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Sample records for urban indigenous women

  1. Experiences of chronic stress and mental health concerns among urban Indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Anita C; Cotnam, Jasmine; Raboud, Janet; Greene, Saara; Beaver, Kerrigan; Zoccole, Art; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Balfour, Louise; Wu, Wei; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    We measured stress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) levels of urban Indigenous women living with and without HIV in Ontario, Canada, and identified correlates of depression. We recruited 30 Indigenous women living with HIV and 60 without HIV aged 18 years or older who completed socio-demographic and health questionnaires and validated scales assessing stress, depression and PTSD. Descriptive statistics were conducted to summarize variables and linear regression to identify correlates of depression. 85.6 % of Indigenous women self-identified as First Nation. Co-morbidities other than HIV were self-reported by 82.2 % (n = 74) of the sample. High levels of perceived stress were reported by 57.8 % (n = 52) of the sample and 84.2 % (n = 75) had moderate to high levels of urban stress. High median levels of race-related (51/88, IQR 42-68.5) and parental-related stress (40.5/90, IQR 35-49) scores were reported. 82.2 % (n = 74) reported severe depressive symptoms and 83.2 % (n = 74) severe PTSD. High levels of perceived stress was correlated with high depressive symptoms (estimate 1.28 (95 % CI 0.97-1.58), p stress and physical and mental health concerns. Interventions cutting across diverse health care settings are required for improving and preventing adverse health outcomes.

  2. Gender issues in urban indigenous communities in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore attempts to examine gender issues in five indigenous communities in Port Harcourt. The communities are: Abuloma, Oroazi, Rumuadaolu, Elekahia and Ogbuna-abali. The key questions explored in the study are: how are urban indigenous women been marginalized in the process of urban growth and ...

  3. Generational sex work and HIV risk among Indigenous women in a street-based urban Canadian setting.

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    Bingham, Brittany; Leo, Diane; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, Indigenous women are over-represented among new HIV infections and street-based sex workers. Scholars suggest that Aboriginal women's HIV risk stems from intergenerational effects of colonisation and racial policies. This research examined generational sex work involvement among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women and the effect on risk for HIV acquisition. The sample included 225 women in street-based sex work and enrolled in a community-based prospective cohort, in partnership with local sex work and Aboriginal community partners. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression modeled an independent relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and generational sex work and the impact of generational sex work on HIV infection among Aboriginal sex workers. Aboriginal women (48%) were more likely to be HIV-positive, with 34% living with HIV compared to 24% non-Aboriginal women. In multivariate logistic regression model, Aboriginal women remained three times more likely to experience generational sex work (AOR:2.97; 95%CI:1.5,5.8). Generational sex work was significantly associated with HIV (AOR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.67-4.58) in a confounder model restricted to Aboriginal women. High prevalence of generational sex work among Aboriginal women and three-fold increased risk for HIV infection are concerning. Policy reforms and community-based, culturally safe and trauma informed HIV-prevention initiatives are required for Indigenous sex workers.

  4. Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers in Mexico and Central ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women. ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  5. Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous forest ... Harvesting operations were planned to make the transition from high open ... Key words: Strip-cutting, Cable yarding, Participatory planning, Shelterwood, Urban forests ...

  6. Indigenous women's voices: marginalization and health.

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    Dodgson, Joan E; Struthers, Roxanne

    2005-10-01

    Marginalization may affect health care delivery. Ways in which indigenous women experienced marginalization were examined. Data from 57 indigenous women (18 to 65 years) were analyzed for themes. Three themes emerged: historical trauma as lived marginalization, biculturalism experienced as marginalization, and interacting within a complex health care system. Experienced marginalization reflected participants' unique perspective and were congruent with previous research. It is necessary for health care providers to assess the detrimental impact of marginalization on the health status of individuals and/or communities.

  7. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  8. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2018-04-11

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Association of the Familial Coexistence of Child Stunting and Maternal Overweight with Indigenous Women in Guatemala.

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    Lee, J; Houser, R; Must, A; Palma, P; Bermudez, O

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study investigated the association of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight with indigenous women in Guatemala. Methods We selected 2388 child-mother pairs from the data set of the Living Standards Measurement Study conducted in Guatemala in 2000. This study examined the association between maternal and household characteristics and the nutritional status of children aged 6-60 months and mothers aged 18-49 years by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Compared with non-indigenous households, a significantly higher percentage of indigenous households exhibited stunted child and overweight mother (SCOM) pairs (15.9 vs. 22.2%). Compared with normal-weight mothers, overweight mothers were less likely to have stunted children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88]. However, compared with mothers who were not short and overweight, short and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to have stunted children (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.73) and were more likely to be indigenous women living in urban areas (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.19-7.60) or rural areas (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28-7.14). The order of observed prevalence of SCOM pairs in different types of households was as follows: urban indigenous (25.0%), rural indigenous (21.2%), rural non-indigenous (19.8%), and urban non-indigenous households (10.7%). Conclusions for Practice Urban indigenous households were more likely to have SCOM pairs. This study provided useful information for identifying the most vulnerable groups and areas with a high prevalence of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight.

  10. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  11. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  12. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social ... According to the field work investigation, such kinds of conflicts were ...... Narrative Activity and Performance Report, January through ...

  13. "Urban-Rural" Dynamics and Indigenous Urbanization: The Case of Inuit Language Use in Ottawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donna; Budach, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of cities in Canada has played a pivotal role in the displacement, dispossession, and marginalization of Indigenous peoples. Yet, more than half of the Indigenous population now resides in cities, and urbanization continues to increase. This paper addresses a specific aspect of Inuit mobility--namely, migration and the dynamic…

  14. ATTENTION OF CHILDBIRTH, RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND PUBLIC POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF CHIAPAS

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    Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Benito Salvatierra Izaba y Emma Zapata Martelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it’s analyze the tendencies of childbirth attention of urban indigenous women excluded in Chiapas, from rural settlement in Los Altos de Chiapas. It’s an exploratory essay which contributes to clear up the relation that establishes immigrant indigenous population with institutional health services for childbirth attention and modifications in traditional medicine. Are discussed the scopes of these changes in the operation of the institutional program of reproductive health and the risk of mother death.

  15. Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will identify indigenous knowledge, technology, and traditional enterprise practices in which ... The project will build research skills and knowledge to support Rwanda and Tanzania's ... Giving girls and women the power to decide.

  16. Access to Justice for Indigenous and Peasant Women in Colombia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite the widespread nature of abuse facing women in contexts of armed conflict and transition, there is little documentation on how such women experience injustice and how they exercise their agency to demand justice. This project will connect indigenous and peasant women in Colombia and Guatemala to exchange ...

  17. Contextual factors influencing leisure physical activity of urbanized indigenous adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Feng-En; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Lee, Ming-Been; Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous populations suffer from disparities in socioeconomic resources and health status. One approach to addressing these disparities is by targeting modifiable risk factors such as leisure physical activity (LPA). This study investigated and compared factors related to LPA among urbanized indigenous and nonindigenous adolescent students. This cross-sectional survey comprised fifth to ninth grade indigenous and nonindigenous students (n = 733). The nonindigenous students were matched with indigenous students on sex and academic achievement and used as a reference group. Data were collected through telephone interviews using structured questionnaires. Major items included: demographic characteristics; average time spent watching television per bout; participation in LPA; and stress and depression experiences. With the exception of the duration of television watching per bout, Chi-square and independent t tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between indigenous and nonindigenous adolescents in the selected LPA-related factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis including terms investigating interaction between ethnicity and the contextual factors included in this study indicated that the following factors were correlated with LPA participation: age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.94], male sex (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.19-2.61), total hours spent watching television in the past 2 weeks (OR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.63-0.99), life satisfaction (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = 1.04-4.90), and exercise enjoyment (OR = 3.40, 95%CI = 1.71-6.74). However, neither indigenous status (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.19-5.79) nor any of the interaction terms reached the significant level. No significant ethnic differences were found in LPA participation. LPA was significantly correlated with age, male sex, total time spent watching television, life satisfaction, and enjoyment of exercise. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Indigenous Women College Students' Perspectives on College, Work, and Family

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    Bingham, Jennie L.; Adolpho, Quintina Bearchief; Jackson, Aaron P.; Alexitch, Louise R.

    2014-01-01

    Native American and First Nations (herein collectively referred to as Indigenous) women college students are faced with the challenge of balancing their cultural imperatives and the demands of the dominant Western culture in family, school, and work/employment roles. In order to explore these women's experiences and perspectives, this study…

  19. Improving maternity services for Indigenous women in Australia: moving from policy to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildea, Sue; Tracy, Sally; Sherwood, Juanita; Magick-Dennis, Fleur; Barclay, Lesley

    2016-10-17

    The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory). We report on the actions targeting Indigenous women, and the progress that has been achieved in three priority areas: The Indigenous maternity workforce; Culturally competent maternity care; and; Developing dedicated programs for "Birthing on Country". The timeframe for the NMSP has expired without notable results in these priority areas. More urgent leadership is required from the Australian government. Funding needs to be allocated to the priority areas, including for scholarships and support to train and retain Indigenous midwives, greater commitment to culturally competent maternity care and the development and evaluation of Birthing on Country sites in urban, rural and particularly in remote and very remote communities. Tools such as the Australian Rural Birth Index and the National Maternity Services Capability Framework can help guide this work.

  20. Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program

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    Condon John R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.

  1. The menopausal experience among indigenous women of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Alwi, S A R; Lee, P Y; Awi, I; Mallik, P S; Md Haizal, M N

    2009-12-01

    To document the common menopausal symptoms and quality of life in indigenous women of Sarawak in Malaysia. A face-to-face interview using the Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire was conducted with 276 indigenous Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years to determine the mean age of menopause and common symptoms (divided into vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual domains) associated with menopause. The mean age at menopause of postmenopausal women was 50.78 +/- 2.47 years (range 47.3-58.2 years). The most common symptoms reported were aching in muscles and joints (82.6%), lack of energy (77.5%) and low backache (77.2%). The typical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, night sweats, sweating and vaginal dryness were experienced by 42.4%, 34.8%, 29.7% and 49.3%, respectively of the women studied. Perimenopausal women (n = 114) experienced the most physical and psychosocial symptoms, while postmenopausal women (n = 102) experienced most sexual symptoms. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were reported to suffer more than premenopausal women (p < 0.001) within the four domains of symptoms (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual). The menopausal symptoms in this study correspond to those in other studies on Asian women but the prevalence of typical and classical menopausal symptoms was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women. The perimenopausal women had the most significant decrease in quality of life, followed by postmenopausal women and premenopausal women. Vasomotor symptoms had a predominant influence on the quality of life.

  2. Reclaiming Our Spirits: Development and Pilot Testing of a Health Promotion Intervention for Indigenous Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Dion Stout, Madeleine; McKenzie, Holly; Price, Roberta; Bungay, Victoria; Smye, Victoria; Inyallie, Jane; Day, Linda; Khan, Koushambhi; Heino, Angela; Merritt-Gray, Marilyn

    2017-06-01

    Indigenous women are subjected to high rates of multiple forms of violence, including intimate partner violence (IPV), in the context of ongoing colonization and neo-colonization. Health promotion interventions for women who experience violence have not been tailored specifically for Indigenous women. Reclaiming Our Spirits (ROS) is a health promotion intervention designed for Indigenous women living in an urban context in Canada. In this paper, we describe the development of the intervention, results of a pilot study, and the revised subsequent intervention. Building on a theory-based health promotion intervention (iHEAL) showing promising results in feasibility studies, ROS was developed using a series of related approaches including (a) guidance from Indigenous women with research expertise specific to IPV and Indigenous women's experiences; (b) articulation of an Indigenous lens, including using Cree (one of the largest Indigenous language groups in North America) concepts to identify key aspects; and (c) interviews with Elders (n = 10) living in the study setting. Offered over 6-8 months, ROS consists of a Circle, led by an Indigenous Elder, and 1:1 visits with a Registered Nurse, focused on six areas for health promotion derived from previous research. Pilot testing with Indigenous women (n = 21) produced signs of improvement in most measures of health from pre- to post-intervention. Women found the pilot intervention acceptable and helpful but also offered valuable suggestions for improvement. A revised intervention, with greater structure within the Circle and nurses with stronger knowledge of Indigenous women's experience and community health, is currently undergoing testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Positive body image: inter-ethnic and rural-urban differences among an indigenous sample from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Kannan, Kumaraswami; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies examining body image from a cross-cultural perspective have tended to neglect samples from different ethnic groups or along a rural-urban continuum. To overcome this limitation, the present study examined positive body image among rural and urban women from three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 202 women completed the Body Appreciation Scale, as well as measures of media exposure and financial security, and provided their demographic details. s showed that there were significant rural-urban differences in body appreciation, with rural participants having significantly higher body appreciation than urban participants. A comparison with a previous data set of West Malaysian women (Swami & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2008) showed that the current urban sample had significantly lower body appreciation and that the rural group had significantly higher body appreciation. Further results showed that research site (urban vs rural) explained 11.0% of the variance in body appreciation. Participant body mass index and exposure to western forms of media explained an additional 2.0% of the variance. These results suggest that there are differences in body image between rural and urban women. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of positive body image, particularly in developing societies where health care resources may be limited.

  4. Indigenous Māori perspectives on urban transport patterns linked to health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raerino Ngāti Awa Te Arawa, K; Macmillan, Alex K; Jones Ngāti Kahungunu, Rhys G

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing body of research linking urban transport systems to inequities in health. However, there is a lack of research providing evidence of the effect of transport systems on indigenous family wellbeing. We examined the connections between urban transport and the health and wellbeing of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. We provide an indigenous exploration of current urban transport systems, with a particular focus on the impacts of car dependence and the need for culturally relevant travel. We interviewed nineteen Māori participants utilising qualitative research techniques underpinned by an indigenous research methodology (Kaupapa Māori). The data highlighted the importance of accessing cultural activities and sites relevant to 'being Māori', and issues with affordability and safety of public transport. Understanding the relationship between indigenous wellbeing and transport systems that goes further than limited discourses of inequity is essential to improving transport for indigenous wellbeing. Providing an indigenous voice in transport decision-making will make it more likely that indigenous health and wellbeing is prioritised in transport planning. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. "It Is Not Natural Anymore": Nutrition, Urbanization, and Indigenous Identity on Bolivia's Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipus, Adam C; Leon, Juan S; Calle, Susana C; Andes, Karen L

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this article was to characterize how urbanization and indigenous identity shape nutrition attitudes and practices in El Alto, a rapidly urbanizing and predominantly indigenous (Aymara) community on Bolivia's Andean plateau. We took a qualitative ethnographic approach, interviewing health care providers ( n = 11) and conducting focus groups with mothers of young children ( n = 4 focus groups with 25 mothers total [age = 18-43 years, 60% Aymara]). Participants generally described their urban environment as being problematic for nutrition, a place where unhealthy "junk foods" and "chemicals" have supplanted healthy, "natural," "indigenous" foods from the countryside. Placing nutrition in El Alto within a broader context of cultural identity and a struggle to harmonize different lifestyles and worldviews, we propose how an intercultural framework for nutrition can harmonize Western scientific perspectives with rural and indigenous food culture.

  6. Urbanization is Associated with Increased Trends in Cardiovascular Mortality Among Indigenous Populations: the PAI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson da Costa Armstrong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The cardiovascular risk burden among diverse indigenous populations is not totally known and may be influenced by lifestyle changes related to the urbanization process. Objectives: To investigate the cardiovascular (CV mortality profile of indigenous populations during a rapid urbanization process largely influenced by governmental infrastructure interventions in Northeast Brazil. Methods: We assessed the mortality of indigenous populations (≥ 30 y/o from 2007 to 2011 in Northeast Brazil (Bahia and Pernambuco states. Cardiovascular mortality was considered if the cause of death was in the ICD-10 CV disease group or if registered as sudden death. The indigenous populations were then divided into two groups according to the degree of urbanization based on anthropological criteria:9,10 Group 1 - less urbanized tribes (Funi-ô, Pankararu, Kiriri, and Pankararé; and Group 2 - more urbanized tribes (Tuxá, Truká, and Tumbalalá. Mortality rates of highly urbanized cities (Petrolina and Juazeiro in the proximity of indigenous areas were also evaluated. The analysis explored trends in the percentage of CV mortality for each studied population. Statistical significance was established for p value < 0.05. Results: There were 1,333 indigenous deaths in tribes of Bahia and Pernambuco (2007-2011: 281 in Group 1 (1.8% of the 2012 group population and 73 in Group 2 (3.7% of the 2012 group population, CV mortality of 24% and 37%, respectively (p = 0.02. In 2007-2009, there were 133 deaths in Group 1 and 44 in Group 2, CV mortality of 23% and 34%, respectively. In 2009-2010, there were 148 deaths in Group 1 and 29 in Group 2, CV mortality of 25% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: Urbanization appears to influence increases in CV mortality of indigenous peoples living in traditional tribes. Lifestyle and environmental changes due to urbanization added to suboptimal health care may increase CV risk in this population.

  7. Challenges in preventing pyelonephritis in pregnant women in Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookallil, M; Chalmers, E; Andrew, B

    2005-01-01

    To measure the quality of antenatal care in rural and remote regions of the Northern Territory, using asymptomatic bacteruria as an indicator. Indigenous Australian women and their babies have a greater frequency of adverse outcomes in pregnancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. It is well established that asymptomatic bacteriuria may have serious outcomes in pregnancy, including an increased risk of pyelonephritis and a strong association with preterm and low birth weight delivery. Ensuring good quality antenatal care can reduce the individual risks of pregnancy for mothers and their babies. In the Northern Territory there are well established guidelines for antenatal care in rural and remote Indigenous communities. These are documented in the Women's Business Manual. Audit and feedback is one method that has been shown to have a small to moderate effect in changing clinician behaviour, in this case improving compliance with guidelines. A retrospective chart audit of antenatal clients was conducted at 10 rural and remote primary health care clinics in the Northern Territory, Australia. The audit reviewed all the available charts (n = 268) of pregnant women, from the participating communities, who gave birth in 2002 or 2003. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria was chosen as the indicator of quality antenatal care, as it is one of five areas of antenatal care where there is evidence that appropriate management improves outcomes. The quality of care was measured against the local guidelines, the Women's Business Manual. Women frequently had urine tests with where the dipstick showed an abnormal result, with 75% (95% CI [0.70,0.80]) of women having at least one episode of abnormal urinalysis during pregnancy. Six hundred and twenty episodes of abnormal urinalysis in pregnancy were identified. The incidence of bacteriuria at first visit was 16%, (95%-confidence interval = 95% CI [0.10, 0.21]). Compliance with the guidelines was poor. Fifty

  8. Women-Centered and Culturally Responsive Heart Health Promotion Among Indigenous Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziabakhsh, Shabnam; Pederson, Ann; Prodan-Bhalla, Natasha; Middagh, Diane; Jinkerson-Brass, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    Most women in Canada confront a combination of bio-psychosocial factors that put them at risk for cardiovascular disease. The challenge for health planners is to address these factors while contextualizing interventions that meet the specific needs of particular social and cultural groupings. The article will discuss a women-centered, group-based heart health pilot initiative designed to engage with indigenous approaches to healing. The nurse practitioners co-led the group with a representative from the indigenous community to balance women-centered practices with more traditional and culturally appropriate ones. In particular, indigenous processes, such as a Talking Circle, combined with indigenous knowledge/content were integrated into the pilot program. The project was evaluated to investigate its outcomes (how the intervention impacted the participants) and processes (how participants perceived the intervention). Evaluation involved analysis of the Talking Circle's content, a focus group, field observations, and self-completed surveys. Most women made changes regarding their diet, some began physical activities, and others focused on better managing their emotional health. Women viewed the group as successful because it embraced both women-centered and culturally appropriate health promotion practices. The intervention created a culturally safe space for learning and transformation. The findings confirm the need for employing culturally relevant, gender-specific approaches to heart health promotion that are situated in and responsive to community needs. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-12-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  10. Abya Yala’s Indigenous and Aboriginal Women Agendas of Integration and Solidarity

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    Katherine Galeano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the claims of Abya Yala’s indigenous and aboriginal women are positioned within Latin American’s indigenous agenda. Their participation in the indigenous movement and their own organizational processes as women led to the Continental Indigenous Women’s Summit Meeting of Abya Yala (Cumbre Continental de Mujeres Indígenas del Abya Yala, CCMI which has been held twice in the region in 2009 in Puno Peru and in 2013 in La María Piendamó Colombia. In this paper, we analyze the processes of emergence, articulation, consolidation and integration challenges of Abya Yala’s indigenous and aboriginal women into the Continental Indigenous Women’s Summit Meeting of Abya Yala, a successful process of constructing networks and solidarities. Through these summits, the specific claims of indigenous women have reached the international indigenous agenda, feminist and women’s movements, promoting their organization and empowerment. As observers in the second summit meeting and analyzing existing literature, we examine the actors that favored the process of emergence, how the first and second summit meetings were held, and debates and selection of the topics. We also discuss indigenous women’s relationship with feminism which influenced in some way or the other the processes that led to the summit meetings. Finally, we address the challenges of this organizational space of empowerment managed and constituted by indigenous and aboriginal women of the continent.

