adolescent transitions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, while many adolescents move in order to improve their life trajectories, migration may also coincide with new challenges and considerable disruption of family support. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to better understand how migration and associated changes in family support are related to youth's prospects of finishing secondary school, finding employment, getting married, and initiating child-bearing. METHODS Drawing on detailed life history data from over 600 young men and women in Kisumu, Kenya, we use piecewise exponential survival analysis to examine how migration is related to key transitions to adulthood and how variation in family support moderates these relationships. All analyses are run separately for young men and women. RESULTS Migration is associated with a sharp decline in parental support and a corresponding rise in reliance on other relatives, partners, or one's self. For both men and women, migration also frequently coincides with a permanent exodus from school, which cannot be fully explained by changes in family support or transitions into marriage or work. We find strong evidence that young men move to Kisumu to obtain their first jobs and little evidence of subsequent discrimination against male migrants in the labor market. For young women, not only does migration coincide with marriage, but young female migrants also get married and become pregnant at younger ages after they have moved. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent migrants experience significantly lower levels of parental support, are more likely to drop out of school, and make earlier transitions to adult roles, potentially increasing their long-term economic and social vulnerability.

  20. Investigation of the energy-averaged double transition density of isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelik, M.L.; Shlomo, S. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Tulupov, B.A. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Urin, M.H., E-mail: urin@theor.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The particle–hole dispersive optical model, developed recently, is applied to study properties of high-energy isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei. The energy-averaged strength functions of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and its overtone in {sup 208}Pb are analyzed. In particular, we analyze the energy-averaged isoscalar monopole double transition density, the key quantity in the description of the hadron–nucleus inelastic scattering, and studied the validity of the factorization approximation using semi classical and microscopic one body transition densities, respectively, in calculating the cross sections for the excitation of isoscalar giant resonances by inelastic alpha scattering.

  1. Mass- and energy-dependence of (π+,π-) double isobaric analog transitions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, T.

    1988-01-01

    Transitions to double isobaric analog states (DIAT) have been measured in the double charge exchange (DCX) reaction (π + ,π - ) for the nuclei 26 Mg, 56 Fe at Tsub(π+) = 49 MeV and for 18 O at Tsub(π+) = 24 MeV, 33 MeV, 49 MeV, 64 MeV and 79 MeV for several angles. The experiments have been performed at the pion channels M13 and M11 of TRIUMF using the low energy pion spectrometer QQD. The forward angle cross sections for 18 O can be understood in a quark model as well as in conventional models where the reaction is mainly proceeding through intermediate deltas or low lying excited states of the intermediate nucleus. The angular distribution of 26 Mg at 49 MeV is found to be almost identical to those of 14 C and 18 O while the cross section remarkedly drops for 56 Fe. The forward angle excitation function of 18 O exhibits a maximum at around 35 MeV. The present results are compared to theoretical predictions. Two approaches for a unified study of SCX and DCX at energies ranging from 20 MeV up to 300 MeV are presented. The first is carried out in a mean free path model for investigations of geometry effects in the reaction. For the second, the optical model code PIESDEX is employed. Both studies indicate that the observed mass dependence for DCX at 50 MeV can be explained partly by geometry considerations and partly by details in the nuclear matter distributions of core neutrons and valence neutrons. Furthermore, the optical model investigation reveals the need of shifting the free πN-SCX amplitude down by 30 MeV in order to achieve good agreement with experimental data. (orig.)

  2. China in transition: the new health insurance scheme for the urban employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D

    2000-01-01

    China has been very successful in achieving good health at a low cost, mostly through national programs for health promotion and illness prevention. However, increased prosperity in recent years has led to higher expectations for therapeutic care, and the change to a socialist market economy has created new risks and opportunities for both financing and care provision. After several years of experimentation, China committed itself in 1996 to a major reform program which includes implementation of a new method of financing of care for the urban employed population. It comprises a mix of government-operated compulsory basic insurance, individual health savings accounts, and optional private health insurance. This paper outlines the new Scheme, and notes some tactical and strategic issues. I conclude that the Chinese government is correctly choosing to balance new and old ideas, but that there are many challenges to be faced including integration of the new Scheme with the rest of the health care system.

  3. Birds and Roads: Reduced Transit for Smaller Species over Roads within an Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Johnson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Roads provide humans with a means of mobility between destinations, be it for transportation of goods and services or as a means of connecting with others. However, roads are also known to contribute toward a number of deleterious landscape processes, such as habitat destruction and fragmentation, pollution (e.g., chemical, noise and light and animal mortality. Few studies however have investigated their effects on avifauna. We investigated the influence of road width on movements of nearby bird assemblages in Australia by comparing crossing counts of four species guilds and sizes over roads of varying widths in Southern Brisbane. In addition, we also sought to determine the association of seasonality with species crossing richness and abundance. Species guild affiliations were based on definitions from previous literature: small forest dependent, large forest dependent, honeyeater, and urban tolerant; whereas body size classifications were arbitrarily defined: small (< 20 cm, medium (20–29 cm, and large (>30 cm. Road sites were selected based on their vegetation likeness, both within and between sites, and this was assessed using the Specht classification system. We detected strong, negative correlations between road width and forest species richness, crossing species richness and species crossing abundance. In particular, analysis of species guild classifications revealed species richness and crossing likelihoods of the small forest dependent guild to be consistently lower than those of large forest dependent, honeyeater and urban tolerant guilds. Analysis of species by body size classification yielded similar outcomes: small birds were consistently less likely to be present nearby and cross over roads of all widths compared to medium and large birds. We believe gap permeability, particularly changes in vegetation structure and complexity that may restrict a species ability to access to the gap, as well as competition and predation, play an

  4. Assessment of the impact of dipped guideways on urban rail transit systems: Ventilation and safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The ventilation and fire safety requirements for subway tunnels with dipped profiles between stations as compared to subway tunnels with level profiles were evaluated. This evaluation is based upon computer simulations of a train fire emergency condition. Each of the tunnel configurations evaluated was developed from characteristics that are representative of modern transit systems. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The level tunnel system required about 10% more station cooling than dipped tunnel systems in order to meet design requirements; and (2) The emergency ventilation requirements are greater with dipped tunnel systems than with level tunnel systems.

  5. Transit Rider Body Mass Index Before and After Completion of Street Light-Rail Line in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Jensen, Wyatt A; Tharp, Doug

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether 2012 to 2015 (times 1-3) ridership changes correlated with body mass index (BMI) changes after transit line completion in Salt Lake City, Utah. We used Global Positioning System/accelerometry-measured transit ridership measures in 2012 to 2013 (times 1-2) to compare objective and self-reported ridership. Regression models related changes in objectively measured ridership (times 1-2) and self-reported ridership (times 1-2 and times 1-3) to BMI changes, adjusting for control variables. Objective and self-reported ridership measures were consistent. From time 1 to 2 (P = .021) or to 3 (P = .015), BMI increased among self-reported former riders and decreased among new riders (P = .09 for both times 1-2 and times 1-3), although the latter was nonsignificant. Time 3 attrition adjustment had no effect on results. Adjusting for baseline BMI, the nonsignificant effect for new riders remained nonsignificant, indicating no BMI change; the BMI increase after discontinuing transit remained significant. Observed BMI increases subsequent to stopping transit ridership persisted for more than 2 years (postintervention). These results suggest that transit ridership protects against BMI gains and support the need to provide convenient transit for public health.

  6. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  7. Relationships among healthy lifestyle beliefs and body mass index in urban China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagevos, H.; He, Y.; Zhang, X.Y.; Lans, van der I.A.; Zhai, F.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption is a major driving force in China's economy. The consumer society is particularly emerging in the more urbanized and affluent regions in China. Given the rise of consumerism on the one hand, and the rise of overweight and obesity on the other, this study explored whether the

  8. A castle built on sand: the effects of mass privatization on stock market creation in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fungáčová, Zuzana; Hanousek, Jan

    -, 14/2006 (2006), s. 1-27. ISBN 952-462-836-8. ISSN 1456-4564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : mass privatization * stock market s * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bof.fi/NR/rdonlyres/27CA8D56-6B3B-470C-B3AE-633673DDE1D8/0/dp1406.pdf

  9. Development of a Logic Model for a Physical Activity–Based Employee Wellness Program for Mass Transit Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bhibha M.; Petruzzello, Steven J.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation workers, who constitute a large sector of the workforce, have worksite factors that harm their health. Worksite wellness programs must target this at-risk population. Although physical activity is often a component of worksite wellness logic models, we consider it the cornerstone for improving the health of mass transit employees. Program theory was based on in-person interviews and focus groups of employees. We identified 4 short-term outcome categories, which provided a chain...

  10. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  11. Effect of In-Vehicle Audio Warning System on Driver’s Speed Control Performance in Transition Zones from Rural Areas to Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speeding is a major contributing factor to traffic crashes and frequently happens in areas where there is a mutation in speed limits, such as the transition zones that connect urban areas from rural areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an in-vehicle audio warning system and lit speed limit sign on preventing drivers’ speeding behavior in transition zones. A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to establish a roadway network with the transition zone. A total of 41 participants were recruited for this experiment, and the driving speed performance data were collected from the simulator. The experimental results display that the implementation of the audio warning system could significantly reduce drivers’ operating speed before they entered the urban area, while the lit speed limit sign had a minimal effect on improving the drivers’ speed control performance. Without consideration of different types of speed limit signs, it is found that male drivers generally had a higher operating speed both upstream and in the transition zones and have a larger maximum deceleration for speed reduction than female drivers. Moreover, the drivers who had medium-level driving experience had the higher operating speed and were more likely to have speeding behaviors in the transition zones than those who had low-level and high-level driving experience in the transition zones.

  12. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): a dedicated cubesat mission for the study of exoplanetary mass loss and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian T.; France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kohnert, Richard; Pool, Kelsey; Egan, Arika; Fossati, Luca; Koskinen, Tommi; Vidotto, Aline A.; Hoadley, Keri; Desert, Jean-Michel; Beasley, Matthew; Petit, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is a near-UV (2550 - 3300 Å) 6U cubesat mission designed to monitor transiting hot Jupiters to quantify their atmospheric mass loss and magnetic fields. CUTE will probe both atomic (Mg and Fe) and molecular (OH) lines for evidence of enhanced transit absorption, and to search for evidence of early ingress due to bow shocks ahead of the planet's orbital motion. As a dedicated mission, CUTE will observe > 60 spectroscopic transits of hot Jupiters over a nominal seven month mission. This represents the equivalent of > 700 orbits of the only other instrument capable of these measurements, the Hubble Space Telescope. CUTE efficiently utilizes the available cubesat volume by means of an innovative optical design to achieve a projected effective area of ˜ 22 cm2 , low instrumental background, and a spectral resolving power of R ˜ 3000 over the entire science bandpass. These performance characteristics enable CUTE to discern a transit depth of motivation and expected results, and an overview of the projected fabrication, calibration and launch timeline.

  13. Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment: a dedicated CubeSat mission to study exoplanetary mass loss and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian T.; France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kohnert, Richard; Pool, Kelsey; Egan, Arika; Fossati, Luca; Koskinen, Tommi; Vidotto, Aline A.; Hoadley, Keri; Desert, Jean-Michel; Beasley, Matthew; Petit, Pascal M.

    2018-01-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is a near-UV (2550 to 3300 Å) 6U CubeSat mission designed to monitor transiting hot Jupiters to quantify their atmospheric mass loss and magnetic fields. CUTE will probe both atomic (Mg and Fe) and molecular (OH) lines for evidence of enhanced transit absorption, and to search for evidence of early ingress due to bow shocks ahead of the planet's orbital motion. As a dedicated mission, CUTE will observe ≳100 spectroscopic transits of hot Jupiters over a nominal 7-month mission. This represents the equivalent of >700 orbits of the only other instrument capable of these measurements, the Hubble Space Telescope. CUTE efficiently utilizes the available CubeSat volume by means of an innovative optical design to achieve a projected effective area of ˜28 cm2, low instrumental background, and a spectral resolving power of R˜3000 over the primary science bandpass. These performance characteristics enable CUTE to discern transit depths between 0.1% and 1% in individual spectral absorption lines. We present the CUTE optical and mechanical design, a summary of the science motivation and expected results, and an overview of the projected fabrication, calibration, and launch timeline.

  14. Protecting Urban Health and Safety: Balancing Care and Harm in the Era of Mass Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Nadia; Wright, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores theoretical, spatial, and mediatized pathways through which policing poses harms to the health of marginalized communities in the urban USA, including analysis of two recent and widely publicized incidents of officer-involved killings in Ferguson, Missouri and Staten Island, New York. We examine the influence of the "broken windows" model in both policing and public health, revealing alternate institutional strategies for responding to urban disorder in the interests of the health and safety of the city. Drawing on ecosocial theory and medical anthropology, we consider the roles of the segregated built environment and historical experience in the embodiment of structural vulnerability with respect to police violence. We examine the recent shootings of Eric Garner and Michael Brown as the most visible, most circulated symbols of this complex and contradictory terrain, focusing on the pathways through which theories of causality authorize violent and/or caring intervention by the state. We show how police killings reveal an underlying and racialized association between disorder and deviance that becomes institutionalized and embodied through spatial and symbolic pathways. If public health workers and advocates are to play a role in responding to the call of the Black Lives Matter movement, it is important to understand the interpretations and translations of urban social life that circulate on the streets, in the media, in public policy, and in institutional practice.

  15. Developing effective mass transit systems : proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Public Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA), in conjunction with the U.S. Embassy, the Russian Ministry of Transportation, the City of Moscow, and the Ministry of Transport of the Moscow Oblast (Regional) Government, hosted a bilateral conference to dis...

  16. Mass Transit: Implementation of FTA's New Starts Evaluation Process and FY 2001 Funding Proposals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Much of this investment has come through the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) New Starts program, which helps pay for certain rail, bus, and trolley projects through full funding grant agreements...

  17. Systematic review of research on railway and urban transit system suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile

    2016-03-15

    We critically review research on railway suicides to inform suicide prevention initiatives and future studies, including who is at risk and why, and behaviours at track locations. Literature was identified from Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and our documentation centre, and contacting 71 railway companies, resulting in 716 articles and eight unpublished reports, with 94 having empirical data on 55 unique studies. Research quality was critically assessed. The quality of studies varies greatly with frequent shortcomings: no justification of sample size, lacking information on the reliability and validity of measures, no explanation nor theoretical understanding of findings. Railway suicides resemble closely people who use other methods, although they tend to be younger. As with other suicide methods, mental health problems are likely to be present. Railway suicide attempters usually die, but most urban transportation systems attempters survive. Railway suicides are rarely impulsive; people usually go to the railway for the purpose of killing themselves. Hotspots have been the focus of some prevention measures. We know little about why people choose railway suicide, but studies of survivors suggest they often thought they would have an immediate, certain and painless death. Media reports on railway suicides can increase their incidence. Most research focuses on the incidence and characteristics of events and attempters. Research has not shown that railway suicides are different from suicides by other means. Better quality research is needed, particularly studies that investigate why people use railways to kill themselves and how railway suicides can be effectively prevented, as well as more evaluations of prevention programmes. Because of significant variations by country and region in characteristics of railway suicides, prevention programmes should conduct a local assessment of the characteristics of attempters and incidents. We need more research on

  18. New York State urban and rural measurements of continuous PM2.5 mass by FDMS, TEOM, and BAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, James J; Felton, Henry D; Rattigan, Oliver V; Demerjian, Kenneth L

    2006-04-01

    Field evaluations and comparisons of continuous fine particulate matter (PM2,5) mass measurement technologies at an urban and a rural site in New York state are performed. The continuous measurement technologies include the filter dynamics measurement system (FDMS) tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitor, the stand-alone TEOM monitor (without the FDMS), and the beta attenuation monitor (BAM). These continuous measurement methods are also compared with 24-hr integrated filters collected and analyzed under the Federal Reference Method (FRM) protocol. The measurement sites are New York City (the borough of Queens) and Addison, a rural area of southwestern New York state. New York City data comparisons between the FDMS TEOM, BAM, and FRM are examined for bias and seasonality during a 2-yr period. Data comparisons for the FDMS TEOM and FRM from the Addison location are examined for the same 2-yr period. The BAM and FDMS measurements at Queens are highly correlated with each other and the FRM. The BAM and FDMS are very similar to each other in magnitude, and both are approximately 25% higher than the FRM filter measurements at this site. The FDMS at Addison measures approximately 9% more mass than the FRM. Mass reconstructions using the speciation trends network filter data are examined to provide insight as to the contribution of volatile species of PM2.5 in the FDMS mass measurement and the fraction that is likely lost in the FRM mass measurement. The reconstructed mass at Queens is systematically lower than the FDMS by approximately 10%.

  19. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation.

  20. Distribution and toxicity of current-use insecticides in sediment of a lake receiving waters from areas in transition to urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jizhong; Li Huizhen; You Jing

    2012-01-01

    Current-use insecticides including organophosphate (OPs) and synthetic pyrethroid (SPs) insecticides were analyzed in 35 sediment samples collected from Chaohu Lake in China, where a transition from a traditional agricultural to a modern urbanized society is ongoing. Total concentrations of five OPs and eight SPs ranged from 0.029 to 0.681 ng/g dry weight and 0.016–301 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Toxic unit analysis showed that 13% of the sediment samples likely produced over 50% of the mortality for benthic invertebrates. Analysis also showed that cypermethrin was the principal contributor to the toxicity. Spatial distribution evaluation implied that OPs were mainly from non-point sources associated with agricultural activities. Conversely, SPs may have been derived from runoff of inflowing rivers through urban regions, as their concentrations were well-correlated with concentrations of other urban-oriented contaminants. - Highlights: ► Though lower than urban sites, pyrethroid insecticides in Chaohu Lake, China may cause toxicity to benthic invertebrates. ► Concentrations of pyrethroids were well correlated with those of other urban-oriented contaminants, e.g. PAHs and LABs. ► Spatial distribution showed urban runoff was the major source of pyrethroids deposited in the lake sediment. ► Conversely, organophosphate insecticides were mainly associated with agricultural non-point sources. - Evaluation of the distribution, potential toxicity, and input sources of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides in sediment from Chaohu Lake, China.

  1. The modeling of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network based on field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Wang, Yanhui; Jia, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Aimed at the complicated problems of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network, the concept of the gravity field of passenger flow is proposed in this paper. We establish the computation methods of field strength and potential energy to reveal the potential attraction relationship among stations from the perspective of the collection and distribution of passenger flow and the topology of network. As for the computation methods of field strength, an optimum path concept is proposed to define betweenness centrality parameter. Regarding the computation of potential energy, Compound Simpson's Rule Formula is applied to get a solution to the function. Taking No. 10 Beijing Subway as a practical example, an analysis of simulation and verification is conducted, and the results shows in the following ways. Firstly, the bigger field strength value between two stations is, the stronger passenger flow attraction is, and the greater probability of the formation of the largest passenger flow of section is. Secondly, there is the greatest passenger flow volume and circulation capacity between two zones of high potential energy.

  2. The modeling of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network based on field theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Li

    Full Text Available Aimed at the complicated problems of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network, the concept of the gravity field of passenger flow is proposed in this paper. We establish the computation methods of field strength and potential energy to reveal the potential attraction relationship among stations from the perspective of the collection and distribution of passenger flow and the topology of network. As for the computation methods of field strength, an optimum path concept is proposed to define betweenness centrality parameter. Regarding the computation of potential energy, Compound Simpson's Rule Formula is applied to get a solution to the function. Taking No. 10 Beijing Subway as a practical example, an analysis of simulation and verification is conducted, and the results shows in the following ways. Firstly, the bigger field strength value between two stations is, the stronger passenger flow attraction is, and the greater probability of the formation of the largest passenger flow of section is. Secondly, there is the greatest passenger flow volume and circulation capacity between two zones of high potential energy.

  3. The influence of passenger flow on the topology characteristics of urban rail transit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingyue; Chen, Feng; Chen, Peiwen; Tan, Yurong

    2017-05-01

    Current researches on the network characteristics of metro networks are generally carried out on topology networks without passenger flows running on it, thus more complex features of the networks with ridership loaded on it cannot be captured. In this study, we incorporated the load of metro networks, passenger volume, into the exploration of network features. Thus, the network can be examined in the context of operation, which is the ultimate purpose of the existence of a metro network. To this end, section load was selected as an edge weight to demonstrate the influence of ridership on the network, and a weighted calculation method for complex network indicators and robustness were proposed to capture the unique behaviors of a metro network with passengers flowing in it. The proposed method was applied on Beijing Subway. Firstly, the passenger volume in terms of daily origin and destination matrix was extracted from exhausted transit smart card data. Using the established approach and the matrix as weighting, common indicators of complex network including clustering coefficient, betweenness and degree were calculated, and network robustness were evaluated under potential attacks. The results were further compared to that of unweighted networks, and it suggests indicators of the network with consideration of passenger volumes differ from that without ridership to some extent, and networks tend to be more vulnerable than that without load on it. The significance sequence for the stations can be changed. By introducing passenger flow weighting, actual operation status of the network can be reflected more accurately. It is beneficial to determine the crucial stations and make precautionary measures for the entire network’s operation security.

  4. Mass balance of emerging contaminants in the water cycle of a highly urbanized and industrialized area of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Sara; Davoli, Enrico; Riva, Francesco; Palmiotto, Marinella; Camporini, Paolo; Manenti, Angela; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-12-22

    The occurrence of several classes of emerging contaminants (ECs) was assessed in the River Lambro basin, one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas of Italy. The study aims were to identify the main sources of ECs, quantify their amounts circulating in the water cycle, and study their fate in the aquatic environment. More than 80 ECs were selected among pharmaceuticals (PHARM), personal care products (PCPs), disinfectants (DIS), illicit drugs (IDs), perfluorinated compounds (PERF), alkylphenols and bisphenol A (Alk-BPA), and anthropogenic markers (AM). Specific analytical methods were developed for quantitative analysis based on solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. ECs were measured in rivers upstream and downstream of the main city (Milan), and in untreated and treated wastewater from Milan to assess the contribution to river contamination, and in superficial and deep groundwater in the city area to study the relationship between river and groundwater contamination. Samples were collected in a two-year monitoring campaign. Almost all ECs were ubiquitous in untreated wastewater, at concentrations up to the μg/L range, and the most abundant classes were PHARM and AM. Removals during different wastewater treatment processes were studied and the most stable substances were PHARM, PCPs and PERF. The mass loads increased for all the classes of ECs along the River Lambro basin. A mass balance was done in the river basin and allowed to identify the main sources of contamination, which were domestic, from treated or untreated wastewater, for PHARM, PCPs and IDs, mainly industrial for PERF, and both industrial and domestic for Alk-BPA. The study of AM helped to identify direct discharges of untreated wastewater. A substantial contribution of surface water to groundwater contamination was observed. This study improves the knowledge on occurrence, sources and fate of multiple classes of ECs in a highly urbanized area providing

  5. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Discrete Event Simulation Model User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    In order to examine specific Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) developments and concepts, and to build a better knowledge base for future decision-making, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) undertook a new program of studies and techn...

  6. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlicchi, P.; Al Aukidy, M.; Zambello, E.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: ► The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. ► Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an MBR were analysed. ► The removal rates achieved

  7. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlicchi, P., E-mail: paola.verlicchi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Al Aukidy, M., E-mail: mustafakether.alaukidi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Zambello, E., E-mail: elena.zambello@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an

  8. 城市轨道交通项目融资风险动态评价%The Dynamic Evaluation of Urban Rail Transit Project Financing Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维庆; 邓少波; 顼志芬

    2016-01-01

    项目融资在解决城市轨道交通建设中所需资金问题的同时也面临高风险,为减少和避免投资者的损失,应对城市轨道交通项目融资风险进行准确客观的评价.本文对城市轨道交通项目融资过程中各阶段的风险因素进行识别,基于可拓理论,建立城市轨道交通项目融资风险评价模型,通过关联度的计算结果确定风险等级,进而反映各阶段风险因素的动态变化.结合案例分析,提出相应的风险管理措施.%Project financing in solving urban rail transit development facing money problems at the same time also faces high risks,in order to reduce and avoid the loss of investors,we should make accurate and objective evaluation for the urban rail transit project financing risk.This paper based on extension theory,from the dynamic perspective of urban rail transit project financing risk establishes a dynamic evaluation model which considers all phases in the process of urban rail transit project financing risk factors,and reflect the status and influence degree of various kinds of risk factors.

  9. Urbanization eases water crisis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

  10. Determination of peak bone mass density and composition in low-income urban residents of metro Manila using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.V.; Guanzon, L.V.V.; De Guzman, A.M.; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.