  11. Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: greater than fourfold risk among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Catherine R; Oldenburg, Brian; Wilson, Alyce N; Eades, Sandra J; O'Dea, Kerin; Oats, Jeremy J N; Wolfe, Rory

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes. However, progression rates among Indigenous women in Australia who experience high prevalence of gestational diabetes are unknown. This retrospective cohort study includes all births to women at a regional hospital in Far North Queensland, Australia, coded as having 'gestational diabetes' from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010 (1098 births) and receiving laboratory postpartum screening from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2011 (n = 483 births). Women who did not receive postpartum screening were excluded from the denominator. Data were linked between hospital electronic records, routinely collected birth data and laboratories, with sample validation by reviews of medical records. Analysis was conducted using Cox-proportional regression models. Indigenous women had a greater than fourfold risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 8 years of having gestational diabetes, compared with non-Indigenous women (hazards ratio 4.55, 95% confidence interval 2.63-7.88, p Australian women have a greater than fourfold risk of developing type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes. Strategies are urgently needed to reduce rates of type 2 diabetes by supporting a healthy weight and breastfeeding and to improve postpartum screening among Indigenous women with gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Nigerian women reap benefits from indigenous vegetables | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Demand for fresh indigenous vegetables in Nigeria has increased ... greater returns from indigenous vegetables compared to conventional vegetables. ... In Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, monocropping of a single, non-edible variety ...

  13. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey K; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001), 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001), and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  14. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny V Colombara

    Full Text Available Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001, 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001, and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women. Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.44-2.61, compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81, primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68, informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63, and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79 also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26 and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19. Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  15. Comorbidity and cervical cancer survival of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women: A semi-national registry-based cohort study (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter D; Valery, Patricia C; Whop, Lisa J; Moore, Suzanne P; Cunningham, Joan; Garvey, Gail; Brotherton, Julia M L; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Sarfati, Diana; Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth; Condon, John R

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women. Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+), for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women. Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4%) compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0%) and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%). Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality) when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4), indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality. Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted. The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and multidisciplinary

  16. Comorbidity and cervical cancer survival of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women: A semi-national registry-based cohort study (2003-2012.

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    Abbey Diaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women.Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+, for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women.Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4% compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0% and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%. Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4, indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality.Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted.The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and

  17. Ethnicity, development and gender: Tsáchila indigenous women in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Sarah; Pequeño, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, indigenous populations have become the subjects and agents of development in national and international multicultural policy that acknowledges poverty among indigenous peoples and their historic marginalization from power over development. Although the impact of these legal and programmatic efforts is growing, one persistent axis of disadvantage, male–female difference, is rarely taken into account in ethno-development policy and practice. This article argues that assumptions that inform policy related to indigenous women fail to engage with indigenous women's development concerns. The institutional separation between gender and development policy (GAD) and multiculturalism means that provisions for gender in multicultural policies are inadequate, and ethnic rights in GAD policies are invisible. Drawing on post-colonial feminism, the paper examines ethnicity and gender as interlocking systems that structure indigenous women's development experiences. These arguments are illustrated in relation to the case of the Tsáchila ethno-cultural group in the South American country of Ecuador.

  18. Encounters and missed encounters of indigenous women with Catholic and Protestant Churches

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    Juan Illicachi Guzñay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the way in which Protestant and Catholic churches, in their ritual spaces, have been building contradictory and ambivalent subjectivities and identities among indigenous women through their micro organizations. On the one hand, the text examines indigenous women who are aware of emancipation, their resistance to forms of domination and whether their responses promote social change or adapt to the socially accepted parameters and therefore a contribute to recreate hierarchy, machismo and violence. On the other hand, the text explores the manner in which indigenized Chimborazo Catholic and Protestant hierarchies produce women who are “obedient” and “submissive” to God and their spouses

  19. Non-Indigenous Women Teaching Indigenous Education: A Duoethnographic Exploration of Untold Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Sarah; Burleigh, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Identifying as non-Indigenous, we are often left considering our positionality and identity in Indigenous education, how we have come to be invested in this area of research, and what we see as our contribution. In conversation with one another, we realized we choose to share certain stories and not others about our experiences working in…

  20. Eating in the City: A Review of the Literature on Food Insecurity and Indigenous People Living in Urban Spaces

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    Kelly Skinner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people often occupy different overlapping or co-existing food environments that include market-based foods, land and water based foods, and combinations of the two. Studying these food environments is complicated by the cultural and geographic diversity of Indigenous people and the effects of colonialism, land dispossession, relocation and forced settlement on static reserves, and increasing migration to urban areas. We conducted a scoping study of food insecurity and Indigenous peoples living in urban spaces in Canada, the United States, and Australia. The 16 studies reviewed showed that food insecurity among urban Indigenous populations is an issue in all three nations. Findings highlight both the variety of experiences of urban Indigenous peoples within and across the three nations, and the commonalities of these experiences.

  1. De/Scribing Squ*w: Indigenous Women and Imperial Idioms in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. Richard

    2003-01-01

    Tracing the history of the term "squaw" offers insights into the positionings and politics of indigenous femininity in colonial America. Today, as throughout the colonization of Native America, imperial projects and projections have based themselves upon and imagined themselves through the lives, bodies, and images of indigenous women,…

  2. Making the invisible visible : the position of indigenous women in Mexico. A general overview of the challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous peoples’ rights have been on the international political agenda for over fifty years. Yet, very limited attention has been given to indigenous women. Among indigenous peoples, women are one of the most vulnerable groups, because they are subject to multiple discrimination: for being a

  3. The ecology of anemia: Anemia prevalence and correlated factors in adult indigenous women in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Laura G; Valeggia, Claudia

    2017-05-06

    The Toba/Qom of Namqom are an indigenous community native to the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina. Historically seminomadic foragers, the diet of peri-urban community members has rapidly changed from high-protein, high-fiber to hypercaloric, processed. This study aims to understand the impact of this nutritional transition on aspects of women's health by exploring the relationship between prevalence of anemia and current diet composition, place of birth, and reproductive history. We measured the capillary hemoglobin (Hb) levels of 153 adult women. Each participant was also given two interviews characterizing reproductive history and a 24-hour food recall. The average Hb level was 12.6 g/dL (range 5.8-15.7 g/dL). In our sample, 28% of participants were anemic and 31% were borderline anemic. Iron and vitamin C consumption were negatively associated with Hb levels. Body mass index was marginally associated with Hb levels. Being born in a peri-urban setting, a proxy for early Westernized diet was associated with higher risk of anemia, suggesting developmental experience may play a role. Pregnant and lactating women had lower Hb levels than menstruating and menopausal women. Age, height, parity, and age at first pregnancy were not found to be statistically significant predictors of anemia. Iron deficiency represents a serious health concern for women, particularly pregnant ones. Our results suggest that both past and current nutritional ecology variables may be associated with the risk of anemia. These findings inform public health interventions, since reproductive history may be more difficult to modify than current diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Indigenous women in Spanish American Historic Epic Poetry

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    Lise Segas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epic poetry has always been considered a masculine genre. The eruption of a group identity, masculine, white, aristocratic and christian, is the result of the representation and the exclusion of the Other, fictitious and singular, but in fact composed of a variety of ethnic groups, origins, sex, genders, religions and different degrees between fiction and historicity. Indeed, in the historical epic poetry which narrated the Conquest, except for the conquistadors listed at length and the indigenous kings and caciques, only few characters are distinguished by a historical individualisation. The Other, Amerindian and female, makes a shy entrance into history, into singularity, into the (historical and christian truth. It is the case of interpreters: Malinche and India Catalina, only historical native women that appear as part of the narrative plot as well as in the conquest enterprise in the poems of Lasso de la Vega (Cortés valeroso y Mexicana, Mexicana, of Juan de Castellanos (Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias and of Saavedra Guzmán (El peregrino indiano.

  5. Women empowerment through social innovation in indigenous social enterprises

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    Mario Vazquez Maguirre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore innovative enabler mechanisms for women’s empowerment in a social enterprise and how they promote local development in a Zapotec indigenous community, the third largest ethnic group in Mexico. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: This paper contributes to the extension of social entrepreneurship literature from a gender perspective, exploring the mechanisms that allow women to succeed in highly marginalized indigenous communities. Key methodological aspects: This paper follows a case study methodology, inductive approach and qualitative methods mainly through 70 in-depth interviews. Summary of key results: Although the male-dominated culture slows down the democratic and political empowerment of women in the community, mechanisms such as job stability, low-interest microcredits and gender-equality policies in the organization have triggered economic empowerment. Key considerations/conclusions: The creation of empowering mechanisms within the social enterprise has allowed the Zapotec community to prosper and increase its general wellbeing. Women have been particularly benefited since the organization has given them the opportunity to work, empowering them to create micro-enterprises and changing the prevailing culture towards a more equalitarian society. Increasing control of their source of income has improved women’s willingness to participate in political and managerial decision-making, inspiring more women in the community to work at the organization Objetivo: Explorar os mecanismos que permitam a capacitação das mulheres em uma empresa social e como elas impulsionam o desenvolvimento local em uma comunidade indígena Zapoteca, o terceiro maior grupo étnico no México. Originalidade/Lacuna Relevância Implicações: Este artigo contribui para a extensão da literatura em empreendimento social a partir de uma perspectiva de gênero explorando os mecanismos que permitem às mulheres prosperar em comunidades ind

  6. Higher Education and Urban Migration for Community Resilience: Indigenous Amazonian Youth Promoting Place-Based Livelihoods and Identities in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Diana

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of indigenous Peruvian Amazonian youth pursuing higher education through urban migration to contribute to the resilience of their communities, place-based livelihoods, and indigenous Amazonian identities. Youth and their communities promoted education and migration as powerful tools in the context of…

  7. Nutritional Status of Settler and Indigenous Women of Reproductive Age Group in Khagrachari District, Bangladesh

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    Md Monoarul Haque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health is closely related with nutritional status of a country. Women are regarded as the nerve centers of the families and society, maternal nutrition and health is considered as the most important regulator of human fetal growth. Objective: This study was conducted with a view to assess the nutritional status of settler and indigenous women of reproductive age group (15--49 years in Khagrachari district. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in the purposively selected Panchari thana of Khagrachari district in Bangladesh from 01 May to 31 August 2013. A total of 200 reproductive aged women were interviewed. Among them 100 were indigenous and 100 were settlers. Their anthropometric measurements were taken and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for Asian people. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 29.8 ± 11.1 years and maximum were in the age group of 15--24 years. Among the indigenous subjects Chakma, Marma, Tripura and Boisnu were 20.5%, 20.5%, 6.5% and 2.5% respectively. Among 100 indigenous reproductive aged women 17 were underweight; but among settlers 19 were underweight. Forty nine settler women were normal and in case of indigenous women 46 were normal. But regarding overweight indigenous women went ahead than settler women and obesity was found equal in both groups. Mean difference of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC was significantly different (p<0.005 between the groups. Conclusion: This study provided a vivid picture of the nutritional status of the settler and indigenous reproductive aged women.

  8. The Rights and Role of Indigenous Women in The Climate Change Regime

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    Tahnee Lisa Prior

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has direct and indirect consequences for individuals and their human rights (McInerney-Lankford et al. 2011. With the Arctic warming at twice the global rate, its inhabitants already experience many of these challenges. Marginalized groups, like women and indigenous peoples, are particularly vulnerable, with existing research providing evidence of ongoing and potential threats to their roles in community adaptation and in shaping change (Cameron 2011, Arctic Resilience Report 2016. While women’s rights are formally codified as human rights under the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, and indigenous peoples’ human rights are codified and recognized in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP, indigenous women’s rights are often neglected at both the international and local level. In this article, we apply an intersectional lens to demonstrate that indigenous and non-indigenous women are agents of change. In doing so, we examine how a human rights based approach might ensure indigenous women’s participatory role and legal status in the international climate change regime, as well as its related programs.

  9. Intimate partner violence and mental ill health among global populations of Indigenous women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowska, Marta; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a major obstacle to the achievement of gender equality and human development. Its adverse physical and mental health consequences have been reported to affect women of all ages and backgrounds. Although Indigenous women seem to experience higher rates of partner abuse than non-Indigenous women, mental health consequences of IPV among this population are not yet clearly established in the literature. This study systematically reviewed the global literature on mental health outcomes and risk factors for mental ill health among Indigenous women who experienced IPV. Primary quantitative and mixed methods studies that reported about mental health and IPV among Indigenous women (aged 14+) were included. 21 bibliographic databases were searched until January 2017. Quality of included studies was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Findings are reported according to PRISMA-P 2015. 13 studies were identified. The majority of studies reported very high rates of IPV and high prevalence of mental disorders. The most frequently identified types of IPV were physical and/or sexual violence, verbal aggression, and emotional abuse. The strongest predictor of poor mental health was physical violence. The most commonly reported mental health outcomes were depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite the small number of studies identified, the available evidence suggests that experiences of IPV and mental disorders among Indigenous women are linked and exacerbated by poverty, discrimination, and substance abuse. More research is needed to better understand distributions and presentations of IPV-related mental illness in this population.

  10. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-02-12

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. A linked data set of women aged 20-69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999-2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997-2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995-2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20-69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. There were 28,872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76,831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1,372,823 women (PSR n=1,374,401; QCR n=1955), and 5,062,118 records. Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study highlights the need to include Indigenous status on Pap smear request and report forms in any

  11. Violence and Means to Counteract Power: a View to Migrant Indigenous Women in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara María Lara Flores

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analizes the conditions in which women farmers incorporate into México’s exports processes. This sector has a great need of labour at the national level, which in turn brings about many migration fluxes in which indigenous women play an important role. The study shows how this feminine incorporation into the labour market triggers gender as well as ethnic inequalities that manifest themselves in a segmentation within the branches and sectors of the national economy. Also, the article describes the means to which indigenous women turn to in order to counteract the actual and symbolic violence they are submitted to.

  12. Marginalization and health service coverage among indigenous, rural, and urban populations: a public health problem in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, José; Álvarez, Marsela; Carrasco, María; Guarneros, Noé; Ledesma, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Chávez, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

      Marginalization is a significant issue in Mexico, involving a lack of access to health services with differential impacts on Indigenous, rural and urban populations. The objective of this study was to understand Mexico’s public health problem across three population areas, Indigenous, rural and urban, in relation to degree of marginalization and health service coverage.   The sampling universe of the study consisted of 107 458 geographic locations in the country. The study was retrospective, comparative and confirmatory. The study applied analysis of variance, parametric and non-parametric, correlation and correspondence analyses.   Significant differences were identified between the Indigenous, rural and urban populations with respect to their level of marginalization and access to health services. The most affected area was Indigenous, followed by rural areas. The sector that was least affected was urban.   Although health coverage is highly concentrated in urban areas in Mexico, shortages are mostly concentrated in rural areas where Indigenous groups represent the extreme end of marginalization and access to medical coverage. Inadequate access to health services in the Indigenous and rural populations throws the gravity of the public health problem into relief.

  13. High rates of albuminuria but not of low eGFR in Urban Indigenous Australians: the DRUID Study

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    Zimmet Paul Z

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have an incidence of end stage kidney disease 8-10 times higher than non-Indigenous Australians. The majority of research studies concerning Indigenous Australians have been performed in rural or remote regions, whilst the majority of Indigenous Australians actually live in urban settings. We studied prevalence and factors associated with markers of kidney disease in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort, and compared results with those for the general Australian population. Methods 860 Indigenous adult participants of the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID Study were assessed for albuminuria (urine albumin-creatinine ratio≥2.5 mg/mmol males, ≥3.5 mg/mmol females and low eGFR (estimated glomular filtration rate 2. Associations between risk factors and kidney disease markers were explored. Comparison was made with the AusDiab cohort (n = 8,936 aged 25-64 years, representative of the general Australian adult population. Results A high prevalence of albuminuria (14.8% was found in DRUID, whilst prevalence of low eGFR was 2.4%. Older age, higher HbA1c, hypertension, higher C-reactive protein and current smoking were independently associated with albuminuria on multiple regression. Low eGFR was independently associated with older age, hypertension, albuminuria and higher triglycerides. Compared to AusDiab participants, DRUID participants had a 3-fold higher adjusted risk of albuminuria but not of low eGFR. Conclusions Given the significant excess of ESKD observed in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous Australians, these findings could suggest either: albuminuria may be a better prognostic marker of kidney disease than low eGFR; that eGFR equations may be inaccurate in the Indigenous population; a less marked differential between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians for ESKD rates in urban compared to remote regions; or that differences in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease exist

  14. Characterizing gestational weight gain in a cohort of Indigenous Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Sutherland, Kathryn; Collins, Clare E; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2018-05-01

    to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program. 110 pregnant women who either identified as being an Indigenous Australian or as carrying an Indigenous child. measurements included weight and height, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and smoking status, parity and health conditions that may contribute to gestational weight gain, such as hypertensive or diabetic disorders. Compared to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain and based on prepregnancy body mass index, the rate of adequate gestational weight gain in this cohort was very low (15%). 32% of women had inadequate weight gain and 54% had excessive weight gain. The highest rate of excessive gestational weight gain was found in overweight women (74%), with rates of 48% and 50% found in healthy and obese (all classes) categories, respectively. Parity (coefficient 4.5, p<0.01) and hypertension (coefficient 4.8, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with gestational weight gain in mixed model linear regression. few women gained adequate gestational weight gain in this study. Culturally acceptable ways of addressing this issue are needed for this group of women, as inadequate and excessive rates of gestational weight gain have health implications for women and their offspring. a systematic approach to addressing gestational weight gain within antenatal care is required, including asking about diet and exercise, for all women identifying as Indigenous Australian. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender and Ethnicity as Barriers for Development: Indigenous Women, Access to Resources in Ecuador with a Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Radcliffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placing original research undertaken in Ecuador with Kichwa and Tsáchila women, into the Latin American context, the paper addresses the barriers experienced by indigenous women to voice, rights and resources in the context of development programmes. The paper identifies racism, biased knowledges, and entrenched assumptions about women and indigenous people as the primary factors influencing indigenous women’s marginalization. The paper ends with a discussion of indigenous women’s critiques of development, and their recommendations for the future.

  16. Key factors impacting on diagnosis and treatment for vulvar cancer for Indigenous women: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Rawson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    To date, there has been limited research on the topic of vulvar cancer. This paper provides findings from a qualitative study conducted with Indigenous women in East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia on the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment for vulvar cancer. The insights from the study outlined in this paper not only make a contribution to deepening our understanding of the experience of vulvar cancer for Indigenous women, but provide practical recommendations to ensure effective and early engagement for diagnosis and treatment. A qualitative research method was employed through in-depth, open-ended interviews. The participants of the study were a purposive sample of Indigenous women with the condition, health professionals, and Aboriginal health workers. There were a total of 40 participants; with twelve (n = 12) Indigenous women affected with the condition, fourteen (n = 14) Aboriginal Health Workers, ten (n = 10) nurses, three (n = 3) doctors, and one (n = 1) community member. This paper addresses three key issues highlighted by the participants which include the fact that the private nature of the disease makes the condition 'women's business', that there is a sense of shame associated with the condition, and that there is fear and worry generated by the seriousness of the condition. The private nature of the disease and the sense of shame associated with the condition impact upon the diagnosis and treatment for many Indigenous women. In addition, the limitation of resources for health service delivery for East Arnhem Land exacerbates the problems faced by these communities. This paper puts forward suggestions to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment for women affected with the condition.

  17. Urban and architectural risk factors for malaria in indigenous Amazonian settlements in Brazil: a typological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro-Reguillo, Patricia; Thomson-Luque, Richard; Monteiro, Wuelton M; de Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2015-07-22

    In the Amazon, m alaria is highly endemic in indigenous populations, which are often considered one of the last barriers to malaria elimination due to geographic isolation. Although the improvement of housing conditions is a good strategy towards the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, this preventive practice has been barely undertaken in Latin America. An analysis of the architectural and urban features of indigenous Amazonian populations is essential to define and adapt these vector control measures. A total of 32 villages of 29 different ethnicities were studied and mapped by reviewing literature and visual information, and using a geographic information system. The most important architectural and urban characteristics influencing malaria were analysed according to the following categories: number of households and dimensions, supporting area, openings, materials, lifespan and location. Housing typologies found were classified within each of these variables. The results of this typological analysis included an easy-to-handle working template and revealing of features that benefit or hamper the presence of malaria vectors in Amerindians communities. Among risk factors, presence of open eaves, permeable walls, open-side constructions, large number of sleepers indoors, temporary-ephemeral houses, linear villages along stream banks, houseboats villages, poor urban drainage and villages surrounded by anthropogenic environments were highlighted. Indigenous settlements very permissive for anophelines were identified in ethnic groups, such as the Yanomami, Palikur, Paumari, Waimiri-Atroari and Wajãpi. Positive features were also recognized, including opaque and closed houses, large radial villages on bare soil, highly elevated stilted houses and the fire indoors, found among the Yawalapiti, Ashaninka, and Gavião-Parkatejê tribes. However, as Amazonian indigenous settlement typologies vary greatly even among villages of the same ethnic

  18. Diagnosis and treatment for vulvar cancer for indigenous women from East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory: bioethical reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Rawson, Nicole; Adidi, Leonora

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the bioethical issues associated with the diagnosis and treatment of vulvar cancer for Indigenous women in East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. Based on a qualitative study of a vulvar cancer cluster of Indigenous women, the article highlights four main topics of bioethical concern drawn from the findings: informed consent, removal of body parts, pain management, and issues at the interface of Indigenous and Western health care. The article seeks to make a contribution towards Indigenous health and bioethics and bring to light areas of further research.

  19. The current state of Indigenous and Aboriginal women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Cynthia; Skinner, Timothy; Ellis, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    To undertake a systematic review of diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), determining prevalence and impact on maternal and child health outcomes for Indigenous and Aboriginal women. Method: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, DARE, CDSR, PsycINFO, Austhealth and HealthInfoNet were under...

  20. Resituating the ethical gaze: government morality and the local worlds of impoverished Indigenous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L. Tait

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over generations, government policies have impacted upon the lives of Indigenous peoples of Canada in unique and often devastating ways. In this context, Indigenous women who struggle with poverty, mental illness, trauma and substance abuse are among the most vulnerable, as are Indigenous children involved in child welfare systems. Objective. By examining the life history of Wanda, a First Nations woman, this article examines the intergenerational role that government policies play in the lives of impoverished Indigenous women and their families. Questions of moral governance and responsibility and the need for ethical policies are raised. Design. The life narrative presented in this article is part of a larger qualitative research programme that has collected over 100 life histories of Indigenous women with addictions and who have involvement with the child welfare system, as children or adults. Wanda’s life story exemplifies the impact of government policies that is characteristic of vulnerable Indigenous women and draws attention to the lack of ethical standards in government policymaking in child welfare, public health and mental health/addictions. Results. The path to recovery for Canadian Indigenous women in need of treatment for co-occurring mental disorders and substance addiction is too frequently characterized by an inadequate and ever shifting continuum of care. For those who feel intimidated, suspicious or have simply given up on seeking supports, a profound invisibility or forgetting of their struggle exists in areas of government policy and programming provision. Living outside the scope of mental health and addiction priorities, they become visible to the human service sector only if they become pregnant, their parenting draws the attention of child and family services (CFS, they need emergency health care, or are in trouble with the law. The intergenerational cycle of substance abuse, mental illness and poverty is

  1. Resituating the ethical gaze: government morality and the local worlds of impoverished Indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Caroline L

    2013-01-01

    Over generations, government policies have impacted upon the lives of Indigenous peoples of Canada in unique and often devastating ways. In this context, Indigenous women who struggle with poverty, mental illness, trauma and substance abuse are among the most vulnerable, as are Indigenous children involved in child welfare systems. By examining the life history of Wanda, a First Nations woman, this article examines the intergenerational role that government policies play in the lives of impoverished Indigenous women and their families. Questions of moral governance and responsibility and the need for ethical policies are raised. The life narrative presented in this article is part of a larger qualitative research programme that has collected over 100 life histories of Indigenous women with addictions and who have involvement with the child welfare system, as children or adults. Wanda's life story exemplifies the impact of government policies that is characteristic of vulnerable Indigenous women and draws attention to the lack of ethical standards in government policymaking in child welfare, public health and mental health/addictions. The path to recovery for Canadian Indigenous women in need of treatment for co-occurring mental disorders and substance addiction is too frequently characterized by an inadequate and ever shifting continuum of care. For those who feel intimidated, suspicious or have simply given up on seeking supports, a profound invisibility or forgetting of their struggle exists in areas of government policy and programming provision. Living outside the scope of mental health and addiction priorities, they become visible to the human service sector only if they become pregnant, their parenting draws the attention of child and family services (CFS), they need emergency health care, or are in trouble with the law. The intergenerational cycle of substance abuse, mental illness and poverty is commonly associated with child welfare involvement

  2. Rural and indigenous women speak out on the impact of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article describes approach papers, proposed strategies, and closing agreements among those attending the May 1998 Asian Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development (APWLD) among rural, indigenous women (IW). IW spoke of their experiences with globalization. The aim was to examine the effects of deregulation and privatization, liberalization, and global market and foreign monopoly capital on rural, IW in Asia. The expected outcome was an advocacy directive for APWLD in the forthcoming APEC and People's Summit in November 1998. Approach papers included F. N. Burnad's paper on the "Impact of Globalization on Rural Women" and V. Tauli-Corpuz's paper on "Globalization and its Impacts on Indigenous Women: The Philippine Experience." These papers emphasized the multiple roles of women, their increasing resourcefulness which leads to their enslavement, links between globalization and continuing colonization by transnationals and international institutions, access to ancestral resources, and promotion of export led production that threatens food security. Suggested strategies were to mobilize opposition to globalization and greater control over traditional resources and knowledge by IW. Several important questions were raised about nation states, dominant cultures, human rights violations, technology, and the close link between militarization and globalization. Participants agreed to mobilize for effectively resisting and eliminating unjust and unequal systems that exploit and oppress rural, poor, and indigenous people, especially women.

  3. Assessing equitable care for indigenous and afrodescendant women in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arachu Castro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and understand the barriers to equitable care within health care settings that women of ethnic minorities encounter in Latin America and to examine possible strategies for mitigating the issues. METHODS: This was a comprehensive review of the literature from 2000-2015 available from the online databases PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, and SciELO in Spanish, English, and Portuguese, using a keyword search that included the Region and country names. RESULTS: Health provider discrimination against Indigenous and Afrodescendant women is a primary barrier to quality health care access in Latin America. Discrimination is driven by biases against ethnic minority populations, women, and the poor in general. Discriminatory practices can manifest as patient-blaming, purposeful neglect, verbal or physical abuse, disregard for traditional beliefs, and the non-use of Indigenous languages for patient communication. These obstacles prevent delivery of appropriate and timely clinical care, and also produce fear of shame, abuse, or ineffective treatment, which, in addition to financial barriers, deter women from seeking care. CONCLUSIONS: To ensure optimal health outcomes among Indigenous and Afrodescendant women in Latin America, the issue of discrimination in health care settings needs to be understood and addressed as a key driver of inequitable health outcomes. Strategies that target provider behavior alone have limited impact because they do not address women's needs and the context of socioeconomic inequality in which intra-hospital relations are built.

  4. [The household economy: a determinant of maternal death among indigenous women in Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Torres, María del Carmen; Cruz Burguete, Jorge Luis; Robledo Hernández, Gabriela Patricia; Montoya Gómez, Guillermo

    2006-02-01

    To assess the determining role of financial situation and gender relations on maternal mortality among Indigenous women in Chiapas, Mexico. A quantitative/qualitative study was performed by means of a survey of 158 families, as well as in-depth interviews of persons linked to cases of maternal death, community leaders from throughout the region, and focal groups composed of traditional birth attendants. Decision-making surrounding women's health within the household is a critical problem because it is entirely in the hands of the husband and his relatives. In cases of high-risk pregnancy or birth, options for seeking care outside the community become limited, so that 48.7% of all obstetric cases are assisted by traditional birth attendants, 45.3% by relatives, and 6% by the mate. The problem is compounded by the high level of marginalization and very low human development index that characterize the region under study, by women's exclusion from the ownership of goods, including land, and by the fact that 97.7% of women only speak indigenous languages. Gender inequities within Indigenous families, together with a household economy that does not cover the basic necessities, are among the factors that keep women from receiving the necessary care during their reproductive processes. Because of the low socioeconomic status these women have, decisions surrounding care during pregnancy, birth, and the puerperium take a large toll on their health and their lives.

  5. Indigenous homelessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...

  6. Empowerment of Indigenous Women in the Federal Capital Territory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's development of the new Federal Capital Territory in the central part of the country named Abuja 8,000 km² in size greatly impacted on all spheres of lives of the host communities. However, the host communities of 845 settlements with over 316,000 people were exposed to urban violence and there was fear that ...

  7. Improving quality of maternal health care for indigenous women in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These networks are designed to coordinate different health providers and services ... and information sharing via community groups, the local press and social media. ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  8. Exercise to Support Indigenous Pregnant Women to Stop Smoking: Acceptability to Māori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vaughan; Glover, Marewa; McCowan, Lesley; Walker, Natalie; Ussher, Michael; Heke, Ihirangi; Maddison, Ralph

    2017-11-01

    Objectives Smoking during pregnancy is harmful for the woman and the unborn child, and the harms raise risks for the child going forward. Indigenous women often have higher rates of smoking prevalence than non-indigenous. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to help pregnant smokers to quit. Māori (New Zealand Indigenous) women have high rates of physical activity suggesting that an exercise programme to aid quitting could be an attractive initiative. This study explored attitudes towards an exercise programme to aid smoking cessation for Māori pregnant women. Methods Focus groups with Māori pregnant women, and key stakeholder interviews were conducted. Results Overall, participants were supportive of the idea of a physical activity programme for pregnant Māori smokers to aid smoking cessation. The principal, over-arching finding, consistent across all participants, was the critical need for a Kaupapa Māori approach (designed and run by Māori, for Māori people) for successful programme delivery, whereby Māori cultural values are respected and infused throughout all aspects of the programme. A number of practical and environmental barriers to attendance were raised including: cost, the timing of the programme, accessibility, transport, and childcare considerations. Conclusions A feasibility study is needed to design an intervention following the suggestions presented in this paper with effort given to minimising the negative impact of barriers to attendance.

  9. Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Clausen, Don; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-14

    Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared.

  10. Factors Associated with Effective Nutrition Interventions for Pregnant Indigenous Women: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Amy M; Brown, Leanne J; Collins, Clare E; Rollo, Megan E; Rae, Kym M

    2017-08-01

    Indigenous people continue to experience health disparities relative to non-Indigenous populations. Interventions to improve nutrition during pregnancy in these groups may improve health outcomes for mothers and their infants. The effectiveness of existing nutrition intervention programs has not been reviewed previously. The objective was to identify interventions targeting improving nutrition-related outcomes for pregnant Indigenous women residing in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, and to identify positive factors contributing to successful programs. Thirteen electronic databases were searched up until October 2015. Key words identified studies intervening to improve nutrition-related outcomes for pregnant Indigenous women. Two reviewers assessed articles for inclusion and study quality and extracted data. Only studies published in English were included. Data were summarized narratively. Abstracts and titles were screened (n=2,566) and 315 full texts were reviewed for eligibility. This review included 27 articles from 20 intervention programs from Australia, Canada, and the United States. The most prevalent measurable outcomes were birth weight (n=9) and breastfeeding initiation/duration (n=11). Programs with statistically significant results for these outcomes employed the following nutrition activities: individual counseling/education (n=8); delivery by senior Indigenous woman (n=2), peer counselor (n=3), or other Indigenous health worker (n=4); community-wide interventions (n=2); media campaigns (n=2); delivery by non-Indigenous health professional (n=3); and home visits (n=3). Heterogeneity of included studies made it challenging to make firm recommendations regarding program success. Authors of included studies recommended community consultation be included when designing studies and working with communities at all stages of the research process. Individualized counseling/education can contribute to successful program

  11. Lead exposure among young urban women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moline Jacqueline M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Blood lead levels have declined among every age group in the United States, but urban minority residents remain at disproportionate risk for elevated lead levels. Our objective was to measure lead burden in young women of childbearing age in New York City. We also describe successful means of recruiting this population into a cohort study. Material and methods. Healthy women aged 18-25 attending a New York City health care center in 1995-1998 were eligible for participation. Participants were recruited by health care providers, the study coordinator and the participants themselves. Venous blood samples were obtained for whole blood lead, ferritin and hematocrit measurements, and detailed questionnaires were administered. Results. 239 women have been recruited to date. The population is predominately minority: 62% African-American, 33% Hispanic and 5% Caucasian/Asian. The average age of participants is 19.3 years. Recruitment of participants into the study is predominantly (55% through "word of mouth" from previously enrolled participants. Few participants learned of the study through their health care providers. The mean blood lead level among study participants is 2.1 ± 1.7 µg/dl, which is consistent with the most recent United States national survey. Conclusions. Blood lead levels are low in young, urban minority women of childbearing age in New York City. In this population, recruitment efforts were substantially enhanced with the help of enrolled participants and the health care community.

  12. INDIGENOUS STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN URBAN RONDÔNIA: THE OMISSION OF PUBLIC POLICY FAILURE OF ETHNIC ORIGINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanubia Sampaio Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the outline of a study that is underway, seeking evidence and question the reality of Indian students in schools not as the situations of indigenous affirmation and omission identity (ethnic belonging in urban public schools in Rondônia. The obtained data show everyday situations that characterize violence and prejudice against students indígenas.Essas and other situations that reveals the interethnic tension remains dormant and can manifest in many different situations. At school, occurs in intercultural interaction. To discuss these and other issues raised in the survey, support for authors who discuss indigenous education, management, public policy, anti-colonialist project, empowerment, autonomy and leadership indigenous perspective of the indigenous movement with Grupioni (2001, Lopes da Silva (2000; D'Angelis (2012; Bergamaschi (2012, Both (2009; Mendonça (2009; Castoriadis (1988; Secchi (2008; Tadeu da Silva (1999 and Paulo Freire (1982 with their outstanding contribution to the dialogue on indigenous education. Keywords: Indian student. Urban school. Prejudice. Omission identity.

  13. HPV Infection and Cervical Screening in Socially Isolated Indigenous Women Inhabitants of the Amazonian Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Taeko, Daniela; Chaves, Thiciane Araújo; Amorim, Lucia Dayanny da Costa; Murari, Raisa Saron Wanderley; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Chen, Zigui; Burk, Robert David; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous women from the Amazon regions have some of the highest rates of cervical cancer in the world. This study evaluated cervical cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) in native women that differ by lifestyle and interaction with western society. Yanomami women are isolated deep in the Amazon with a hunter/gatherer lifestyle. Macuxi and Wapishana women live in proximity to western society. To select a representative group of women from each district, random cluster sampling was used, considering each registered village as a cluster. Cervical samples were collected for cytology and HPV detection and typing by PCR amplification and next generation sequencing. The study was approved by the National IRB and by tribal leaders. 664 native women were enrolled from 13 indigenous villages (76% participation rate). Yanomami women had higher rates of abnormal cytology (5.1% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04) and prevalent HR-HPV (34.1% vs. 19.2%, pYanomami women >35 y of age were significantly more likely to have HR-HPV, whereas women ≤ 35 y did not significantly differ between groups. Prevalence of HPV was significantly different amongst geographically clustered Yanomami women (pYanomami women were more likely to be HPV+ and rates increased with age. Study of HPV in isolated hunter-gather peoples suggests that long-term persistence is a characteristic of prehistoric humans and patterns reflecting decreased prevalence with age in western society represents recent change. These studies have implications for cervical cancer prevention and viral-host relationships.

  14. Secondary analysis of data can inform care delivery for Indigenous women in an acute mental health inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Pat; Cunningham, Teresa; Lowell, Anne; Nagel, Tricia; Dunn, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    There is a paucity of research exploring Indigenous women's experiences in acute mental health inpatient services in Australia. Even less is known of Indigenous women's experience of seclusion events, as published data are rarely disaggregated by both indigeneity and gender. This research used secondary analysis of pre-existing datasets to identify any quantifiable difference in recorded experience between Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, and between Indigenous women and Indigenous men in an acute mental health inpatient unit. Standard separation data of age, length of stay, legal status, and discharge diagnosis were analysed, as were seclusion register data of age, seclusion grounds, and number of seclusion events. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and where warranted, inferential statistical methods used SPSS software to apply analysis of variance/multivariate analysis of variance testing. The results showed evidence that secondary analysis of existing datasets can provide a rich source of information to describe the experience of target groups, and to guide service planning and delivery of individualized, culturally-secure mental health care at a local level. The results are discussed, service and policy development implications are explored, and suggestions for further research are offered. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. HPV Infection and Cervical Screening in Socially Isolated Indigenous Women Inhabitants of the Amazonian Rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex Jardim Fonseca

    Full Text Available Indigenous women from the Amazon regions have some of the highest rates of cervical cancer in the world. This study evaluated cervical cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV in native women that differ by lifestyle and interaction with western society. Yanomami women are isolated deep in the Amazon with a hunter/gatherer lifestyle. Macuxi and Wapishana women live in proximity to western society.To select a representative group of women from each district, random cluster sampling was used, considering each registered village as a cluster. Cervical samples were collected for cytology and HPV detection and typing by PCR amplification and next generation sequencing. The study was approved by the National IRB and by tribal leaders.664 native women were enrolled from 13 indigenous villages (76% participation rate. Yanomami women had higher rates of abnormal cytology (5.1% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04 and prevalent HR-HPV (34.1% vs. 19.2%, p35 y of age were significantly more likely to have HR-HPV, whereas women ≤ 35 y did not significantly differ between groups. Prevalence of HPV was significantly different amongst geographically clustered Yanomami women (p<0.004. The most prevalent HPV types in the entire group were HPV31 (8.7%, HPV16 (5.9% and HPV18 (4.4%.Isolated endogenous Yanomami women were more likely to be HPV+ and rates increased with age. Study of HPV in isolated hunter-gather peoples suggests that long-term persistence is a characteristic of prehistoric humans and patterns reflecting decreased prevalence with age in western society represents recent change. These studies have implications for cervical cancer prevention and viral-host relationships.

  16. Community-based health care for indigenous women in Mexico: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Ruiz, Myriam; Meneses, Sergio; Amaya, Claudia; Márquez, Margarita; Taboada, Arianna; Careaga, Katherine

    2014-01-06

    Indigenous women in Mexico represent a vulnerable population in which three kinds of discrimination converge (ethnicity, gender and class), having direct repercussions on health status. The discrimination and inequity in health care settings brought this population to the fore as a priority group for institutional action. The objective of this study was to evaluate the processes and performance of the "Casa de la Mujer Indígena", a community based project for culturally and linguistically appropriate service delivery for indigenous women. The evaluation summarizes perspectives from diverse stakeholders involved in the implementation of the model, including users, local authorities, and institutional representatives. The study covered five Casas implementation sites located in four Mexican states. A qualitative process evaluation focused on systematically analyzing the Casas project processes and performance was conducted using archival information and semi-structured interviews. Sixty-two interviews were conducted, and grounded theory approach was applied for data analysis. Few similarities were observed between the proposed model of service delivery and its implementation in diverse locations, signaling discordant operating processes. Evidence gathered from Casas personnel highlighted their ability to detect obstetric emergencies and domestic violence cases, as well as contribute to the empowerment of women in the indigenous communities served by the project. These themes directly translated to increases in the reporting of abuse and referrals for obstetric emergencies. The model's cultural and linguistic competency, and contributions to increased referrals for obstetric emergencies and abuse are notable successes. The flexibility and community-based nature of the model has allowed it to be adapted to the particularities of diverse indigenous contexts. Local, culturally appropriate implementation has been facilitated by the fact that the Casas have been

  17. Heritage Conservation and Urban Landscaping of Ancient Pan Pool Neighborhood, Qufu: a Historical and Indigenous Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gu Pan Pool neighborhood got its name because of Gu Pan Chi, (古泮池,the ancient Pan Pool, located in the southeastern part of Confucius’ birthplace, Qufu, the birth place of Confucius with a history of 3000 year. Gu Pan Pool has been recently under preservation with the joint efforts of World Bank cultural heritage conservation project and the local municipal government. With disparate interests in mind, the three stakeholders of heritage, the world bank, Qufu municipal government and local residents are contradictory with each other in the regeneration process, in which the local voices are often ignored. The purpose of this paper is to rethink heritage making from a historical and indigenous perspective in the contemporary Chinese urban historic landscape planning process. The author contends that the cultural value and pluralism embedded in the ritual way of thinking in Chinese Classics inherited and transmitted for thousands of years could be an alternative way of thinking for the landscape planning practices in the homogenizing culture of global capitalism. This research aims to reinterpret and re-activate Confucianism as cultural heritage to enrich the understanding and hence the sustainability related to human action in urban spaces with emphasis on planning processes in contemporary China.

  18. The impact of an indigenous proverb on women's mental health: A phenomenological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Seepaneng S; Mulaudzi, Fhumulani M; Heyns, Tanya

    2015-11-23

    Proverbs and idioms represent cultural and societal beliefs and values inherited from the forefathers. An example is lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi. Over many decades African people have used such ancient instructions to counsel women to be resilient in their marriages thus impacting on their mental health. The purpose of this article was to explore and describe that proverb and its impact on women's mental health. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore and describe the prover band its impact on indigenous women's mental health. The population included married, divorced, widowed and single women who were attending social clubs or networks in the cities of Tshwane and Johannesburg. Snowball and purposive sampling was used to select 57 participants. Five face-to-face interviews and eight focus groups interviews were conducted. Colaizzi's data analysis method was used to analyse data. Oppression and stigmatisation of women and their families and harmful effects that may result in death were identified as having an impact on women's mental health. Some women shared that they were oppressed in many ways. In addition, they feared stigmatisation should they wish to divorce. They constantly lived in fear of being harmed or killed by their spouses. There was a need for nurses to develop awareness regarding cultural issues so that women are better served in primary healthcare settings. Women who are suspected of experiencing abuse, should be screened for abuse so that they can be assisted accordingly.