    1996-01-01

    Filipinos are predisposed to osteoporosis because of inadequate calcium in their diet early on in life, confounded by malnutrition, susceptibility to infectious diseases and their generally small body frame. And yet the problem of osteoporosis has not been properly addressed. The incidence of osteoporosis is not known since oftentimes it is established only once complications have set in. It is believed that osteoporosis poses a public health concern but its extent is not realized at present because of lack of local epidemiological data. This study aims to determine the bone mass density as a function of age among 210 screened and healthy volunteers coming from urban poor communities of Metro Manila over a 3-year period. A LUNAR DPX-L bone densitometry for dual X-ray photon absorptiometry will be used, with measurements taken on the spine and femur. It also aims to correlate factors such as nutritional intake, physical activity, lifestyle, sex and body mass index with that of bone mass density. Blood and urine samples will be obtained for biochemistry and hormonal radioimmunoassay examination. Statistical analysis will be done to com are differences within the group and to determine rate of bone loss as a function of age and sex. Plans for future research include the determination of trace element content in cortical bone and tooth samples from healthy living subjects. (author)

  11. Efficient Streaming Mass Spatio-Temporal Vehicle Data Access in Urban Sensor Networks Based on Apache Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lianjie; Chen, Nengcheng; Chen, Zeqiang

    2017-04-10

    The efficient data access of streaming vehicle data is the foundation of analyzing, using and mining vehicle data in smart cities, which is an approach to understand traffic environments. However, the number of vehicles in urban cities has grown rapidly, reaching hundreds of thousands in number. Accessing the mass streaming data of vehicles is hard and takes a long time due to limited computation capability and backward modes. We propose an efficient streaming spatio-temporal data access based on Apache Storm (ESDAS) to achieve real-time streaming data access and data cleaning. As a popular streaming data processing tool, Apache Storm can be applied to streaming mass data access and real time data cleaning. By designing the Spout/bolt workflow of topology in ESDAS and by developing the speeding bolt and other bolts, Apache Storm can achieve the prospective aim. In our experiments, Taiyuan BeiDou bus location data is selected as the mass spatio-temporal data source. In the experiments, the data access results with different bolts are shown in map form, and the filtered buses' aggregation forms are different. In terms of performance evaluation, the consumption time in ESDAS for ten thousand records per second for a speeding bolt is approximately 300 milliseconds, and that for MongoDB is approximately 1300 milliseconds. The efficiency of ESDAS is approximately three times higher than that of MongoDB.

  12. Efficient Streaming Mass Spatio-Temporal Vehicle Data Access in Urban Sensor Networks Based on Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianjie Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficient data access of streaming vehicle data is the foundation of analyzing, using and mining vehicle data in smart cities, which is an approach to understand traffic environments. However, the number of vehicles in urban cities has grown rapidly, reaching hundreds of thousands in number. Accessing the mass streaming data of vehicles is hard and takes a long time due to limited computation capability and backward modes. We propose an efficient streaming spatio-temporal data access based on Apache Storm (ESDAS to achieve real-time streaming data access and data cleaning. As a popular streaming data processing tool, Apache Storm can be applied to streaming mass data access and real time data cleaning. By designing the Spout/bolt workflow of topology in ESDAS and by developing the speeding bolt and other bolts, Apache Storm can achieve the prospective aim. In our experiments, Taiyuan BeiDou bus location data is selected as the mass spatio-temporal data source. In the experiments, the data access results with different bolts are shown in map form, and the filtered buses’ aggregation forms are different. In terms of performance evaluation, the consumption time in ESDAS for ten thousand records per second for a speeding bolt is approximately 300 milliseconds, and that for MongoDB is approximately 1300 milliseconds. The efficiency of ESDAS is approximately three times higher than that of MongoDB.

  13. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  14. Transition in x-ray yield, mass scaling observed in the high-wire-number, plasma-shell regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Pulsifer, P.E.; Apruzese, J.P.; Thornhill, J.W.; Davis, J.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Initial calculations, based on classical transport coefficients and carried out to predict the efficiency with which the implosion kinetic energy of aluminum Z pinches could be thermalized and converted into kilovolt x-rays, predicted a sharp transition between m 2 and m yield scaling, where m is the aluminum array mass. Later, when ad hoc increases in the heat conductivity and artificial viscosity were introduced into these calculations and the densities that were achieved on axis were sharply reduced, the transition from m 2 to m scaling was found to have shifted, but was otherwise still fairly sharp and well-defined. The location of these breakpoint curves defined the locus of implosion velocities at which the yields would obtain their maximum for different mass arrays. The first such mass breakpoint curve that was calculated is termed hard, while the second is termed soft. Early 24, 30, and 42 aluminum wire experiments on the Saturn accelerator at the Sandia National laboratories confirmed the predictions of the soft breakpoint curve calculations. In this talk, the authors present results from a more recent set of aluminum experiments on Saturn, in which the array mass was varied at a fixed array radius and in which the radius was varied for a fixed mass. In both sets of experiments, the wire numbers were large: in excess of 92 and generally 136 or 192. In this high-wire-number regime, the wire plasmas are calculated to merge to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial implosion. Large wire number has been found to improve the pinch compressibility, and the analysis of these experiments in the shell regime shows that they come very close to the original predictions of the hard breakpoint curve calculations. A discussion of these detailed comparisons will be presented

  15. Boiling transition and the possibility of spontaneous nucleation under high subcooling and high mass flux density flow in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Y.; Kuriyama, T.; Hirata, M.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling transition and inverted annular heat transfer for R-113 have been investigated experimentally in a horizontal tube of 1.2 X 10/sup -3/ meter inner diameter with heating length over inner diameter ratio of 50. Experiments cover a high mass flux density range, a high local subcooling range and a wide local pressure range. Heat transfer characteristics were obtained by using heat flux control steady-state apparatus. Film boiling treated here is limited to the case of inverted annular heat transfer with very thin vapor film, on the order of 10/sup -6/ meter. Moreover, film boiling region is always limited to a certain downstream part, since the system has a pressure gradient along the flow direction. Discussions are presented on the parametric trends of boiling heat transfer characteristic curves and characteristic points. The possible existence is suggested of a spontaneous nucleation control surface boiling phenomena. And boiling transition heat flux and inverted annular heat transfer were correlated

  16. Gain control through divisive inhibition prevents abrupt transition to chaos in a neural mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasavvas, Christoforos A.; Wang, Yujiang; Trevelyan, Andrew J.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results suggest that there are two distinct mechanisms of inhibition in cortical neuronal networks: subtractive and divisive inhibition. They modulate the input-output function of their target neurons either by increasing the input that is needed to reach maximum output or by reducing the gain and the value of maximum output itself, respectively. However, the role of these mechanisms on the dynamics of the network is poorly understood. We introduce a novel population model and numerically investigate the influence of divisive inhibition on network dynamics. Specifically, we focus on the transitions from a state of regular oscillations to a state of chaotic dynamics via period-doubling bifurcations. The model with divisive inhibition exhibits a universal transition rate to chaos (Feigenbaum behavior). In contrast, in an equivalent model without divisive inhibition, transition rates to chaos are not bounded by the universal constant (non-Feigenbaum behavior). This non-Feigenbaum behavior, when only subtractive inhibition is present, is linked to the interaction of bifurcation curves in the parameter space. Indeed, searching the parameter space showed that such interactions are impossible when divisive inhibition is included. Therefore, divisive inhibition prevents non-Feigenbaum behavior and, consequently, any abrupt transition to chaos. The results suggest that the divisive inhibition in neuronal networks could play a crucial role in keeping the states of order and chaos well separated and in preventing the onset of pathological neural dynamics. PMID:26465514

  17. Gain control through divisive inhibition prevents abrupt transition to chaos in a neural mass model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasavvas, Christoforos A; Wang, Yujiang; Trevelyan, Andrew J; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental results suggest that there are two distinct mechanisms of inhibition in cortical neuronal networks: subtractive and divisive inhibition. They modulate the input-output function of their target neurons either by increasing the input that is needed to reach maximum output or by reducing the gain and the value of maximum output itself, respectively. However, the role of these mechanisms on the dynamics of the network is poorly understood. We introduce a novel population model and numerically investigate the influence of divisive inhibition on network dynamics. Specifically, we focus on the transitions from a state of regular oscillations to a state of chaotic dynamics via period-doubling bifurcations. The model with divisive inhibition exhibits a universal transition rate to chaos (Feigenbaum behavior). In contrast, in an equivalent model without divisive inhibition, transition rates to chaos are not bounded by the universal constant (non-Feigenbaum behavior). This non-Feigenbaum behavior, when only subtractive inhibition is present, is linked to the interaction of bifurcation curves in the parameter space. Indeed, searching the parameter space showed that such interactions are impossible when divisive inhibition is included. Therefore, divisive inhibition prevents non-Feigenbaum behavior and, consequently, any abrupt transition to chaos. The results suggest that the divisive inhibition in neuronal networks could play a crucial role in keeping the states of order and chaos well separated and in preventing the onset of pathological neural dynamics.

  18. A Low-mass Exoplanet Candidate Detected by K2 Transiting the Praesepe M Dwarf JS 183

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Joshua; Gillen, Ed; Parviainen, Hannu; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Cody, Ann Marie; Aigrain, Suzanne; Stauffer, John; Vrba, Frederick J.; David, Trevor; Lillo-Box, Jorge; Stassun, Keivan G.; Conroy, Kyle E.; Pope, Benjamin J. S.; Barrado, David

    2017-04-01

    We report the discovery of a repeating photometric signal from a low-mass member of the Praesepe open cluster that we interpret as a Neptune-sized transiting planet. The star is JS 183 (HSHJ 163, EPIC 211916756), with T eff = 3325 ± 100 K, M * = 0.44 ± 0.04 M ⊙, R * = 0.44 ± 0.03 R ⊙, and {log}{g}* = 4.82+/- 0.06. The planet has an orbital period of 10.134588 days and a radius of R P = 0.32 ± 0.02 R J. Since the star is faint at V = 16.5 and J = 13.3, we are unable to obtain a measured radial velocity orbit, but we can constrain the companion mass to below about 1.7 M J, and thus well below the planetary boundary. JS 183b (since designated as K2-95b) is the second transiting planet found with K2 that resides in a several-hundred-megayear open cluster; both planets orbit mid-M dwarf stars and are approximately Neptune sized. With a well-determined stellar density from the planetary transit, and with an independently known metallicity from its cluster membership, JS 183 provides a particularly valuable test of stellar models at the fully convective boundary. We find that JS 183 is the lowest-density transit host known at the fully convective boundary, and that its very low density is consistent with current models of stars just above the fully convective boundary but in tension with the models just below the fully convective boundary.

  19. Potential Impact of the Mass Media on Family Planning in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The role of radio and television message is an important factor in creating and changing the values, ideas and attitudes of people in Public Health. Fertility regulation in Nigeria is still yet to meet the optimum level. Objectives: The research therefore is designed to assess the role of mass media, radio and television ...

  20. Flow regime transition and heat transfer model at low mass flux condition in a post-dryout region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong

    1996-02-01

    The post-dryout flow regime transition criterion from inverted annular flow (IAF) to agitated inverted annular flow (AIAF) is suggested based on the hyperbolicity breaking concept. The hyperbolicity breaking represents a bifurcation point where a sudden flow transition occurs. The hyperbolicity breaking concept is applied to describe the flow regime transition from IAF to AIAF by the growth of disturbance on liquid core surface. The resultant correlation has the similar form to Takenaka's empirical one. To validate the proposed model, it is applied to predict Takenake's experimental results using R-113 refrigerant with four different tube diameters of 3, 5, 7 and 10 mm. The proposed model gives accurate predictions for the tube diameters of 7 and 10 mm. As the tube diameter decreases, the differences between the predictions and the experimental results slightly increase. The flow regime transition from AIAF to dispersed flow (DF) is described by the drift flux model. It is shown that the transition criterion can be well predicted if the droplet sizes in dispersed flow are evaluated appropriately. Existing mechanistic post-dryout models result in fairly good predictions when the mass flux is high or when the film dryout occurs. However, the predictions by these models become poor at low mass flux at which the flow regime before dryout is believed to be churn-turbulent. This is because the constitutive relations and/or the imposed assumptions used in the models become erroneous at low mass flux. The droplet size predicted by the correlation used in the model becomes unrealistically large. In addition, the single phase vapor heat transfer correlation becomes invalid at low mass flux condition. To develop a mechanistic post-dryout model which is available at low mass flux condition, the entrainment mechanisms and the entrained droplet sizes with relation to the flow regimes are investigated. Through the analysis of many experimental post-dryout data, it is shown that

  1. Mass closure and source apportionment of PM2.5 by Positive Matrix Factorization analysis in urban Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, E.; Remoundaki, E.; Halari, I.; Kassomenos, P.; Theodosi, C.; Hatzikioseyian, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2014-09-01

    A systematic monitoring of PM2.5 was carried out during a period of three years (from February 2010 to April 2013) at an urban site, at the National Technical University of Athens campus. Two types of 24-h PM2.5 samples have been collected: 271 samples on PTFE and 116 samples on quartz filters. Daily PM2.5 concentrations were determined for both types of samples. Total sulfur, crustal origin elements and elements of a major crustal component (Al, Si, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Ti) trace elements (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, P, V, Cr, Mn) and water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+) were determined on the PTFE samples. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble ions were determined on the quartz samples. For the mass closure six components were considered: Secondary Inorganic Aerosol (SIA), Organic Matter (OM), Elemental Carbon (EC), Dust, Mineral anthropogenic component (MIN) and Sea Salt (SS). SIA and OM contributed in the mass of PM2.5 almost equally: 30-36% and 30% respectively. EC, SS and MIN accounted for 5, 4 and 3% respectively of the total PM2.5 mass. Dust accounted for about 3-5% in absence of dust transport event and reached a much higher percentage in case of dust transport event. These contributions justify at least 80% of the PM2.5 mass. Source apportionment analysis has been performed by Positive Matrix Factorization. The combination of the PMF results obtained by both data sets lead to the definition of six factors: 1. SO42-, NH4+, OC (industrial/regional sources, secondary aerosol) 2. EC, OC, K and trace metals (traffic and heating by biomass burning, locally emitted aerosol). 3. Ca, EC, OC and trace metals (urban-resuspended road dust reflecting exhaust emissions), 4. Secondary nitrates 5. Na, Cl (marine source) 6. Si, Al, Ti, Ca, Fe (Dust transported from Sahara). These factors reflect not only main sources contributions but also underline the key role of atmospheric dynamics and aerosol ageing processes in this Mediterranean

  2. Urban-rural difference in the acceptance of mass health examination in north-eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nakatsuka, H; Watanabe, T; Hisamichi, S; Shimizu, H; Fujisaku, S; Ichinowatari, Y; Konno, J; Kuroda, S; Hirai, J

    1989-05-01

    Over 40,000 residents (less than or equal to 40 years of age) in a city (Sendai; the city group), a town (Shiroishi; the town group) and two villages (Wakuya and Tajiri; the village group) in Miyagi prefecture in north-eastern Japan responded in a questionnaire survey on their attitude towards mass health examinations (i.e., whether they underwent in the previous year and if so where) on 4 items of blood pressure measurement, chest x-ray examination and screening tests for stomach and cervical cancer. The coverage rates were about 70% on an average both for blood pressure measurement and for chest x-ray examination, whereas the rates for cancer screening were between 30-40%. As for the opportunity of the former two examinations, the workplace mass examination played a large role in the case of the city and town groups (especially among men but not women) in addition to visit to clinics, in contrast to the case of the village group in which people depended much on regional mass examination service. The trend was essentially reproducible in stomach cancer screening although the over-all coverage rate was low, whereas women in the three groups almost exclusively utilized clinics for cervical cancer screening with one exception that the mobile unit service appeared to be equally accepted in the village group.

  3. Seasonal and spatial variations of PPCP occurrence, removal and mass loading in three wastewater treatment plants located in different urbanization areas in Xiamen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qian; Li, Mingyue; Ma, Cong; Chen, Xiangqiang; Xie, Xiaoqing; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of 48 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different urbanization areas in Xiamen, China was investigated over one year. Results showed that PPCPs were widely detected, but the major PPCPs in the influent, effluent, and sludge were different. Spatial and seasonal variations of PPCP levels in the influent and sludge were observed. The removal efficiencies for most PPCPs were similar among the three WWTPs, although they employed different biological treatment processes. Furthermore, the mass loadings per inhabitant of most pharmaceuticals had a positive correlation with the urbanization levels, indicating that most pharmaceutical usage was higher in the urban core compared to the suburban zones. The total mass loadings of all the 48 PPCPs in the effluent and waste sludge showed close proportions, which suggested the importance of proper waste sludge disposal to prevent a large quantity of PPCPs from entering the environment. - Highlights: • The major components in the influent, effluent, and sludge were different. • Removal rates were similar for most PPCPs under different treatment processes. • Pharmaceutical usage was higher in the urban core compared to suburban zones. • Effluent and sludge shared close proportions for PPCP releasing to the environment. - The total mass loadings of PPCPs per inhabitant in the influent, effluent and waste sludge of WWTPs were higher in the urban core compared to the suburban zones.

  4. Assessing the optimized precision of the aircraft mass balance method for measurement of urban greenhouse gas emission rates through averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexie M. F. Heimburger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To effectively address climate change, aggressive mitigation policies need to be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Anthropogenic carbon emissions are mostly generated from urban environments, where human activities are spatially concentrated. Improvements in uncertainty determinations and precision of measurement techniques are critical to permit accurate and precise tracking of emissions changes relative to the reduction targets. As part of the INFLUX project, we quantified carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO and methane (CH4 emission rates for the city of Indianapolis by averaging results from nine aircraft-based mass balance experiments performed in November-December 2014. Our goal was to assess the achievable precision of the aircraft-based mass balance method through averaging, assuming constant CO2, CH4 and CO emissions during a three-week field campaign in late fall. The averaging method leads to an emission rate of 14,600 mol/s for CO2, assumed to be largely fossil-derived for this period of the year, and 108 mol/s for CO. The relative standard error of the mean is 17% and 16%, for CO2 and CO, respectively, at the 95% confidence level (CL, i.e. a more than 2-fold improvement from the previous estimate of ~40% for single-flight measurements for Indianapolis. For CH4, the averaged emission rate is 67 mol/s, while the standard error of the mean at 95% CL is large, i.e. ±60%. Given the results for CO2 and CO for the same flight data, we conclude that this much larger scatter in the observed CH4 emission rate is most likely due to variability of CH4 emissions, suggesting that the assumption of constant daily emissions is not correct for CH4 sources. This work shows that repeated measurements using aircraft-based mass balance methods can yield sufficient precision of the mean to inform emissions reduction efforts by detecting changes over time in urban emissions.

  5. Speciation distribution and mass balance of copper and zinc in urban rain, sediments, and road runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Fu, Dafang; Li, He

    2012-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution in road runoff had caused widespread concern since the last century. However, there are little references on metal speciation in multiple environmental media (e.g., rain, road sediments, and road runoff). Our research targeted the investigation of metal speciation in rain, road sediments, and runoff; the analysis of speciation variation and mass balance of metals among rain, road sediments, and runoff; the selection of main factors by principal component analysis (PCA); and the establishment of equation to evaluate the impact of rain and road sediments to metals in road runoff. Sequential extraction procedure contains five steps for the chemical fractionation of metals. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Shimadzu, AA-6800) was used to determine metal speciation concentration, as well as the total and dissolved fractions. The dissolved fractions for both Cu and Zn were dominant in rain. The speciation distribution of Zn was different from that of Cu in road sediments, while speciation distribution of Zn is similar to that of Cu in runoff. The bound to carbonates for both Cu and Zn in road sediments were prone to be dissolved by rain. The levels of Cu and Zn in runoff were not obviously influenced by rain, but significantly influenced by road sediments. The masses for both Cu and Zn among rain, road sediments, and road runoff approximately meet the mass balance equation for all rainfall patterns. Five principal factors were selected for metal regression equation based on PCA, including rainfall, average rainfall intensity, antecedent dry periods, total suspended particles, and temperature. The established regression equations could be used to predict the effect of road runoff on receiving environments.

  6. Building a castle on sand: effects of mass privatization on capital market creation in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fungáčová, Zuzana

    -, č. 256 (2005), s. 1-51 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/1014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : mass privatization * emerging capital markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp256.pdf

  7. Indoor and outdoor urban atmospheric CO2: Stable carbon isotope constraints on mixing and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Yurena; Yapp, Crayton J.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → 13 C of indoor CO 2 indicates proportion of C 4 -derived carbon in occupants' diet. → Flux balance model for ventilated rooms shows rapid approach to CO 2 steady-state. → From extant indoor CO 2 data more dietary C 4 carbon in American than European diets. → Local outdoor urban CO 2 increase of 17 ppm in ten years, no change in average 13 C. - Abstract: From July to November 2009, concentrations of CO 2 in 78 samples of ambient air collected in 18 different interior spaces on a university campus in Dallas, Texas (USA) ranged from 386 to 1980 ppm. Corresponding δ 13 C values varied from -8.9 per mille to -19.4 per mille. The CO 2 from 22 samples of outdoor air (also collected on campus) had a more limited range of concentrations from 385 to 447 ppm (avg. = 408 ppm), while δ 13 C values varied from -10.1 per mille to -8.4 per mille (avg.=-9.0 per mille). In contrast to ambient indoor and outdoor air, the concentrations of CO 2 exhaled by 38 different individuals ranged from 38,300 to 76,200 ppm (avg. = 55,100 ppm), while δ 13 C values ranged from -24.8 per mille to -17.7 per mille (avg. = -21.8 per mille). The residence times of the total air in the interior spaces of this study appear to have been on the order of 10 min with relatively rapid approaches (∼30 min) to steady-state concentrations of ambient CO 2 gas. Collectively, the δ 13 C values of the indoor CO 2 samples were linearly correlated with the reciprocal of CO 2 concentration, exhibiting an intercept of -21.8 per mille, with r 2 = 0.99 and p 2 data representing 18 interior spaces (with varying numbers of occupants), and the coincidence of the intercept (-21.8 per mille) with the average δ 13 C value for human-exhaled CO 2 demonstrates simple mixing between two inputs: (1) outdoor CO 2 introduced to the interior spaces by ventilation systems, and (2) CO 2 exhaled by human occupants of those spaces. If such simple binary mixing is a common feature of interior spaces, it

  8. Pollutant dispersion in boundary layers exposed to rural-to-urban transitions : Varying the spanwise length scale of the roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, J.M.; Eisma, H.E.; Pourquie, M.J.B.M.; Elsinga, G.E.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Westerweel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence, have been used to investigate pollutant dispersion mechanisms in regions where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. The urban

  9. Absence of Mass Renormalization upon the Metal-Insulator Transition in La_1-xSr_xMnO_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T.; Asamitsu, A.; Tokura, Y.

    1998-03-01

    The low-temperature specific heat as well as the resistivity of La_1-xSr_xMnO3 crystals has been measured under magnetic fields to investigate the critical behavior of the metal-insulator (MI) transition, which is induced by carrier doping around a critical composition of x_c=0.17. We observed the reduction of specific heat by application of magnetic fields, which is due to the suppression of the contribution of spin wave. Thus, the magnetic contribution to the specific heat was carefully removed to extract the electronic contribution. The effective mass, derived from obtained electronic specific heat coefficient γ, is a few times as large as a bare mass in the ferromagnetic metallic state, e.g. γ = 3.5 (mJ/K^2 mole) at x=0.3, and does not critically increase around the critical point while showing the maximum value γ = 5.1 (mJ/K^2 mole) at x=0.18. This is in contrast with the conspicuous mass renormalization effect as observed for other transition metal oxide, eg. V_2O3 and LaTiO_3. The γ value rather decreases with the decrease of x from 0.18 to 0.15, namely in the immediate vicinity of the MI boundary. This suggests that the Fermi surface gradually shrinks towards the insulating phase and finally disappears at the MI phase boundary. This work was supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.

  10. The QoS Indicators Analysis of Integrated EUHT Wireless Communication System Based on Urban Rail Transit in High-Speed Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in urban rail transit systems, train wayside communication system uses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN as wireless technologies to achieve safety-related information exchange between trains and wayside equipment. However, according to the high speed mobility of trains and the limitations of frequency band, WLAN is unable to meet the demands of future intracity and intercity rail transit. And although the Time Division-Long Term Evolution (TD-LTE technology has high performance compared with WLAN, only 20 MHz bandwidth can be used at most. Moreover, in high-speed scenario over 300 km/h, TD-LTE can hardly meet the future requirement as well. The equipment based on Enhanced Ultra High Throughput (EUHT technology can achieve a better performance in high-speed scenario compared with WLAN and TD-LTE. Furthermore, it allows using the frequency resource flexibly based on 5.8 GHz, such as 20 MHz, 40 MHz, and 80 MHz. In this paper, we set up an EUHT wireless communication system for urban rail transit in high-speed scenario integrated all the traffics of it. An outdoor testing environment in Beijing-Tianjin High-speed Railway is set up to measure the performance of integrated EUHT wireless communication system based on urban rail transit. The communication delay, handoff latency, and throughput of this system are analyzed. Extensive testing results show that the Quality of Service (QoS of the designed integrated EUHT wireless communication system satisfies the requirements of urban rail transit system in high-speed scenario. Moreover, compared with testing results of TD-LTE which we got before, the maximum handoff latency of safety-critical traffics can be decreased from 225 ms to 150 ms. The performance of throughput-critical traffics can achieve 2-way 2 Mbps CCTV and 1-way 8 Mbps PIS which are much better than 2-way 1 Mbps CCTV and 1-way 2 Mbps PIS in TD-LTE.