  19. Chronological narratives from smoking initiation through to pregnancy of Indigenous Australian women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-01

    One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Social Integration and Domestic Violence Support in an Indigenous Community: Women's Recommendations of Formal Versus Informal Sources of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, G Robin; Francisco, Sara C; Khan, Bilal; Dombrowski, Kirk

    2018-05-01

    Throughout North America, indigenous women experience higher rates of intimate partner violence and sexual violence than any other ethnic group, and so it is of particular importance to understand sources of support for Native American women. In this article, we use social network analysis to study the relationship between social integration and women's access to domestic violence support by examining the recommendations they would give to another woman in need. We ask two main questions: First, are less integrated women more likely to make no recommendation at all when compared with more socially integrated women? Second, are less integrated women more likely than more integrated women to nominate a formal source of support rather than an informal one? We use network data collected from interviews with 158 Canadian women residing in an indigenous community to measure their access to support. We find that, in general, less integrated women are less likely to make a recommendation than more integrated women. However, when they do make a recommendation, less integrated women are more likely to recommend a formal source of support than women who are more integrated. These results add to our understanding of how access to two types of domestic violence support is embedded in the larger set of social relations of an indigenous community.

  1. Severe menopausal symptoms in mid-aged Latin American women can be related to their indigenous ethnic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, E; Monterrosa, A; Blümel, J E; Escobar-López, J; Chedraui, P

    2011-02-01

    Latin American women present more severe menopausal symptoms when compared to those from other regions of the world. Since this population is an ethnic blend of Caucasian and indigenous people, we sought to test the hypothesis that severe menopausal symptoms in Latin American women are associated with an indigenous origin. To assess menopausal symptoms among two specific indigenous Latin American populations. A total of 573 natural postmenopausal indigenous women aged 45-59 years (288 Quechua (Peru) and 285 Zenú (Colombia)) living in isolated communities were surveyed with a general questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The total MRS score was significantly higher among Quechua women as compared to Zenú ones (22.7 ± 5.7 vs. 14.7 ± 2.5, p Quechua women presented more intense somatic and psychological symptoms as compared to Zenú (8.8 ± 2.3 vs. 5.3 ± 1.8; and 7.8 ± 2.4 vs. 3.2 ± 1.7, p Quechua. This was not the case for Zenú women. More than 90% of indigenous women (Quechua and Zenú) at all age intervals presented severe urogenital scores, a percentage that is much higher than that described in the world literature. Severe menopausal symptoms found among Latin American women could be the result of their indigenous ethnic origin; the urogenital domain is the most affected.

  2. From object to subject: hybrid identities of indigenous women in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    The use of hybridity today suggests a less coherent, unified and directed process than that found in the Enlightenment science's cultural imperialism, but regardless of this neither concept exists outside power and inequality. Hence, hybridity raises the question of the terms of the mixture and the conditions of mixing. Cultural hybridity produced by colonisation, under the watchful eye of science at the time, and the subsequent life in a modern world since does not obscure the power that was embedded in the moment of colonisation. Indigenous identities are constructed within and by cultural power. While we all live in a global society whose consequences no one can escape, we remain unequal participants and globalisation remains an uneven process. This article argues that power has become a constitutive element in our own hybrid identities in indigenous people's attempts to participate in science and science education. Using the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand (called Māori) as a site of identity construction, I argue that the move from being the object of science to the subject of science, through science education in schools, brings with it traces of an earlier meaning of `hybridity' that constantly erupts into the lives of Māori women scientists.

  3. I've got a feeling: Urban and rural indigenous children's beliefs about early life mentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Natalie A; Kelemen, Deborah A

    2015-10-01

    This cross-cultural investigation explored children's reasoning about their mental capacities during the earliest period of human physical existence--the prenatal period. For comparison, children's reasoning about the observable period of infancy was also examined. A total of 283 5- to 12-year-olds from two distinct cultures (urban Ecuador and rural indigenous Shuar) participated. Across cultures, children distinguished the fetal period from infancy, attributing fewer capacities to fetuses. However, for both the infancy and fetal periods, children from both cultures privileged the functioning of emotions and desires over epistemic states (i.e., abilities for thought and memory). Children's justifications to questions about fetal mentality revealed that although epistemic states were generally regarded as requiring physical maturation to function, emotions and desires were seen as functioning as a de facto result of prenatal existence and in response to the prospect of future birth and being part of a social group. These results show that from early in development, children across cultures possess nuanced beliefs about the presence and functioning of mental capacities. Findings converge with recent results to suggest that there is an early arising bias to view emotions and desires as the essential inviolable core of human mentality. The current findings have implications for understanding the role that emerging cognitive biases play in shaping conceptions of human mentality across different cultures. They also speak to the cognitive foundations of moral beliefs about fetal rights. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nigerian Urban Women's Use of Information Media: The Challenges for Women in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwafor, Oby Maureen; Akubue, Felicia N.

    2008-01-01

    The study surveyed urban women's use of information media and drew attention to the implications for women in leadership positions and non-formal education. A questionnaire containing structured and unstructured items was administered to 300 women resident at Nsukka urban town Enugu State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty-five usable copies were…

  5. Confidence and connectedness: Indigenous Māori women's views on personal safety in the context of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise; Jackson, Debra; Herd, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Māori (New Zealand) women, similar to women belonging to Indigenous and minority groups globally, have high levels of lifetime abuse, assault, and homicide, and are over-represented in events that compromise their safety. We sought insights into how Māori women view safety. Twenty Māori women's narratives revealed safety as a holistic concept involving a number of different elements. We found women had developed an acute sense of the concept of safety. They had firm views and clear strategies to maintain their own safety and that of their female family and friends. These women also provided insights into their experiences of feeling unsafe.

  6. Is the indigenous school gendered? Investigation about the life of Xakriabá women and female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Aline Vale Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The schooling and literacy process among the indigenous people Xakriabá in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is analyzed through the gender perspective. Statistical data on the indigenous school of the Xakriabá people and brief descriptions of their daily life are forwarded. Investigation demonstrates that, although the Xakriabá indigene school and the Brazilian non-indigene school converge with regard to better schooling progress in women and to the feminization of the professorship (although not in hierarchical commanding posts, different meanings exist within the schooling process and literacy. In fact, they were installed within contexts with specific social, cultural and economical dynamics.

  7. The Effect of Schooling on Social Contacts of Urban Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helena Znaniecki

    1973-01-01

    Data derived from a study on two groups of women, housewives and married working women, and widows over 50, was examined for the association between social relationships and formal schooling. The conclusion is that urbanization and industrialization trends make formal education a major requirement for the social engagement of women. (Author/KM)

  8. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN THE HEALTH HOME OF THE INDIGENOUS WOMEN “MANOS UNIDAS” (“UNITED HANDS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cecilia Carrillo-De la Cruz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes from a gender perspective, the process of empowerment of indigenous women participating in the Health House "Manos Unidas", located in the Coastal- Mountainous region of Guerrero, Mexico. Research is based on the approach of Rowlands (1997 and focuses on the personal, collective and close relations dimensions in the fields of Leadership and Decision Making. The methodology is based on observation, interviews and accounts of those who were employed as promoters, midwives and/or coordinators in that organization, and living with a partner - Spouse under civil or religious or "cohabitation" Rituals. More than ten years of activities have passed and it is observed a process towards empowering women, who depends heavily on personal and individual experiences, their intervention in the organization and training support from the gender perspective.

  9. Elder women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health: a constructivist grounded-theory study with an Indigenous community in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sujane; Vanstone, Meredith; Oremus, Mark; Hill, Trista; Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Davis, A Darlene; Jacobs, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; Anand, Sonia Savitri

    2017-05-18

    Women play important roles in translating health knowledge, particularly around pregnancy and birth, in Indigenous societies. We investigated elder Indigenous women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health. Using a methodological framework that integrated a constructivist grounded-theory approach with an Indigenous epistemology, we conducted and analyzed in-depth interviews and focus groups with women from the Six Nations community in southern Ontario who self-identified as grandmothers. Our purposive sampling strategy was guided by a Six Nations advisory group and included researcher participation in a variety of local gatherings as well as personalized invitations to specific women, either face-to-face or via telephone. Three focus groups and 7 individual interviews were conducted with 18 grandmothers. The participants' experiences converged on 3 primary beliefs: pregnancy is a natural phase, pregnancy is a sacred period for the woman and the unborn child, and the requirements of immunity, security (trust), comfort, social development and parental responsibility are necessary for optimal postnatal health. Participants also identified 6 communal responsibilities necessary for families to raise healthy children: access to healthy and safe food, assurance of strong social support networks for mothers, access to resources for postnatal support, increased opportunities for children to participate in physical activity, more teachings around the impact of maternal behaviours during pregnancy and more teachings around spirituality/positive thinking. We also worked with the Six Nations community on several integrated knowledge-translation elements, including collaboration with an Indigenous artist to develop a digital story (short film). Elder women are a trusted and knowledgeable group who are able to understand and incorporate multiple sources of knowledge and deliver it in culturally meaningful ways. Thus, tailoring public health programming to include elder women

  10. Young Women's Scientific Identity Formation in an Urban Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Potter, Jennifer T.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the scientific identity formation of two young women of color who attended an urban vocational high school. Describes how the experience of marginalization can make membership in a science school community impossible or undesirable. (Author/MM)

  11. Everyday urban public space : Turkish immigrant women's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünlü Yücesoy, E.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the use, experience, and appropriation of everyday urban public spaces by Turkish immigrant women living in Enschede, the Netherlands. Based on the two premises of conceptualizing the urban public space as a social construct and of valorizing users as social actors, the main

  12. Teenage pregnancy and long-term mental health outcomes among Indigenous women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Chloé G; Brown, Hilary K; Benoit, Anita C

    2017-11-22

    Our objectives were to (1) compare the risks for poor long-term mental health outcomes among indigenous women with and without a teenage pregnancy and (2) determine if community and cultural factors modify this risk. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Respondents were women aged 25 to 49 years who had given birth to at least one child. Teenage mothers (age at first birth 13 to 19 years; n = 1330) were compared to adult mothers (age at first birth 20 years or older; n = 2630). Mental health outcomes were psychological distress, mental health status, suicide ideation/attempt, and alcohol consumption. To address objective 1, we used binary logistic regression analyses before and after controlling for covariates. To address objective 2, we tested the significance of interaction terms between teenage pregnancy status and effect measure modifiers. In unadjusted analyses, teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risk for poor/fair mental health [odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.53] and suicide attempt/ideation (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.07-3.54). However, the associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and health covariates. Teenage pregnancy was not associated with increased risk for high psychological distress or heavy alcohol consumption in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. The interaction term for involvement in cultural activities was statistically significant for poor/fair mental health; however, after stratification, ORs were non-significant. Among indigenous mothers, teenage pregnancy was less important than broader social and health circumstances in predicting long-term mental health.

  13. Food restrictions during pregnancy among Indigenous Temiar women in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifah Zahhura, S A; Nilan, P; Germov, J

    2012-08-01

    A qualitative comparative case study was conducted to compare and contrast food taboos and avoidance practices during pregnancy among Orang Asli or indigenous Temiar women in four distinct locations that represent different lifestyle experiences and cultural practices. Through snowballing sampling, a total of 38 participants took part in five focus groups: one group each in Pos Simpor and Pos Tohoi in Kelantan state, one group in Batu 12, Gombak in Selangor state, and two groups in a regroupment scheme (RPSOA) in Kuala Betis, Kelantan. All the transcripts were coded, categorised and 'thematised' using the software package for handling qualitative data, NVivo 8. Variant food prohibitions were recorded among the Temiar women residing in different locations, which differ in food sources and ways of obtaining food. Consumption of seventeen types of food items was prohibited for a pregnant Temiar woman and her husband during the prenatal period. Fear of difficulties during labour and delivery, convulsions or sawan, harming the baby (such as foetal malformation), and twin pregnancy seemed to trigger many food proscriptions for the pregnant Temiar women, most of which have been passed on from generation to generation. The findings of this study confirm that beliefs about food restrictions are strong among those Temiar living a traditional lifestyle. However, those who have adopted a more modern lifestyle also preserve them to some extent.

  14. Discursive geographies in science: space, identity, and scientific discourse among indigenous women in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2008-09-01

    Despite completing undergraduate degrees in the life sciences, few Indigenous women choose to pursue careers in scientific research. To help us understand how American Indian students engage with science, this ethnographic research describes (1) how four Navajo women identified with science, and (2) the narratives they offered when we discussed their experiences with scientific discourse. Using intensive case studies to describe the experiences of these women, my research focused on their final year of undergraduate study in the life sciences at a university in southwestern US. I point to the processes by which the participants align themselves with ideas, practices, groups, or people in science. As each participant recounted her experiences with scientific discourse, they recreated for me a discursive geography of their lives on the reservation, at home, at community colleges (in some cases), and on the university campus. In the construction and analysis of the narratives for this research, mapping this geography was critical to understanding each participant's discursive relationship with science. In these discursive spaces, I observed productive "locations of possibility" in which students and their instructors: valued connected knowing; acknowledged each other's history, culture, and knowledge; began to speak to each other subject-to-subject; and challenged normative views of schooling. I argue that this space, as a location of possibility, has the power to transform the crushing impersonalized schooling that often characterizes "rigorous" scientific programs in a research institution.

  15. Whole Blood ω-3 Fatty Acids Are Inversely Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Indigenous Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Adriana; Harris, William S; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Yunes, Elsa; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Catzin-Kuhlmann, Andres; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Lajous, Martín

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. The association between n-3 PUFAs and cardiovascular disease may vary across different populations, and there is limited information on Hispanic individuals with mixed Amerindian and European origin. We evaluated the cross-sectional relations between whole blood n-3 PUFAs and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Mexican women living in Mexico and assessed whether this relation was different in women who spoke an indigenous language compared with women who did not. In 2012-2013, we assessed the association between blood n-3 PUFAs and IMT in 1306 women free of disease in Chiapas and Yucatan, Mexico. We categorized blood n-3 PUFAs (% of total FAs) in quartiles and adjusted linear regression models by age, indigenous language, site, socioeconomic status, education, smoking, menopause, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, physical activity, and diet. We stratified analyses by indigenous/nonindigenous language speakers (n = 315 of 991). Whole blood n-3 PUFAs (means ± SDs) were 3.58% ± 0.78% of total FAs. We did not observe a significant association between n-3 PUFAs and IMT in the overall study population. However, the adjusted mean difference of IMT was -6.5% (95% CI: -10.7%, -2.3%; P-trend women in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of blood n-3 PUFAs. In nonindigenous women, we did not observe an association (-0.6%; 95% CI: -3.0%, 1.8%, comparing extreme quartiles; P-trend = 1.00). Overall, circulating n-3 PUFAs were not associated with IMT. However, we observed a strong statistically significant inverse association with IMT in indigenous Mexican women. Future studies should evaluate genetic markers that may reflect differences in n-3 PUFA metabolism across populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. [Social determinants of health associated to the human immunodeficiency virus of indigenous women in north Oaxaca, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Martínez, Berenice; Castillo-Arcos, Lubia Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may increase based on specific social determinants of health, which can also affect the lack of adherence to a safe sexual behavior and access to antiretroviral treatment in indigenous women. Consequently, it is necessary to review, through a documentary study, what are those determinants in the case of a group of indigenous women from the North of Oaxaca and how these aspects affect those women, as well as the important role of nursing for the best approach. Social determinants are classified into 3 levels: macro (socioeconomic status, income, migration and education), meso (culture, gender and access to health services) and micro (lifestyles and adoption of safe sex). Indigenous women with limited resources become easy targets of HIV by engaging in risky sexual behaviors inadvertently. The nurse is a key professional who can influence behaviors of women through effective interventions that help foster self-confidence and empowerment, using the resources that the person possesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Household food insecurity, diet quality, and weight status among indigenous women (Mah Meri) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Chong Su; Appannah, Geeta; Sulaiman, Norhasmah

    2018-04-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed household food security status and determined its association with diet quality and weight status among indigenous women from the Mah Meri tribe in Peninsular Malaysia. The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument and the Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (HEI) were used to assess household food security status and diet quality, respectively. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected through face-to-face interview, and anthropometric measurements including weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from 222 women. Majority of households (82.9%) experienced different levels of food insecurity: 29.3% household food insecurity, 23.4% individual food insecurity, and 30.2% fell into the child hunger group. The food-secure group had significantly fewer children and smaller household sizes than the food-insecure groups ( P diet, while food insecurity at the household level was associated with higher body weight. Therefore, a substantial effort by all stakeholders is warranted to improve food insecurity among poorer households. The results suggest a pressing need for nutritional interventions to improve dietary intake among low income households.

  18. High prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus infection in indigenous women from the peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Magaly M; Alva, Isaac E; García, Patricia J; Cárcamo, Cesar; Montano, Silvia M; Mori, Nicanor; Muñante, Ricardo; Zunt, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier study, we detected an association between human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) in indigenous Amazonian Peruvian women of the Shipibo-Konibo ethnic group. As both HTLV and HPV can be transmitted sexually, we now report a population-based study examining the prevalence and risk factors for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection in this population. Between July and December 2010, we conducted a comprehensive screening for HTLV among Shipibo-Konibo women 15 to 39 years of age living in two communities located in Lima and in 17 communities located within four hours by car or boat from the Amazonian city of Pucallpa in Peru. We screened 1,253 Shipibo-Konibo women for HTLV infection 74 (5.9%) tested positive for HTLV-1, 47 (3.8%) for HTLV-2 infection, and 4 (0.3%) had indeterminate results. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with HTLV-1 infection included: older age (Prevalence Ratio (PR): 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), primary education or less (PR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.25-3.24), younger or same age most recent sex partner (PR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.00-2.74), and having a most recent sex partner who worked at a logging camp (PR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.09-2.75). The only factor associated with HTLV-2 infection was older age (PR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12). HTLV infection is endemic among Shipibo-Konibo women. Two characteristics of the sexual partner (younger age and labor history) were associated with infection in women. These results suggest the need for implementation of both HTLV screening during the antenatal healthcare visits of Shipibo-Konibo women, and counseling about the risk of HTLV transmission through prolonged breastfeeding in infected women. We also recommend the implementation of prevention programs to reduce sexual transmission of these viruses.

  19. High prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus infection in indigenous women from the peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly M Blas

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, we detected an association between human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV in indigenous Amazonian Peruvian women of the Shipibo-Konibo ethnic group. As both HTLV and HPV can be transmitted sexually, we now report a population-based study examining the prevalence and risk factors for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection in this population.Between July and December 2010, we conducted a comprehensive screening for HTLV among Shipibo-Konibo women 15 to 39 years of age living in two communities located in Lima and in 17 communities located within four hours by car or boat from the Amazonian city of Pucallpa in Peru.We screened 1,253 Shipibo-Konibo women for HTLV infection 74 (5.9% tested positive for HTLV-1, 47 (3.8% for HTLV-2 infection, and 4 (0.3% had indeterminate results. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with HTLV-1 infection included: older age (Prevalence Ratio (PR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08, primary education or less (PR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.25-3.24, younger or same age most recent sex partner (PR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.00-2.74, and having a most recent sex partner who worked at a logging camp (PR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.09-2.75. The only factor associated with HTLV-2 infection was older age (PR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12.HTLV infection is endemic among Shipibo-Konibo women. Two characteristics of the sexual partner (younger age and labor history were associated with infection in women. These results suggest the need for implementation of both HTLV screening during the antenatal healthcare visits of Shipibo-Konibo women, and counseling about the risk of HTLV transmission through prolonged breastfeeding in infected women. We also recommend the implementation of prevention programs to reduce sexual transmission of these viruses.

  20. (Not) getting political: indigenous women and preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in West Papua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Jenny; McIntyre, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This paper builds on critiques that call for a more nuanced and contextualised understanding of conditions that affect HIV prevention by looking at West Papuan women's experiences of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. Drawing on qualitative, ethnographic research with indigenous women and health workers, the paper demonstrates that women experience poor-quality HIV education and counselling, and that indigenous practices and concerns are largely not addressed by HIV services. We attribute this to a combination of national anti-indigenous and anti-separatist political concerns with donor-led interventions that result in limited localisation and reduced effectiveness of HIV prevention measures. In West Papua, services are needed that enhance cooperation and shared commitment, and that acknowledge and work to overcome existing inequalities, ethnic tensions and discrimination in the health system. Beyond Indonesia, donor-led HIV programmes and interventions need to balance avoidance of politically sensitive issues with complicity in perpetuating health inequalities. Translating global health interventions and donor priorities into locally compelling HIV prevention activities involves more than navigating local cultural and religious beliefs. Programme development and implementation strategies that entail confronting structural questions as well as social hierarchies, cleavages and silences are needed to render more effective services; strategies that are inherently political.

  1. The experience of relocation for specialist treatment for Indigenous women diagnosed with vulvar cancer in East Arnhem Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Rawson, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a serious condition that requires a range of specialist treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. In Australia, such treatments are only available in major metropolitan hospitals. Thus, women diagnosed with this condition in rural and remote areas must relocate to the metropolitan specialist centers for treatment. The focus of this article is on the experience of relocation for specialist care for Indigenous women diagnosed with vulvar cancer from East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. The findings presented in this article explore a range of issues that affect the experience of relocation such as community concerns, cultural distress, loneliness, fear, worry, and physical concerns associated with the condition.

  2. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  3. Attrition of Women Business Majors in an Urban Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Janice M.

    2004-01-01

    Identified intervention protocols that could help reduce the attrition of women business majors at an urban community college. Review of academic progress data and data from student surveys which examined students' reasons for leaving the institution indicated that there was a need for support mechanisms throughout the freshman year and extending…

  4. The Role of the Family and Women Under Contemporary Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Suzanne; Seymour, Lee

    This paper examines how selected aspects of contemporary urban environment influence the form and function of the family and the position of women within the family and within society. The study was undertaken within the framework of Marxian analysis and with a specific focus on how advanced industrial capitalism perpetuates the family in its…

  5. Postpartum Depression Among Igbo Women In An Urban Mission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Postpartum depression adversely affects mothers, their newborn infants, their partners and the society. Its timely diagnosis is highly desirable. Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated sociodemographic variables of Postpartum depression among women of Igbo Ethnic origin attending an urban mission ...

  6. Young women's scientific identity formation in an urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Potter, Jennifer T.

    2001-10-01

    In this article we examine the scientific identity formation of two young women of color who attend an urban vocational high school. One young woman lives in an urban setting, while the other lives in a suburban setting. We describe how these young women's identities influence and respond to experiences in school science. In particular, we describe how the experience of marginalization can make membership in a school science community impossible or undesirable. We also describe the advantages that accrue to students who fit well with the ideal identities of an urban school. Finally, we describe some of the difficulties students face who aspire to scientific or technological competence yet do not desire to take on aspects of the identities associated with membership in school science communities.

  7. “It will always continue unless we can change something”: consequences of intimate partner violence for indigenous women, children, and families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Burnette

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against indigenous women and girls is endemic, yet the absence of research on the consequences of this violence from the perspectives of women presents a profound barrier to the development of knowledge, along with violence prevention and mitigation. Although family is central to many indigenous communities, existing research typically examines the consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV on women or children in isolation, rather than examining its consequences holistically. Objective: The purpose of this article is to identify US indigenous women's perspectives about the impact of IPV on women, children, and families. Method: Data were collected with 29 indigenous women affected by violence from a Southeastern tribe in the United States. As part of a larger critical ethnography, pragmatic horizon analysis of life history interviews revealed the consequences of IPV across multiple levels. Results: Women reported profound psychological consequences resulting from IPV. The majority of women had witnessed IPV in their childhood, providing support for an intergenerational cycle of violence. Women reported psychological consequences on children, which paralleled those reported by women, leaving deep impressions on children across their life course. Consequences on children and whole families were extensive, indicating the negative ramifications of IPV transcended personal boundaries and affected children and families across multiple generations. Conclusions: Given the tight-knit nature of indigenous families and communities, the consequences across individuals and families were noteworthy. However, a dearth in research examining consequences of IPV across levels fails to capture the interconnections of consequences for women, children, and families. Given the centrality of family in many indigenous communities, examining IPV from a holistic perspective that incorporates multiple levels is recommended for IPV research and

  8. HIV prevention in single, urban women: condom-use readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison-Beedy, D; Lewis, B P

    2001-01-01

    To understand women's readiness to use condoms and their perceived pros and cons for condom use. Comparative, descriptive design guided by the Transtheoretical Model. Data were collected at two urban primary health care centers in western New York. 364 single urban women with steady (main) or other (casual, concurrent, multiple, new) sexual partners. Most participants were young (mean age of 27 years), economically disadvantaged women of color. Each participant completed an anonymous questionnaire that included items for the stage of change algorithm, decisional balance of the pros and cons of condom use, sexual history, and HIV risk information. Most women were in the early stages of change (not intending to use condoms), but those with other partners were further along in the stages of change for condom use than those with steady partners. The pros or advantages of condom use differed for these women depending on partner type. The change in the balance between the pros and cons occurred as theoretically predicted for women with steady and other partners. Effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for women may be enhanced if they are tailored to both readiness to change and partner type.

  9. Utilization of maternal health care services among indigenous women in Bangladesh: A study on the Mru tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rakibul M

    2017-01-01

    Despite startling developments in maternal health care services, use of these services has been disproportionately distributed among different minority groups in Bangladesh. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with the use of these services among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh. A total of 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed using convenience sampling from three administrative sub-districts of the Bandarban district from June to August of 2009. Associations were assessed using Chi-square tests, and a binary logistic regression model was employed to explore factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. Among the women surveyed, 30% had ever visited maternal health care services in the Mru community, a very low proportion compared with mainstream society. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that place of residence, religion, school attendance, place of service provided, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media were factors significantly associated with the use of maternal health care services among Mru women. Considering indigenous socio-cultural beliefs and practices, comprehensive community-based outreach health programs are recommended in the community with a special emphasis on awareness through maternal health education and training packages for the Mru adolescents.

  10. Designing an implementation intervention with the Behaviour Change Wheel for health provider smoking cessation care for Australian Indigenous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Bovill, Michelle; Atkins, Lou; Gruppetta, Maree; Clarke, Marilyn J; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-15

    Indigenous smoking rates are up to 80% among pregnant women: prevalence among pregnant Australian Indigenous women was 45% in 2014, contributing significantly to the health gap for Indigenous Australians. We aimed to develop an implementation intervention to improve smoking cessation care (SCC) for pregnant Indigenous smokers, an outcome to be achieved by training health providers at Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) in a culturally competent approach, developed collaboratively with AMS. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), incorporating the COM-B model (capability, opportunity and motivation for behavioural interventions), provided a framework for the development of the Indigenous Counselling and Nicotine (ICAN) QUIT in Pregnancy implementation intervention at provider and patient levels. We identified evidence-practice gaps through (i) systematic literature reviews, (ii) a national survey of clinicians and (iii) a qualitative study of smoking and quitting with Aboriginal mothers. We followed the three stages recommended in Michie et al.'s "Behaviour Change Wheel" guide. Targets identified for health provider behaviour change included the following: capability (psychological capability, knowledge and skills) by training clinicians in pharmacotherapy to assist women to quit; motivation (optimism) by presenting evidence of effectiveness, and positive testimonials from patients and clinicians; and opportunity (environmental context and resources) by promoting a whole-of-service approach and structuring consultations using a flipchart and prompts. Education and training were selected as the main intervention functions. For health providers, the delivery mode was webinar, to accommodate time and location constraints, bringing the training to the services; for patients, face-to-face consultations were supported by a booklet embedded with videos to improve patients' capability, opportunity and motivation. The ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy was an intervention to train health

  11. Indians Weaving in Cyberspace Indigenous Urban Youth Cultures, Identities and Politics of Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Quispe, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing how contemporary urban Aymara youth hip hoppers and bloggers are creating their identities and are producing discourses in texts and lyrics to contest racist and colonial discourses. The research is situated in Bolivia, which is currently engaged in a cultural and political revolution supported by Indigenous…

  12. Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juin 2016 ... The research examines the role women play in marketing urban waste as a commercial enterprise and their important contribution to municipal recyclable waste activities. This book ... De courts téléromans pour encourager l'éducation financière et l'inclusion des femmes au Pérou. Le fait de ne pas avoir ...

  13. women's access to emerging urban land in the sissala east district

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The evidence shows that though women do access and hold urban land rights through purchase, they ..... More married women own land than unmarried women. ... satisfied with her” (UNCHS-Habitat, 2001). ... nerative jobs as shown in Fig.

  14. Family food work: lessons learned from urban Aboriginal women about nutrition promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on ethnographic study of urban Aboriginal family food and implications for nutrition promotion. Data were collected over 2 years through in-depth interviews and participant observation in groups conducted through Indigenous organisations in a suburb of Brisbane. Issues when organising family food include affordability, keeping family members satisfied and being able to share food, a lack of cooking ideas, the accessibility of nutrition information, additional work involved in ensuring healthy eating, and a desire for convenience. Many different health professionals provide nutrition advice, often directing it towards individuals and not providing adequate guidance to facilitate implementation. The easiest advice to implement worked from existing household food practices, skills and budget. Cooking workshops helped to provide opportunities to experiment with recommended foods so that women could confidently introduce them at home. Aboriginal women are concerned about healthy eating for their families. Disadvantage can limit dietary change and the complexity of family food work is often underestimated in nutrition promotion. Household, rather than individual, framing of nutrition promotion can lead to more sustainable healthy eating changes.

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. The Global and the Local: Health in Latin American Indigenous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeggia, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    All over Latin America, indigenous populations are rapidly changing their lifestyle. This work elaborates on the complex experience of indigenous people in transition. Poverty, discrimination, marginalization, and endurance are defining characteristics of their everyday life. Global health programs represent excellent opportunities for addressing these issues. These initiatives, however, are at risk of being short-sighted, ethnocentric, and paradigmcentric. Global health programs would be increasingly more successful if they break disciplinary boundaries and invite actors with different perspectives to a dialogue that does not emphasize biology over culture or academic over community expertise.

  17. "They Talk Like That, But We Keep Working": Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Experiences Among Mexican Indigenous Farmworker Women in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeanne; Samples, Julie; Morales, Mavel; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2015-12-01

    In order to examine the experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault among indigenous and non-indigenous Mexican immigrant farmworkers in Oregon's Willamette Valley, a community-academic participatory research partnership initiated a study, which included focus groups, conducted and analyzed by skilled practitioners and researchers. The themes that emerged from the focus groups included direct and indirect effects of sexual harassment and sexual assault on women and risk factors associated with the farmworker workplace environment, and the increased vulnerability of non-Spanish-speaking indigenous women due to low social status, poverty, cultural and linguistic issues, and isolation. Recommendations for prevention and improved services for vulnerable women will be discussed as well as limitations and future research directions.

  18. [Health and gender relations: a reflection on the challenges for the implementation of public policies for health care for indigenous women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luciane Ouriques

    2013-04-01

    This article presents some contrasts that exist between the discourses of public policies concerning women's health care, especially with respect to indigenous women, and the ethnological discourse which emphasizes the specificity of gender relations within indigenous societies. We worked on the assumption that the development of these public policies as well as the organization of health care services offered, which in fact are necessary, have a transforming effect on prevailing gender relations within Amerindian Societies. On the one hand, gender relations between indigenous people are associated with the domains of kinship and corporeality. On the other hand, the process of creating public policies, by means of biomedical intervention and the medicalization of the female body, constitutes a powerful tool for body modeling and the construction of subjectivities contributing to making women worthy of citizenship. The female gender is under discussion and its content is being negotiated.

  19. “They talk like that, but we keep working”: Sexual harassment and sexual assault experiences among Mexican Indigenous farmworker women in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeanne; Samples, Julie; Morales, Mavel; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine the experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault among indigenous and non-indigenous Mexican immigrant farmworkers in Oregon's Willamette Valley, a community-academic participatory research partnership initiated a study, which included focus groups, conducted and analyzed by skilled practitioners and researchers. The themes that emerged from the focus groups included direct and indirect effects of sexual harassment and sexual assault on women and risk factors associated with the farmworker workplace environment, and the increased vulnerability of non-Spanish-speaking indigenous women due to low social status, poverty, cultural and linguistic issues, and isolation. Recommendations for prevention and improved services for vulnerable women will be discussed as well as limitations and future research directions. PMID:24514945

  20. Re-emergence of Indigeneity in transformed Layouts in Urban Public Housing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Danladi Isah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the one whole homogenous configuration provided by developers that has often proved ineffective overtime, transformed public housing units are widespread in developing cities. Though transformation is a natural phenomenon of inhabitation, its various levels and degree can have implicit values. In recent times in Nigeria, heterogeneous spatial patterns of transformed houses in public housing estates has given empirical evidence of essentially inevitable reflection of culture sensitivity as hypothesized by previous studies. That hints that the mainstream sustainable values were probably ignored during design process. This study attempted to connect that possible missing link. To achieve that aim, it developed two objectives. First, is to identify core values behind space layouts in the mainstream. Then, to examine how they exist in the transformed layout as reflected at communal origins. It investigated on 42 transformed units in selected urban Public housings neighborhoods via a stratified conditional sampling conducted in five states of Nigeria. Qualitative methods were adopted for data analysis. After identifying the core ethnic groups in the region, their social indicators with regards to space use were determined through ethnographic principles. These indicators were then operationally defined, and used as a tool to examine users’ motivations in the transformation process in urban context. Spatial pattern analysis, by using gamma delineation, revealed the social content in the transformations after comparing initial design and the transformed spatial configurations. The outcome signified the mainstream cultural values in the transformation process hence in Public housing design. The convergence of mainstream values into urban transformed layouts suggested that they cannot be ignored during design process. The outcome of this research might be useful in designing sustainable public housings in culture sensitive environments

  1. "Sowing death in our women's wombs": modernization and indigenous nationalism in the 1960s Peace Corps and Jorge Sanjinés' "Yawar Mallku".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidel, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the centrality of gender and sexual politics to both 1960s modernization discourses and anti-imperialist cultural nationalist ideologies through an analysis of Jorge Sanjinés' 1969 radical neorealist film Yawar Mallku, the text that led to the Peace Corps' expulsion from Bolivia. After outlining the development discourse that explicitly guided both the Peace Corps and the Revolutionary Nationalist (MNR) government of Bolivia and exploring the relationship of this discourse to the Bolivian radical and indigenous movements of the late 1960s, this paper reads Yawar Mallku in the context of these movements to arrive at an understanding how cultural nationalism in Bolivia became directed towards the developmentalist ideal of a masculine utopia whose construction would entail controlling women's bodies. Finally, the paper attempts to understand how indigenous women in Bolivia have articulated radical political visions within and in response to U.S. modernizing forces and indigenous cultural nationalism.

  2. Writing Indigenous women's lives in the Bay of Bengal: cultures of empire in the Andaman Islands, 1789-1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the lives of two Andamanese women, both of whom the British called “Tospy.” The first part of the article takes an indigenous and gendered perspective on early British colonization of the Andamans in the 1860s, and through the experiences of a woman called Topsy stresses the sexual violence that underpinned colonial settlement as well as the British reliance on women as cultural interlocutors. Second, the article discusses colonial naming practices, and the employment of Andamanese women and men as nursemaids and household servants during the 1890s–1910s. Using an extraordinary murder case in which a woman known as Topsy-ayah was a central witness, it argues that both reveal something of the enduring associations and legacies of slavery, as well as the cultural influence of the Atlantic in the Bay of Bengal. In sum, these women's lives present a kaleidoscope view of colonization, gender, networks of Empire, labor, and domesticity in the Bay of Bengal.

  3. The impact of indigenous culture on female leadership in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafta Manzoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digging into the experiences of thirty working women, this study examined the barriers imposed by indigenous culture of Pakistan impose on these women. The study followed a qualitative research approach with phenomenological theoretical framework. Fifteen females were interviewed from urban areas and fifteen from rural areas to draw a holistic picture of indigenous culture of Pakistan and its effect on career progress of females. From the data collected, seven categories were initially developed through open coding, followed by three clusters through axial coding and lastly the study created a theoretical framework through selective coding. Findings of the study indicated that indigenous culture strongly affects the career success of working women in Pakistan. The study concluded that indigenous culture of Pakistan puts taboos on females in the form of family behavior, expectations, and the structurally enforced inferior status of females which affects their leadership skills negatively and restricts their career growth. The study concluded that indigenous culture affects career progress of females in negative way and although efforts have been done to give women equal rights in Pakistan, these efforts will become more meaningful if general perception of society about women and their role starts to change which will require awareness programs and cooperation from academic institutions and policy makers.

  4. A systematic review of inequalities in psychosocial outcomes for women with breast cancer according to residential location and Indigenous status in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youl, P H; Dasgupta, P; Youlden, D; Aitken, J F; Garvey, G; Zorbas, H; Chynoweth, J; Wallington, I; Baade, P D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to examine variations in psychosocial outcomes by residential location and Indigenous status in women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) in Australia. Systematic searches were undertaken using multiple databases covering articles between 1 January 1990 and 1 March 2015 focusing on adult women with BC in an Australian setting and measuring quality of life (QOL), psychological distress or psychosocial support. Thirteen quantitative and three qualitative articles were included. Two quantitative and one qualitative article were rated high quality, seven moderate and the remaining were low quality. No studies examining inequalities by Indigenous status were identified. Non-metropolitan women were more likely to record lower QOL relating to breast cancer-specific concerns and reported a lack of information and resources specific to their needs. Continuity of support, ongoing care and access to specialist and allied health professionals were major concerns for non-metropolitan women. Non-metropolitan women identified unmet needs in relation to travel, fear of cancer recurrence and lack of psychosocial support. Overall, there was a lack of evidence relating to variations in psychosocial outcomes for women with BC according to residential status or Indigenous status. While the review identified some specific concerns for non-metropolitan women with BC, it was limited by the lack of good quality studies using standardised measures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Smoking among young urban Malaysian women and its risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Rosliza A; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to determine the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with smoking among young urban women. A cross-sectional study through self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female students enrolled in private higher learning institutions in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, between July and October 2005. Analysis on 408 respondents showed that current smoker prevalence rate was 18.6%. Adjusted analyses showed significant association between smoking and individual factors, which are the importance of slim image, average monthly allowance, and car ownership. For family factors, analyses showed significant association between smoking and parental marital status and smoking status of male siblings. Strong associations were seen between female smoking and environmental factors, such as having more smoker friends, having smokers as best friends, keeping cigarette-brand items, being offered free cigarette, and perceiving female smoking as normal. The identified risk factors could be used to develop more effective prevention programs to overcome smoking among young urban women.

  6. Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Mohan

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations.Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35-70 y were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported.Mean levels of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p 80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%, waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%, waist hip ratio (WHR >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5, WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%, hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0% and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4% (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01. Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%. There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89-0.99.There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural.

  7. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie C; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Lombard, Catherine B; Harrison, Cheryce L

    2017-06-08

    Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban ( n = 149) and rural ( n = 394) women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD), 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264). Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD) 80,000 vs. urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  8. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.

  9. Rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy: How can health services adapt to the needs of Indigenous women? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Suzanne; Kruske, Sue; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Sherwood, Juanita; Tune, Kylie; Carapetis, Jonathan; Vaughan, Geraldine; Peek, Michael; McLintock, Claire; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2017-11-06

    To study rheumatic heart disease health literacy and its impact on pregnancy, and to identify how health services could more effectively meet the needs of pregnant women with rheumatic heart disease. Researchers observed and interviewed a small number of Aboriginal women and their families during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum as they interacted with the health system. An Aboriginal Yarning method of relationship building over time, participant observations and interviews with Aboriginal women were used in the study. The settings were urban, island and remote communities across the Northern Territory. Women were followed interstate if they were transferred during pregnancy. The participants were pregnant women and their families. We relied on participants' abilities to tell their own experiences so that researchers could interpret their understanding and perspective of rheumatic heart disease. Aboriginal women and their families rarely had rheumatic heart disease explained appropriately by health staff and therefore lacked understanding of the severity of their illness and its implications for childbearing. Health directives in written and spoken English with assumed biomedical knowledge were confusing and of limited use when delivered without interpreters or culturally appropriate health supports. Despite previous studies documenting poor communication and culturally inadequate care, health systems did not meet the needs of pregnant Aboriginal women with rheumatic heart disease. Language-appropriate health education that promotes a shared understanding should be relevant to the gender, life-stage and social context of women with rheumatic heart disease. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. A Classroom on the Mall: Indigenous Women and the Culture of Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmelo, Martha

    1995-01-01

    When rural women do not participate in relevant decision making, development projects risk diminished effectiveness and may increase already onerous workloads. Consisting of 139 Mapuche women textile artisans in Chile, the Casa de la Mujer Mapuche provides its members with income, role models, and a platform to express women's needs and…

  11. Prevalence of urogenital symptoms among Colombian indigenous postmenopausal women = Prevalencia de la sintomatología urogenital en mujeres indígenas colombianas enposmenopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez Vega, Jhonmer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deterioration of life quality in postmenopausal women differs according to their ethnicity.Objective: To compare the frequency of urogenital symptoms and the deterioration of the urogenital dimension in indigenous postmenopausal women belonging to three different communities.Methods: By means of the Menopausal Rating Scale, 609 indigenous postmenopausal women, aged between 40-59 years, were studied: 161 (26.4% belonged to different Amazonic tribes, 297 (48.8% were Zenu and 151 (24.8%, Wayuu.Results: Scores in the urogenital dimension were as follows: 3.8 ± 3.2 in the Amazonic women; 6.2 ± 1.3 in the Zenu community, and 2.9 ± 2.6 among the Wayuu. The score for the whole group was 4.8 ± 2.7; all these scores are higher than those of other Colombian and Latinamerican populations. Total score in the MRS was 13.8 ± 8.2 (Amazonic women, 14.7 ± 2.5 (Zenu, and 10.0 ± 6.7 (Wayuu. In the whole group, 9.1% had severe symptoms concerning sexual problems, 48.0% had urinary incontinence, and 12.1% suffered from vaginal dryness. The urogenital dimension was altered in 42%.Conclusion: Indigenous postmenopausal Colombian women belonging to different communities have high prevalence and early appearance of symptoms related to the urogenital dimension. Half of the studied population, with average age 53 years, have urogenital deterioration.