  11. The relationship between body mass index and health-related quality of life in urban disadvantaged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Ciara; Comiskey, Catherine; Hollywood, Eleanor; Quirke, Mary Brigid; O'Sullivan, Karin; McGilloway, Sinéad

    2014-08-01

    The study's aim was to establish, for children living in urban disadvantage, the nature and extent of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including the role of individual and family factors in influencing this relationship. Within the context of a longitudinal design, 255 children aged 7-12 years (50 % male) self-reported their HRQoL (Kidscreen-27) and had their height and weight measured at year one and two. One parent/guardian for each child was also assessed at year one with the OSLO Social Support Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Regression analysis was also conducted. BMI was weakly inversely associated with 'total HRQoL' (r = -.15, p autonomy and parent relations'. Significant differences were found between normal weight and obese children on all but the latter dimension. Neither weight group, however, fell below the average European HRQoL range. BMI predicted physical well-being a year later and vice versa, whilst autonomy and parent relations also predicted BMI a year later. In terms of 'overweight' children (38 %), those approaching adolescence had poorer physical and school well-being than younger children, and those whose parents had moderate-to-severe levels of depression fared worse on school well-being than children whose parents were not depressed. The findings suggest that obesity programmes could aim to prevent/reduce obesity and optimise HRQoL in urban disadvantaged preadolescent children whilst also targeting parental mental health difficulties. Future research should examine mediators of the effect of BMI on HRQoL.

  12. Integrating Urban Infrastructure and Health System Impact Modeling for Disasters and Mass-Casualty Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, J. M.; Kirsch, T.; Mitrani-Reiser, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over recent decades, natural disasters and mass-casualty events in United States have repeatedly revealed the serious consequences of health care facility vulnerability and the subsequent ability to deliver care for the affected people. Advances in predictive modeling and vulnerability assessment for health care facility failure, integrated infrastructure, and extreme weather events have now enabled a more rigorous scientific approach to evaluating health care system vulnerability and assessing impacts of natural and human disasters as well as the value of specific interventions. Concurrent advances in computing capacity also allow, for the first time, full integration of these multiple individual models, along with the modeling of population behaviors and mass casualty responses during a disaster. A team of federal and academic investigators led by the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is develoing a platform for integrating extreme event forecasts, health risk/impact assessment and population simulations, critical infrastructure (electrical, water, transportation, communication) impact and response models, health care facility-specific vulnerability and failure assessments, and health system/patient flow responses. The integration of these models is intended to develop much greater understanding of critical tipping points in the vulnerability of health systems during natural and human disasters and build an evidence base for specific interventions. Development of such a modeling platform will greatly facilitate the assessment of potential concurrent or sequential catastrophic events, such as a terrorism act following a severe heat wave or hurricane. This presentation will highlight the development of this modeling platform as well as applications not just for the US health system, but also for international science-based disaster risk reduction efforts, such as the Sendai Framework and the WHO SMART hospital project.

  13. Flavonoids as matrices for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of transition metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Marijana; Petrovic, Biljana; Savic, Jasmina; Bugarcic, Zivadin D.; Dimitric-Markovic, Jasmina; Momic, Tatjana; Vasic, Vesna

    2010-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a suitable method for the analysis of inorganic and organic compounds and biomolecules. This makes MALDI-TOF MS convenient for monitoring the interaction of metallo-drugs with biomolecules. Results presented in this manuscript demonstrate that flavonoids such as apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin are suitable for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Pt(II), Pd(II), Pt(IV) and Ru(III) complexes, giving different signal-to-noise ratios of the analyte peak. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra of inorganic complexes acquired with these flavonoid matrices are easy to interpret and have some advantages over the application of other commonly used matrices: a low number of matrix peaks are detectable and the coordinative metal-ligand bond is, in most cases, preserved. On the other hand, flavonoids do not act as typical matrices, as their excess is not required for the acquisition of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of inorganic complexes.

  14. Low-mass eclipsing binaries in the WFCAM Transit Survey: the persistence of the M-dwarf radius inflation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Patricia; Diaz, Marcos; Birkby, Jayne; Barrado, David; Sipöcz, Brigitta; Hodgkin, Simon

    2018-06-01

    We present the characterization of five new short-period low-mass eclipsing binaries (LMEBs) from the WFCAM Transit Survey. The analysis was performed by using the photometric WFCAM J-mag data and additional low- and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic data to obtain both orbital and physical properties of the studied sample. The light curves and the measured radial velocity curves were modelled simultaneously with the JKTEBOP code, with Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations for the error estimates. The best-model fit have revealed that the investigated detached binaries are in very close orbits, with orbital separations of 2.9 ≤ a ≤ 6.7 R⊙ and short periods of 0.59 ≤ Porb ≤ 1.72 d, approximately. We have derived stellar masses between 0.24 and 0.72 M⊙ and radii ranging from 0.42 to 0.67 R⊙. The great majority of the LMEBs in our sample has an estimated radius far from the predicted values according to evolutionary models. The components with derived masses of M < 0.6 M⊙ present a radius inflation of {˜ }9 per cent or more. This general behaviour follows the trend of inflation for partially radiative stars proposed previously. These systems add to the increasing sample of low-mass stellar radii that are not well-reproduced by stellar models. They further highlight the need to understand the magnetic activity and physical state of small stars. Missions like TESS will provide many such systems to perform high-precision radius measurements to tightly constrain low-mass stellar evolution models.

  15. Tricritical point in quantum phase transitions of the Coleman–Weinberg model at Higgs mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C.N.; Kleinert, Hagen

    2013-01-01

    The tricritical point, which separates first and second order phase transitions in three-dimensional superconductors, is studied in the four-dimensional Coleman–Weinberg model, and the similarities as well as the differences with respect to the three-dimensional result are exhibited. The position of the tricritical point in the Coleman–Weinberg model is derived and found to be in agreement with the Thomas–Fermi approximation in the three-dimensional Ginzburg–Landau theory. From this we deduce a special role of the tricritical point for the Standard Model Higgs sector in the scope of the latest experimental results, which suggests the unexpected relevance of tricritical behavior in the electroweak interactions.

  16. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT [mass rapid transit] system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih-Cheng Hu; Jen-Ho Lee [National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

    2004-03-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE. (author)

  17. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Ghana during the Rural-to-Urban Transition: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Kodaman

    Full Text Available Populations in sub-Saharan Africa are shifting from rural to increasingly urban. Although the burden of cardiovascular disease is expected to increase with this changing landscape, few large studies have assessed a wide range of risk factors in urban and rural populations, particularly in West Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 3317 participants from Ghana (≥18 years old, of whom 2265 (57% female were from a mid-sized city (Sunyani, population ~250,000 and 1052 (55% female were from surrounding villages (populations <5000. We measured canonical cardiovascular disease risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids and fibrinolytic markers (PAI-1 and t-PA, and assessed how their distributions and related clinical outcomes (including obesity, hypertension and diabetes varied with urban residence and sex. Urban residence was strongly associated with obesity (OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 5.3-11.3, diabetes (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 2.3-5.7, and hypertension (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.6-4.0. Among the quantitative measures, most affected were total cholesterol (+0.81 standard deviations, 95% CI 0.73-0.88, LDL cholesterol (+0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.99, and t-PA (+0.56, 95% CI: 0.48-0.63. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol profiles were similarly poor in both urban and rural environments, but significantly worse among rural participants after BMI-adjustment. For most of the risk factors, the strength of the association with urban residence did not vary with sex. Obesity was a major exception, with urban women at particularly high risk (26% age-standardized prevalence compared to urban men (7%. Overall, urban residents had substantially worse cardiovascular risk profiles, with some risk factors at levels typically seen in the developed world.

  18. Mass and energy flows between the Solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansteen, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    A number of increasingly sophisticated numerical simulations spanning the convection zone to corona have shed considerable insight into the role of the magnetic field in the structure and energetics of the Sun's outer atmosphere. This development is strengthened by the wealth of observational data now coming on-line from both ground based and space borne observatories. We discuss what numerical models can tell us about the mass and energy flows in the region of the upper chromosphere and lower corona, using a variety of tools, including the direct comparison with data and the use of passive tracer particles (so-called 'corks') inserted into the simulated flows.

  19. Urban sprawl and body mass index among displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana; James, Peter; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Existing research suggests that walkable environments are protective against weight gain, while sprawling neighborhoods may pose health risks. Using prospective data on displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, we provide the first natural experimental data on sprawl and body mass index (BMI). The analysis uses prospectively collected pre- (2003-2005) and post-hurricane (2006-2007) data from the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) project on 280 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors who had little control over their neighborhood placement immediately after the disaster. The county sprawl index, a standardized measure of built environment, was used to predict BMI at follow-up, adjusted for baseline BMI and sprawl; hurricane-related trauma; and demographic and economic characteristics. Respondents from 8 New Orleans-area counties were dispersed to 76 counties post-Katrina. Sprawl increased by an average of 1.5 standard deviations (30 points) on the county sprawl index. Each one point increase in sprawl was associated with approximately .05kg/m(2) higher BMI in unadjusted models (95%CI: .01-.08), and the relationship was not attenuated after covariate adjustment. We find a robust association between residence in a sprawling county and higher BMI unlikely to be caused by self-selection into neighborhoods, suggesting that the built environment may foster changes in weight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Urban Sprawl, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index: Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.18, −0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women. PMID:22698015

  1. Urban sprawl, physical activity, and body mass index: Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Troped, Philip J; Hart, Jaime E; Joshu, Corinne E; Colditz, Graham A; Brownson, Ross C; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses' Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband's education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.18, -0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband's education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women.

  2. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake, and high bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-10-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of body mass index and Western advertising and media on eating style, body image and nutrition transition among Jordanian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala N; Brown, Ralph B; Hawks, Steven R

    2007-10-01

    To identify the impact of body mass index (BMI) and Western advertising and media on the stage of the nutrition transition among Jordanian women, and to evaluate their impact on eating styles and body image. A randomised cross-sectional survey that included a variety of culturally measured Likert-type scales and body size images. In addition, BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. In the homes of the participants. The data were collected by female interviewers who worked for the Jordan Department of Statistics. The sample was based on a random and representative selection of 800 mostly urban Jordanian women. A pre-test sample of 100 women was also used to validate the instruments. Women tended to agree that they ate based on emotional cues. They had high levels of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours and 42.1% were considered restrained eaters. However, these women also had higher than expected body esteem levels and desired a healthy body size. As expected, being obese was associated with a desire to lose weight, being a restrained and emotional eater, and having more disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Similarly, Western advertising and media were associated with restrained and emotional eating, desired weight loss, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. There is a need to develop health education materials that explain the influence of obesity on health and the negative psychological and physical consequences of restrained and emotional eating, building on the current cultural preferences of healthy body size. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Energy storage and alternatives to improve train voltage on a mass transit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. P.; Rorke, W. S.

    1995-04-01

    The wide separation of substations in the Bay Area Rapid Transit system's transbay tunnel contributes to voltage sag when power demand is high. In the future, expansions to the system will exacerbate this problem by increasing traffic density. Typically, this situation is remedied through the installation of additional substations to increase the system's power capacity. We have evaluated the efficacy of several alternatives to this approach - specifically, installation of an 8 megajoule energy storage system, modification of the existing substations, or reduction of the resistance of the running rails or the third rail. To support this analysis, we have developed a simple model of the traction power system in the tunnel. We have concluded that the storage system does not have sufficient capacity to deal with the expected voltage sags; in this application, the alternatives present more effective solutions. We have also investigated the potential impact of these system upgrades on expected future capital outlays by BART for traction power infrastructure additions. We have found that rail or substation upgrades may reduce the need for additional substations. These upgrades may also be effective on other parts of the BART system and on other traction power systems.

  5. Bangkok's mass rapid transit system's commuter decision-making process in using integrated smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerakan Kaewwongwattana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the decision-making process to use an integrated smartcard ticketing system by Bangkok metropolitan transit commuters. A second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis using LISREL 9.10 was undertaken on Bangkok commuter's decision-making process on the use of an integrated smartcard system. The sample consisted of 300 Bangkok commuters obtained by accidental sampling using questionnaires with a 5-point Likert scale. The tools in the research questionnaires used scale estimation that achieved a confidence value of 0.84. The research instruments used rating scales measuring information search, alternative choices, and use decision on the 15 variables in the decision-making process which had factor loadings between 0.49 and 0.89 weight elements when sorted in descending order and overall had a high level. Use decision, alternative choices and information search had a factor of 0.89, 0.65 and 0.49, respectively. There was a good fit of the decision-making model to the empirical data (chi-square = 34.55, probability (p = 0.94, df = 49, RMSEA = 0.00, GFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.96, SRMR = 0.04.

  6. Eastern South Pacific water mass geometry during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pol-Holz, R.; Reyes, D.; Mohtadi, M.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern South Pacific is characterized today by a complex thermocline structure where large salinity and oxygen changes as a function of depth coexist. Surface waters from tropical origin float on top of subantarctic fresher water (the so-called 'shallow salinity minimum of the eastern south Pacific'), which in turn, flow above aged equatorial and deeper recently ventilated Antarctic Intermediate waters. Little is known however about the water mass geometry changes that could have occurred during the last glacial maximum boundary conditions (about 20,000 years before the present), despite this information being critical for the assessment of potential mechanisms that have been proposed as explanations for the deglacial onset of low oxygen conditions in the area and the atmospheric CO2 increase during the same time. Here we present benthic and planktonic foraminifera stable isotope and radiocarbon data from a set of sediment cores from the Chilean continental margin covering a large -yet still limited- geographical area and depth range. Sedimentations rates were relatively high (>10 cm/kyr) precluding major caveats from bioturbation in all of our archives. The distribution of δ13C of ΣCO2 shows the presence of a very depleted (δ13C < -1‰ V-PDB) water mass overlaying more recently ventilated waters at intermediate depths as indicated by thermocline foraminifer dwellers being more depleted in 13C than the benthic species. The origin of this depleted end-member is probably upwelling from the Southern Ocean as expressed by the radiocarbon content and the large reservoir effect associated with the last glacial maximum and the beginning of the deglaciation along the margin. Our data suggest that the Tropical waters that today bath the lower latitude cores was displaced by surface waters of southern origin and therefore in line with the evidence of a latitudinal shift of the frontal systems.

  7. Source characterization of urban particles from meat smoking activities in Chongqing, China using single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Wenger, John C; Yang, Fumo; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Shumin; Tian, Mi; Wang, Huanbo

    2017-09-01

    A Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed in the urban area of Chongqing to characterize the particles present during a severe particulate pollution event that occurred in winter 2014-2015. The measurements were made at a time when residents engaged in traditional outdoor meat smoking activities to preserve meat before the Chinese Spring Festival. The measurement period was predominantly characterized by stagnant weather conditions, highly elevated levels of PM 2.5 , and low visibility. Eleven major single particle types were identified, with over 92.5% of the particles attributed to biomass burning emissions. Most of the particle types showed appreciable signs of aging in the stagnant air conditions. To simulate the meat smoking activities, a series of controlled smoldering experiments was conducted using freshly cut pine and cypress branches, both with and without wood logs. SPAMS data obtained from these experiments revealed a number of biomass burning particle types, including an elemental and organic carbon (ECOC) type that proved to be the most suitable marker for meat smoking activities. The traditional activity of making preserved meat in southwestern China is shown here to be a major source of particulate pollution. Improved measures to reduce emissions from the smoking of meat should be introduced to improve air quality in regions where smoking meat activity prevails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determining the Levels of Volatile Organic Pollutants in Urban Air Using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoara, Simona; Tonidandel, Loris; Traldi, Pietro; Watson, Jonathan; Morgan, Geraint; Popa, Ovidiu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the application of a method based on coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an isotopically labelled internal standard for the quantitative analysis of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and o-, m-, p-xylenes (X). Their atmospheric concentrations were determined based on short-term sampling, in different sites of Cluj-Napoca, a highly populated urban centre in N-W Romania, with numerous and diversified road vehicles with internal combustion engines. The method is relatively inexpensive and simple and shows good precision and linearity in the ranges of 7–60 μg/m3 (B), 13–90 μg/m3 (T), 7–50 μg/m3 (E), 10–70 μg/m3 (X-m,p), and 20–130 μg/m3 (X-o). The limits of quantitation/detection of the method LOQ/LOD are of 10/5 μg/m3 (Xo), 5/3 μg/m3 (B, E, X-m,p), and of 3/1 μg/m3 (T), respectively. PMID:20168976

  9. Determining the Levels of Volatile Organic Pollutants in Urban Air Using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Nicoara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of a method based on coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an isotopically labelled internal standard for the quantitative analysis of benzene (B, toluene (T, ethyl benzene (E, and o-, m-, p-xylenes (X. Their atmospheric concentrations were determined based on short-term sampling, in different sites of Cluj-Napoca, a highly populated urban centre in N-W Romania, with numerous and diversified road vehicles with internal combustion engines. The method is relatively inexpensive and simple and shows good precision and linearity in the ranges of 7–60 μg/m3 (B, 13–90 μg/m3 (T, 7–50 μg/m3 (E, 10–70 μg/m3 (X-m,p, and 20–130 μg/m3 (X-o. The limits of quantitation/detection of the method LOQ/LOD are of 10/5 μg/m3 (Xo, 5/3 μg/m3 (B, E, X-m,p, and of 3/1 μg/m3 (T, respectively.

  10. Determination of bond energies by mass spectrometry. Some transition metal carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of transition metal carbonyls have been studied, M(CO) 6 and M(CO) 5 CS complexes of the Group VIB metals and M 2 (CO) 10 complexes of the Group VIIB metals. Results for the hexacarbonyl complexes indicate that the measured fragmentation energies are in error by 0.25 +- 0.02 eV per CO produced. This is attributed to excitation of CO to the first vibrational state. Least-squares dissociation energies calculated from corrected data for M(CO) 5 CS complexes indicate that the M--CS bond is 3 to 4 times stronger than the M--CO bonds. Substitution of CS for CO in going from M(CO) 6 to M(CO) 5 CS weakens the remaining M--CO bonds by an average of 0.2 eV. Previously unreported MnTc(CO) 10 and TcRe(CO) 10 are prepared by halide substitution of Tc(CO) 5 Br and Re(CO) 5 Br with Mn(CO) 5 - and Tc(CO) 5 - , respectively. In the positive ion, metal and mixed-metal decacarbonyls are considered as (CO) 5 M + --M(CO) 5 complexes possessing five strong and five weak M--CO bonds. For Mn 2 (CO) 10 and Re 2 (CO) 10 , M + --M dissociation energies are 3.0 +- 0.1 and 4.0 +- 0.3 eV, respectively. These energies are 2.5 times greater than those reported for homolytic cleavage to M(CO) 5 + and M(CO) 5

  11. The finite temperature QCD phase transition and the thermodynamic equation of state. An investigation employing lattice QCD with Nf=2 twisted mass quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Florian

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we report about an investigation of the finite temperature crossover/phase transition of quantum chromodynamics and the evaluation of the thermodynamic equation of state. To this end the lattice method and the Wilson twisted mass discretisation of the quark action are used. This formulation is known to have an automatic improvement of lattice artifacts and thus an improved continuum limit behaviour. This work presents first robust results using this action for the non-vanishing temperature case. We investigate the chiral limit of the two flavour phase transition with several small values of the pion mass in order to address the open question of the order of the transition in the limit of vanishing quark mass. For the currently simulated pion masses in the range of 300 to 700 MeV we present evidence that the finite temperature transition is a crossover transition rather than a genuine phase transition. The chiral limit is investigated by comparing the scaling of the observed crossover temperature with the mass including several possible scenarios. Complementary to this approach the chiral condensate as the order parameter for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is analysed in comparison with the O(4) universal scaling function which characterises a second order transition. With respect to thermodynamics the equation of state is obtained from the trace anomaly employing the temperature integral method which provides the pressure and energy density in the crossover region. The continuum limit of the trace anomaly is studied by considering several values of N τ and the tree-level correction technique.

  12. Urban city transportation mode and respiratory health effect of air pollution: a cross-sectional study among transit and non-transit workers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E

    2012-01-01

    To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Cross-sectional, randomised survey. A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18-35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV(1)air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVCair pollution on city transit workers globally. The role of other confounders acting synergistically to cause a more deleterious effect is obvious. In all, the effect depends on the mode and duration of exposure.

  13. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  14. Chemical characterization and mass closure of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site in Karachi - Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ghauri, Badar M.; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A mass balance method is applied to assess main source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 levels in Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4-), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were determined in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 75 μg/m3 and 437 μg/m3 respectively. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and "siliceous dust" were the over all dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC + OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of ;EC + OM; in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. In case of secondary inorganic aerosols, ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity were found in fraction PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to PM2.5 and PM10-2.5.

  15. Factors influencing drug uptake during mass drug administration for control of lymphatic filariasis in rural and urban Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Kisoka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission interruption within reasonable time. The present study aimed to identify predictors and barriers to individual drug uptake during MDA implementation by the National LF Elimination Programme in Tanzania. METHODS: A questionnaire based cross sectional household survey was carried out in two rural and two urban districts in Lindi and Morogoro regions shortly after the 2011 MDA. 3279 adults (≥15 years were interviewed about personal characteristics, socio-economic status, MDA drug uptake among themselves and their children, reasons for taking/not taking drugs, and participation in previous MDA activities for LF control. FINDINGS: The overall drug uptake rate was 55.1% (range of 44.5-75.6% between districts. There was no overall major difference between children (54.8% and adults (55.2% or between females (54.9% and males (55.8%, but the role of these and other predictors varied to some extent between study sites. Major overall predictors of drug uptake among the interviewed adults were increasing age and history of previous drug uptake. Being absent from home during drug distribution was the main reason for not taking the drugs (50.2% followed by clinical contraindications to treatment (10.8%, missing household visits of drug distributors (10.6%, and households not being informed about the distribution (9.0%. CONCLUSION: Drug uptake relied more on easily modifiable provider-related factors than on individual perceptions and practices in the target population. Limited investments in appropriate timing, dissemination of accurate timing information to recipients and motivation of drug distributors to visit all households (repeatedly when residents are absent are likely

  16. Organizing and Managing Transition to Sustainable Urban Districts and Housing Structures. A Comparative Study of Swedish and Danish Cases of Current Urban Planning Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    through analysis of documents, field observation, interviews and focus group seminars. Results showed that despite many similarities between the Swedish and Danish welfare state models, the organization of the social housing sector differs significantly between the two countries. This brings about very......In Scandinavia baby boomers coming of age in 1960s, in combination with a massive migration from rural to urban areas, caused a massive demand for new housing. Public authority responded by soliciting to social housing associations to construct a huge number of dwellings within a short time span...... different conditions for finance and consequently for organization of sustainable regeneration of 1960-70s’ suburban housing estates. On the Swedish side housing estates are either privately owned or organized as part of a municipal organization, whereas on the Danish side social housing estates are owned...

  17. Academic Self-Concept and Academic Achievement of African American Students Transitioning from Urban to Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, La Shawn Catrice

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement in African American students who have experienced geographic mobility was the focus of this study. Specifically, this study used quantitative methods to assess African American students from counties in Iowa to obtain information about the students' relocation from urban to…

  18. Simulating and Predicting the Impacts of Light Rail Transit Systems on Urban Land Use by Using Cellular Automata: A Case Study of Dongguan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyao Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Light Rail Transit systems (LRTs could exert considerable impacts on sustainable urban development. It is crucial to predict the potential land use changes since LRTs are being increasingly built throughout the world. While various land use and land cover change (LUCC models have been developed during the past two decades, the basic assumption for LUCC prediction is the continuation of present trends in land use development. It is therefore unreasonable to predict potential urban land use changes associated with LRTs simply based on earlier trends because the impacts of LRT investment may vary greatly over time. To tackle this challenge, our study aims to share the experiences from previous lines with newly planned lines. Dongguan, whose government decided to build LRTs around 2008, was selected as the study area. First, we assessed the impacts of this city’s first LRT (Line R2 on three urban land use types (i.e., industrial development, commercial and residential development, and rural development at different periods. The results indicate that Line R2 exerted a negative impact on industrial development and rural development, but a positive impact on commercial and residential development during the planning stage of this line. Second, such spatial impacts (the consequent land use changes during this stage were simulated by using artificial neural network cellular automata. More importantly, we further predicted the potential impacts of Line R1, which is assumed to be a newly planned line, based on the above calibrated model and a traditional method respectively. The comparisons between them demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, which can easily take advantage of the experiences from other LRTs. The proposed method is expected to provide technical support for sustainable urban and transportation planning.

  19. Exploring Synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapdily developing urban landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is a journal article that describes the use of a system dynamics model to explore the synergies between transit and development strategies as they give...

  20. Causal role of thalamic interneurons on brain state transitions: a study using a neural mass model implementing synaptic kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN of mammals and rodents show that the inhibitory interneurons (IN receive around 47.1% of their afferents from the retinal spiking neurons, and constitute around 20 - 25% of the LGN cell population. However, there is a definite gap in knowledge about the role and impact of IN on thalamocortical dynamics in both experimental and model-based research. We use a neural mass computational model of the LGN with three neural populations viz. IN, thalamocortical relay (TCR, thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, to study the causality of IN on LGN oscillations and state-transitions. The synaptic information transmission in the model is implemented with kinetic modelling, facilitating the linking of low-level cellular attributes with high-level population dynamics. The model is parameterised and tuned to simulate both Local Field Potential (LFP of LGN and electroencephalogram (EEG of visual cortex in an awake resting state with eyes closed and dominant frequency within the alpha (8-13 Hz band. The results show that: First, the response of the TRN is suppressed in the presence of IN in the circuit; disconnecting the IN from the circuit effects a dramatic change in the model output, displaying high amplitude synchronous oscillations within the alpha band in both TCR and TRN. These observations conform to experimental reports implicating the IN as the primary inhibitory modulator of LGN dynamics in a cognitive state, and that reduced cognition is achieved by suppressing the TRN response. Second, the model validates steady state visually evoked potential response in humans corresponding to periodic input stimuli; however, when the IN is disconnected from the circuit, the output power spectra do not reflect the input frequency. This agrees with experimental reports underpinning the role of IN in efficient retino-geniculate information transmission. Third, a smooth transition from alpha to theta band is

  1. Evaluating the association between the built environment and primary care access for new Medicaid enrollees in an urban environment using Walk and Transit Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyachati, Krisda H; Hom, Jeffrey K; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Wong, Charlene; Grande, David

    2018-03-01

    Worse health outcomes among those living in poverty are due in part to lower rates of health insurance and barriers to care. As the Affordable Care Act reduced financial barriers, identifying persistent barriers to accessible health care continues to be important. We examined whether the built environment as reflected by Walk Score™ (a measure of walkability to neighborhood resources) and Transit Score™ (a measure of transit access) is associated with having a usual source of care among low-income adults, newly enrolled in Medicaid. We received responses from 312 out of 1000 new Medicaid enrollees in Philadelphia, a large, densely populated urban area, who were surveyed between 2015 and 2016 to determine if they had identified a usual source of outpatient primary care. Respondents living at an address with a low Walk Scores (< 70) had 84% lower odds of having a usual source of care (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.04-0.61). Transit scores were not associated with having a usual source of care. Walk Score may be a tool for policy makers and providers of care to identify populations at risk for worse primary care access.

  2. Evaluating the association between the built environment and primary care access for new Medicaid enrollees in an urban environment using Walk and Transit Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisda H. Chaiyachati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Worse health outcomes among those living in poverty are due in part to lower rates of health insurance and barriers to care. As the Affordable Care Act reduced financial barriers, identifying persistent barriers to accessible health care continues to be important. We examined whether the built environment as reflected by Walk Score™ (a measure of walkability to neighborhood resources and Transit Score™ (a measure of transit access is associated with having a usual source of care among low-income adults, newly enrolled in Medicaid. We received responses from 312 out of 1000 new Medicaid enrollees in Philadelphia, a large, densely populated urban area, who were surveyed between 2015 and 2016 to determine if they had identified a usual source of outpatient primary care. Respondents living at an address with a low Walk Scores (<70 had 84% lower odds of having a usual source of care (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.04–0.61. Transit scores were not associated with having a usual source of care. Walk Score may be a tool for policy makers and providers of care to identify populations at risk for worse primary care access.

  3. Predictors of Emotional Eating during Adolescents' Transition to College: Does Body Mass Index Moderate the Association between Stress and Emotional Eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Shana M.; Darling, Katherine E.; Fahrenkamp, Amy J.; D'Auria, Alexandra L.; Sato, Amy F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to (1) examine perceived stress and resources to cope with stress as predictors of emotional eating during the transition to college and (2) determine whether body mass index (BMI) moderated the emotional eating-stress relationship. Participants: Participants were 97 college freshmen (73% female; BMI: M = 25.3…

  4. Glass transition and the rigid amorphous phase in semicrystalline blends of bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate PHB with low molecular mass atactic R,S-PHB-diol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoehne, G.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The glass transition and the crystallinity of blends of isotactic bacterial PHB and low molecular mass atactic R, S-PHB-diols was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature-modulated DSC and dielectric spectroscopy. It was found that (i) Tg of crystallized blends

  5. 城市轨道交通建设资金来源研究%Financing Sources for Urban Rail Transit Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽琴; 李明阳; 王忠微; 沈蕾

    2017-01-01

    随着国发[2014]43号文件的发布,我国地方政府债务资金筹措以及投资项目筹融资方式发生了深刻的变化,国家针对平台类企业融资监管日益趋严,融资重要性日益凸显.针对城市轨道交通项目建设,从政府主导的负债型投融资模式和市场化投融资模式两个角度分析城市轨道交通可能的资金来源.结合轨道交通行业具体融资实践,系统地梳理出政府主导的负债型投融资模式下三大政府资金来源和以银行贷款为主、多种融资产品组合的多元化债务资金来源,以及政府主导的市场化投融资模式下股权融资和债权融资来源,希望能够为城市轨道交通融资工作开展提供有益借鉴.%With the issuance of [2014] No.43 document of the State Council,the way of local government debt fimancing and the financing of investment projects have undergone profound changes.The financing regulation of the platform enterprises has become more and more tightened,and financing is becoming more and more important.For the construction of urban rail transit projects,this paper analyzes the possible sources of funding for urban rail transit from two perspectives:the government-led debt-investment and financing mode,the government-led market-oriented investment and financing mode.Aiming at the specific financing practice of rail transportation industry,this paper analyzes the government-led debt-investment and financing mode of three main government funds sources and a diversified debt fund source based on bank loans containing a variety of financing instntments,and the government-led market-oriented investment and financing mode of equity financing and debt fimancing sources,hoping to provide useful references for urban rail transit financing.

  6. The Kepler-19 System: A Thick-envelope Super-Earth with Two Neptune-mass Companions Characterized Using Radial Velocities and Transit Timing Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavolta, Luca; Borsato, Luca; Granata, Valentina; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Universita’di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lopez, Eric [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH93HJ (United Kingdom); Vanderburg, Andrew; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Figueira, Pedro [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Mortier, Annelies; Cameron, Andrew Collier [Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Affer, Laura [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90124 Palermo (Italy); Bonomo, Aldo S. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bouchy, Francois [Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Buchhave, Lars A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Cosentino, Rosario, E-mail: luca.malavolta@unipd.it [INAF—Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain); and others

    2017-05-01

    We report a detailed characterization of the Kepler-19 system. This star was previously known to host a transiting planet with a period of 9.29 days, a radius of 2.2 R {sub ⊕}, and an upper limit on the mass of 20 M {sub ⊕}. The presence of a second, non-transiting planet was inferred from the transit time variations (TTVs) of Kepler-19b over eight quarters of Kepler photometry, although neither the mass nor period could be determined. By combining new TTVs measurements from all the Kepler quarters and 91 high-precision radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph, using dynamical simulations we obtained a mass of 8.4 ± 1.6 M {sub ⊕} for Kepler-19b. From the same data, assuming system coplanarity, we determined an orbital period of 28.7 days and a mass of 13.1 ± 2.7 M {sub ⊕} for Kepler-19c and discovered a Neptune-like planet with a mass of 20.3 ± 3.4 M {sub ⊕} on a 63-day orbit. By comparing dynamical simulations with non-interacting Keplerian orbits, we concluded that neglecting interactions between planets may lead to systematic errors that can hamper the precision in the orbital parameters when the data set spans several years. With a density of 4.32 ± 0.87 g cm{sup −3} (0.78 ± 0.16 ρ {sub ⊕}) Kepler-19b belongs to the group of planets with a rocky core and a significant fraction of volatiles, in opposition to low-density planets characterized only by transit time variations and an increasing number of rocky planets with Earth-like density. Kepler-19 joins the small number of systems that reconcile transit timing variation and radial velocity measurements.

  7. Seasonal and spatial variability of the OM/OC mass ratios and high regional correlation between oxalic acid and zinc in Chinese urban organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 year-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13 and spatially-invariant due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary organic aerosol (OA production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18 was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07 than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15. This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matter constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We report, for the first time, a high regional correlation between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011. We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic properties of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  8. Seasonal and spatial variability of the OM/OC mass ratios and high regional correlation between oxalic acid and zinc in Chinese urban organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, L.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Wang, G. H.; Ho, K. F.; Cheng, M.-C.; You, C.-F.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-04-01

    We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios) in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 year-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13) and spatially-invariant due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary organic aerosol (OA) production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07) than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15). This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matter constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We report, for the first time, a high regional correlation between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011). We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic properties of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  9. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  10. Cool Science: Year 2 of Using Children's Artwork about Climate Change to Engage Riders on Mass Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators and scientists from the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Massachusetts Boston will report on the second year of an informal science learning research project using mass transit spaces in Lowell, MA. Cool Science (CS) conducts a statewide art competition for K-12 students in the fall challenging them to express climate science understanding through the visual arts. An inter-disciplinary panel of judges evaluates entries and identifies the top 24 works of art. The best six student works of art are then put on public display throughout the spring on the Lowell Regional Transit Authority (LRTA). Displaying student artwork in Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) such as bus placards and posters is intended to engage riders with opportunities to learn informally. CS aims to promote and evaluate learning about climate change science among the general public and k-12 students/teachers. The goals of CS are: 1) Engage teachers, students, and parents in a climate change science communication competition. 2) Display the winning 6 artworks from K-12 students throughout the LRTA. 3) Assess the impact of Cool Science on the teaching and learning of climate science in K-12 formal education. 4) Assess the impact of Cool Science artwork on attitudes, awareness, and understanding of climate change among adult bus riders. A naturalistic inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design. The evaluation focuses on providing feedback regarding the potential learning outcomes for the K-12 students who create the media for the project and the general riding public who engage with the student artwork. To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, interviews, and online analytics. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The Cool Science (CS) project is an opportunity

  11. ATAQS: A computational software tool for high throughput transition optimization and validation for selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Hector

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its inception, proteomics has essentially operated in a discovery mode with the goal of identifying and quantifying the maximal number of proteins in a sample. Increasingly, proteomic measurements are also supporting hypothesis-driven studies, in which a predetermined set of proteins is consistently detected and quantified in multiple samples. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM is a targeted mass spectrometric technique that supports the detection and quantification of specific proteins in complex samples at high sensitivity and reproducibility. Here, we describe ATAQS, an integrated software platform that supports all stages of targeted, SRM-based proteomics experiments including target selection, transition optimization and post acquisition data analysis. This software will significantly facilitate the use of targeted proteomic techniques and contribute to the generation of highly sensitive, reproducible and complete datasets that are particularly critical for the discovery and validation of targets in hypothesis-driven studies in systems biology. Result We introduce a new open source software pipeline, ATAQS (Automated and Targeted Analysis with Quantitative SRM, which consists of a number of modules that collectively support the SRM assay development workflow for targeted proteomic experiments (project management and generation of protein, peptide and transitions and the validation of peptide detection by SRM. ATAQS provides a flexible pipeline for end-users by allowing the workflow to start or end at any point of the pipeline, and for computational biologists, by enabling the easy extension of java algorithm classes for their own algorithm plug-in or connection via an external web site. This integrated system supports all steps in a SRM-based experiment and provides a user-friendly GUI that can be run by any operating system that allows the installation of the Mozilla Firefox web browser. Conclusions Targeted

  12. Kepler-423b: a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting a very old solar-like star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, D.; Parviainen, H.; Deeg, H. J.; Lanza, A. F.; Fridlund, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Alonso, R.; Augusteijn, T.; Cabrera, J.; Evans, T.; Geier, S.; Hatzes, A. P.; Holczer, T.; Hoyer, S.; Kangas, T.; Mazeh, T.; Pagano, I.; Tal-Or, L.; Tingley, B.

    2015-04-01

    We report the spectroscopic confirmation of the Kepler object of interest KOI-183.01 (Kepler-423b), a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting an old solar-like star every 2.7 days. Our analysis is the first to combine the full Kepler photometry (quarters 1-17) with high-precision radial velocity measurements taken with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We simultaneously modelled the photometric and spectroscopic data-sets using Bayesian approach coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We found that the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curve of Kepler-423 exhibits quarter-to-quarter systematic variations of the transit depth, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~4.3% and seasonal trends reoccurring every four quarters. We attributed these systematics to an incorrect assessment of the quarterly variation of the crowding metric. The host star Kepler-423 is a G4 dwarf with M⋆ = 0.85 ± 0.04 M⊙, R⋆ = 0.95 ± 0.04 R⊙, Teff= 5560 ± 80 K, [M/H] = - 0.10 ± 0.05 dex, and with an age of 11 ± 2 Gyr. The planet Kepler-423b has a mass of Mp= 0.595 ± 0.081MJup and a radius of Rp= 1.192 ± 0.052RJup, yielding a planetary bulk density of ρp = 0.459 ± 0.083 g cm-3. The radius of Kepler-423b is consistent with both theoretical models for irradiated coreless giant planets and expectations based on empirical laws. The inclination of the stellar spin axis suggests that the system is aligned along the line of sight. We detected a tentative secondary eclipse of the planet at a 2σ confidence level (ΔFec = 14.2 ± 6.6 ppm) and found that the orbit might have asmall non-zero eccentricity of 0.019+0.028-0.014. With a Bond albedo of AB = 0.037 ± 0.019, Kepler-423b is one of the gas-giant planets with the lowest albedo known so far. Based on observations obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of

  13. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  14. Determination of peak bone mass density and composition in low income urban residents of metro Manila using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this paper is a continuation of the first phase of the study, which is the determination of the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. However, it also aims to correlate sex, body mass index, nutritional factors, physical activity and lifestyle to peak bone mass and thus attempts to explain any discrepancies in peak bone mass density to that seen in other countries

  15. Contribution of biogenic and photochemical sources to ambient VOCs during winter to summer transition at a semi-arid urban site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, L K; Tripathi, Nidhi; Yadav, Ravi

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the sources and characteristics of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured using PTR-TOF-MS instrument in a metropolitan city of India during winter to summer transition period. Mixing ratios of VOCs exhibited strong diurnal, day-to-day and episodic variations. Methanol was the most dominant species with monthly mean values of 18-22 pbbv. The emission ratios of VOCs relative to benzene calculated from nighttime data were used to estimate the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust and other sources. The increasing daytime ratios of oxygenated-VOCs (OVOCs)/benzene and isoprene/benzene from February to March indicates increasing contribution of photo-oxidation and biogenic sources. Daytime fractions of acetone (18%), acetaldehyde (15%) and isoprene (4.5%) to the sum of measured VOCs in March were higher than those in February. Variations of VOCs at lower temperatures (biogenic emissions. The emissions of OVOCs from vehicle exhaust were estimated to be smaller (20-40%) than those from other sources. The contributions of biogenic and secondary sources to OVOCs and isoprene increased by 10-15% from winter to summer. This study provides evidence that the winter-to-summer transition has an impact on sources and composition of VOCs in tropical urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 49 CFR 1.51 - Delegations to Federal Transit Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Plan No. 2 of 1968 (5 U.S.C. app. 1). (c) Section 10 of the Urban Mass Transportation Assistance Act of... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegations to Federal Transit Administrator. 1.51 Section 1.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF...

  17. TRANSIT LABOR ARRANGEMENTS. Most Transit Agencies Report Impacts are Minimal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gramm, Phil

    2001-01-01

    In 1964, Congress passed the Urban Mass Transportation Act to provide financial assistance to states and local governments to extend and improve urban mass transportation systems beleaguered by rising...

  18. The association of physical activity, body mass index and the blood pressure levels among urban poor youth in Accra, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afrifa-Anane, Ernest; Agyemang, Charles; Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-01-01

    Globally, there is an increasing prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) among adults and youth. However, the mechanisms of how the risk factors (physical inactivity and obesity) relate with blood pressure (BP) are not well known especially among the urban poor youth in low and middle income

  19. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits

    OpenAIRE

    Makinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A.; Aalberg, Veikko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescen...

  20. On the Observability of Individual Population III Stars and Their Stellar-mass Black Hole Accretion Disks through Cluster Caustic Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Timmes, F. X.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Andrews, Stephen K.; Coe, Daniel; Diego, Jose M.; Dijkstra, Mark; Driver, Simon P.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Kim, Duho

    2018-02-01

    We summarize panchromatic Extragalactic Background Light data to place upper limits on the integrated near-infrared surface brightness (SB) that may come from Population III stars and possible accretion disks around their stellar-mass black holes (BHs) in the epoch of First Light, broadly taken from z ≃ 7–17. Theoretical predictions and recent near-infrared power spectra provide tighter constraints on their sky signal. We outline the physical properties of zero-metallicity Population III stars from MESA stellar evolution models through helium depletion and of BH accretion disks at z≳ 7. We assume that second-generation non-zero-metallicity stars can form at higher multiplicity, so that BH accretion disks may be fed by Roche-lobe overflow from lower-mass companions. We use these near-infrared SB constraints to calculate the number of caustic transits behind lensing clusters that the James Webb Space Telescope and the next-generation ground-based telescopes may observe for both Population III stars and their BH accretion disks. Typical caustic magnifications can be μ ≃ {10}4{--}{10}5, with rise times of hours and decline times of ≲ 1 year for cluster transverse velocities of {v}T≲ 1000 km s‑1. Microlensing by intracluster-medium objects can modify transit magnifications but lengthen visibility times. Depending on BH masses, accretion-disk radii, and feeding efficiencies, stellar-mass BH accretion-disk caustic transits could outnumber those from Population III stars. To observe Population III caustic transits directly may require monitoring 3–30 lensing clusters to {AB}≲ 29 mag over a decade.

  1. The mass-retrofitting of an energy efficient-low carbon zone: Baselining the urban regeneration strategy, vision, masterplan and redevelopment scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deakin, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Reid, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a recent attempt to reduce energy consumption and the associated levels of carbon emissions by way of and through what has been termed: “an active and integrated institutional arrangement”. That is, by the integration of a mass retrofit proposal into an urban regeneration strategy, with the vision, master-plan, programme of renewal and redevelopment scheme which is capable of transforming into an energy efficient, low carbon zone. As a case study on how institutions can plan for low energy efficient redevelopments and the possibility of low carbon zones, the paper highlights the current state of the art on mass retrofits within the residential property sector and draws particular attention to the type of baseline assessments needed to legitimate, not only the strategic value of such arrangements, but their practical worth as measures capable of meeting emission targets set under the 2008 UK Climate Bill.

  2. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Mauno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. Aims To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. Methods School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. Results The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD: 30.6 (SD 12.2 vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5; p  Conclusions Body mass, self-esteem and eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  3. Low-energy fission systematics of the fermium isotopes: the transition from mass asymmetry at fermium-254 to symmetry at fermium-259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Recent measurements have shown that 259 Fm gives the highest total kinetic energy release and the most symmetric mass division so far observed for spontaneous fission. These results continue the trends observed previously in the fermium isotopes toward higher total kinetic energies and more symmetric mass division with increasing mass of the fermium isotopes. The transition from asymmetric mass division ( 254 Fm) to highly favored symmetric mass division ( 259 Fm) now appears to have been completed. These features are consistent with the simple postulate that the more neutron-rich fermium isotopes show an increase in the yield of symmetric fragments and in the total kinetic energy because symmetric mass division of fermium (Z = 100) nuclei results in two fragments which have the magic proton number of 50 and are close to the magic neutron number of 82. The proximity of the fragments to the doubly magic configuration seems to have a profound effect on the mass division and total kinetic energy release in fission

  4. Dietary patterns differ between urban and rural older, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer and are associated with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Morey, Miriam C; Hartman, Terry J; Snyder, Denise C; Sloane, Richard; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2012-06-01

    Older adult cancer survivors are at greater risk of cancer recurrence and other comorbidities that can be prevented through improved diet and weight management. The tertiary prevention needs of rural-dwelling survivors can be even greater, yet little is known about rural and urban differences in lifestyle factors among this high-risk population. To compare dietary patterns of urban and rural cancer survivors and to examine associations of dietary patterns with body mass index (BMI). A secondary analysis was performed of baseline data from the Reach Out to Enhance Wellness (RENEW) trial, a diet and exercise intervention among overweight, long-term (≥5 years), older survivors of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Survivors in the present analysis (n=729) underwent two 45- to 60-minute telephone surveys, which included two 24-hour dietary recalls. Principal components analysis and multivariable general linear models were used to derive dietary patterns and to evaluate associations between dietary patterns and BMI, respectively. Principal components analysis identified three primary dietary patterns among rural dwellers (high sweets and starches, high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits, and mixed) and three among urban dwellers (high fruits and vegetables, high meat and refined grains, and high sugar-sweetened beverages). Among rural survivors, greater adherence to the high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits pattern was positively associated with lower BMI (P trend pattern was associated with greater BMI (P trend pattern among urban survivors was inversely associated with BMI (P trend dietary intake behavior should be considered in designing public health interventions among the increasing population of older cancer survivors. In addition, targeting overall dietary patterns might be one approach to help reduce the burden of obesity among this population. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. The Impact of Urban Transit Systems on Property Values: A Model and Some Evidences from the City of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hedonic model for estimating the effects of transit systems on real estate values is specified and calibrated for the city of Naples. The model is used to estimate the external benefits concerning property values which may be attributed to the Naples metro at the present time and in two future scenarios. The results show that only high-frequency metro lines have appreciable effects on real estate values, while low-frequency metro lines and bus lines produce no significant impacts. Our results show that the impacts on real estate values of the metro system in Naples are significant, with corresponding external benefits estimated at about 7.2 billion euros or about 8.5% of the total value of real estate assets.

  6. INTRA-URBAN SPATIAL CHANGES AMONG WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN BUCHAREST (ROMANIA DURING ECONOMIC TRANSITION (1992-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey KOBAYASH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurs in Bucharest, Romania, increased by six times (compared to five times for men between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, during a period of transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. A study of over 150 territory referential units shows a concentration of business women in central, high income areas and a correlation between the entrepreneurial status and education. Data from 50 telephone interviews show that women with university degrees are more likely to operate at a city-wide or national scale, in fields such as cosmeticology, consultancy, law, design, art, and manufacturing. Women without higher education tend to operate at a local, smaller scale. Both spatial concentration and education have an impact upon business behaviour.

  7. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation of PM10 Dispersion Caused by Rail Transit Construction Activity: A Real Urban Street Canyon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Zuo, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Particle emissions derived from construction activities have a significant impact on the local air quality, while the canyon effect with reduced natural ventilation contributes to the highest particulate pollution in urban environments. This study attempted to examine the effect of PM10 emissions derived from the construction of a rail transit system in an urban street canyon. Using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on a real street canyon with different height ratios, this study formulates the impact of height ratio and wind directions on the dispersion and concentration of PM10. The results indicate that parallel flow would cause the concentration of PM10 at the end of the street canyons in all height ratios, and the trends in horizontal, vertical and lateral planes in all street canyons are similar. While in the condition of perpendicular flow, double-eddy circulations occur and lead to the concentration of PM10 in the middle part of the street canyon and leeward of backwind buildings in all height ratios. Furthermore, perpendicular flow will cause the concentration of PM10 to increase if the upwind buildings are higher than the backwind ones. This study also shows that the dispersion of PM10 is strongly associated with wind direction in and the height ratios of the street canyons. Certain measures could, therefore, be taken to prevent the impact on people in terms of the PM10 concentration and the heights of street canyons identified in this research. Potential mitigation strategies are suggested, include measurements below 4 m according to governmental regulations, dust shields, and atomized water. PMID:29522495

  8. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD Simulation of PM10 Dispersion Caused by Rail Transit Construction Activity: A Real Urban Street Canyon Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle emissions derived from construction activities have a significant impact on the local air quality, while the canyon effect with reduced natural ventilation contributes to the highest particulate pollution in urban environments. This study attempted to examine the effect of PM10 emissions derived from the construction of a rail transit system in an urban street canyon. Using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD model based on a real street canyon with different height ratios, this study formulates the impact of height ratio and wind directions on the dispersion and concentration of PM10. The results indicate that parallel flow would cause the concentration of PM10 at the end of the street canyons in all height ratios, and the trends in horizontal, vertical and lateral planes in all street canyons are similar. While in the condition of perpendicular flow, double-eddy circulations occur and lead to the concentration of PM10 in the middle part of the street canyon and leeward of backwind buildings in all height ratios. Furthermore, perpendicular flow will cause the concentration of PM10 to increase if the upwind buildings are higher than the backwind ones. This study also shows that the dispersion of PM10 is strongly associated with wind direction in and the height ratios of the street canyons. Certain measures could, therefore, be taken to prevent the impact on people in terms of the PM10 concentration and the heights of street canyons identified in this research. Potential mitigation strategies are suggested, include measurements below 4 m according to governmental regulations, dust shields, and atomized water.

  9. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation of PM10 Dispersion Caused by Rail Transit Construction Activity: A Real Urban Street Canyon Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Zuo, Jian; Rameezdeen, Raufdeen

    2018-03-09

    Particle emissions derived from construction activities have a significant impact on the local air quality, while the canyon effect with reduced natural ventilation contributes to the highest particulate pollution in urban environments. This study attempted to examine the effect of PM 10 emissions derived from the construction of a rail transit system in an urban street canyon. Using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on a real street canyon with different height ratios, this study formulates the impact of height ratio and wind directions on the dispersion and concentration of PM 10 . The results indicate that parallel flow would cause the concentration of PM 10 at the end of the street canyons in all height ratios, and the trends in horizontal, vertical and lateral planes in all street canyons are similar. While in the condition of perpendicular flow, double-eddy circulations occur and lead to the concentration of PM 10 in the middle part of the street canyon and leeward of backwind buildings in all height ratios. Furthermore, perpendicular flow will cause the concentration of PM 10 to increase if the upwind buildings are higher than the backwind ones. This study also shows that the dispersion of PM 10 is strongly associated with wind direction in and the height ratios of the street canyons. Certain measures could, therefore, be taken to prevent the impact on people in terms of the PM 10 concentration and the heights of street canyons identified in this research. Potential mitigation strategies are suggested, include measurements below 4 m according to governmental regulations, dust shields, and atomized water.