  12. Comparing the Pattern of Menopausal Symptoms, Concern and Attitudes in Urban and Rural Postmenopausal Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Sevil; Haggi, Hurieh Badali; Shojai, Shayan Kamali; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Farhan, Faranak

    2018-04-01

    Although hormonal changes during menopause are inevitable in this period, the severity of the menopausal symptoms can be controlled. Accepting menopause and having a positive attitude toward it can also help. Given the results of previous studies, and since environmental factors affect the pattern of menopausal symptoms the present study was conducted to compare the pattern of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes in urban and rural postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted on urban and rural postmenopausal women residing in and around Tabriz, Iran. Cluster sampling was used to select the subjects. The data collection tools used included a demographic questionnaire to assess women's experiences during menopause. This study examined 544 urban and rural postmenopausal women between March and September 2015. The women had a mean age of 51.8 ± 3.1. After adjusting the basic variables, the mean scores of menopausal symptoms and their subscales showed significantly higher scores in the physical and psychological subscales in the urban women, while the rural women had significantly higher scores in the concern subscale. Rural women were significantly different from urban women in terms of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes. Hot flushes, a common menopausal symptom, and decreased sexual desire were more common in the urban women; in contrast, the rural women experienced more concern about menopause and its consequences.

  13. Trend differences in men and women in rural and urban U.S. settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Benito, A; Doogan, N J; Redner, R; Roberts, M E; Kurti, A N; Villanti, A C; Lopez, A A; Quisenberry, A J; Stanton, C A; Gaalema, D E; Keith, D R; Parker, M A; Higgins, S T

    2018-04-05

    Smoking prevalence is declining at a slower rate in rural than urban settings in the United States (U.S.), and known predictors of smoking do not readily account for this trend difference. Given that socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of health disparities accumulate in rural settings and that life-course disadvantages are often greater in women than men, we examined whether smoking trends are different for rural and urban men and women. We used yearly cross-sectional data (n = 303,311) from the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2007 through 2014 to compare cigarette smoking trends in men and women across rural and urban areas. Current smoking status was modelled using logistic regression controlling for confounding risk factors. Regression derived graphs predicting unadjusted prevalence estimates and 95% confidence bands revealed that whereas the smoking trends of rural men, urban men, and urban women significantly declined from 2007 to 2014, the trend for rural women was flat. Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of smoking did not explain rural women's significantly different trend from those of the other three groups. Rural women lag behind rural men, urban men and urban women in decreasing smoking, a health disparity finding that supports the need for tobacco control and regulatory policies and interventions that are more effective in reducing smoking among rural women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The urban built environment and associations with women's psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention.

  15. [New statuses of women and urbanization in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, P; Nanitelamio, J

    1990-01-01

    apart from marriage. The sexual market is assuming ever greater importance in urban zones. Prostitution is its most obvious aspect, but it is only 1 among many. The status of mother is no longer forcibly related to that of wife in African cities. New female statuses are organized around 3 main themes: affirmation of the individual, enlarged scope of life, and greater eroticization of sexual relations. The social desire for motherhood persists but that for marriage has eroded. The demographic importance of the different new statuses of women requires evaluation. Social and health policies should be based on knowledge of the real society. Too often population policies take into account only wives, neglecting the growing number of women who are not traditional wives and neglecting also the adolescent women who are also vitally concerned.

  16. Menstrual socialization, beliefs, and attitudes concerning menstruation in rural and urban Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.

  17. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  18. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  19. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Taneja Gupta; Anupa Siddhu

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant facto...

  20. Cervical cancer screening in young and elderly women of the Xingu Indigenous Park: evaluation of the recommended screening age group in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Pinheiro, Juliana da Silva; Pereira, Erica Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Douglas; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of atypia in the cytology/histology examinations of young women under the age of 25 years and of elderly women aged over 64 years, in the Xingu Indigenous Park and to evaluate, in a subjective manner, if the age range for screening established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is appropriate for this population. The Xingu/UNIFESP Project, in partnership with the Center for Gynecological Disease Prevention, develops programs to prevent cervical cancer. The exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study of cytological and histopathological examinations of young (12-24 years) and elderly (aged 64 and over) women of the Xingu Indigenous Park, between 2005 and 2011. There was low occurrence of cytological atypia in the elderly female population, but there were occasional high-grade lesions in the indigenous youth. Interrupting screening at the limit age of 64 years, as established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is justified. However, screening of young women should begin at an earlier age.

  1. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y)

  2. Burden of anaemia in rural and urban jat women in haryana state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninder, Kaur; Kochar, G K

    2009-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 600 Jat women (rural=300, urban=300), aged 40 to 70 years from Haryana state in North India. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the dietary intake of rural and urban middle-aged (40-59 years) and older (60 and above) Jat women. The findings indicated that all the subjects exhibited a decline in the mean values of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration with advancement in age. The mean blood Hb concentration of urban middle-aged and older women was 10.1±1.3g/dl and 9.91.4g/dl respectively, which was higher than their rural counterparts at all age groups, although the differences were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The overall prevalence of anaemia reached 88.7% (rural women= 91.3%, urban women =86%). Daily dietary intake of rural and urban subjects was below the recommended dietary allowances. Physical performance of both groups of the women showed a decline with a decrease in Hb concentration. A significant and positive correlation of Hb status was observed with grip strength and vital capacity while a negative association was witnessed with blood pressure and pulse rate in both the rural and urban women. Anaemia among these women may be attributed to inadequate dietary intake, illiteracy, and poor access to health services.

  3. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C. Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban (n = 149 and rural (n = 394 women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD, 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264. Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD 80,000 vs. <$AUD80,000 p = 0.013 and working status (working fulltime/part-time vs. unemployed p = 0.043. Total diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  4. Recognizing Suffering or Resistance? Honoring the Courage of Indigenous Quechua Women in Post Conflict Ayacucho, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barrios Suarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on extensive field work in Ayacucho, the area most affected by the past armed conflict in Peru (1980–2000, this practice note outlines some of the contributions to justice and reconciliation made by Quechua women in post-conflict Ayacucho and hypothesizes a number of reasons why these contributions have not been recognized to the same extent as their suffering.

  5. Married women's decision making power on modern contraceptive use in urban and rural southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Tizta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in developing countries are either under collective decision making with their partners or completely rely on the male partner's decision on issues that affect their reproductive live. Identifying the major barriers of married women's decision making power on contraceptive use has significant relevance for planning contextually appropriate family planning interventions. The objective of this study was to determine current modern contraceptive practices and decision making power among married women in Tercha Town and surrounding rural areas of Dawro zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based comparative cross-sectional design with both quantitative and Qualitative study has been employed in March and April 2010. The respondents were 699 married women of child bearing age from urban and rural parts of Dawro zone. After conducting census, we took the sample using simple random sampling technique. Results Current modern contraceptive use among married women in the urban was 293 (87.5% and 243 (72.8% in rural. Married women who reside in urban area were more likely to decide on the use of modern contraceptive method than rural women. Having better knowledge about modern contraceptive methods, gender equitable attitude, better involvement in decisions related to children, socio-cultural and family relations were statistically significant factors for decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the urban setting. Better knowledge, fear of partner's opposition or negligence, involvement in decisions about child and economic affairs were statistically significant factors for better decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the rural part. Conclusions High level of current modern contraceptive practice with reduced urban-rural difference was found as compared to regional and national figures. Urban women had better power to make decisions on modern

  6. Predicting delay to treatment of urinary incontinence among urban community-dwelling women in China

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    Chen Wu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Women who were older, had lower subjective UI severity, and who reported only stress or urgency UI tended to delay treatment longer; such patients should be targeted for health education and intervention regarding UI in urban communities.

  7. Awareness of cord blood banking among pregnant women in semi urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Poomalar G. K.; Jayasree M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent stem cells, derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood and umbilical cord. These HSC are accepted method of treatment for various disorders. Cord blood can be stored either in private or public bank. Awareness about cord blood banking among semi urban and rural population is less compared to urban population. The aim of our study is to evaluate the awareness of cord blood banking among pregnant women in semi urban area and to evaluat...

  8. Women and landed property in urban India: Negotiating closed doors and windows of opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Bipasha

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines land tenure in informal urban settlements in India from a gender perspective through field research conducted in Ahmedabad in collaboration with the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA). The author describes the formal and informal tenure arrangements that were in place in these settlements and analyses their implications for women. She proceeds to raise key issues that need consideration in developing a gender-equitable vision of urban land rights, tenure and reform. ...

  9. REGIONAL FUND FOR INDIGENOUS WOMEN IN THE ZIRAHUÉN LAKE REGIÓN OF PÁTZCUARO: CHALLENGES FOR ITS TRANSFORMATION INTO A CREDIT DISPERSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elena Garza-Bueno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conviction that there is a virtuous link between financing and economic growth has resulted in the government promoting financial services. The new financial policies seek to encourage, with particular interest, the inclusion of the population segments that are seldom attended by the commercial and development banks. One of the least attended segments is that found in the rural areas. This is explained by their widely-spaced geographic dispersion, which characterizes the sector. For this reason, verification and follow-up are costly, and agriculture is a high risk activity. To solve this problem, new financial intermediary figures are needed. These figures must operate under schemas that are in accord with local needs. This is the case of the Regional Fund for Indigenous Women of the Zirahuén Lake Region of Pátzcuaro Uarhiti Anchikurhiricha A.C. that currently attends—as a credit dispersor—1774 indigenous women who work basically in handcrafts, avocado production and livestock raising. The experience of this fund is outstanding for its evolution and reach among indigenous women. Given the breadth of the analysis of both aspects, this paper focuses only on the first: the transformation of a subsidy operating Fund into one that administers loans. The complex evolution of the Fund, its technical and financial challenges, in addition to gender problems the women who head the financial organism face, are the object of the study presented here. The results of the study show that managing the change depends on how convinced the leaders of the financial organism are of the importance of the loans as well as on their full comprehension of the demands and possibilities. Above all, however, is their conviction that the women themselves are those that should operate the Fund.

  10. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States: a method for systematic review of studies with different designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlain Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes in pregnancy, which includes gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is associated with poor outcomes for both mother and infant during pregnancy, at birth and in the longer term. Recent international guidelines recommend changes to the current GDM screening criteria. While some controversy remains, there appears to be consensus that women at high risk of T2DM, including indigenous women, should be offered screening for GDM early in pregnancy, rather than waiting until 24-28 weeks as is current practice. A range of criteria should be considered before changing screening practice in a population sub-group, including: prevalence, current practice, acceptability and whether adequate treatment pathways and follow-up systems are available. There are also specific issues related to screening in pregnancy and indigenous populations. The evidence that these criteria are met for indigenous populations is yet to be reported. A range of study designs can be considered to generate relevant evidence for these issues, including epidemiological, observational, qualitative, and intervention studies, which are not usually included within a single systematic review. The aim of this paper is to describe the methods we used to systematically review studies of different designs and present the evidence in a pragmatic format for policy discussion. Methods/Design The inclusion criteria will be broad to ensure inclusion of the critical perspectives of indigenous women. Abstracts of the search results will be reviewed by two persons; the full texts of all potentially eligible papers will be reviewed by one person, and 10% will be checked by a second person for validation. Data extraction will be standardised, using existing tools to identify risks for bias in intervention, measurement, qualitative studies and reviews; and adapting criteria for appraising risk for bias in descriptive studies. External validity

  11. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural

  12. Women and self-government in an indigenous territory: Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Verónica Vázquez García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of Usos y Costumbres as a form of self-government in the municipalities of Oaxaca, Mexico, is an important achievement for native peoples. However, women’s participation inpositions of power remains a challenge. This paper has two objectives: 1 to analyze the factors that contribute to women’s destitution from the mayoralty; 2 to identify the strategies that some of them use to stay in power. Interviews were conducted with all elected female mayors in a ten-year period (1999-2009. Three actors intervene in women’s permanence or destitution: the assembly, the town council and political parties. The second is the most difficult one for women. Some of the strategies used by them to remain in power are: to rely on the assembly as a source of legitimacy; to negotiate government portfolios with council members; to obtain funds and establish links with the state governor.

  13. Bicultural Resynthesis: Tailoring an Effectiveness Trial for a Group of Urban American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, Linda

    2000-01-01

    A phenomenological study examined experiences of eight urban American Indian women participating in a 6-week intervention aimed at reclaiming and adapting Native women's traditional roles as part of bicultural resynthesis. Psychoeducational methods were used to uncover past ethnic shame, facilitate a return to American Indian pride and identity,…

  14. Informalisation of women's work: consequence for fertility and child schooling in urban Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, S; Sathar, Z A

    1993-01-01

    The preliminary analysis of data from the 1990-91 Pakistan Household Survey (PIHS) for urban areas yields a profile of working urban women by educational level, sector of the economy, and child's educational activities. Between 1971 and 1988 labor force participation rates (LFPR) for women ranged between 3% and 5%. The hiring of women in temporary positions allows for lower costs, less benefits, and freedom from restrictive legislation. The PIHS data on 4711 households and 2513 urban, ever married women aged 15-49 years indicates a LFPR for women of 17%. Under 20% work in the formal sector. Most work in their homes as unpaid family workers or home-based income earning producers. Many official statistics exclude these women. Informal sector workers in the PIHS data, such as low status domestic workers, receive average wages of 609 rupees monthly compared to home-based workers wages of 240 rupees. Formal sector female workers have completed an average of 11.4 years of schooling, while informal workers have received only 6.5 years. 77% of informal workers have had no formal education compared to 62% of at home mothers and 28% of formal sector workers. Many employed women are single household heads or with an unemployed spouse. Formal sector working women marry 3.4 years later than informal sector women and 2.6 years later than nonworking women. Nonworking women have the lowest contraceptive use followed by informal sector women. Most women regardless of work status desire four children, but achieved fertility was lower among professional and white collar workers. Informal sector women had higher fertility than nonworking women. Preliminary multivariate analyses supported this pattern of work status related fertility. The chances of children attending school was higher among formal sector workers. Girls with nonworking mothers had better chances of gaining an education.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of condom use by women of an impoverished urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Smalyanna Sgren da Costa; Zaccara, Ana Aline Lacet; Leite, Kamila Nethielly Souza; Brito, Karen Krystine Gonçalves de; Soares, Maria Júlia Guimarães Oliveira; Costa, Marta Miriam Lopes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Oliveira, Simone Helena dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowl...

  16. Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and Competitiveness in China's ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  17. Participation of Urban Women in Agricultural Production Activities in the Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barau, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of urban women in agricultural production activities in the Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Both primary data and secondary information were used in the study. The primary data were obtained using a structured questionnaire, administered to 72 respondents selected using the snowball sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the primary data generated. These include frequency and percentage, and Pearson product moment correlation, respectively. The results show that most of the urban women (38.9 % were in the active age range and had a family size of 1-5 persons (73.6 %. The majority attained tertiary education (62.5 % and have relatively low income (61.1 %, with monthly earnings of 5,000-99,000 Naira. The majority of the women were involved in agricultural production activities all year round (52.8 % with the highest participation seen in poultry farming (43.1 %. Although most of the women were motivated to participate for several reasons, it was mostly for the increased income (33.3 %. It was also found that the major constraint faced was inadequate capital (43.1 %. Age, marital status, educational attainment, household size and farm size were negatively and not significantly (p<5 % related to the participation of urban women in agricultural production activities. Monthly income was however, positively related to the urban women’s participation in agricultural production activities and was also significant (p<5 %. In general, urban women participate in agricultural production activities on a small scale all year round. Proper orientation and awareness programs, provision of credit and women-targeted agricultural programs would go a long way to improving the participation of urban women in agricultural production activities.

  18. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tobacco use during their pregnancy. Of the pregnant women, 70% lived with at least one smoker in the house. Conclusions. Few black and Indian pregnant women in. South Africa smoke, while coloured pregnant women smoke heavily. QUitting programmes should be targeted at them when they attend antenatal services.

  19. Assessing HPV and Cervical Knowledge, Preference and HPV Status Among Urban American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, Kristin R; Omidpanah, Adam A; Petereit, Daniel G

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate whether or not an educational intervention would lead to a change in knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccines, and cervical cancer. The HPV status was also investigated for interested participants. We provided HPV and cervical cancer education to urban American Indian (AI) women 18 and older using a pre and post-knowledge exam to assess knowledge and attitudes. Women were also given the option to perform vaginal self-tests for high risk HPV (hrHPV) analysis immediately after the education. Ninety-six women participated in our educational sessions. Improvement in performance on a knowledge exam increased from 61.6 to 84.3 percent. Ninety-three women performed the vaginal self-test with 63.1 percent of women preferring vaginal self-testing over conventional screening methods. Thirty-five out of 91 women (38.5 percent) had hrHPV types with 12 of the 35 harboring multiple hrHPV types (13 percent overall). HPV and cervical cancer education was beneficial for urban AI women with the majority of women preferring vaginal self-testing. HPV self-testing may be a strategy to improve screening rates for cervical cancer. Urban AI women had high rates of hrHPV compared to rural AI populations as reported in previous studies.

  20. Hepatitis B virus, syphilis, and HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaeche, Melvy; Whittembury, Alvaro; Pun, Mónica; Suárez-Ognio, Luis

    2012-10-01

    To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis, and HIV and associated risk factors in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin. A cross-sectional study was performed in six indigenous populations from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Blood samples were obtained and tested for HBV (antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), for syphilis (rapid plasma reagin and microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies), and for HIV (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test). A survey was also performed to identify associated risk factors. One thousand two hundred and fifty-one pregnant women and 778 male partners were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc in pregnant women was 42.06% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.28-44.85%) and in their male partners was 54.09% (95% CI 50.32-57.86%). The seroprevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women was 2.11% (95% CI 0.78-3.44%) and in their male partners was 3.98% (95% CI 1.87-6.08%). The seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 1.60% (95% CI 0.86-2.33%) and in their male partners was 2.44% (95% CI 1.22-3.66%). HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women was 0.16% (95% CI 0.02-0.58%) and in their male partners was 0.29% (95% CI 0.04-1.03%). Sexual risk factors were strongly related to blood markers of syphilis and HBV. Hepatitis B was found to be hyperendemic and strongly related to sexual factors, suggesting an important sexual component in the transmission of the disease in the populations studied. Syphilis was found to have an endemicity in pregnant women above the national level and this may be indicative of high mother-to-child transmission. HIV has started to show its presence in indigenous populations of the Amazon Basin and the results suggest the epidemic is concentrated. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Smoking among Young Rural to Urban Migrant Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18–24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18–30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = brands” had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation. PMID:21829683

  2. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking.Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  3. Social capital, women's autonomy and smoking among married women in low-income urban neighborhoods of Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rema A; Nakkash, Rima T; Khawaja, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    We sought to examine the associations between social capital, women's empowerment, and smoking behavior among married women in three low-income neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data from currently married women aged 15 to 59 years in the 2003 Urban Health Study were used. The dependent variable was cigarette smoking. The main independent variables were five social capital items and three women's empowerment indices. Other socioeconomic variables as well as mental distress, happiness, and community of residence were included as covariates. Bivariate associations were conducted on all variables using chi-square tests. Adjusted odds ratios from binary logistic regression models were then modeled on smoking behavior separately for younger and older women. More than one third (35.9%) of married women reported smoking cigarettes. At the bivariate level, a variety of socioeconomic and demographic variables predicted smoking. With respect to social capital, women who lacked trust and were dissatisfied with the number friends or relatives living nearby were more likely to smoke. As for women's autonomy, high decision making and high mobility were associated with smoking. When analyzed multivariately, social capital items were statistically significant for younger women but not for older women. And the mobility variables were significant for older women but not younger women. Our results support the conclusion that determinants of women's tobacco use are multilayered, and include social capital and women's autonomy. Our results also suggest that younger and older married women may be influenced by differential determinants. Reasons for these differences are explored. Interventions may need to be tailored to each age group separately. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Women's legal knowledge: a case study of Mexican urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Izabal, L M

    1995-06-01

    In Mexico, the nongovernmental organization Sevisio, Desarrollo y Paz, A.C. (SEDEPAC) is helping poor women acquire legal knowledge in an economic climate characterized by the increased feminization of poverty brought about by the Structural Adjustment Program. The Mexican legal system is grounded in a patriarchal tradition, and the codified laws continue to favor men. Women were not granted full citizenship until 1953, and discrimination against women was not addressed in Mexican law until 1974 as the country prepared to host the First UN International Women's Conference. However, legal advances are not being applied in the family or in larger society where men remain in power. Mexico also distinguishes between private law and public law. Because domestic violence falls in the realm of private law, authorities are loathe to follow-up on women's complaints in this area. Since its founding in 1983, SEDEPAC has applied a gender perspective to its activities and programs. SEDEPAC held its first women's legal workshop in 1987 and realized that most poor women have no knowledge of existing laws or their rights, that alternative legal services for women are scarce, that existing laws must be changed, and that the authoritarian and conservative legal system helps maintain cultural stereotypes. Since then, SEDEPAC has held annual workshops, follow-up meetings, and training sessions and has provided counseling. The main topics addressed are women's social conditions; violence and the penal code; civil rights, power, and dependency; women's bodies and reproductive rights; and women's organization and leadership. The workshops use techniques of popular education such as group participation and use of gossip as a communication tool. The workshops have changed participants' lives and led to the formation of an independent Popular Defenders' Coordination.

  5. Autonomy of educated urban women and their attitude towards female foeticide in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dweepika Kumari

    2015-01-01

    The Sex-ratio in India is continuously declining in spite of gradually increasing literacy among women. For long, it was thought that illiteracy and female subjugation is the reason why women are unable to stand for their rights. As such, large scale attempts and programs had been taken to increase the literacy of women. But in spite of the spread of female education and increasing women autonomy in Urban India, the female foeticide has continued to increase. Most of the results in the recent...