  10. Operating subsidies for urban rail transit PPP projects%城市轨道交通PPP项目运营补贴测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智慧; 张剑寒

    2016-01-01

    城市轨道交通(urban rail transit,URT,简称城轨)所具有的准经营性和准公共物品属性决定了政府和社会资本合作(public-private partnership,PPP)开发城轨项目具有一定的合理性.该文对采用PPP模式开发城轨项目进行分析,探讨开发城轨项目产生的外部效益与政府补贴之间的关系.在此基础上,参考政府指导性文件的要求,提出了城轨项目年度运营补贴的计算模型,对2012年北京地铁4号线政府运营补贴支出数额进行了测算;同时采用“有无对比法”,以2012年北京地铁4号线为例,对其外部效益进行了测算.结果表明:2012年北京地铁4号线政府运营补贴支出数额明显低于该项目同年各项外部效益之和,说明该项目的政府运营补贴合理.%The basic features of urban rail transit (URT) such as the shared operational responsibilities and the partial public ownership determine the public-private partnership (PPP) mode for developing URT projects.In this paper,the use of the PPP mode to develop URT projects is analyzed to study the relationship between the external benefits and government subsidies on the URT.Government regulations were used to develop a model for URT annual operating subsidies that was used to predict the government operating subsidies for Beijing subway line 4 in 2012.Then,the “with and without methods” were used to analyze Beijing subway line 4 in 2012 to determine the external benefits of this project.The results show that the government operating subsidies for Beijing subway line 4 in 2012 were significantly lower than the external benefits and that the government operating subsidies for this project are reasonable.

  11. Child restraint use in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney during transition to new legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2013-01-01

    Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was law and poorer knowledge of safety benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HAT-P-12b: A LOW-DENSITY SUB-SATURN MASS PLANET TRANSITING A METAL-POOR K DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Torres, G.; Noyes, R. W.; Pal, A.; Latham, D. W.; Sipocz, B.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Kovacs, Gabor; Stefanik, R. P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-12b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V ∼ 12.8 K4 dwarf GSC 03033 - 00706, with a period P = 3.2130598 ± 0.0000021 d, transit epoch T c = 2454419.19556 ± 0.00020 (BJD), and transit duration 0.0974 ± 0.0006 d. The host star has a mass of 0.73 ± 0.02 M sun , radius of 0.70 +0.02 -0.01 R sun , effective temperature 4650 ± 60 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.29 ± 0.05. We find a slight correlation between the observed spectral line bisector spans and the radial velocity, so we consider, and rule out, various blend configurations including a blend with a background eclipsing binary, and hierarchical triple systems where the eclipsing body is a star or a planet. We conclude that a model consisting of a single star with a transiting planet best fits the observations, and show that a likely explanation for the apparent correlation is contamination from scattered moonlight. Based on this model, the planetary companion has a mass of 0.211 ± 0.012 M J and radius of 0.959 +0.029 -0.021 R J yielding a mean density of 0.295 ± 0.025 g cm -3 . Comparing these observations with recent theoretical models, we find that HAT-P-12b is consistent with a ∼1-4.5 Gyr, mildly irradiated, H/He-dominated planet with a core mass M C ∼ + . HAT-P-12b is thus the least massive H/He-dominated gas giant planet found to date. This record was previously held by Saturn.

  13. A Semi-analytical Model for Wind-fed Black Hole High-mass X-Ray Binaries: State Transition Triggered by Magnetic Fields from the Companion Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaji, Kentaro; Yamada, Shinya; Masai, Kuniaki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa 1-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    We propose a mechanism of state transition in wind-fed black hole (BH) binaries (high-mass X-ray binaries) such as Cyg X-1 and LMC X-1. Modeling a line-driven stellar wind from the companion by two-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations, we investigate the processes of wind capture by, and accretion onto, the BH. We assume that the wind acceleration is terminated at the He ii ionization front because ions responsible for line-driven acceleration are ionized within the front, i.e., the He iii region. It is found that the mass accretion rate inferred from the luminosity is remarkably smaller than the capture rate. Considering the difference, we construct a model for the state transition based on the accretion flow being controlled by magnetorotational instability. The outer flow is torus-like, and plays an important role to trigger the transition. The model can explain why state transition does occur in Cyg X-1, while not in LMC X-1. Cyg X-1 exhibits a relatively low luminosity, and then the He ii ionization front is located and can move between the companion and BH, depending on its ionizing photon flux. On the other hand, LMC X-1 exhibits too high luminosity for the front to move considerably; the front is too close to the companion atmosphere. The model also predicts that each state of high-soft or low-hard would last fairly long because the luminosity depends weakly on the wind velocity. In the context of the model, the state transition is triggered by a fluctuation of the magnetic field when its amplitude becomes comparable to the field strength in the torus-like outer flow.

  14. Transiciones familiares y trayectorias laborales femeninas en el México urbano Family transitions and female work trajectories in urban Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlandina de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del recuento de la serie de transformaciones estructurales que explican la creciente participación femenina en la actividad económica, se explora la diversidad de trayectorias laborales de un conjunto de mujeres urbanas, casadas y con hijos, nacidas entre 1940 y 1970, con base en los relatos contenidos en sus historias de vida. Se analiza en particular la influencia de dos transiciones familiares, casamiento y nacimiento de los hijos, en el grado relativo de discontinuidad laboral. El análisis sugiere que el peso de estas transiciones es diferencial por sector social, y se expresa entre otras cosas en una distinta duración en la interrupción de la trayectoria laboral. En la interpretación de la heterogeneidad de las trayectorias se recurre tanto a factores socioculturales, como demográficos y económicos.After reviewing main structural transformations leading to increased female economic activity, the paper examines the diversity of female work trajectories in a selected group of urban married women with children, born between 1940 and 1970. Analysis is based on their life histories and takes as its object of inquiry the influence of two central family transitions (marriage and birth of children in the relative discontinuity of female work trajectories. Discussion suggests a differential influence of such transitions in the discontinuity of work trajectories by social sector, observed in the duration of work interruptions. Sociocultural, demographic and economic factors are used to explain such differences.

  15. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski Petri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C. To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS, and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group. In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation.

  16. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  17. An Efficient Method of Sharing Mass Spatio-Temporal Trajectory Data Based on Cloudera Impala for Traffic Distribution Mapping in an Urban City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianjie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficient sharing of spatio-temporal trajectory data is important to understand traffic congestion in mass data. However, the data volumes of bus networks in urban cities are growing rapidly, reaching daily volumes of one hundred million datapoints. Accessing and retrieving mass spatio-temporal trajectory data in any field is hard and inefficient due to limited computational capabilities and incomplete data organization mechanisms. Therefore, we propose an optimized and efficient spatio-temporal trajectory data retrieval method based on the Cloudera Impala query engine, called ESTRI, to enhance the efficiency of mass data sharing. As an excellent query tool for mass data, Impala can be applied for mass spatio-temporal trajectory data sharing. In ESTRI we extend the spatio-temporal trajectory data retrieval function of Impala and design a suitable data partitioning method. In our experiments, the Taiyuan BeiDou (BD bus network is selected, containing 2300 buses with BD positioning sensors, producing 20 million records every day, resulting in two difficulties as described in the Introduction section. In addition, ESTRI and MongoDB are applied in experiments. The experiments show that ESTRI achieves the most efficient data retrieval compared to retrieval using MongoDB for data volumes of fifty million, one hundred million, one hundred and fifty million, and two hundred million. The performance of ESTRI is approximately seven times higher than that of MongoDB. The experiments show that ESTRI is an effective method for retrieving mass spatio-temporal trajectory data. Finally, bus distribution mapping in Taiyuan city is achieved, describing the buses density in different regions at different times throughout the day, which can be applied in future studies of transport, such as traffic scheduling, traffic planning and traffic behavior management in intelligent public transportation systems.

  18. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A; Aalberg, Veikko

    2012-06-08

    In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD): 30.6 (SD 12.2) vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5); p eating habits were less satisfied with their bodies than those describing normal eating habits (mean (SD): 33.0 (12.9) vs. 21.2 (10.2); p eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  19. K2-139 b: a low-mass warm Jupiter on a 29-d orbit transiting an active K0 V star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, O.; Gandolfi, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Deeg, H. J.; Fridlund, M. C. V.; Persson, C. M.; Donati, P.; Endl, M.; Csizmadia, Sz; Grziwa, S.; Nespral, D.; Hatzes, A. P.; Cochran, W. D.; Fossati, L.; Brems, S. S.; Cabrera, J.; Cusano, F.; Eigmüller, Ph; Eiroa, C.; Erikson, A.; Guenther, E.; Korth, J.; Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Mancini, L.; Pätzold, M.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Rauer, H.; Rebollido, I.; Saario, J.; Zakhozhay, O. V.

    2018-04-01

    We announce the discovery of K2-139 b (EPIC 218916923 b), a transiting warm-Jupiter (Teq = 547 ± 25 K) on a 29-d orbit around an active (log R^' _HK = -4.46 ± 0.06) K0 V star in K2 Campaign 7. We derive the system's parameters by combining the K2 photometry with ground-based follow-up observations. With a mass of 0.387 _{ - 0.075 } ^ {+ 0.083 }MJ and radius of 0.808 _{ - 0.033 } ^ {+ 0.034 }RJ, K2-139 b is one of the transiting warm Jupiters with the lowest mass known to date. The planetary mean density of 0.91 _{ - 0.20} ^ { + 0.24 } g cm-3can be explained with a core of ˜50 M⊕. Given the brightness of the host star (V = 11.653 mag), the relatively short transit duration (˜5 h), and the expected amplitude of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect (˜25m s-1), K2-139 is an ideal target to measure the spin-orbit angle of a planetary system hosting a warm Jupiter.

  20. What happens after you drop out? Transition to adulthood among early school-leavers in urban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Utomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high incidence of young people dropping out of school prior to completing secondary schooling remains a nationwide problem in Indonesia. While it is commonly assumed that early school-leavers will become child workers, in fact little is known about their transition to adulthood. Objective: Using retrospective data from a sample of 799 young adults (ages 20-34 in Greater Jakarta who dropped out of school by age 16, this paper investigates their patterns of activity and employment in the adolescent years following their exit from the school system, the timing and patterns of reaching various markers of adulthood, and their current life situations. Results: Less than a quarter of early school-leavers worked in the immediate year following school exit. Instead about 30Š neither worked nor studied between the ages of 12-18. The likelihood of experiencing idleness was highest at age 13 and was relatively higher for females than males. Among those with early work experience the majority worked in the manufacturing industry, as domestic servants, or as informal traders. Early school-leavers left their parental home, married, and became parents at a younger age compared to those who left school at ages 17-19. Conclusions: Female early school-leavers are likely to spend a longer time economically and educationally inactive during their formative years, progress faster to their markers of adulthood, and are less likely to return to school, relative to their male counterparts. Qualitative insights suggest that adolescent dropouts who enter employment early are better off in their young adulthood than those who experience inactivity prior to adulthood.

  1. Absolute El, {delta}K= O Transition Rates in Odd-Mass Pm and Eu-Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S G

    1967-06-15

    The half life of the 5/2{sup -} (532) intrinsic state in {sup 151}Pm, {sup 153}Eu and {sup 155}Eu has been determined by the delayed coincidence method. The absolute E1, {delta}K = 0 transition probabilities between the 5/2{sup -} (532) -> 5/2{sup +} (413) intrinsic states have been deduced and compared with theoretical predictions, using the Nilsson model as a starting point. The effect on the predicted transition probabilities obtained by adding pairing correlations and Coriolis coupling have also been studied. It has been found that the experimental transition rates, which are still strongly enhanced, cannot be explained by these contributions alone. It is therefore suggested that collective dipole contributions like those arising through the octupole excitations are of importance.

  2. On the d{sub 5/2}<->g{sub 7/2} Transitions in Odd Mass Pm Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baecklin, A; Malmskog, S G

    1967-05-15

    The half-lives of the first excited levels in {sup 145}Pm and {sup 147}Pm have been measured by the delayed coincidence method and are 2.69 {+-} 0.08 nsec and 2.51 {+-} 0.05 nsec, respectively. From a measurement of the L subshell ratios of the 61 keV transition in {sup 145}Pm, an E2 admixture of 0.15 {+-} 0.05 per cent has been obtained. The transition energy was found to be 61.25 {+-} 0.05 keV. The experimental reduced E2 transition probabilities from the first excited states to the ground states of {sup 145}Pm, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 149}Pm have been compared to the theoretical predictions by Sorensen.

  3. Impact of some types of mass gatherings on current suicide risk in an urban population: statistical and negative binominal regression analysis of time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Vasiliy S; Svirin, Sergey N; Shchekaturov, Yan N; Ponarin, Eduard D

    2014-04-04

    Many studies have investigated the impact of a wide range of social events on suicide-related behaviour. However, these studies have predominantly examined national events. The aim of this study is to provide a statistical evaluation of the relationship between mass gatherings in some relatively small urban sub-populations and the general suicide rates of a major city. The data were gathered in the Ukrainian city of Dnipropetrovsk, with a population of 1 million people, in 2005-2010. Suicide attempts, suicides, and the total amount of suicide-related behaviours were registered daily for each sex. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis, including negative binomial regression, were applied to assess the risk of suicide-related behaviour in the city's general population for 7 days before and after 427 mass gatherings, such as concerts, football games, and non-regular mass events organized by the Orthodox Church and new religious movements. The bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses found significant changes in some suicide-related behaviour rates in the city's population after certain kinds of mass gatherings. In particular, we observed an increased relative risk (RR) of male suicide-related behaviour after a home defeat of the local football team (RR = 1.32, p = 0.047; regression coefficient beta = 0.371, p = 0.002), and an increased risk of male suicides (RR = 1.29, p = 0.006; beta =0.255, p = 0.002), male suicide-related behaviour (RR = 1.25, p = 0.019; beta =0.251, p football games and mass events organized by new religious movements involved a relatively small part of an urban population (1.6 and 0.3%, respectively), we observed a significant increase of the some suicide-related behaviour rates in the whole population. It is likely that the observed effect on suicide-related behaviour is related to one's personal presence at the event rather than to its broadcast. Our findings can be explained largely in

  4. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with continental, urban and marine air masses at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesch, J.-M.; Drewnick, F.; Zorn, S. R.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Martinez, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides) project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W). As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville) and the Atlantic Ocean a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2) and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m-3 and 1000 cm-3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54%) was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition small concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA), a product of biogenic dimethyl sulfate (DMS) emissions could be identified in the particle phase. In all

  5. Urban Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built environment characteristics. It then explores how the built environment defines the affordances of urban areas for travelling by particular modes of transport, i.e. its walk-ability, cycleability, drive-ability and transit-ability, by developing a typology of what I call their ‘urban modality’. And finally the work combines this typology with the socio-economic characteristics of urban areas to determine their sustainable mobility potential and performance. It focuses on the case of the Randstad region of the Netherlands and its VINEX neighbourhoods, which are an emblematic example of new urban areas created under a policy programme with sustainable mobility objectives. A key stance in this work is the understanding that the location of an urban area in the region can be indicative of its population’s travel patterns, because the built environment (infrastructural and socio-economic characteristics are interrelated and present strong regional spatial patterns. What types of urban areas support sustainable travel patterns, and what are their spatial characteristics? How do new neighbourhoods compare to the best performing urban areas, and to other areas of the same ‘modality’ type? These are some of the questions addressed in this study. There are two main contributions of this research: the methods for building and analysing integrated multimodal network models, and the framework for contextual performance evaluation using urban area typologies. The

  6. Factors influencing drug uptake during mass drug administration for control of lymphatic filariasis in rural and urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisoka, William J.; Simonsen, Paul Erik; Malecela, Mwelecele N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission interrupt......BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission...

  7. Transit's leading edge : innovations in service and technology : issue paper 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    The Canadian Urban Transit Association is committed to raising awareness of the social, environmental and economic benefits of mass transit systems. Innovation is needed to address the challenges of attracting new riders, resolving fiscal imbalances, and meeting environmental concerns. This issue paper presents examples of how Canada's transit industry has used innovation to address the issue of climate change and fight smog. It includes a brief description of some of the ways that Canadian transit suppliers and transit systems are going green: Canada's bus builders are developing hybrid buses; Grand River Transit is improving air quality with clean diesel; Montreal's Transit Society is reducing emissions with biodiesel buses; Saskatoon Transit Service is using biodiesel buses; Laval's Transit Society is listening to customer complaints in an effort to reduce response times and improve customer service; Canadian Urban Transit Association is improving customer service; Transit Windsor is promoting a smog solution; Winnipeg Transit is working with employers to boost ridership; Trapeze Software Group is providing customers with quick and accurate trip itineraries; St. John's Transportation Commission has added solar-powered, light emitting diode illumination to bus stops; the City of Ottawa has an established transit priority measures; and, Infodev EDI Inc. has supplied automated high-technology solutions for passenger counting and vehicle location tracking to several Canadian transit systems. refs., figs.

  8. Enhancing non-refractory aerosol apportionment from an urban industrial site through receptor modeling of complete high time-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, M. L.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Slowik, J. G.; Jeong, C.-H.; Healy, R. M.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2014-08-01

    Receptor modeling was performed on quadrupole unit mass resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) sub-micron particulate matter (PM) chemical speciation measurements from Windsor, Ontario, an industrial city situated across the Detroit River from Detroit, Michigan. Aerosol and trace gas measurements were collected on board Environment Canada's Canadian Regional and Urban Investigation System for Environmental Research (CRUISER) mobile laboratory. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the AMS full particle-phase mass spectrum (PMFFull MS) encompassing both organic and inorganic components. This approach compared to the more common method of analyzing only the organic mass spectra (PMFOrg MS). PMF of the full mass spectrum revealed that variability in the non-refractory sub-micron aerosol concentration and composition was best explained by six factors: an amine-containing factor (Amine); an ammonium sulfate- and oxygenated organic aerosol-containing factor (Sulfate-OA); an ammonium nitrate- and oxygenated organic aerosol-containing factor (Nitrate-OA); an ammonium chloride-containing factor (Chloride); a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factor; and a moderately oxygenated organic aerosol factor (OOA). PMF of the organic mass spectrum revealed three factors of similar composition to some of those revealed through PMFFull MS: Amine, HOA and OOA. Including both the inorganic and organic mass proved to be a beneficial approach to analyzing the unit mass resolution AMS data for several reasons. First, it provided a method for potentially calculating more accurate sub-micron PM mass concentrations, particularly when unusual factors are present, in this case the Amine factor. As this method does not rely on a priori knowledge of chemical species, it circumvents the need for any adjustments to the traditional AMS species fragmentation patterns to account for atypical species, and can thus lead to more complete factor profiles. It is expected that this

  9. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  10. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  11. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River basin - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Neto, A.; Scott, C. A.; Lima, E. A.; Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; Cirilo, J. A.

    2014-09-01

    Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change, especially in the arid and semiarid tropics. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the Capibaribe River basin (CRB). The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-to-urban) reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now larger and more spatially concentrated, which increases water-scarcity effects. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES (Special Report: Emissions Scenarios) A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 26.0% translated to streamflow reduction of 60.0%. We used simulations from four members of the HadCM3 (UK Met Office Hadley Centre) perturbed physics ensemble, in which a single model structure is used and perturbations are introduced to the physical parameterization schemes in the model (Chou et al., 2012). We considered that the change of the water availability in the basin in the future scenarios must drive the water management and the development of adaptation strategies that will manage the water demand. Several adaptive responses are considered, including water-loss reductions, wastewater collection and reuse, and rainwater collection cisterns, which together have potential to reduce future water demand by 23.0%. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The simulations showed that the measures proposed and the water from interbasin transfer project of the São Francisco River had a positive

  12. Mass distribution and multiple fragmentation events in high energy cluster-cluster collisions: evidence for a predicted phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Louc, S.; Martin, J.; Senn, G.; Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    1996-09-01

    Fragment size distributions including multiple fragmentation events have been measured for high energy H 25 + cluster ions (60 keV/amu) colliding with a neutral C 60 target. In contrast to earlier collision experiments with a helium target the present studies do not show a U-shaped fragment mass distribution, but a single power-law falloff with increasing fragment mass. This behaviour is similar to what is known for the intermediate regime in nuclear collision physics and thus confirms a recently predicted scaling from nuclear to molecular collisions

  13. Liquid-vapor phase transition, collective flow and entropy determination from future measurements of intermediate mass fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Some global variables reflecting the highly collective character of nuclear matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly reviewed on the basis of presently available experimental results and of Quantum Statistical Model and Quantum Molecular Dynamic Model predictions relative to intermediate mass fragments. Possible future measurements are suggested. (author) 27 refs., 8 figs

  14. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-02

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP.

  15. Transit management certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...

  16. Is the change in body mass index among children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus associated with obesity at transition from pediatric to adult care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; Sellers, Elizabeth Ac; Wicklow, Brandy A; Doupe, Malcolm; Fransoo, Randall

    2016-12-01

    Insulin therapy is lifesaving treatment for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Its initiation maybe associated with significant weight gain because of change from a catabolic to an anabolic state. Excessive weight-gain increases the risk of obesity and is associated with chronic disease. To examine if change in body mass index (BMI) among children in the 6 months after diagnosis with type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with long-term obesity. This was a population-based retrospective study of 377 children (aged 2-18 yr) with type 1 diabetes. Measured heights and weights were used to calculate BMI z-scores based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cut-points. Generalized Linear Models using BMI group, and age group at diagnosis; postdiagnosis weight change; and sex were applied to assess associations between postdiagnosis weight change and BMI z-score at transition to adult care. Mean BMI z-score increased from 0.28 at diagnosis, to 0.53 at 6 months and 0.66 at transition to adult care. Change in BMI z-scores differed by initial BMI group and magnitude of postdiagnosis weight change. Younger children (11 yr) had higher (p = 0.004) BMI z-scores at diagnosis but not at last visit (p = 0.1) than older (≥11 yr) children at diagnosis. BMI z-score at diagnosis, postdiagnosis weight change, female sex, and longer duration with TID were associated with higher BMI z-score at time of transition. BMI z-score at diagnosis was the strongest predictor of BMI z-score at time of transition to adult care, however; its effect was mediated by magnitude of weight change 6 months after diagnosis, sex, and age group at diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Do we really know Mup (i.e. the transition mass between Type Ia and core-collapse supernova progenitors)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straniero, O; Piersanti, L; Cristallo, S

    2016-01-01

    M up is the minimum stellar mass that, after the core-helium burning, develops temperature and density conditions for the occurrence of a hydrostatic carbon burning. Stars whose mass is lower than this limit are the progenitors of C-O white dwarfs and, when belong to a close binary system, may give rise to explosive phenomena, such as novae or type Ia supernovae. Stars whose mass is only slightly larger than M up ignite C in a degenerate core and, in turn, experience a thermonuclear runaway. Their final fate may be a massive O-Ne WDs or, if the core mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, an e-capture SNe. More massive objects ignite C in non-degenerate conditions. These “massive “ stars are the progenitors of various kind of core-collapse supernovae (type IIp. IIL, IIN, Ib, Ic). It goes without saying that M up is a fundamental astrophysical parameter. From its knowledge depends our understanding of the SNe progenitors, of their rates, of the chemical evolution, of the WD luminosity functions and much more. A precise evaluation of M up relies on our knowledge of various input physics used in stellar modeling, such as the plasma neutrino rate, responsible of the cooling of the core, the equation of state of high density plasma, which affects the heating of the contracting core and its compressibility, and some key nuclear reaction rates, such as, in particular, the 12 C+ 12 C and the 12 C+α. In this paper we review the efforts made to determine this important parameter and we provide an up-to-date evaluation of the uncertainties due to the relevant nuclear physics inputs. (paper)

  18. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environ...... and be the result of the optimization of trade-offs that allow sufficient feeding and growth rates to balance mortality...

  19. A LIKELY CLOSE-IN LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO THE TRANSITIONAL DISK STAR HD 142527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biller, Beth; Benisty, Myriam; Chauvin, Gael; Olofsson, Johan; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Müller, André; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Henning, Thomas; Lacour, Sylvestre; Thebault, Philippe; Juhász, Attila; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Tuthill, Peter; Crida, Aurelien

    2012-01-01

    With the uniquely high contrast within 0.''1 (Δmag(L') = 5-6.5 mag) available using Sparse Aperture Masking with NACO at Very Large Telescope, we detected asymmetry in the flux from the Herbig Fe star HD 142527 with a barycenter emission situated at a projected separation of 88 ± 5 mas (12.8 ± 1.5 AU at 145 pc) and flux ratios in H, K, and L' of 0.016 ± 0.007, 0.012 ± 0.008, and 0.0086 ± 0.0011, respectively (3σ errors), relative to the primary star and disk. After extensive closure-phase modeling, we interpret this detection as a close-in, low-mass stellar companion with an estimated mass of ∼0.1-0.4 M ☉ . HD 142527 has a complex disk structure, with an inner gap imaged in both the near and mid-IR as well as a spiral feature in the outer disk in the near-IR. This newly detected low-mass stellar companion may provide a critical explanation of the observed disk structure.

  20. Inner-city green space and its association with body mass index and prevalent type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in an urban German city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Grit; Harhoff, Roland; Rahe, Corinna; Berger, Klaus

    2018-01-21

    The accessibility of green space is an important aspect of the urban residential environment and has been found to be beneficial for health and well-being. This study investigates the association between different indicators of green space and the outcomes body mass index (BMI) and prevalent type 2 diabetes in an urban population. Population-based cross-sectional study. Dortmund, a city located in the industrial Ruhr area in Western Germany. 1312 participants aged 25-74 years from the Dortmund Health Study. The participants' addresses were geocoded and shapefiles of statistical districts, road network and land use, as well as data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained at baseline. Three indicators of green space were constructed using geographical information systems: proportion of green space, recreation location quotient (RLQ) weighted by population and distance to the next park or forest. Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses on the association of green space with BMI and type 2 diabetes were performed, adjusted by individual-level characteristics and neighbourhood unemployment rate. The multilevel regression analyses showed no association between green space and BMI. In contrast, the three indicators of green space were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes. Residents of neighbourhoods with a low RLQ had a 2.44 (95% CI 1.01 to 5.93) times higher odds to have type 2 diabetes compared with residents of high RLQ neighbourhoods. Likewise, residing more than 0.8 km away from the nearest park or forest increased the odds of type 2 diabetes (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.77). This study indicates that green space and its spatial accessibility might play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Further research is needed to clarify this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Petersen, Camilla Tang; Eriksson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet...... to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during...... morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely...

  2. Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Urban Aerosols during the Spring Festival by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Q.; Fu, P.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol particles collected at daytime and nighttime in Beijing during the spring festival, including the episodes of various gradient level pollution and short-term pollution raised by fireworks, were analyzed using 15T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS). Organosulfates (OSs), tracers for secondary organic aerosol formation, were identified through accurate mass measurements. Both the total number and the arbitrary abundance of OSs were consistent with the total OC concentrations of the aerosol samples. Nitrooxy-organosulfates were more abundant in the nighttime than those in the daytime due to high NOX concentrations at night. Although all subgroups OSs increased with the deterioration of air quality, especially for the relative abundance of aromatic OSs with high double bond equivalents, the percentage contributions of aliphatic OSs with low degree of unsaturation decreased. It was worth to note that aliphatic OSs with a wide range in carbon-chain length of C6-40 were identified in this study. The candidates for their potential precursors were alkanes and fatty acids. Moreover, a large number of aromatic OSs, about two thirds of OSs, were detected. The rapid formation of these compounds in New Year's Eve with plentiful aromatics from firework burning suggests that they may be derived from PAHs. The high carbon and oxygen contents of OSs may indicate the presence of dimmers, even polymers. Our results support the important contribution of anthropogenic precursors to OSs in ambient aerosols on the basis of aromatic and aliphatic OSs, which may have a significant impact on the hygroscopic properties of ambient aerosol particles.

  3. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M

    2017-01-01

    focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. Methods: We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four...... budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes...... and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs....

  4. Contamination profiles and mass loadings of macrolide antibiotics and illicit drugs from a small urban wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Bommanna; Phillips, Malia; Mowery, Holly; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L

    2009-03-01

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The objective of this study was to determine the contamination profiles and mass loadings of urobilin (a chemical marker of human waste), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), and two drugs of abuse (methamphetamine and ecstasy), from a small (antibiotics analyzed, azithromycin was consistently detected in influent and effluent samples. In general, influent samples contained relatively higher concentrations of the analytes than the effluents. Based on the daily flow rates and an average concentration of 17.5 ng L(-1) in the effluent, the estimated discharge of azithromycin was 200 mg day(-1) (range 63-400 mg day(-1)). Removal efficiency of the detected analytes from this WWTP were in the following order: urobilin>methamphetamine>azithromycin with percentages of removal of 99.9%, 54.5% and 47%, respectively, indicating that the azithromycin and methamphetamine are relatively more recalcitrant than others and have potential for entering receiving waters.

  5. Using GIS to integrate the analysis of land-use, transportation, and the environment for managing urban growth based on transit oriented development in the metropolitan of Jabodetabek, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, H S; Moersidik, S; Koestoer, R; Soemardi, T P

    2014-01-01

    There is an interaction between land use, transportation, and environment in improving and managing urban quality. One of the concpets to integrate those three aspects is Transit Oriented Development (TOD). It is a concept for managing urban growth in transit corridors which have characteristics of mixed land use, compact, walkability, and development focused around public transit area. This research aims at utilizing GIS to organize, sort, and analyze spatial data including aspects of land use, transportation, and environment. Jabodetabek is a strategic metropolitan area in Indonesia, and consists of DKI Jakarta and the neighboring Bodetabek cities, with more than 27 million population in 2010. Approximately 1,105,000 people are entering Jakarta every workday from the negihboring Bodetabek region. The surge in the number of passenger cars and motorcycles is astonishing. In contrast, the usage of public transport has declined deeply. Public transport infrastructure development without the integration of TOD may not attain the objective of reducing car dependency. This paper discusses the study which was carried out to identify the applicability of TOD principles in Jabodetabek using GIS as a tool to analysis and create model

  6. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Yanfang; Shen, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Yele; Xu, Jianzhong; Ge, Shun; Yu, Huan; Chen, Mindong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle - aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1). The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC) simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics). The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m-3, with organics (45 %) as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %), nitrate (13.6 %), ammonium (11.1 %), rBC (9.7 %), and chloride (1.3 %). These PM1 species together can reconstruct ˜ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (cooking-related OA (COA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA) dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %), but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA) can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand, in contrast to other species, sulfate, and LV-OOA concentrations increased in the afternoon, and showed no positive correlations with relative humidity (RH), likely indicating the contribution from photochemical oxidation is dominant over that of aqueous-phase processing for their formations. The

  7. Urban conflict: reterritorialization in Northern part of Bekasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadono, W.; Herlily

    2018-03-01

    Inter-group conflict is one of the crucial issues affecting urban development in Northern part of Bekasi. It begins with the destruction of monuments until the rejection of worship places (in this case is a church) by mass organizations. These incidents occurred because the native assumed that the migrants took their territory. They concerned about the modern development brought by the migrants that caused the shrinking of local culture. The behavior of these mass organizations constituted the district that made the urban space seemed ‘not inclusive’ indirectly. This paper offered another alternative in urban design to reduce conflicts within the territory. We sought about the district context and reterritorialized the conflicted area. We used Reterritorialization approach to restore ‘border’ in order to sharpen and strengthen the territory. We conducted direct observation method, socio-cultural mapping, in-depth interview, and 3D model. This paper aimed to affirm the territory in urban space that would be able to accommodate the needs of the district user. The result is a design of transitional space that functionates as negotiation space. The transitional space is an intervention using Reterritorialization approach to reduce conflicts that occur in the urban space of the Northern part of Bekasi.

  8. Transitive inference in humans (Homo sapiens) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after massed training of the last two list items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Alkan, Yelda; Muñoz, Fabian; Ferrera, Vincent P; Terrace, Herbert S

    2017-08-01

    Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list. Monkeys (who each completed many sessions with novel stimuli) learned to anticipate that novel stimuli should be preferred over F. We interpret this as evidence of a task representation of TI that generalizes beyond learning about specific stimuli. Humans (who were task-naïve) showed a transitory bias to F when it was paired with novel stimuli, but very rapidly unlearned that bias. Performance with respect to the remaining stimuli was consistent with past reports of TI in both species. These results are difficult to reconcile with any account that assigns the strength of association between individual stimuli and rewards. Instead, they support sophisticated cognitive processes in both species, albeit with some species differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.-C.; Lee, J.-H.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE

  10. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, S.-C. E-mail: f10870@ntut.edu.tw; Lee, J.-H

    2004-03-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE.

  11. Seasonal and spatial variability of the organic matter-to-organic carbon mass ratios in Chinese urban organic aerosols and a first report of high correlations between aerosol oxalic acid and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, L.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Wang, G. H.; Ho, K. F.; Cheng, M.-C.; You, C.-F.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios) in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 yr-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13) and spatially-invariant, due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary OA production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07) than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15). This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matters constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We reported, for the first time, high correlations between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011). We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic property of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  12. Mass Wasting during the Cretaceous/Tertiary Transition in the North Atlantic: Relationship to the Chicxulub Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Paula; Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Deep-sea sections in the North Atlantic are claimed to contain the most complete sedimentary records and ultimate proof that the Chicxulub impact is Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) in age and caused the mass extinction. A multi-disciplinary study of North Atlantic DSDP Sites 384, 386 and 398, based on high-resolution planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, carbon and oxygen stable isotopes, clay and whole-rock mineralogy and granulometry, reveals the age, stratigraphic completeness and nature of sedimentary disturbances. Results show a major KTB hiatus at Site 384 with zones CF1, P0 and P1a missing, spanning at least ~540 ky, similar to other North Atlantic and Caribbean localities associated with tectonic activity and Gulf Stream erosion. At Sites 386 and 398, discrete intervals of disturbed sediments with mm-to-cm-thick spherule layers have previously been interpreted as KTB age impact-generated earthquakes destabilizing continental margins prior to settling of impact spherules. However, improved age control based on planktonic foraminifera indicates deposition in the early Danian zone P1a(2) (upper Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina zone) more than 100 ky after the KTB. At Site 386, two intervals of white chalk contain very small (winnowing via distal turbidites. At Site 398, convoluted red to tan sediments with early Danian and reworked Cretaceous species represent slumping of shallow water sediments as suggested by dominance of mica and low smectite compared to in situ deposition. We conclude that mass wasting was likely the result of earthquakes associated with increased tectonic activity in the Caribbean and the Iberian Peninsula during the early Danian well after the Chicxulub impact.

  13. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet, and body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among U.S. urban food desert residents and their association with diet and body mass. Design Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height, and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n=1372) was collected. Audits of all neighborhood food stores (n=24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighborhood (n=16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Setting Two low-income predominantly African-American neighborhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Household food shoppers. Results Only one neighborhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighborhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2.6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6.0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately two hours roundtrip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often, and spent less money per person. Those who traveled further when they shopped had higher BMIs, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full service groceries was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Conclusions Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective. PMID:25475559

  14. Sustainable urban environmental quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of the development policy instruments. On the road of changes there are PROBLEMS of a strategic nature which should be, firstly, defined and, then, solved before entering in the process of structuring and arrangement. One of these problems is NEW versus OLD. Transition to a new policy of urbanism relying, first of all, on the private investors and international funds of the local authorities - call for a NEW STRATEGY in urbanism, in the context of the sustainability of environment. The sustainability of quality and the categories of the influencing factors. The sustainability of quality as a twofold process of urban design. The quality of environment as an aesthetic phenomenon. The urban situation and environmental quality: feasibility of changes and effects; the environmental capacity as an indicator and quality determinant. The urban quality and international experience. The evaluation of our urban situation. INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION: A general review on the visions and urban quality policy and planning. Toward an evaluation of urban environmental quality: negative and positive indicators; sustainable communities environmental ruling and urban quality planning.

  15. A Mass-Flux Scheme View of a High-Resolution Simulation of a Transition from Shallow to Deep Cumulus Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Zhiming; Bretherton, Christopher S.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, an idealized, high-resolution simulation of a gradually forced transition from shallow, nonprecipitating to deep, precipitating cumulus convection is described; how the cloud and transport statistics evolve as the convection deepens is explored; and the collected statistics are used to evaluate assumptions in current cumulus schemes. The statistical analysis methodologies that are used do not require tracing the history of individual clouds or air parcels; instead they rely on probing the ensemble characteristics of cumulus convection in the large model dataset. They appear to be an attractive way for analyzing outputs from cloud-resolving numerical experiments. Throughout the simulation, it is found that 1) the initial thermodynamic properties of the updrafts at the cloud base have rather tight distributions; 2) contrary to the assumption made in many cumulus schemes, nearly undiluted air parcels are too infrequent to be relevant to any stage of the simulated convection; and 3) a simple model with a spectrum of entraining plumes appears to reproduce most features of the cloudy updrafts, but significantly overpredicts the mass flux as the updrafts approach their levels of zero buoyancy. A buoyancy-sorting model was suggested as a potential remedy. The organized circulations of cold pools seem to create clouds with larger-sized bases and may correspondingly contribute to their smaller lateral entrainment rates. Our results do not support a mass-flux closure based solely on convective available potential energy (CAPE), and are in general agreement with a convective inhibition (CIN)-based closure. The general similarity in the ensemble characteristics of shallow and deep convection and the continuous evolution of the thermodynamic structure during the transition provide justification for developing a single unified cumulus parameterization that encompasses both shallow and deep convection.

  16. DISCOVERY OF PSR J1227−4853: A TRANSITION FROM A LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY TO A REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Jayanta; Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Stappers, Ben [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ray, Paul S.; Wolff, Michael; Wood, Kent S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Deneva, Julia [NRC Research Associate, resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Camilo, Fernando [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Johnson, Tyrel J. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA, resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Bassa, Cees G. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Keane, Evan F. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H30, P.O. Box 218, VIC 3122 (Australia); Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Harding, Alice K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    XSS J12270−4859 is an X-ray binary associated with the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 1FGL J1227.9−4852. In 2012 December, this source underwent a transition where the X-ray and optical luminosity dropped and the spectral signatures of an accretion disk disappeared. We report the discovery of a 1.69 millisecond pulsar (MSP), PSR J1227−4853, at a dispersion measure of 43.4 pc cm{sup −3} associated with this source, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 607 MHz. This demonstrates that, post-transition, the system hosts an active radio MSP. This is the third system after PSR J1023+0038 and PSR J1824−2452I showing evidence of state switching between radio MSP and low-mass X-ray binary states. We report timing observations of PSR J1227−4853 with the GMRT and Parkes, which give a precise determination of the rotational and orbital parameters of the system. The companion mass measurement of 0.17–0.46 M{sub ⊙} suggests that this is a redback system. PSR J1227−4853 is eclipsed for about 40% of its orbit at 607 MHz with additional short-duration eclipses at all orbital phases. We also find that the pulsar is very energetic, with a spin-down luminosity of ∼10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1}. We report simultaneous imaging and timing observations with the GMRT, which suggests that eclipses are caused by absorption rather than dispersion smearing or scattering.

  17. Analysis on heavy quarkonia transitions with pion emission in terms of the QCD multipole expansion and determination of mass spectra of hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Hong-Wei; Tang, Jian; Hao, Xi-Qing; Li, Xue-Qian

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important tasks in high energy physics is the search for the exotic states, such as glueball, hybrid, and multiquark states. The transitions ψ(ns)→ψ(ms)+ππ and Υ(ns)→Υ(ms)+ππ attract great attention because they may reveal characteristics of hybrids. In this work, we analyze those transition modes in terms of the theoretical framework established by Yan and Kuang. It is interesting to notice that the intermediate states between the two gluon emissions are hybrids, therefore by fitting the data, we are able to determine the mass spectra of hybrids. The ground hybrid states are predicted as 4.23 GeV (for charmonium) and 10.79 GeV (for bottonium) which do not correspond to any states measured in recent experiments, thus it may imply that, very possibly, hybrids mix with regular quarkonia to constitute physical states. Comprehensive comparisons of the potentials for hybrids whose parameters are obtained in this scenario with the lattice results are presented

  18. Association between tobacco use and body mass index in urban Indian population: implications for public health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Heema C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index [BMI, weight (kg/height (m2], a measure of relative weight, is a good overall indicator of nutritional status and predictor of overall health. As in many developing countries, the high prevalence of very low BMIs in India represents an important public health risk. Tobacco, smoked in the form of cigarettes or bidis (handmade by rolling a dried rectangular piece of temburni leaf with 0.15–0.25 g of tobacco or chewed, is another important determinant of health. Tobacco use also may exert a strong influence on BMI. Methods The relationship between very low BMI (2 and tobacco use was examined using data from a representative cross-sectional survey of 99,598 adults (40,071 men and 59,527 women carried out in the city of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay in western India. Participants were men and women aged ≥ 35 years who were residents of the main city of Mumbai. Results All forms of tobacco use were associated with low BMI. The prevalence of low BMI was highest in bidi-smokers (32% compared to 13% in non-users. For smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were OR = 1.80(1.65 to 1.96 for men and OR = 1.59(1.09 to 2.32 for women, respectively, relative to non-users. For smokeless tobacco and mixed habits (smoking and smokeless tobacco, OR = 1.28(1.19 to 1.38 and OR = 1.83(1.67 to 2.00 for men and OR = 1.50(1.43 to 1.59 and OR = 2.19(1.90 to 3.41 for women, respectively. Conclusion Tobacco use appears to be an independent risk factor for low BMI in this population. We conclude that in such populations tobacco control research and interventions will need to be conducted in concert with nutrition research and interventions in order to improve the overall health status of the population.

  19. Inconsistency between Self-Reported Energy Intake and Body Mass Index among Urban, African-American Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available To prevent obesity, it is important to assess dietary habits through self-reported energy intake (EI in children. We investigated how EI is associated with body mass index and which elements of dietary habits and status are associated with EI among African-American (AA children.We assessed and included data from 218 10-14-year-old AA children in Baltimore, MD, USA. EI was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. The basal metabolic rate (BMR was used as the predicted minimal rate of energy expenditure of children. A fully adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence of obesity (≥ 95th BMI-for-age percentile among the quartiles of EI/BMR ratio using the third quartile for the reference. The differences in the age-adjusted mean EI/BMR among the categories of dietary habits, social support, and socio economic status were analyzed using a general linear model.Children with the lowest EI/BMR had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR of obesity as compared to those in the third quartile of EI/BMR (boys aOR 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 20 and girls aOR 4.1; 1.02, 21. In girls, the adjusted mean EI/BMR in the group that prepared food less than the means (3.8 times/week was significantly lower than the group that prepared food over the means (P = 0.03. Further, the group that reported eating breakfast under 4 times/week indicated an adjusted mean EI/BMR lower than the group that ate breakfast over 5 times/week in both sexes.When EI was under-reported with reference to BMR, we may observe high prevalence of obesity. Further, food preparation by children and frequent consumption of breakfast may instill food cognition with usual dietary habits. Therefore, holistic assessments including dietary habits are required to examine self-reported food intake especially among overweight/obese children.

  20. Inconsistency between Self-Reported Energy Intake and Body Mass Index among Urban, African-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Miwa; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Shipley, Cara; Hopkins, Laura C; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity, it is important to assess dietary habits through self-reported energy intake (EI) in children. We investigated how EI is associated with body mass index and which elements of dietary habits and status are associated with EI among African-American (AA) children. We assessed and included data from 218 10-14-year-old AA children in Baltimore, MD, USA. EI was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) was used as the predicted minimal rate of energy expenditure of children. A fully adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence of obesity (≥ 95th BMI-for-age percentile) among the quartiles of EI/BMR ratio using the third quartile for the reference. The differences in the age-adjusted mean EI/BMR among the categories of dietary habits, social support, and socio economic status were analyzed using a general linear model. Children with the lowest EI/BMR had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of obesity as compared to those in the third quartile of EI/BMR (boys aOR 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 20 and girls aOR 4.1; 1.02, 21). In girls, the adjusted mean EI/BMR in the group that prepared food less than the means (3.8 times/week) was significantly lower than the group that prepared food over the means (P = 0.03). Further, the group that reported eating breakfast under 4 times/week indicated an adjusted mean EI/BMR lower than the group that ate breakfast over 5 times/week in both sexes. When EI was under-reported with reference to BMR, we may observe high prevalence of obesity. Further, food preparation by children and frequent consumption of breakfast may instill food cognition with usual dietary habits. Therefore, holistic assessments including dietary habits are required to examine self-reported food intake especially among overweight/obese children.

  1. Thermal discomfort with cold extremities in relation to age, gender, and body mass index in a random sample of a Swiss urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgül Selim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate the relationship of thermal discomfort with cold extremities (TDCE to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI in a Swiss urban population. Methods In a random population sample of Basel city, 2,800 subjects aged 20-40 years were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the extent of cold extremities. Values of cold extremities were based on questionnaire-derived scores. The correlation of age, gender, and BMI to TDCE was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 1,001 women (72.3% response rate and 809 men (60% response rate returned a completed questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed the following findings: Younger subjects suffered more intensely from cold extremities than the elderly, and women suffered more than men (particularly younger women. Slimmer subjects suffered significantly more often from cold extremities than subjects with higher BMIs. Conclusions Thermal discomfort with cold extremities (a relevant symptom of primary vascular dysregulation occurs at highest intensity in younger, slimmer women and at lowest intensity in elderly, stouter men.

  2. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  3. Variation in the Characteristics of Everyday Life and Meaning of Urban Housing Due to the Transition of Social Structure: Focusing on Articles Published in Lifestyle Magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-ah Kwon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The patterns and characteristics of everyday life have been changing according to changes in social structure. However, South Korean apartment complexes as a representative urban housing type are still based on the Western tradition of modern working-class housing, and have been commodified in the context of consumer capitalism. Therefore, this research explores the contemporary lifestyles that should be supported in urban housing by analyzing the articles of lifestyle magazines. Based on this analysis, we derived the changed patterns of contemporary lifestyles in terms of residents’ characteristics, the relationship between individuals and family, the relationship between house and workplace, and the pursuing direction of residential space planning. These results can contribute to discover the contemporary characteristics of everyday life and its lifestyle; define the changed meaning of urban housing; and reduce the gap between living space and their lives for urban and social sustainability.

  4. An Empirical Study of the Relationship between the Fixed Assets Investment and Urban-rural Income Gap during the Transition Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingliang; ZHANG; Xingxi; LIU; Fang; YANG; Yongbin; GUAN

    2014-01-01

    As the gap in income between urban and rural residents bigger and bigger,based on the data from 1978 to 2007,this paper makes an empirical study of the dynamic relation between the fixed assets investment and the difference in income between urban and rural residents. The outcome from the study indicates a long-term balance exists between the investment rate of the fixed assets and the difference in income between urban and rural residents. A short-term deviation from the balance can be adjusted through long time. To a certain extent,city-oriented fixed assets investment policy is the main cause of the big gap in income between urban and rural residents. The big gap in income between urban and rural residents in turn reinforces their social status,thus further strengthening the city-oriented instead of countryside-oriented fixed assets investment policy. Based on that,this paper puts forward some suggestions on adjusting the fixed assets investment policy so as to shorten the difference in income between urban and rural residents and realize the goal of harmonious development between city and countryside.

  5. On the Observability of Individual Population III Stars and Their Stellar-mass Black Hole Accretion Disks through Cluster Caustic Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wyithe, Stuart; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Timmes, F. X.; Andrews, Stephen K.; Kim, Duho; Kelly, Patrick; Coe, Dan A.; Diego, Jose M.; Driver, Simon P.; Dijkstra, Mark

    2018-06-01

    We summarize panchromatic Extragalactic Background Light data to place upper limits on the integrated near-IR surface brightness (SB) that may come from Population III stars and possible accretion disks around their stellar-mass black holes (BHs) in the epoch of First Light, broadly taken from z=7-17.We outline the physical properties of zero-metallicity Population III stars from MESA stellar evolution models through helium depletion and of BH accretion disks at z>7. We assume that second-generation non-zero-metallicity stars can form at higher multiplicity, so that BH accretion disks may be fed by Roche-lobe overflow from lower-mass companions.We use these near-infrared SB constraints to calculate the number of caustic transits behind lensing clusters that the James Webb Space Telescope and the next-generation ground-based telescopes may observe for both Population III stars and their BH accretion disks. Typical caustic magnifications can be 10^4-10^5x, with rise times of hours and decline times of z~Economia y Competitividad of Spain Consolider Project CSD2010-00064.

  6. Structural changes of marine communities over the Permian-Triassic transition: Ecologically assessing the end-Permian mass extinction and its aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Tong, Jinnan; Liao, Zhuo-Ting; Chen, Jing

    2010-08-01

    The Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) transition is ecologically assessed based on examining 23 shelly communities from five shallow platform, ramp and shelf basin facies Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections in South China. The shelly communities have undergone two major collapses coinciding with the two episodes of the end-Permian mass extinction. The first P/Tr extinction event devastated shelly communities in all types of settings to some extent. The basin communities have been more severely impacted than both platform and ramp communities. The survival faunas have rebounded more rapidly in shallow niches than in relatively deep habitats. The second P/Tr crisis destroyed the survival communities in shallow setting and had little impact on the basin communities in terms of community structures. The early Griesbachian communities are overall low-diversity and high-dominance. The governorship switch from brachiopods to bivalves in marine communities has been facilitated by two pulses of the end-Permian mass extinction and the whole takeover process took about 200 ka across the P/Tr boundary. Bivalve ecologic takeover initially occurred immediately after the first P/Tr extinction in shallow water habitats and was eventually completed in all niches after the second P/Tr event. Some post-extinction communities have the irregular rarefaction curves due to the unusual community structures rather than sampling intensities.

  7. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF CORONAL PLASMA AT THE TRANSIT OF A SHOCK DRIVEN BY A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susino, R.; Bemporad, A.; Mancuso, S., E-mail: susino@oato.inaf.it [INAF–Turin Astrophysical Observatory, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)

    2015-10-20

    We report here on the determination of plasma physical parameters across a shock driven by a coronal mass ejection using white light (WL) coronagraphic images and radio dynamic spectra (RDS). The event analyzed here is the spectacular eruption that occurred on 2011 June 7, a fast CME followed by the ejection of columns of chromospheric plasma, part of them falling back to the solar surface, associated with a M2.5 flare and a type-II radio burst. Images acquired by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/LASCO coronagraphs (C2 and C3) were employed to track the CME-driven shock in the corona between 2–12 R{sub ⊙} in an angular interval of about 110°. In this interval we derived two-dimensional (2D) maps of electron density, shock velocity, and shock compression ratio, and we measured the shock inclination angle with respect to the radial direction. Under plausible assumptions, these quantities were used to infer 2D maps of shock Mach number M{sub A} and strength of coronal magnetic fields at the shock's heights. We found that in the early phases (2–4 R{sub ⊙}) the whole shock surface is super-Alfvénic, while later on (i.e., higher up) it becomes super-Alfvénic only at the nose. This is in agreement with the location for the source of the observed type-II burst, as inferred from RDS combined with the shock kinematic and coronal densities derived from WL. For the first time, a coronal shock is used to derive a 2D map of the coronal magnetic field strength over intervals of 10 R{sub ⊙} altitude and ∼110° latitude.