  6. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  7. Women and Development in Urban Senegal: Microcredit and Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... of social capital for the participants in the study can be dependable and ... rience, and belonging to social and business networks facilitate women's .... other regions in economic opportunities and infrastructures. .... is the case for women's credit groups, to ensure high repayment rates, but also reduce.

  8. Intimate relationship status variations in violence against women: urban, suburban, and rural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.

  9. Contraceptive use among low-income urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manisha; Meena, Jyoti; Sharma, Sumedha; Poddar, Anju; Dhalliwal, Vikas; Modi-Satish Chander Modi, S C; Singh, Kamlesh

    2011-02-01

    The reports of a rise in contraceptive practices have not been matched by a similar decrease in population, so there is a need to look into the causes of this discrepancy. To obtain information from low-income urban married women regarding their contraceptive knowledge, practices, and utilization of the services. Percentage of low-income urban married women using contraception, different types of contraception used, influence of education on choice of contraception. All nonpregnant married women between the ages of 18 and 45 years, belonging to low-income groups were selected for study. Statistical analysis was done using EPI Info ver-5.0. Chi square test was used to test the significance of data. Contraceptive use among these women was 52%; the most common method was tubal ligation. Educated women used spacing methods more often than uneducated women. Women had adequate awareness regarding type of contraceptives available but had no idea about the timing of starting contraception after delivery and about emergency contraception. The low-income urban population is aware of the importance of limiting the family size and has family planning facilities yet has less contraceptive usage because of low level of education, increased rate of discontinuation, and lack of proper knowledge of the use of contraception. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. The Complexities of Intimate Partner Violence: Mental Health, Disabilities, and Child Abuse History for White, Indigenous, and Other Visible Minority Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutty, Leslie M; Radtke, H L; Ateah, Christine A; Ursel, E Jane; Thurston, Wilfreda E Billie; Hampton, Mary; Nixon, Kendra

    2017-11-01

    This research examines how mental health issues associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) relate to women's intersecting identities of race/ethnicity, disability status, and child abuse history. Data ( N = 595) from a Canadian triprovincial study included women who were White ( n = 263, 44.8%), Indigenous ( n = 292, 49.7%), or visible minority ( n = 32, 5.5%). Few demographic differences were found. None of the mental health measures (Symptom Checklist-Short Form [SCL-10], Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression [CES-D-10], Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] Checklist) were in the clinical ranges. In a MANCOVA on the mental health scales, with IPV severity, racial group, disability status, and child abuse history as variables, only disability was significantly associated with more mental health symptoms.

  11. Physical activity profile of urbanized Rwandan women | Kagwiza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that by 2020 chronic diseases of lifestyle will be almost 50% of the burden of disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rapid urbanization with changes in lifestyle, such as physical activity patterns could explain at least partially the ongoing epidemiological transition. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of ...

  12. Should pregnant urban South African women be screened for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet despite this hypothetical sce- nario, in a study of 2 364 urban-born black children .... Srevens CE, Toy PT, Tong Mj, el al. Perinatal hepatitis B virus ... randomized double-blind placebo-controlled and comparative trial. Pedialries 1985; 76: ...

  13. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  14. Widows and Wenches: Single Women in Eighteenth-Century Urban Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, windowed and single women claimed a place for themselves in the urban economy through their work and business roles. Through marriage, most women gained strength, position and status in the patriarchal society of the eighteenth century. Yet, singletons could utilise an array...... of resources not only to navigate but also to derive a good living from this world. The purpose of this chapter is to look at the variety and range of ways single women (interpreted broadly) negotiated these commercial worlds, looking at their approach to business and the strategies they employed. It draws...... on towns in Britain as well as on commercial centres of continental Europe. It will address the issue of how the gendered structure of the growing commercial town influenced singletons’ activities and conversely how the important contributions women made to the urban economy shaped that economy...

  15. Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... Image. cover women and solid waste LAC book. Gustavo Riofrío and ... Understanding how emergencies affect internal migration in Costa Rica ... or no savings can be devastating for poor families, especially in times of crisis.

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  17. Childcare, eldercare, and labor force participation of married women in urban China: 1982 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer-Fazio, Margaret; Connelly, Rachel; Lan, Chen; Tang, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    We employ data from the three most recent Chinese population censuses to consider married, urban women's labor force participation decisions in the context of their families and their residential locations. We are particularly interested in how the presence in the household of preschool and school-age children and/or the elderly and disabled affects women's likelihood of engaging in work outside the home. We find that the presence of older people in the household (any parent or parent-in-law ...

  18. Awareness of breast cancer in women of an urban resettlement colony

    OpenAIRE

    Somdatta P; Baridalyne N

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer accounts for 19-34% of all cancer cases among women in India. There is a high mortality due to late stage diagnosis as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and non-existent breast cancer screening programs. Aim : To determine the awareness about breast cancer among women in an urban resettlement colony in Delhi. Settings and Design: A community based, cross-sectional study carried out in a resettlement colony in South ...

  19. Culture and healthy lifestyles: a qualitative exploration of the role of food and physical activity in three urban Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Ruth; Stanley, Rebecca; Probst, Yasmine; McMahon, Anne

    2017-08-01

    1) To explore the links between Indigenous Australian children's perspectives on culture, and healthy lifestyle behaviours. 2) To provide insight into how to approach the development of a health intervention targeting lifestyle behaviours in Australian Indigenous children. Seven semi-structured focus groups sessions were conducted with Australian Indigenous children aged 5-12 years living on the South Coast of New South Wales. Audio-recordings were transcribed and thematic analyses were conducted and related to principles of grounded theory. Participants had connections to aspects of Australian Indigenous culture that were embedded in their everyday lives. Healthy lifestyle behaviours (such as healthy eating and physical activity) were found to be interconnected with Australian Indigenous culture and positive emotional wellbeing was identified as an important outcome of connecting Australian Indigenous children to cultural practices. Understanding the importance of culture and its role in healthy lifestyles is critical in the development of health interventions for Indigenous populations. Health interventions embedded with Australian Indigenous culture may have potential to improve physical and emotional health within Australian Indigenous communities. However, it is unlikely that a 'one size fits all' approach to health interventions can be taken. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Fecundidade das mulheres autodeclaradas indígenas residentes em Minas Gerais, Brasil: uma análise a partir do Censo Demográfico 2000 Fertility of indigenous women in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: an analysis using the 2000 census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Santiago Dias Júnior

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available As populações indígenas aldeadas no Brasil apresentam alta taxa de fecundidade total (TFT, sendo que em alguns casos é observado o crescimento destas taxas ao longo do tempo. Já os dados do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE revelam um declínio da TFT da população autodeclarada indígena, independente da situação de domicílio (urbano, rural e rural específico. Este trabalho utiliza dados do Censo Demográfico 2000 para descrever e comparar a estrutura e o nível da fecundidade de período e coorte das mulheres autodeclaradas indígenas residentes em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram calculadas as taxas específicas de fecundidade (TEF, a TFT de período para o ano 2000 e a TFT de coorte para mulheres com cinqüenta anos e mais de idade. Os resultados mostram que as mulheres autodeclaradas indígenas residentes em Minas Gerais experimentaram um passado de alta fecundidade, independente da situação de domicílio. Concluiu-se que o uso do Censo Demográfico 2000 é uma importante fonte de dados para os estudos sobre populações indígenas no Brasil, tanto pelo seu alto grau de cobertura quanto pela riqueza das informações coletadas.Indigenous populations living in villages in Brazil have presented high total fertility rates (TFR that have increased over time in some cases. Meanwhile, data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE or National Census Bureau show a decline in the TFR for the total self-declared indigenous population (combining urban, rural, and specific rural residence. The current study uses data from the 2000 Population Census to describe and compare the structure and level of period fertility for the cohort of self-declared indigenous women living in the State of Minas Gerais. We calculated age-specific fertility rates (ASFR, the period TFR for 2000, and the cohort TFR for women 50 years and older. According to the findings, self-declared indigenous women living in Minas Gerais

  1. Diabetes and hypertension in urban bhutanese men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Raj Giri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bhutan is a mountainous country with 31% urban population. There is no information on prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in Bhutan yet. This was the first study of its kind conducted in the capital city. Objective: To determine prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and hypertension in urban Bhutanese population aged 25 to 74 years. Materials and Methods: Stratified two-stage sampling was adopted to include 2474 respondents (Males: 1132, Females: 1342 equally distributed among different age and sex groups. A questionnaire containing demographic, educational and social details and history of diabetes and hypertension was administered on the sampled population the previous evening and blood pressure measured the next morning in nearby camp where fasting blood samples were collected and an oral glucose tolerance test done. Results: Age and sex standardized prevalence of diabetes, IGT and IFG were 8.2.0, 21.6 and 4%, respectively. Only 66.5% of the population had normal blood sugar. Prevalence of diabetes and IGT increased progressively with increasing age. Prevalence of hypertension was 26% (Males: 28.3%, Females: 23.2%. It was observed that 54.1% of diabetes population had hypertension. Conclusion: The study shows that not only is prevalence of diabetes and hypertension high in the urban Bhutanese but also there is a high diagnosis and treatment gap in these disorders.

  2. "I Was the Special Ed. Girl": Urban Working-Class Young Women of Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…

  3. the role of market women in the informal urban economy in kumasi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Informal Sector, Urban Economy, Women, Traders ... banisation intensified, poverty also increased due to the inability of ... from 23 per cent in 1960 to 44 per cent in 2000 .... sacks of 50kg and 30 bags of 100kg respec- ... from 70-120km) covered to haul the foodstuffs ... per cent and 21.5 per cent of the total sales.

  4. Perceived influences on farmers' market use among urban, WIC-enrolled women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We identified perceived barriers and facilitators to purchasing fruits and vegetables (FV) at farmers' markets, FV shopping practices, and reactions to a planned online lesson to promote farmers' market use among urban, inner-city WIC-enrolled women. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 3-5 par...

  5. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the. Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (fanns) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  6. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (farms) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  7. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625

  8. Contraceptive practices adopted by women attending an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To estimate proportion of couples using contraceptive methods, identify reasons for their adoption & non adoption and to assess unmet needs for contraception. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of four months duration was conducted among married women in reproductive age group (15 – 49 years) attending ...

  9. Utilization of skilled birth attendants at delivery among urban women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Nigeria and the Presence of skilled birth attendants at delivery is a key strategy towards reducing the rate. Objective: To determine the rate and factors that affect utilization of skilled birth attendants (SBA) among Igbo women in Nnewi, South-Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: ...

  10. Health care practices influencing health promotion in urban black women in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.

  11. The relationship between urban sprawl and coronary heart disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Beth Ann; Eibner, Christine; Bird, Chloe E; Jewell, Adria; Margolis, Karen; Shih, Regina; Ellen Slaughter, Mary; Whitsel, Eric A; Allison, Matthew; Escarce, Jose J

    2013-03-01

    Studies have reported relationships between urban sprawl, physical activity, and obesity, but - to date - no studies have considered the relationship between sprawl and coronary heart disease (CHD) endpoints. In this analysis, we use longitudinal data on post-menopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trial to analyze the relationship between metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level urban compactness (the opposite of sprawl) and CHD endpoints including death, any CHD event, and myocardial infarction. Models control for individual and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics. Women who lived in more compact communities at baseline had a lower probability of experiencing a CHD event and CHD death or MI during the study follow-up period. One component of compactness, high residential density, had a particularly noteworthy effect on outcomes. Finally, exploratory analyses showed evidence that the effects of compactness were moderated by race and region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. © 2016 APJPH.

  13. Measures of Implicit Gender Attitudes May Exaggerate Differences in Underlying Associations among Chinese Urban and Rural Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oppression of women in rural China is more severe than in urban China, not only because the two areas differ in terms of social hierarchy, but also because urban women are more likely to fight against their subordination, which is endorsed by conventional social views on gender. To independently assess these relationships, we applied the Quadruple Process model to measure the processes underlying implicit gender attitudes in a sample of urban and rural females. The results indicated that the urban women had higher in-group favoritism than did the rural women. Application of the Quad model, however, showed that pro-women associations were similarly activated among urban and rural women, but that women in rural settings more effectively inhibited activated associations. Differences in inhibition, rather than in activated associations, appear to account for the less favorable attitudes among rural women. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses among urban and rural women exaggerate the differences in underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and conceal differences in self-regulating the expression of those associations.

  14. Haplotype and nucleotide variation in the exon 3-VNTR of the DRD4 gene from indigenous and urban populations of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Samudio, Ana Julia; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos Sabás; González-Sobrino, Blanca Zoila; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Verónica; Medrano-González, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To describe the population structure of the 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), located in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), in 41 Tarahumara from northern Mexico, 20 Mixe from southern Mexico, and 169 people from Mexico City. Genotypes for the DRD4-VNTR were determined, from which 15 Tarahumara, eight Mixe, and 37 urban homozygous individuals were sequenced. Repeat-allele frequencies were compared with other world populations. The DRD4-VNTR variation in Mexico City appeared similar to the world mean. For the Mixe and Maya, DRD4-VNTR diversity appeared closer to South American groups whereas the Tarahumara were similar to North American groups. People from Mexico City and the Mixe exhibited attributes of a large and admixed population and an isolated population, respectively. The Tarahumara showed endogamy associated with a substructure as suggested by a preliminary regional differentiation. For the DRD4-VNTR and/or the adjacent 5'-173 bp sequence, the three populations exhibited negative Tajima's D. Two new VNTR haplotypes were discovered: one in Mexico City and another among the Tarahumara. A differentiation in the DRD4-VNTR of global relevance occurs between northern and southern populations of Mexico suggesting that the Mexican Trans-volcanic Belt has been a major frontier for human dispersion in the Americas. Ancient trespass of this barrier appears thus related to a major change in the population structure of the DRD4-VNTR. Distinctive and independent patterns of DRD4-VNTR diversity occur among the two Mexican indigenous populations by a still undefined combination of drift and selection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Antenatal care and morbidity profile of pregnant women in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, N; Prasuna, J G; Vibha, M D

    2011-06-01

    The burden of antenatal morbidities and health care services utilization during antenatal period serve an important role in defining service needs and to assess reproductive health status of women. To evaluate the burden of antenatal morbidities in women and to assess the health care utilization by study subjects during antenatal period. A community based follow up study was carried out in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. All pregnant women in the study area were enrolled and followed for two more visits to collect information about morbidities suffered and health care services utilized during pregnancy. Appropriate tests of significance were applied. Of 358 women enrolled, three hundred could be followed for two more visits. Majority of women (80.3%) suffered one or more morbidities during their current pregnancy but overall care sought for illness during pregnancy was poor. Visits for routine preventive check up was made by most of women (95% and above) but recommended three antenatal visits was significantly low among women of age more than thirty (OR=16.6; 2.2-125.9), of lower middle socio economic status (OR=2.84; 1.16-6.93) and parity three or more (OR=4.37; 1.07-17.83). Women with education status of high school and above had significantly lower odd ratio (OR=0.33; 0.11-0.99) for having less than three antenatal visits. Care sought for antenatal morbidities is still poor among women of urban resettlement colonies and age, parity and education of women has a significant bearing on antenatal visits.

  16. Committee opinion no. 515: Health care for urban American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  17. Prenatal care of African American women in selected USA urban and rural cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnonursing research was to systematically discover, describe, and analyze the beliefs, practices, and values of African American women related to prenatal care. The domain of inquiry was prenatal care of African American women within their familiar cultural contexts. The study was conceptualized within Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality which enabled the researcher to study professional and generic care as influenced by the worldview, social structural factors, cultural values and beliefs, ethnohistory, and environmental context. The goal of the study was to discover knowledge that could be used by health professionals to provide culturally congruent prenatal care that would increase the health and well being of the people. The rationale for the study was based on studies that showed the lack of prenatal care in the African American cultural group leads to low birth weights and high infant mortality rates. Four major themes that focused on the domain of inquiry were identified: 1) Cultural care meant protection, presence, and sharing; 2) social structural factors that greatly influenced the health and well being were spirituality, kinship, and economics; 3) professional prenatal care was seen by the women as necessary and essential but there was distrust of noncaring professionals, and barriers to such care; and 4) folk health beliefs, practices, and indigenous health care providers were widely used by women in the African American community.

  18. A postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of urban Aboriginal women's description of pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-02-01

    Excessive weight gain and physical inactivity in pregnancy have been identified as risk factors for negative health outcomes for mothers and fetuses, particularly among Aboriginal women. In this paper we engage with postcolonial feminist theory and critical discourse analysis to examine the question, "how do urban Aboriginal women understand pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity." We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 25 urban Aboriginal pregnant or postpartum women between the ages of 16 and 39 in Ottawa, Canada. Three prominent discourses emerged: Aboriginal women have different pregnancies than non-Aboriginal women because Aboriginal women gain more weight and are more likely to develop gestational diabetes; Aboriginal women feel personally responsible for and shameful about excessive weight gain; finally, Aboriginal women need culturally safe pregnancy resources. Our results illuminate the complex and often paradoxical ways in which discourses around weight gain and physical activity are produced and taken-up by Aboriginal women and their healthcare providers. Based on these findings, we argue there is a lack of accessible and culturally safe resources for urban Aboriginal women, specifically concerning weight gain and physical activity in pregnancy. We recommend the development of resources that are created for/by/with Aboriginal women to better address that issues that urban Aboriginal women themselves identify as being of key importance. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Shifiona

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems with women in peri-urban Namibie are faced with are multi-dimensional.Like women in other communities they face the pressure of having a number of responsibilities, namely working, being a wife and mother, taking care of their families and perhaps caring for aging parents. Sometimes the pressure can be too overwhelming to manage. As a result, many women become depressed. Studies on depression among black African women in Namibia could not be traced. It was therefore considered to find out how women suffering from depression from this part of the world tell their life stories. The purpose of the study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore and describe the life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia, and secondly to use the information obtained to describe guidelines for psychiatric nurses working with these patients at psychiatric outpatient clinics as well as in the community. A qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher approached the subjects and their experiences with an open mind. Ten depressed adult women between 21-55 years were involved in the research. The researcher strived to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness. To ensure this Guba’s model (in Krefting, 1991: 217 of trustworthiness was adopted. All the interviews were analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55. The services of an independent coder were obtained. The results indicated that impaired interpersonal interactions and stressful life events have a negative influence on the daily life of women leading to the development of depressive symptoms. Guidelines to support psychiatric nurses working with depressed women were drawn up.

  20. Life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifiona, N N; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H

    2006-05-01

    The problems women in peri-urban Namibia are faced with are multi-dimensional. Like women in other communities they face the pressure of having a number of responsibilities, namely working, being a wife and mother, taking care of their families and perhaps caring for aging parents. Sometimes the pressure can be too overwhelming to manage. As a result, many women become depressed. Studies on depression among black African women in Namibia could not be traced. It was therefore considered to find out how women suffering from depression from this part of the world tell their life stories. The purpose of the study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore and describe the life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia, and secondly to use the information obtained to describe guidelines for psychiatric nurses working with these patients at psychiatric outpatient clinics as well as in the community. A qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher approached the subjects and their experiences with an open mind. Ten depressed adult women between 21-55 years were involved in the research. The researcher strived to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness. To ensure this Guba's model (in Krefting, 1991: 217) of trustworthiness was adopted. All the interviews were analysed following Tesch's method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55). The services of an independent coder were obtained. The results indicated that impaired interpersonal interactions and stressful life events have a negative influence on the daily life of women leading to the development of depressive symptoms. Guidelines to support psychiatric nurses working with depressed women were drawn up.

  1. Medicinal plants used by women in Mecca: urban, Muslim and gendered knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqethami, Afnan; Hawkins, Julie A; Teixidor-Toneu, Irene

    2017-11-17

    This study explores medicinal plant knowledge and use among Muslim women in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Ethnobotanical research in the region has focused on rural populations and male herbal healers in cities, and based on these few studies, it is suggested that medicinal plant knowledge may be eroding. Here, we document lay, female knowledge of medicinal plants in an urban centre, interpreting findings in the light of the growing field of urban ethnobotany and gendered knowledge and in an Islamic context. Free-listing, structured and semi-structured interviews were used to document the extent of medicinal plant knowledge among 32 Meccan women. Vernacular names, modes of preparation and application, intended therapeutic use and emic toxicological remarks were recorded. Women were asked where they learnt about medicinal plants and if and when they preferred using medicinal plants over biomedical resources. Prior informed consent was always obtained. We compared the list of medicinal plants used by these Meccan women with medicinal plants previously documented in published literature. One hundred eighteen vernacular names were collected, corresponding to approximately 110 plants, including one algae. Of these, 95 were identified at the species level and 39 (41%) had not been previously cited in Saudi Arabian medicinal plant literature. Almost one half of the plants cited are food and flavouring plants. Meccan women interviewed learn about medicinal plants from their social network, mass media and written sources, and combine biomedical and medicinal plant health care. However, younger women more often prefer biomedical resources and learn from written sources and mass media. The fairly small number of interviews conducted in this study was sufficient to reveal the singular body of medicinal plant knowledge held by women in Mecca and applied to treat common ailments. Plant availability in local shops and markets and inclusion in religious texts seem to shape the

  2. Indigenous religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2009-01-01

    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  3. Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis amongst perimenopausal women in an urban resettlement colony in South Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Harshal; Gupta, Vivek; Palanivel, C; Yadav, Kapil; Singh, Bir

    2010-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban resettlement colony in South Delhi to study the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in women aged ≥40 years and treatment seeking behavior of women suffering from osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was diagnosed by using clinical criteria given by American College of Rheumatology for diagnosis of Idiopathic Osteoarthritis of knee joints. A total 260 women were interviewed out of which 123 (47.3%) women were found to be suffering from knee osteoarthritis. Prevalence of osteoarthritis found to be increased with age. Less than half of those with osteoarthritis underwent treatment. With this high prevalence of osteoarthritis, there is need to spread awareness about the disease, its prevention, and rehabilitation in the community.