  8. On the simultaneous deployment of two single-particle mass spectrometers at an urban background and a roadside site during SAPUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS provides size-resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, continuous ATOFMS measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations: urban background (UB site and roadside (RS site in the city of Barcelona (Spain from 17 September to 18 October 2010. Two different instrumental configurations were used: ATOFMS (TSI 3800 with a converging nozzle inlet (high efficiency at about 800–2000 nm at the UB site and ATOFMS (TSI 3800-100 with an aerodynamic lens inlet (high efficiency at about 300–700 nm at the RS site. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that two ATOFMS instruments have been deployed in the same field study. The different instrument configurations had an impact on the observed particle types at the two sites. Nevertheless, 10 particle types were detected at both locations, including local and regional elemental carbon (22.7–58.9 % of total particles, fresh and aged sea salt (1.0–14.6 %, local and regional nitrate-containing aerosols (3–11.6 %, local lead-containing metallic particles (0.1–0.2 %, and transported Fe-nitrate particles (0.8–2.5 %. The ATOFMS at the UB also characterized four particle types: calcium-containing dust (0.9 %, Saharan dust (1.3 %, vanadium-containing particles (0.9 %, and vegetative debris (1.7 %. By contrast, the high statistical counts of fine particles detected at the RS allowed identification of eight particle types. Four of these contained organic nitrogen of primary and secondary origin, which highlights the complex nature of the sources and processes that contribute to this aerosol chemical component. Aminium salts were found related to coarse sulfate-rich particle types, suggesting heterogeneous reaction mechanisms for their formation. The other four particle

  9. [Association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension by gender and different body mass index classification in an urban elderly population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shanshan; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Yiyan; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Di

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension in an urban elderly population. From September 2009 to June 2010, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wanshoulu area of Beijing, China. A total of 2 035 elderly (828 male, 1 207 females) participants aged ≥60 years from a community were included in this study for data analysis. We found that the increased waist circumference could significantly increase the risk of prevalence and poor control of hypertension, with the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) as 1.04 (1.01-1.08) and 0.96 (0.92-1.00) , respectively. Among those identified pure central obesity females (64.7%) , the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher than those females with normal body mass index (BMI) or with normal waist circumference (52.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) between the above said groups appeared as 1.58 (1.07-2.32). The control rate of hypertension among females (32.9%) with pure central obesity, was lower than that of the females with normal BMI and waist circumference (43.5%) , with an adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) as 0.62 (0.37-1.04, P=0.071). There appeared significant association between people with pure central obesity and the increased risk of prevalence or with poor control of hypertension. More attention should be paid to both the prevalence and control of hypertension programs among females with pure central obesity.

  10. Towards urban mobility designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    for the wayfarers who use the site. The data for our work concerns a transit site in the 1970s urban district of Aalborg Øst, Denmark. - We set out by introducing our approach to the site. - Second, we examine the functional layout of the transit site in Aalborg Øst and outline the design challenge which we......Functionalist traffic design aims at a rational organisation of movement from A to B in a segregated and uniform physical environment. Such urban areas have been criticized for being exclusively functional and lacking sensuous and social qualities. Recent research on mobilities challenges the more...... insights on functional urban planning, on embodied practices and experiences of wayfaring, and on concrete small scale design concerns. We emphasise an integrated design agenda for those ordinary transit sites which is concerned with functional issues as well as the quality of life on the ground...

  11. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coarse (PM10−2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10−2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH study measured PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10−2.5, from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10−2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10−2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m−3 and mean PM10−2.5 ∕ PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10−2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10−2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10−2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10−2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s−1. Little wind speed dependence was

  12. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle – aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1. The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics. The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m−3, with organics (45 % as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %, nitrate (13.6 %, ammonium (11.1 %, rBC (9.7 %, and chloride (1.3 %. These PM1 species together can reconstruct ∼ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (< 100 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter were dominated by organics and rBC, while large particles had significant contributions from secondary inorganic species. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA yielded four OA subcomponents, including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking-related OA (COA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA. Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %, but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand

  13. Heat and Mass Transfer during Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of n-Alkanes in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Rune

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this project has been to study heat and mass transfer during solid-liquid phase transition of n-alkanes in the in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} range. Phase transitions of both mixtures and pure components have been investigated. All experiments and simulations have been performed without any convection. Thermal conductivities have been determined at the melting point for solid and liquid unbranched alkanes ranging from C{sub 16} to C{sub 19}. An assessment of the error of the method has been performed. The measurements of solid conductivities are in accordance with measurements reported previously and confirm the applicability of the method. Liquid conductivities are higher than extrapolated values from the literature. The enhanced conductivity is believed to be caused by structural changes close to the melting point which is not taken into account when extrapolating values from the literature. Experiments have been performed for the purpose of investigating the freezing of mixtures of n-alkanes in the C{sub 16}-C{sub 19} range. The positions of the solid-liquid interfaces have been measured as freezing occurred. Calculations of the ratio of liquid and solid conductivities show that the solid structure of mixtures of the investigated n-alkanes is predominantly in a rotator structure at the temperatures investigated. There are indications of a transformation into an orthorhombic structure at lower temperatures. The temperatures on the solid-liquid interface have been measured, and compared with calculated values from chapter 4. The temperature of the interface is represented better by the measured interfacial temperatures than by the calculated interfacial temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion of heat is the limiting mechanism of phase transition. This result in a homogeneous liquid composition. A numerical model has been developed in order to simulate the experimental freezing of mixtures. The model represents the results

  14. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-10-14

    The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample ( n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.

  15. An aggregate method to calibrate the reference point of cumulative prospect theory-based route choice model for urban transit network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Long, Man; Luo, Sida; Bao, Yu; Shen, Hanxia

    2015-12-01

    Transit route choice model is the key technology of public transit systems planning and management. Traditional route choice models are mostly based on expected utility theory which has an evident shortcoming that it cannot accurately portray travelers' subjective route choice behavior for their risk preferences are not taken into consideration. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT), a brand new theory, can be used to describe travelers' decision-making process under the condition of uncertainty of transit supply and risk preferences of multi-type travelers. The method to calibrate the reference point, a key parameter to CPT-based transit route choice model, determines the precision of the model to a great extent. In this paper, a new method is put forward to obtain the value of reference point which combines theoretical calculation and field investigation results. Comparing the proposed method with traditional method, it shows that the new method can promote the quality of CPT-based model by improving the accuracy in simulating travelers' route choice behaviors based on transit trip investigation from Nanjing City, China. The proposed method is of great significance to logical transit planning and management, and to some extent makes up the defect that obtaining the reference point is solely based on qualitative analysis.

  16. A Usability Study of the Automatic Ticket Vending Machines for the Middle-aged and Elderly Patrons: The Case of the Taipei Mass Rapid Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the usability problems for the middle-aged and elderly users of the automatic ticket vending machines of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit System. Thirty two middle-aged and elderly users (16 men and 16 females were observed in their actual uses of the machines, and 9 of them (6 men and 3 women were interviewed afterwards. The results show that, first, most senior users observed in this study made mistakes at the first step of touching the screen that initiates the ticket buying process. Second, the feedback and voice guidance design need further improvement to facilitate the senior users’ operation of the machines. Based on the findings, this study recommends that: (1 the operation instruction may be improved by enhancing the color contrast and graphics complementing of caption and voice guidance; (2 the transaction interface should be simplified, avoiding using button symbol to show information, and the visual instruction should be supplemented with voice instructions; (3 operation feedback should be strengthened and in line with previous use experience. [Article content in Chinese

  17. STIDP: A U.S. Department of Homeland Security program for countering explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Christa K.; Kemp, Michael C.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program is designed to accelerate the development and integration of technologies, concepts of operations, and training to defeat explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities. The program will address threats posed by suicide bombers, vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, and leave-behind bombs. The program is focused on developing and testing explosives countermeasure architectures using commercial off-the-shelf and near-commercial standoff and remotely operated detection technologies in prototypic operational environments. An important part of the program is the integration of multiple technologies and systems to protect against a wider range of threats, improve countermeasure performance, increase the distance from the venue at which screening is conducted, and reduce staffing requirements. The program will routinely conduct tests in public venues involving successively more advanced technology, higher levels of system integration, and more complex scenarios. This paper describes the initial field test of an integrated countermeasure system that included infrared, millimeter-wave, and video analytics technologies for detecting person-borne improvised explosive devices at a public arena. The test results are being used to develop a concept for the next generation of integrated countermeasures, to refine technical and operational requirements for architectures and technologies, and engage industry and academia in solution development.

  18. HATS-43b, HATS-44b, HATS-45b, and HATS-46b: Four Short-period Transiting Giant Planets in the Neptune–Jupiter Mass Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, R.; Hartman, J. D.; Jordán, A.; Bakos, G. Á.; Espinoza, N.; Rabus, M.; Bhatti, W.; Penev, K.; Sarkis, P.; Suc, V.; Csubry, Z.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Zhou, G.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Ciceri, S.; de Val-Borro, M.; Shectman, S.; Crane, J. D.; Arriagada, P.; Butler, P.; Teske, J.; Thompson, I.; Osip, D.; Díaz, M.; Schmidt, B.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of four short-period extrasolar planets transiting moderately bright stars from photometric measurements of the HATSouth network coupled to additional spectroscopic and photometric follow-up observations. While the planet masses range from 0.26 to 0.90 {M}{{J}}, the radii are all approximately a Jupiter radii, resulting in a wide range of bulk densities. The orbital period of the planets ranges from 2.7 days to 4.7 days, with HATS-43b having an orbit that appears to be marginally non-circular (e = 0.173 ± 0.089). HATS-44 is notable for having a high metallicity ([{Fe}/{{H}}] = 0.320 ± 0.071). The host stars spectral types range from late F to early K, and all of them are moderately bright (13.3 Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. This paper includes data gathered with the MPG 2.2 m and ESO 3.6 m telescopes at the ESO Observatory in La Silla. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. Kepler-77b: a very low albedo, Saturn-mass transiting planet around a metal-rich solar-like star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, D.; Parviainen, H.; Fridlund, M.; Hatzes, A. P.; Deeg, H. J.; Frasca, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Tognelli, E.; McQuillan, A.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Antoci, V.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Djupvik, A. A.; Guenther, E. W.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Ofir, A.; Telting, J.

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of Kepler-77b (alias KOI-127.01), a Saturn-mass transiting planet in a 3.6-day orbit around a metal-rich solar-like star. We combined the publicly available Kepler photometry (quarters 1-13) with high-resolution spectroscopy from the Sandiford at McDonald and FIES at NOT spectrographs. We derived the system parameters via a simultaneous joint fit to the photometric and radial velocity measurements. Our analysis is based on the Bayesian approach and is carried out by sampling the parameter posterior distributions using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Kepler-77b is a moderately inflated planet with a mass of Mp = 0.430 ± 0.032 MJup, a radius of Rp = 0.960 ± 0.016 RJup, and a bulk density of ρp = 0.603 ± 0.055 g cm-3. It orbits a slowly rotating (Prot = 36 ± 6 days) G5 V star with M⋆ = 0.95 ± 0.04 M⊙, R⋆ = 0.99 ± 0.02 R⊙, Teff = 5520 ± 60 K, [M/H] = 0.20 ± 0.05 dex, that has an age of 7.5 ± 2.0 Gyr. The lack of detectable planetary occultation with a depth higher than ~10 ppm implies a planet geometric and Bond albedo of Ag ≤ 0.087 ± 0.008 and AB ≤ 0.058 ± 0.006, respectively, placing Kepler-77b among the gas-giant planets with the lowest albedo known so far. We found neither additional planetary transit signals nor transit-timing variations at a level of ~0.5 min, in accordance with the trend that close-in gas giant planets seem to belong to single-planet systems. The 106 transitsobserved in short-cadence mode by Kepler for nearly 1.2 years show no detectable signatures of the planet's passage in front of starspots. We explored the implications of the absence of detectable spot-crossing events for the inclination of the stellar spin-axis, the sky-projected spin-orbit obliquity, and the latitude of magnetically active regions. Based on observations obtained with the 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas, USA.Based on observations obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the

  20. The effect of long-range air mass transport pathways on PM10 and NO2 concentrations at urban and rural background sites in Ireland: Quantification using clustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife A; Broderick, Brian M; Misstear, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) quantify the effects of various long range transport pathways nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter less than 10μm (PM10) concentrations in Ireland and identify air mass movement corridors which may lead to incidences poor air quality for application in forecasting; (ii) compare the effects of such pathways at various sites; (iii) assess pathways associated with a period of decreased air quality in Ireland. The origin of and the regions traversed by an air mass 96h prior to reaching a receptor is modelled and k-means clustering is applied to create air-mass groups. Significant differences in air pollution levels were found between air mass cluster types at urban and rural sites. It was found that easterly or recirculated air masses lead to higher NO2 and PM10 levels with average NO2 levels varying between 124% and 239% of the seasonal mean and average PM10 levels varying between 103% and 199% of the seasonal mean at urban and rural sites. Easterly air masses are more frequent during winter months leading to higher overall concentrations. The span in relative concentrations between air mass clusters is highest at the rural site indicating that regional factors are controlling concentration levels. The methods used in this paper could be applied to assist in modelling and forecasting air quality based on long range transport pathways and forecast meteorology without the requirement for detailed emissions data over a large regional domain or the use of computationally demanding modelling techniques.

  1. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate citizens’ participa-tion and learning in sustainable transition in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local in-termediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing...... associations; NGO´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that intermediary actors have the potential to facilitate new platforms for citizens’ participation in urban sustainable transition due to their particular role in between public authorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...

  2. Lightweight design: mass in transit

    OpenAIRE

    MALBURET, François; KRYSINSKI, Tomasz; NAUZIN, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of an effort to reduce a vehicle’s CO2 emissions through lightweight design. The originality of the approach consists in harnessing the optimal vehicle architecture with regard to CO2 emissions. Reducing a vehicle’s weight provides an opportunity to reassess performance features like shock, noise, vibrations and road holding, thereby generating additional savings through a virtuous cycle of weight reduction. The paper sheds light on some methodological aspects used by PSA P...

  3. Food systems: New-Ruralism versus New-Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Van Acker, Veronique; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Witlox, Frank

    2012-08-30

    There is a growing debate on whether agricultural land in urban fringes should be maintained or converted to other uses. While 'pro-ruralists' believe agricultural land conversion can threaten food security and cause rural-urban migration, 'pro-urbanists' find it a necessary change for transition from a primitive agricultural-based community to an advanced industrial-based society which has the capacity to create mass productions. New-Ruralists follow an agricultural-based development approach that promotes small-medium farming and acknowledges rural lifestyle while New-Urbanists give a priority to large industrial-based sectors and encourage urban lifestyle. Given the unlike concerns of different societies, the paper concludes that the approaches might have different priorities in the less developed, developing, and developed world. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Brain size and urbanization in birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders; Pape; M?ller; Johannes; Erritz?e

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain size may affect the probability of invasion of urban habitats if a relatively larger brain entails superior ability to adapt to novel environments. However, once urbanized urban environments may provide poor quality food that has negative consequences for normal brain development resulting in an excess of individuals with small brains.Methods: Here we analyze the independent effects of mean, standard deviation and skewness in brain mass for invasion of urban habitats by 108 species of birds using phylogenetic multiple regression analyses weighted by sample size.Results: There was no significant difference in mean brain mass between urbanized and non-urbanized species or between urban and rural populations of the same species, and mean brain mass was not significantly correlated with time since urbanization. Bird species that became urbanized had a greater standard deviation in brain mass than non-urbanized species, and the standard deviation in brain mass increased with time since urbanization. Brain mass was significantly left skewed in species that remained rural, while there was no significant skew in urbanized species. The degree of left skew was greater in urban than in rural populations of the same species, and successfully urbanized species decreased the degree of left skew with time since urbanization. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sub-optimal brain development was more common in rural habitats resulting in disproportionately many individuals with very smal brains.Conclusions: These findings do not support the hypothesis that large brains promote urbanization, but suggest that skewness has played a role in the initial invasion of urban habitats, and that variance and skew in brain mass have increased as species have become urbanized.

  5. Brain size and urbanization in birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Pape Mller; Johannes Erritze

    2015-01-01

    Background:Brain size may affect the probability of invasion of urban habitats if a relatively larger brain entails superior ability to adapt to novel environments. However, once urbanized urban environments may provide poor quality food that has negative consequences for normal brain development resulting in an excess of individuals with small brains. Methods:Here we analyze the independent effects of mean, standard deviation and skewness in brain mass for invasion of urban habitats by 108 species of birds using phylogenetic multiple regression analyses weighted by sample size. Results:There was no significant difference in mean brain mass between urbanized and non-urbanized species or between urban and rural populations of the same species, and mean brain mass was not significantly correlated with time since urbanization. Bird species that became urbanized had a greater standard deviation in brain mass than non-urbanized species, and the standard deviation in brain mass increased with time since urbanization. Brain mass was significantly left skewed in species that remained rural, while there was no significant skew in urbanized species. The degree of left skew was greater in urban than in rural populations of the same species, and successfully urbanized species decreased the degree of left skew with time since urbanization. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sub-optimal brain development was more common in rural habitats resulting in disproportionately many individuals with very smal brains. Conclusions:These findings do not support the hypothesis that large brains promote urbanization, but suggest that skewness has played a role in the initial invasion of urban habitats, and that variance and skew in brain mass have increased as species have become urbanized.

  6. Pulmonary deposition of urban atmospheric aerosol. Assessments of the mass, number and surface of the deposited particles; Deposizione polmonare dell'aerosol atmosferico urbano in termini di massa, numero e superficie delle particelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, A.; Berico, M.; Castellani, C.M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    Pulmonary deposition of urban atmospheric aerosol has been calculated by means of the data derived from March 1995 measurement campaign of urban aerosol. The human respiratory tract model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (n. 66) developed for radiation protection purposes has been used. The number and surface of the deposited particles, as well as the mass, have been also evaluated. [Italian] I dati relativi alla campagna di misure effettuata nel marzo 1995 sono stati rielaborati al fine di valutare la deposizione polmonare dell'aerosol atmosferico in area urbana. Le valutazioni di deposizione nel tratto respiratorio umano sono state condotte mediante l'utilizzo del modello del tratto respiratorio umano presentato per fini radioprotezionistici dalla International Commission on Radiological Protection (n. 66). Sono state effettuate valutazioni di deposizione in massa e in termini di numero e superficie delle particelle.

  7. The suggestion about the absence of the phase transition, vacuum degeneration, spontaneous symmetry breaking and zero-mass Goldstone-bosons in QFT models of the type gphi4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastavenko, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    The usual proof of the phase transition existence in the gphi 4 model is considered. (For M 2 >M 0 2 minimum of the effective potential is at phi(0)=0, for M 2 >M 0 2 this minimum is at phi(0)=+-lambda not equal to 0, lambda→+ infinity at M 2 →- infinity). This proof is shown to be wrong, thus suggesting the absence in the model considered of the phase transition, vacuum degeneration, spontaneous symmetry breaking and zero-mass Goldstone-bosons

  8. The water balance of the urban Salt Lake Valley: a multiple-box model validated by observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stwertka, C.; Strong, C.

    2012-12-01

    A main focus of the recently awarded National Science Foundation (NSF) EPSCoR Track-1 research project "innovative Urban Transitions and Arid-region Hydro-sustainability (iUTAH)" is to quantify the primary components of the water balance for the Wasatch region, and to evaluate their sensitivity to climate change and projected urban development. Building on the multiple-box model that we developed and validated for carbon dioxide (Strong et al 2011), mass balance equations for water in the atmosphere and surface are incorporated into the modeling framework. The model is used to determine how surface fluxes, ground-water transport, biological fluxes, and meteorological processes regulate water cycling within and around the urban Salt Lake Valley. The model is used to evaluate the hypotheses that increased water demand associated with urban growth in Salt Lake Valley will (1) elevate sensitivity to projected climate variability and (2) motivate more attentive management of urban water use and evaporative fluxes.

  9. Caltrans : transit funding manual : managing the delivery of transit projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    This manual attempts to provide a step by step transit funding process. Included in this manual : is an overview of Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation, roles and responsibilities in : assisting local agencies to deliver transit projects. Transi...

  10. Health and urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christopher

    2008-02-08

    The majority of people now live in urban areas and will do so for the foreseeable future. As a force in the demographic and health transition, urbanization is associated with falling birth and death rates and with the shift in burden of illness from acute childhood infections to chronic, noncommunicable diseases of adults. Urban inhabitants enjoy better health on average than their rural counterparts, but the benefits are usually greater for the rich than for the poor, thus magnifying the differences between them. Subject to better evidence, I suggest that the main obstacles to improving urban health are not technical or even financial, but rather are related to governance and the organization of civil society.

  11. High-spin level structure and Ground-state phase transition in the odd-mass 103-109Rh isotopes in the framework of exactly solvable sdg interacting boson-fermion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghapanvari, M.; Ghorashi, A. H.; Ranjbar, Z.; Jafarizadeh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the negative-parity states in the odd-mass 103 - 109Rh isotopes in terms of the sd and sdg interacting-boson fermion models were studied. The transitional interacting boson-fermion model Hamiltonians in sd and sdg-IBFM versions based on affine SU (1 , 1) Lie Algebra were employed to describe the evolution from the spherical to deformed gamma unstable shapes along with the chain of Rh isotopes. In this method, sdg-IBFM Hamiltonian, which is a three level pairing Hamiltonian was determined easily via the exactly solvable method. Some observables of the shape phase transitions such as energy levels, the two neutron separation energies, signature splitting of the γ-vibrational band, the α-decay and double β--decay energies were calculated and examined for these isotopes. The present calculation correctly reproduces the spherical to gamma-soft phase transition in the Rh isotopes. Some comparisons were made with sd-IBFM.

  12. Relationship between Governance Development Models and Operational Efficiency of Urban Rail Transit%治理发展模式与城市轨道交通项目运营效率的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑寒

    2017-01-01

    在"集约、智能、绿色、低碳"的新型城镇化道路快速发展的影响下,中国很多城市都在大力发展城市轨道交通(以下简称城轨)系统.至关重要的是,城轨系统涉及其运营效率和治理开发模式,其中,治理开发模式对其运营过程将产生深远影响.本文概述了中国很多城轨项目发展所采用的公司化模式及政府和社会资本合作(PPP)模式.在运营效率分析中考虑了城轨项目运营所产生的社会效益,构建了城轨项目社会效益测算模型.应用数据包络分析(DEA)方法分析城轨各条线路治理发展模式和运营效率之间的关系.通过对北京市城轨各条线路运营效率的比较分析,结果表明,社会效益是评价城轨项目运营效率的一个重要产出指标,相比于在中国占主导地位的公司化模式,PPP模式对提高城轨运营效率有积极影响.%Influenced by the rapid development of a new type urbanization path which is intensive, smart, green and low-carbon, many cities in China are striving to develop urban rail transit systems (URTS). It is critical that URTS are concerned with their operational efficiency and the governance development models within which they are developed have a profound impact upon their process of operation. This paper outlines the corporatization model and the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) within which URTS in many cities in China are developed. In the analysis of operational efficiency, the social benefits of URTS are involved, the calculation models of URTS social benefits are presented. The relationship between governance development models and operational efficiency of several urban rail transit lines is analyzed through the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA). By the comparative analysis of operational efficiency of several urban rail transit lines in Beijing, it indicates that, the social benefit is an important indicator to evaluate the operational efficiency of URTS

  13. To Whom Is Contact Use Beneficial? The Impacts of Self-Selected Contact Use on Gender Income Differentials in the Transitional Economy of Urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effect of contact use on the gender earnings gap in urban China, by taking into account the existence of self-selection effect. We theorised two sources of individuals’ self-selected job obtainment behaviour; namely, the structuralised gender-segregated employment environment and one’s internalisation of the structural constraints. Based on data collected from the highly marketized Chinese city Xiamen, our estimations from the Endogenous Switching Regression model show that there is indeed a significant tendency, in which women with marketable qualifications use social contacts to find jobs, even though their obtained income would have increased significantly had they chosen not to rely on contacts to find jobs. Men enjoyed premiums from their job search strategies, whether they relied on contact use or not.

  14. The global cardiovascular risk transition: associations of four metabolic risk factors with national income, urbanization, and Western diet in 1980 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Lin, John K.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Lu, Yuan; Rao, Mayuree; Ezzati, Majid; Aamodt, Geir; Abdeen, Ziad; Abdella, Nabila A.; Rahim, Hanan F. Abdul; Addo, Juliet; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afifi, Mustafa M.; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Aguilar Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ali, Mohamed M.; Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Al-Nuaim, Abdul R.; Ambady, Ramachandran; Aro, Pertti; Azizi, Fereidoun; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barbieri, Marco Antonio M.; Barceló, Alberto; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Barros, Henrique; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Benetos, Athanase; Bjerregaard, Peter; Björkelund, Cecilia; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Bonora, Enzo; Bontha, Babu V.; Botana, Manuel A.; Bovet, Pascal; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Breteler, Monique M.; Broda, Grazyna; Brown, Ian J.; Bursztyn, Michael; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Campos, Hannia

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that cardiovascular disease risk factors are associated with affluence and Westernization. We investigated the associations of body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol with national income, Western diet, and, for BMI,

  15. Designed technological systems: the cases of urban transportation in Copenhagen and Bogotá

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    accomplished in two different parts of the planet: in the city of Bogotá, in Colombia, the first mass bus rapid transit system was designed, built and put into operation becoming the most visible icon of a great urban transformation of the 7 million inhabitants metropolis; in the city of Copenhagen, in Denmark...... is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences in the life of cities and citizens. Thus a problem that is often outlined in technical terms...

  16. FTA low-speed urban Maglev research program : updated lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    In 1999, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) initiated the Low-Speed Urban Magnetic Levitation (Urban Maglev) Program to develop magnetic levitation technology that offers a cost-effective, reliable, and environmentally-sound transit option for ...

  17. The energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, Arnaud; Billes-Garabedian, Laurent; Jancovici, Jean-Marc; Arnoux, Mathieu; Auverlot, Dominique; Leguet, Benoit; Grandjean, Alain; Morel, Julien; Lambert, Quentin; Tranie, Jean-Pascal; Bureau, Dominique; Dron, Dominique; Beeker, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This special dossier about energy transition is made of 10 contributions dealing with: thousands of years of energy transition (Jean-Marc Jancovici); a recurring problem after a thousand years of fight (Mathieu Arnoux); urban mobility: another energy story (Arnaud Passalacqua); an opportunity subjected to conditions for the French competitiveness (Dominique Auverlot, Benoit Leguet); Germany: an energy utopia or a role model? (Etienne Beeker); environment: the financing stakes (Dominique Dron); reconciling the economical, social and ecological stakes (Alain Grandjean); Sweden in the face of transportation challenge (Julien Morel, Quentin Lambert); India and China with a commitment to global warming (Jean-Pascal Tranie); training the energy transition managers (Dominique Bureau)

  18. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.

  19. The Interactive Urban Model: Histories and Legacies Related to Prototyping the Twenty-First Century City

    OpenAIRE

    Verebes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article surveys the theoretical and historical legacies of mass production and standardization, and the cultural issues associated with globalization, in the most prolific era ever of urbanization. Situated at the intersection of scholarly writing on history, current conditions, and a speculative future, this article focuses on themes related to design research on computation, fabrication, and the city. Given the ongoing transition of industrial paradigm from Modernism’s dependency upon ...

  20. Challenges of Transit Oriented Development (TOD in Iran. The Need for a Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Mirmoghtadaee

    2016-10-01

    The major contention of this paper is to discuss the general concept of TOD, its benefits and challenges in Iranian urban context. It is discussed here that TOD has several positive outcomes considering the existing urbanization trends in Iran. It may be used as a practical instrument to deal with rapidly urbanizing country in which motorization rate is increasing and air pollution is the serious cause of life loss. However there are several challenges which should be faced. The need for an Iranian version of TOD, which re-narrated the theory according to local situation, is the first challenge. A paradigm shift in the government, shifting the priority from housing schemes to mass transit systems is the second challenge needed to be taken into consideration. The third challenge is the overlapping and parallel institutions dealing with mass transit systems in urban and regional transportation planning and insufficient planning instruments. The integrated transportation and urban planning system is necessary here, and there is an urgent need to develop a national TOD guideline with the potential to develop local versions for each city.

  1. Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous forest ... Harvesting operations were planned to make the transition from high open ... Key words: Strip-cutting, Cable yarding, Participatory planning, Shelterwood, Urban forests ...

  2. Urban structure, energy and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    2016-01-01

    Transforming energy use in cities to address the threats of climate change and resource scarcity is a major challenge in urban development. This study takes stock of the state of energy in urban policy and planning and reveals potentials of and constraints to energy-efficient urban development....... The relationship between energy and urban structure provides a framework for discussing the role of urban planning to increase energy efficiency in cities by means of three in-depth case studies of medium-sized cities in Northern Europe: Eskilstuna in Sweden, Turku in Finland and Tartu in Estonia. In some ways...... these cities go ahead when it comes to their national climate and energy policies and aim to establish urban planning as an instrument to regulate and influence the city’s transition in a sustainable way. At the same time, the cities are constantly facing goal conflicts and limitations to their scope of action...

  3. Urban bioclimatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H

    1993-11-15

    This article deals with the part of urban climatology which is of particular relevance to human beings. Presented first is a summary of all human biometerologically effective complexes, as well as other factors which are relevant to urban planning and which depend on atmospheric conditions in urban structures in a direct or indirect manner. Later, methods for human biometerologically significant assessment of thermal and air pollution components of the urban climate are discussed in detail, because these components can be strongly influenced by urban planning. The application of these methods is illustrated by some results of appropriate investigations in urban areas.

  4. Participatory urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2016-01-01

    cannot directly influence their structures, they can influence their contours through such leisure practices. In this chapter focus will be on how citizens’ engagement in locative leisure activities may allow them to co-create urban space. This participatory urbanism is a form of everyday democracy......Urban areas are planned structures that cannot easily be changed. Urban areas do however still afford physical spaces for various types of leisure expression and participation, from street art to parkour and from urban gaming to artistic happenings. Thus, while citizens who inhabit the urban areas...

  5. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.

    2007-01-01

    This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...

  6. Gifts from Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio

    2009-08-01

    The discovery of transiting extrasolar planets has enabled us to do a number of interesting studies. Transit photometry reveals the radius and the orbital inclination of transiting planets, which allows us to learn the true mass and density of the respective planets by the combined information from radial velocity (RV) measurements. In addition, follow-up observations of transiting planets, looking at such things as secondary eclipses, transit timing variations, transmission spectroscopy, and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, provide us information about their dayside temperatures, unseen bodies in systems, planetary atmospheres, and the obliquity of planetary orbits. Such observational information, which will provide us a greater understanding of extrasolar planets, is available only for transiting planets. Here, I briefly summarize what we can learn from transiting planets and introduce previous studies.

  7. Urban physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Physics is the multiscale and interdisciplinary research area dealing with physical processes in urban environments that influence our everyday health, comfort and productivity. It involves disciplines ranging from mesoscale meteorology to human thermophysiology. The introductory lecture

  8. Urban Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....

  9. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variations of NO, NO2 and PM2.5 mass as a function of traffic volumes alongside an urban arterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Christine M.; Koonce, Peter; George, Linda A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban arterial corridors are landscapes that give rise to short and long-term exposures to transportation-related pollution. With high traffic volumes and a wide mix of road users, urban arterial environments are important targets for improved exposure assessment to traffic-related pollution. A common method to estimate exposure is to use traffic volumes as a proxy. The study presented here analyzes a unique yearlong dataset of simultaneous roadside air quality and traffic observations for a U.S. arterial to assess the reliability of using traffic volumes as a proxy for traffic-related exposure. Results show how the relationships of traffic volumes with NO and NO2 vary not only by time of day and season but also by time aggregation. At short-term aggregations (15 min) nitrogen oxides were found to have a significant linear relationship with traffic volumes during morning hours for all seasons although variability was still high (r2 = 0.1-0.45 NO, r2 = 0.14-0.27 NO2), and little to no relationship during evening periods (r2 road users, these results show when traffic volumes alone can be a reliable proxy for exposure and when this approach is not warranted.

  11. Comparable Measures of Accessibility to Public Transport Using the General Transit Feed Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Bok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays a critical role in the sustainability of urban settings. The mass mobility and quality of urban lives can be improved by establishing public transport networks that are accessible to pedestrians within a reasonable walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is characterized by the ease with which inhabitants can reach means of transportation such as buses or metros. By measuring the degree of accessibility to public transport networks using a common data format, a comparative study can be conducted between different cities or metropolitan areas with different public transit systems. The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS by Google Developers allows this by offering a common format based on text files and sharing the data set voluntarily produced and contributed by the public transit agencies of many participating cities around the world. This paper suggests a method to assess and compare public transit accessibility in different urban areas using the GTFS feed and demographic data. To demonstrate the value of the new method, six examples of metropolitan areas and their public transit accessibility are presented and compared.

  12. Enhancing non-refractory aerosol apportionment from an urban industrial site through receptor modelling of complete high time-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, M. L.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Slowik, J. G.; Jeong, C.-H.; Healy, R. M.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2014-02-01

    Receptor modelling was performed on quadrupole unit mass resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) sub-micron particulate matter (PM) chemical speciation measurements from Windsor, Ontario, an industrial city situated across the Detroit River from Detroit, Michigan. Aerosol and trace gas measurements were collected on board Environment Canada's CRUISER mobile laboratory. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the AMS full particle-phase mass spectrum (PMFFull MS) encompassing both organic and inorganic components. This approach was compared to the more common method of analysing only the organic mass spectra (PMFOrg MS). PMF of the full mass spectrum revealed that variability in the non-refractory sub-micron aerosol concentration and composition was best explained by six factors: an amine-containing factor (Amine); an ammonium sulphate and oxygenated organic aerosol containing factor (Sulphate-OA); an ammonium nitrate and oxygenated organic aerosol containing factor (Nitrate-OA); an ammonium chloride containing factor (Chloride); a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factor; and a moderately oxygenated organic aerosol factor (OOA). PMF of the organic mass spectrum revealed three factors of similar composition to some of those revealed through PMFFull MS: Amine, HOA and OOA. Including both the inorganic and organic mass proved to be a beneficial approach to analysing the unit mass resolution AMS data for several reasons. First, it provided a method for potentially calculating more accurate sub-micron PM mass concentrations, particularly when unusual factors are present, in this case, an Amine factor. As this method does not rely on a priori knowledge of chemical species, it circumvents the need for any adjustments to the traditional AMS species fragmentation patterns to account for atypical species, and can thus lead to more complete factor profiles. It is expected that this method would be even more useful for HR-ToF-AMS data, due to the ability

  13. Narratives Lost in the Box: The Trichotomy of Latina Student Identity Transition Stages Due to Mass Media and On-Campus Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vogt, Emily

    2017-01-01

    This theoretical paper is based on a larger study focused on understanding the experiences of Latina community college students. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the Silence to Resilience Model, which involves four phases that Latinas encounter upon or throughout their transition to community college including: (1) Racism on campus, (2)…

  14. Discovery of Psr J1227-4853: A Transition from a Low-mass X-Ray Binary to a Redback Millisecond Pulsar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, J.; Ray, P.S.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Stappers, B.; Chengalur, J.N.; Deneva, J.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T.J.; Wolff, M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Bassa, C.G.; Keane, E.F.; Ferrara, E.C.; Harding, A.K.; Wood, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    XSS J12270−4859 is an X-ray binary associated with the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 1FGL J1227.9−4852. In 2012 December, this source underwent a transition where the X-ray and optical luminosity dropped and the spectral signatures of an accretion disk disappeared. We report the

  15. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...

  16. Unsustaineble pseudo-urban consequences of legal and urban terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimović Velimir Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City planning is a complex task and through this work we face the space and natural resources that expose the exploitation (that are to be exploited and prone to unsustainable change. Often without environmental responsibility and the imperative of creating certain measures we make superstructure no matter how much the environment may be disrupted, and whether such relationships create a better society, better network of urban settlements and a better man. At that may also affect our knowledge which is often due to a variety of doctrines and legislative regulations that are applied in the planning and management space. From this it can be seen that modern architecture did not contribute to the creation of better cities. Also, urban planning is mainly restricted to the regulation and it neglected the creative action, regional-planning is lost in theoretical research, while the consideration of the whole problem is abandoned. In addition to this, in today’s transitional terms and the domineering (dominant urban crisis unsustainable combination and identification of the “2D” and the “3D” terminology is recognizable, which is only indicators that in the field of urban planning some transitional trends are prevailing. This unsustainable state of affairs in the transitional planning of urban areas can be applied in the most suitable way to pseudo-urbanization, sub-urbanization, unbalanced eco-reciprocity, non-standard construction of the urban tissue, discontinuity inherited and newly constructed urban substance. In this regard, consequently expressed negative environmental legacy of reproduction and the increased effect of the negative consequences of greenhouse gases from the threatening climate change, only shows that urban planners are not sinless and, they more or less (unconsciously complicit and participate in the contamination of urban and environment. In the end, it definitely guides us to the need to leave or transformation of the

  17. Suivi DCE 2017 « macroalgues subtidales » dans la masse d’eau « côte basque » et « macroalgues intertidales » dans la masse d’eau de transition « Adour aval ».

    OpenAIRE

    De Casamajor, Marie-noelle; Lissardy, Muriel; Sanchez, Florence; Saguet, Cassandre

    2017-01-01

    This report describe sampling campaign 2017 related to data collection for WFD macroalgae indicators. The parameters concerned are "subtidal macroalgae" for coastal water body “Basque coast” and “intertidal macroalgae” for the transition water body “Adour aval”. The data treatment and the indicator calculation will be done in a second step.

  18. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  19. Human variation and body mass index: a review of the universality of BMI cut-offs, gender and urban-rural differences, and secular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2007-03-01

    Use of BMI as a surrogate for body fat percentage is debatable and universal BMI cut-off points do not seem appropriate; lower cut-off points than currently recommended by WHO should be used in some populations, especially in Asia. The adult WHO BMI database indicates that, on average, women are more obese than men, while men are more likely to be pre-obese than women. Urban rates of overweight and obesity are generally higher than rural rates in both sexes. The trend in pre-obesity and obesity over time is generally upward, with very marked increases in the USA and UK in both sexes over the last 10 years.

  20. SpeX Spectroscopy of Unresolved Very Low-Mass Binaries. I. Identification of Seventeen Candidate Binaries Straddling the L Dwarf/T Dwarf Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Looper, Dagny L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Reid, I. Neill

    2009-01-01

    We report the identification of 17 candidate brown dwarf binaries whose components straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. These sources were culled from a large near-infrared spectral sample of L and T dwarfs observed with the Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX spectrograph. Candidates were selected on the basis of spectral ratios which segregate known (resolved) L dwarf/T dwarf pairs from presumably single sources. Composite templates, constructed by combining 13581 pairs of absolute flux-ca...

  1. Transiciones en contexto: hallazgos vinculados a migración rural-urbana y enfermedades no transmisibles en Perú Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jaime Miranda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca describir, en contexto, los distintos procesos de cambio por el que transcurren, en la actualidad, nuestras sociedades y poblaciones a fin de comprender mejor la emergencia de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en países de ingresos medios y bajos. Se describen aquellos factores relevantes para contextos específicos como el Perú, entre ellos migración interna, urbanización y los perfiles de adversidad en etapas tempranas de la vida, todos vinculados con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, incluyendo el sobrepeso y la obesidad. Se describe el modelo de “capacidad y carga”, el cual considera al riesgo de adquirir una enfermedad crónica no transmisible en la etapa adulta como una función de dos rasgos genéticos: capacidad metabólica y carga metabólica. Se presenta también la contribución de la migración rural-urbana a esta problemática en nuestro medio. Finalmente, se mencionan los retos pendientes en este tema para la salud pública del PerúIn order to better understand the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries this article seeks to present, in context, different transitional processes which societies and populations are currently undergoing. Relevant factors for specific contexts such as Peru are described, including internal migration, urbanization and profiles of adversity in early life, all of them linked to chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity and overweight. The capacity-load model, which considers chronic disease risk in adulthood as a function of two generic traits, metabolic capacity and metabolic load, is described. The contribution of rural-to-urban migration to this problem is also presented. Finally, these topics are framed within pending challenges for public health in Peru

  2. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

  3. Place in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jacob Bjerre; Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche

    from the 'Everyday World'. Within mobilities studies, research has focused on different aspects and consequences of the post-oil society (see Dennis & Urry 2009, Urry 2013). This paper discusses the conception of place within the enclosed 'Oil World' with point of departure in relocation...... and redefinition of oil rigs from an urban design perspective. The paper constitutes a theoretical basis for future design scenarios - exemplified through visionary urban design proposals for a specific site in the city of Esbjerg, Denmark. Relocating rigs to an urban context initiates discussions of conception...... of 'Place' questioning the fixity of 'Place' (Jensen 2010). Scoped through a relational sense of place (Massey 1993) and the potential of exploring new relations between places (Burns & Kahn 2005), the paper challenges the notion of 'Place as God' (Hvattum 2010). These places in transition contest...

  4. Transit profiles: The thirty largest agencies for the 1990 Section 15 report year. Rept. for Jan-Dec 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futrell, M.; Black, T.N.

    1991-11-01

    The report summarizes the financial and operating data submitted to the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) by the nation's public transit operators, pursuant to Section 15 of the Urban Mass Transportation (UMT) Act of 1964, as amended. These data represent a portion of the 1990 Annual Report and consist of transit profiles for the 30 largest agencies based on operating expenses for the 1990 report year. Each profile consists of data reporting general, summary, modal, performance and trend indicators about a particular transit system for the 1990 report year. The unaggregated data can be found in the 1990 Section 15 Annual Report Data Tables, for the 1990 Section 15 Report Year. Rather than requiring the user to assemble data from numerous tables, the Transit Profile provides the user with a comprehensive overview in graphic and summary format of an individual transit agency's financial and operating statistics for the 1990 Section 15 report year with summaries of key data items for prior years. All data in the report are for transit system fiscal years ending on or between January 1 and December 31, 1990

  5. The Belgian Investments in Mass Transit of the Cities in Russian Empire at the End of the XIXth and at the Beginning of the XXth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya V. Shpakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the process of realization of long-term investment in the city transport projects of the Russian Empire at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX centuries. The authors analyze the reasons for the attractiveness of the Russian transport sector for the Belgian companies, the main stages of their integration into the economy of the Russian Empire, examine the legal and operational features of the transport activities of joint stock companies with foreign borrowed capital. There is also analysis of the volumes of the invested funds, description of the authorized capital size and the transport companies’ securities. On the basis of the comparison of the annual profit interest, the article explains the relatively small presence of the empire companies with Russian capital in the urban transport market. Analyzing the annual financial results of the joint stock Belgian transport companies, the authors fix a number of loss-making companies in the provincial towns. The article presents an attempt to explain this phenomenon on the basis of the problems in urban transportation in several cities. Examining the peculiarities of doing transport business in the cities, the article reflects the aspirations of the owners of corporations to maximize their profits at the expense of the quality of transport service. At the beginning of the XX century such companies’ policy led to the negative assessment of the way of solving transport problems of cities at the expense of foreign capital state by the Russian Empire. The authors come to the conclusion that trying to find the most appropriate solution of the question, the empire authorities offered the city transport companies to build their own resources by attracting loans in the state banks and to use of the funds from the bond issues.

  6. The phi-meson and Chiral-mass-meson production in heavy-ion collisions as potential probes of quark-gluon-plasma and Chiral symmetry transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Eby, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    Possibilities of observing abundances of phi mesons and narrow hadronic pairs, as results of QGP and Chiral transitions, are considered for nucleus-nucleus interactions. Kinematical requirements in forming close pairs are satisfied in K+K decays of S(975) and delta (980) mesons with small phi, and phi (91020) mesons with large PT, and in pi-pi decays of familiar resonance mesons only in a partially restored chiral symmetry. Gluon-gluon dominance in QGP can enhance phi meson production. High hadronization rates of primordial resonance mesons which form narrow hadronic pairs are not implausible. Past cosmic ray evidences of anomalous phi production and narrow pair abundances are considered.

  7. Rethinking Sustainable Sanitation for the Urban Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Norström, A; Mcconville, Jennifer; Lüthi, C; Panesar, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, diminishing natural resources and rural-urban demographic trends will have profound impacts on future urban infrastructure delivery in both developed and developing countries. These challenges will however, leverage new opportunities for circular urban economies in which productive sanitation will play an important role in both the North and South. In the developed world, the challenge is to initiate a transition from disposal oriented, water-based infrastructure regimes towar...

  8. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  9. Urban blight and urban redesign

    OpenAIRE

    Zsilincsar, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban blight dates back to the 19th century when industrialisation starting in Europe and North America initiated an uncontrolled urban growth in combination with strong demand in cheap an quickly constructed housing. Ghettoisation of mainly the working-class population and other “marginal groups” were the consequence together with a constant decay of single buildings, whole blocks and quarters. These general aspects of urban blight with its additional facettes or aspects re...

  10. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.

  11. The Urban Nexus: Contradictions and Dilemmas of (PostCommunist (SubUrbanization in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Dumitrache

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization in Romania was a very tumultuous and slightly different one compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, being marked by the constant willingness to increase the degree of urbanization. The communist period was the most significant from this point of view, by considering both the number of newly declared towns and urban population growth. The urbanization of communist era corroborated with the excessive and forced industrialization has generated imbalances in the urban system and created distortions in the urban hierarchy. However, the legislative inconsistency and the lack of urban regulations during the post – communist period have lead to the increasing number of new (quasi urban units (many of which without urban amenities to the chaotic sub-urbanization of cities and urban decline. In many cases, the ability of local authorities to manage the urban development in the early years of transition has been hampered by inadequate legislation that regulates the urban growth in a completely different socio-economic system. Thus, the lacks of specific urban policies and urban regeneration plans have determined indirectly a hypertrophic evolution and an uncontrolled suburban expansion. Bucharest, the capital of the country has been most affected by these processes determining multilayered space transformation within the city and open space conversion to commercial and residential use, both affecting the urban environment and quality of life of urban-rural communities. The paper focuses on the patterns, the driving forces and the consequences of two opposing processes: socialist forced urbanization vs. post-socialist chaotic urbanization unfolding across the national urban landscape.

  12. Advancing urban sustainability theory and action: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Childers; Steward T.A. Pickett; J. Morgan Grove; Laura Ogden; Alison. Whitmer

    2014-01-01

    Urban ecology and its theories are increasingly poised to contribute to urban sustainability, through both basic understanding and action. We present a conceptual framework that expands the Industrial → Sanitary → Sustainable City transition to include non-sanitary cities, "new cities", and various permutations of transition options for...

  13. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...

  14. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different ...

  15. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  16. Urbane Projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Juel

    2013-01-01

    of Chapter 1 ’problem and research questions’, Chapter 2 ’place, discourse and planning as a theoretical framework’ and Chapter 3 ’research design’. Part 2 ’urban practice locally, nationally and globally’ consisting of Chapter 4 ’background and context, urban trans- formations in Aalborg from 1950 to 2013...... of Chapter 9 with the same name. The analysis results and thus the conclusions are at 3 levels of knowledge: Historically specific development in terms of urban planning practices respectively in Aalborg and natio- nally/internationally The tools here have been a focus on different rationales or urban...... projects as a strategic tool in urban policy, development of place perceptions, the use of narratives in the planning processes, the functions of representations as discursive devised imagined realities, power structures and planning approaches - knowledge that can be used in the future practice of other...

  17. Urban performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Through three different urban performances, the paper investigates how, when and under which circumstances urban space is transformed and distorted from its every day use and power relations. Distortion is an annual street festival in Copenhagen with the objective to distort the functional city...... creates an intensive space for the empowerment and liberation of the body. Occupy Wall street and its action in the autumn 2001 is the ultimate example of how urban political performances intensifies and transform every day spaces. Through examples of how OWS tactically appropriates and transforms urban...... space, I seek to show how representational space, for instance the public square, is transformed and distorted by heterogeneous and unforeseen modes of operating. Despite differing in their goal and outset, I wish to unfold an alternative to urban transformation practices in planning and architecture...

  18. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  19. Transitioning to a Low Carbon Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valderrama Pineda, Andres Felipe; Vogel, Nina

    2014-01-01

    is the most used theory to study transitions. Our application is critical because the context of urban mobility necessarily includes a discussion of urban form development; therefore, we suggest ways in which the MLP should be adjusted in order to account for the historical dynamics evidenced in the empirical...

  20. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric investigations of the complexation behavior of macrocyclic thiacrown ethers with bivalent transitional metals (Cu, Co, Ni and Zn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybizova, Alexandra; Tarábek, Ján; Buchta, Michal; Holý, Petr; Schröder, Detlef

    2012-10-15

    Heavy metals are both a problem for the environment and an important resource for industry. Their selective extraction by means of organic ligands therefore is an attractive topic. The coordination of three thiacrown ethers to late 3d-metal ions was investigated by a combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The mass spectrometric experiments were carried out in an ion trap mass spectrometer with an ESI source. Absolute binding constants were estimated by comparison with data for 18-crown-6/Na(+). EPR spectroscopy was used as a complementary method for investigating the Cu(I) /Cu(II) redox couple. The study found that thiacrown ethers preferentially bind traces of copper even at an excess of other metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The absolute association constants of the Cu(I) complexes were about 10(8) M(-1), and about two orders of magnitude lower for the other 3d-metal cations. The EPR spectra demonstrated that the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I) upon formation of the [(thiacrown)Cu](+) species takes place in solution. ESI-MS demonstrated that the three thiacrown ligands examined had high binding constants as well as good selectivities for copper(I) at low concentrations, and in the presence of other metal ions. By a combination of ESI-MS and EPR spectrometry it was shown that the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I) occurred in solution. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.