  4. Rural and urban women entrepreneurs: A comparison of service needs and delivery methods priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurs face a wide variety of barriers and challenges throughout the life and growth of their entrepreneurial venture. This study expands the knowledge base on women entrepreneurs’ needs, specifically their needs in terms of service areas and service delivery method preferences. Twenty three “needed” service areas were identified by 95 Manitoba based women entrepreneurs. The first five included: finding new customers, growth benefits and tools, market expansion, general marketing, and networking skills. This study also examined the differences between urban and rural based entrepreneurs. Two service need areas “how to find mentors and role models” and “legal issues” exhibited statistically significant priority differences. Service delivery methods did not produce any statistically significant differences. Overall, this study concludes that regardless of location, women entrepreneurs’ training and support needs are not significantly that different. The effects of entrepreneurial stage and years in business on entrepreneurial support needs are also examined.

  5. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  6. Autonomy of educated urban women and their attitude towards female foeticide in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dweepika Kumari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sex-ratio in India is continuously declining in spite of gradually increasing literacy among women. For long, it was thought that illiteracy and female subjugation is the reason why women are unable to stand for their rights. As such, large scale attempts and programs had been taken to increase the literacy of women. But in spite of the spread of female education and increasing women autonomy in Urban India, the female foeticide has continued to increase. Most of the results in the recent reports suggest that child sex ratio is inversely linked to female literacy and female economic activity rate, especially in urban India. Thus, this study is an attempt to prove that simply increasing the female literacy and autonomy without bringing about the change in mind-set will not be completely successful in combating the problem of female foeticide. It explores the level of autonomy being enjoyed by the Women of Patna, their attitude towards female foeticide and also the factors which arouse the son-preference in them.

  7. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  8. Chinese Urban Young Women's Preferences And Perceptions Toward International Cosmetic Magazine Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xi

    2006-01-01

    Advertising is regarded as the most effective tool for multinationals to communicate with their target consumers. Further, understanding target consumers' perceptions and preferences can help advertisers implement advertising strategy more easily and effectively. However, as the implementation of China reform and openness policy in 1979, the society has a tendency toward modernisation and Westernisation, and Chinese urban young women become more opened, experienced, and affluent for shopping ...

  9. Having a Son Promotes Clean Cooking Fuel Use in Urban India: Women's Status and Son Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Kishore; Dean Spears

    2014-01-01

    Urban Indian households with a male first child are approximately 2 percentage points more likely to use clean cooking fuel than comparable households with a female first child. Given Indian son preference, there are at least two mechanisms by which child sex could affect fuel choice: by improving the intrahousehold status of women, who bear more of the costs of traditional fuels, or by presenting an opportunity to invest in children's health, in the context of a preference for healthier boys...

  10. Wife beating refusal among women of reproductive age in urban and rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Endale, Senait

    2017-03-16

    Wife beating is the most common and widespread form of intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. It results in countless severe health, socio-economic and psychological problems and has contributed to the violation of human rights including the liberty of women to enjoy conjugal life. The main purpose of this study is to assess the levels and patterns of wife beating refusal and its associated socio-cultural and demographic factors in rural and urban Ethiopia. The 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data based on 11,097 and 5287 women in the reproductive age group (i.e. 15-49 years) living in rural and urban areas, respectively,were used in this study. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency of the measure of women's attitudes towards wife beating. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was applied to analyze the data. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify variables that significantly predict respondents' refusal of wife beating. Separate analysis by a place of residence was undertaken as attitude towards wife beating vary between rural and urban areas. The likelihood of refusing wife beating in Ethiopia was significantly higher among urban women (54.2%) than rural women (24.5%). Although there was a significant variations in attitude towards refusing wife beating among different regions in Ethiopia, increasing educational level, high access to media, age of respondents were associated with high level of refusal of wife beating. In contrast, rural residence, being in marital union, high number of living children, being followers of some religions (Muslim followers in urban and Protestants in rural) were associated with low level of refusal of wife beating. The findings of this study reveal that wife beating in Ethiopia is a function of demographic and socio-cultural factors among which age and educational attainment of respondents, number of living children, religious affiliation, marital commitment and

  11. Dietary Health Behaviors of Women Living in High Rise Dwellings: A Case Study of an Urban Community in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Swee, Winnie Chee Siew; Liew, Siew Ying; Ng, Boon Koon; Chinna, Karuthan

    2012-01-01

    Diet-related non-communicable disease (DR-NCD) occurrence is a serious problem amongst Malaysian women and urbanization is probably a challenge to their achieving the nutritional environment conducive to healthy eating. This case study aimed to determine diet quality of an urban community using women respondents from high rise dwellings in Kuala Lumpur. The sample consisted of 135 households and a healthy eating index (HEI) scale was used to evaluate the women?s diet quality. A total of 128 w...

  12. Balancing the benefits and costs of traditional food substitution by indigenous Arctic women of childbearing age: Impacts on persistent organic pollutant, mercury, and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnington, Matthew J; Curren, Meredith S; Chan, Hing Man; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-01

    For indigenous Arctic Canadians, traditional food consumption represents a key source of nutrients and environmental contaminants. Particularly, ingestion of marine mammal blubber and meat may lead to persistent organic pollutant levels and mercury intakes that exceed regulatory thresholds for sensitive populations. We investigated whether temporary adjustments to the consumption of traditional food derived from marine mammals appreciably impacted contaminant exposure and nutrient intakes among indigenous women of childbearing age. Such adjustments can be motivated by the desire to lower contaminant exposure or to increase nutrition, or by the diminishing availability of other traditional food sources. We combined the contaminant fate and transport model GloboPOP with the food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-Human Arctic to simulate polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in female 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey participants. We also calculated daily mercury and nutrient intake rates. Our results suggest that a temporary decrease in marine mammal consumption is largely ineffective at reducing exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, because of their long elimination half-lives. In contrast, substitution of marine mammals was highly efficient at reducing mercury intake, but also appreciably lowered intakes of iron, manganese, selenium, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The impact of increasing intake of traditional food derived from marine mammals during childbearing age greatly depended on baseline consumption rates; replacement is ill-advised for those who already consume a lot of traditional food due to greater polychlorinated biphenyl and mercury exposures, while replacement was potentially beneficial for those with very limited marine mammal consumption due to increased nutrient intakes. Our calculations primarily suggest that considering baseline traditional food intake rates is critical to devising reproductive dietary adjustment strategies that maximize nutrient

  13. Postnatal care utilization among urban women in northern Ethiopia: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Genet; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Gidey, Gebreamlak; Abrha, Kidan

    2018-05-30

    Postnatal care service enables health professionals to identify post-delivery problems including potential complications for the mother with her baby and to provide treatments promptly. In Ethiopia, postnatal care service is made accessible to all women for free however the utilization of the service is very low. This study assessed the utilization of postnatal care services of urban women and the factors associated in public health facilities in Mekelle city, Tigrai Region, Northern Ethiopia. A facility based cross sectional study design was used to assess post natal service utilization. Using simple random sampling 367 women who visited maternal and child health clinics in Mekelle city for postnatal care services during January 27 to April 2014 were selected. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. A binary and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with the outcome variables. P-value less than 0.05 is used to declare statistical significance. The prevalence of women who utilized postnatal care service was low (32.2%). Women who were private employees and business women were more likely to utilize postnatal care services (AOR = 6.46, 95% CI: 1.91-21.86) and (3.35, 95% CI: 1.10-10.19) respectively compared to house wives., Women who had history of one pregnancy were more likely to utilize the service (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.06-9.57) compared to women who had history of four and above pregnancies. Women who had knowledge of postnatal care service were also more likely to utilize postnatal care service (AOR = 14.46, 95% CI: 7.55-27.75) than women who lacked knowledge about the services. Postnatal care utilization in the study area is low. Knowledge on postnatal care services and occupation of women had positive impact on postnatal care service utilization. The Mekelle city administration health office and other stakeholders should support and encourage urban health extension workers and

  14. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  15. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2017-01-01

    Background In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. Objective We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. Materials and Methods A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Results Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi’s water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported ‘walking’ as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported

  16. Women's health status in urban Ghana: dimensions and differentials using short form 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frempong-Ainguah, Faustina; Bailey, Claire E; Hill, Allan G

    2018-04-24

    Global discourse on population, health and development have placed women's health issues at the top of development agenda. Women's reproductive health has received some attention in Ghana since the mid-1990s. However, studies on women's general health status, dimensions and the differentials in a rapidly growing urban setting is poorly understood and under-researched. This study sought to examine the various pathways in which individual socio-demographic factors, economic characteristics and endowment influence self-assessed health status among women living in the city of Accra, Ghana. The paper draws on a cross-sectional study carried out in 2008 and 2009 using a representative sample of urban women 20 years and older (n = 2814). Multivariate stepwise linear regression models were performed to investigate the influence of socio-demographic, economic and health indicators on health-related quality of life, measured by eight sub-scales of the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Interaction effects between some demographic and socio-economic variables were also performed. The analyses show diverse relationships between demographic, socio-economic and health indicators and health outcomes assessed using eight SF-36 sub-scales. Education, disease symptoms and age of the respondent were the most significant factors influencing good overall health status. Interestingly, age has no significant effect on mental health after controlling for all other explanatory variables. The findings show that health issues are multi-faceted requiring socio-cultural, health and economic policy interventions. Investing in women's education is important to improve health status. There is also the need for more effective collaboration across various sectors to improve the health and well-being of women in general. Ageing has increasing relationship with poor physical health status and the elderly should be given needed attention and support.

  17. Knowledge of Married Women in Kohgilouyeh & Boyerahmad Urban Areas on AIDS and Sexualy Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Goshtasbi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Sexualy transmitted infections (STIs and AIDS are the most common diseases worldwide. Women are more affected by STIs and AIDS due to gender-related factors such as biological, cultural and so on. This study was conducted to investigate knowledge about AIDS and STIs among married women in Kohgilouyeh & BoyerAhmad Province/Iran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban areas of Kohgilouyeh and Boyerahmad province. Using stratifed cluster sampling, a valid questionnaire covering demographic variables and items related to knowledge about AIDS and STIs was administered to 1379 women covered by the urban PHC clinics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 33.3 (SD=±9.3. Most were household (%85 and the mean level of their formal education was 7.2 years (SD=±4.8. The results also showed that women had the most knowledge with the statements that "using condom protects against AIDS" (%63.9 and "asymptomatic persons would be as AIDS vectors" (%65.1. There was a significant relation between education and recognizing AIDS as a sexualy transmitted infection (p=0.004. Albeit, women were poorly familiar with the STIs, the most knowledge was found with gonorrhea (%40.5 and the least with chlamydia (%12.2. The most knowledge was observed with the statements that "STIs would induce PID in women" and "using condom protects against all the venereal diseases" (both %61.1. A significant corelation was found between education and job and fimiliarity with STIs (p<0.001. Conclusion: Findings showed limited knowledge on sexualy transmitted infections and fairely good knowledge on AIDS. There is need for the promotion of women's knowledge in sexual health field.

  18. Does Time Matter? – A Study of Participation of Women in Urban Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riya Banerjee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Time is an important aspect of present day life. Everyone tries to manage time in their daily lives, but women often face many hurdles in this respect. They work in their homes as well as in the public sphere, which doubles their actual workload. Their responsibilities increase further when women are engaged in the field of governance as local representatives. The work of a local representative is considered as a 24×7 thankless job in the Indian context, and women councillors (WCs have to work just as hard as the men. However, in the domestic sphere, because of gendered nature of household chores, women still tend to do more work than men. Due to this reason, women have to manage their time in order to provide better services to the citizens and ensure that their household duties are completed flawlessly. This paper raises the issues related to such management of time by the elected women in the urban governance of West Bengal. The issues are: first, the duration of work as a councillor and its relation with the honorarium they receive; second, the extent to which their household work hinders their path to creating their identity in urban governance; and third, the degree to which these two activities influence the quality of their leisure time. In 1995, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP developed a methodology to analyse the value of time based on the time-use activities. This research underpins this methodology to justify the unpaid and underpaid work of the WCs as well as their management of time between indoor and outdoor activities. The primary data was collected by conducting individual interviews with 38 women councillors in the four selected small cities (Darjeeling, Balurghat, Raniganj and Chinsurah of West Bengal.

  19. Timing of return to work and women's breastfeeding practices in urban Malaysia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Liamputtong, Pranee; Amir, Lisa H

    2018-01-01

    Nearly half of the working population in Malaysia are women, and with only a short period of maternity leave, they may struggle to achieve the recommended 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between the timing of return to work and beliefs and breastfeeding practices among women in urban Malaysia. A qualitative inquiry based on a phenomenological framework and multiple methods was used: face-to-face interview, participant diary and researcher field notes. Data collection took place in Penang and the Klang Valley, Malaysia, from March to September 2011. Eligible participants were purposely identified at randomly selected recruitment sites. A thematic analysis method was used to develop the typologies and categories of the findings. A total of 40 working women with a mean age of 32 years (SD 3.4) were interviewed and 15 participated in the diary writing. Most women (75%) returned to work between 2 and 3 months. Only 10% returned to work 4 months or later postpartum, and 15% had an early return to work (defined here as less than 2 months). The women fell into three groups: Passionate women with a strong determination to breastfeed, who exclusively breastfed for 6 months; Ambivalent women, who commenced breastfeeding but were unable to sustain this after returning to work; and Equivalent women, who perceived formula feeding as equally nutritious as breast milk. Although longer maternity leave was very important for Ambivalent women to maintain breastfeeding, it was not as important for the Equivalent or Passionate women. In conclusion, returning earlier was not an absolute barrier to continuing breastfeeding. Instead, a woman's beliefs and perceptions of breastfeeding were more important than the timing of her return to work in determining her ability to maintain breastfeeding or breast milk feeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Modeling condom-use stage of change in low-income, single, urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P; Lewis, Brian P

    2002-04-01

    This study was undertaken to identify and test a model of the cognitive antecedents to condom use stage of change in low-income, single, urban women. A convenience sample of 537 women (M=30 years old) attending two urban primary health care settings in western New York State anonymously completed questionnaires based primarily on two leading social-cognitive models, the transtheoretical model and the information-motivation-behavioral skills model. We used structural equation modeling to examine the direct and indirect effects of HIV-related knowledge, social norms of discussing HIV risk and prevention, familiarity with HIV-infected persons, general readiness to change sexual behaviors, perceived vulnerability to HIV, and pros and cons of condom use on condom-use stage of change. The results indicated two models that differ by partner type. Condom-use stage of change in women with steady main partners was influenced most by social norms and the pros of condom use. Condom-use stage of change in women with "other" types (multiple, casual, or new) of sexual partners was influenced by HIV-related knowledge, general readiness to change sexual behaviors, and the pros of condom use. These findings suggest implications for developing gender-relevant HIV-prevention interventions. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Risk factors for preterm premature rupture of membranes in Chinese women from urban cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Weiyuan; Xu, Huan; Liang, Huan; Ruan, Yan; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Xiaotian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in urban areas in China and examine the associated risk factors. A population-based, prospective study was undertaken in 14 cities in China between January 1, 2011, and January 31, 2012. Women were recruited at their first prenatal-care visit, when maternal characteristics were recorded. Risk factors were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Of 112 439 women included in analyses, 3077 (2.7%) had PPROM. Univariate analysis showed an increased risk of PPROM before 28weeks of pregnancy in migrant women (odds ratio [OR] 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-3.30; P<0.001), in those with a history of recurrent induced abortions (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.66-4.56; P<0.001), and in those with a history of preterm birth (OR 3.90; 95% CI 0.77-19.61; P<0.001). The associations were maintained in multivariate analysis (P<0.001). Migration as a result of urbanization, high rates of induced abortion, and preterm birth are potential risk factors for PPROM in Chinese women. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A qualitative study exploring women's journeys to becoming smokers in the social context of urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Devashri; Nagarkar, Aarti

    2018-04-01

    In India, the prevalence of smoking among women is increasing, and the reasons behind this are unclear. We aimed to study the factors leading to initiation and maintenance of the smoking habit in women in Pune, India. Twenty-seven urban women smokers, ranging from 21 to 60 years of age (31.96 ± 10.70 years), were interviewed between September 2015 and February 2016. The in-depth interviews consisted of questions on pre-decided categories, including initiation, motivation to continue smoking, and risk perception. Thematic analysis revealed that peer pressure, curiosity, fascination, experimentation, and belonging to a group were factors that led to initiation, while lack of alternatives for stress relief, work environments, and lack of leisure time activities provided circumstances to continue smoking. Participants recognized a sense of liberation and independence from smoking cigarettes and perceived health risks as minor and distant. These findings can be used to develop or modify interventions to prevent and control smoking among urban Indian women.

  3. Comparison of Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women in Chiang Rai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Wutichouy, Wiwat; Sirijaichingkul, Suchat; Kritpetcharat, Panutas

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Rap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.

  4. Drivers of dietary behaviours in women living in urban Africa: a systematic mapping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissing, Stefanie C; Pradeilles, Rebecca; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah A; Cohen, Emmanuel; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    To (i) systematically review the literature to determine the factors influencing diet and dietary behaviour in women living in urban Africa; (ii) present these in a visual map; and (iii) utilize this to identify potentially important areas for future research. Systematic mapping review. The review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; registration number CRD42015017749). Six databases were systematically searched, followed by reference and citation searching. Eligibility criteria included women aged 18-70 years living in urban Africa, any design/methodology, exploring any driver, using any measure of dietary behaviour. Quality appraisal occurred parallel with data extraction. Twelve predominantly cross-sectional quantitative studies were included; reported in seventeen publications. Determinants were synthesized narratively and compiled into a map adapted from an existing ecological model based on research in high-income countries. Urban Africa. African women aged 18-70 years. Determinants significantly associated with unhealthy dietary behaviour ranged from the individual to macro level, comprising negative body image perception, perceptions of insufficient food quantity and poorer quality, poorer food knowledge, skipping meals, snacking less, higher alcohol consumption, unhealthy overall lifestyle, older age, higher socio-economic status, having an education, lower household food expenditure, frequent eating outside the home and media influence. Marital status and strong cultural and religious beliefs were also identified as possible determinants. Few studies have investigated drivers of dietary behaviours in urban African settings. Predominantly individual-level factors were reported. Gaps in the literature identified a need for research into the neglected areas: social, physical and macro-level drivers of food choice.

  5. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

  6. Postpartum sexual abstinence, breastfeeding, and childspacing, among Yoruba women in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyisetan, B J

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the traditional practice of sexual abstinence during lactation has broken down among Yoruba women residents in urban areas. The first major finding is that there is a gradual erosion of the tradition, and the dominant factors of modernization are education of the woman and the use of contraception. The second major finding is that the breakdown of postpartum sexual taboos has statistically significant negative consequences on duration of lactation, although the negative impact of woman's education is greater. The third major finding is that duration of breastfeeding reduces birth interval significantly only when it is less than 15 months, and that both durations of breastfeeding and birth intervals have declined over time. The first two findings suggest further reductions in the proportion of women who abstain from sexual relations during lactation and in durations of breastfeeding as more women become more educated. Significant declines in birth intervals may follow soon after.

  7. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Kloster, Stine; Girma, Tsinuel

    2012-01-01

    Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physica...... activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures.......Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical...

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice of condom use by women of an impoverished urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalyanna Sgren da Costa Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowledge and practice, and an adequate attitude. Regarding the female condom, knowledge, attitude and practice variables were unsatisfactory. Significant associations between knowledge/religious orientation and attitude/education regarding the male condom were observed. CONCLUSION A multidisciplinary team should be committed to the development of educational practices as care promotion tools in order to improve adherence of condom use.

  9. The intersection of everyday life and group prenatal care for women in two urban clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S; Knafl, Kathleen A; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2012-05-01

    Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features that address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects.

  10. The associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyema, M; Norris, S A; Said-Mohamed, R; Tollman, S T; Twine, R; Kahn, K; Richter, L M

    2018-03-23

    Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women. Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 non-pregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress. Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area. The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community

  11. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  12. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  13. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p<.05 was found with parity and birth interval from last birth.  But the association of anaemia with ethnicity, education and other factors like gestational age (trimester was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  14. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajale, Neha A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP) and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i) compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii) effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years) randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A), 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B) and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C) were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB), by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX) were collected. Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg) than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg) (median [IQR]). Android fat % (central obesity) increased (P 0.1). Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  15. Awareness of breast cancer in women of an urban resettlement colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somdatta, P; Baridalyne, N

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer accounts for 19-34% of all cancer cases among women in India. There is a high mortality due to late stage diagnosis as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and non-existent breast cancer screening programs. Aim : To determine the awareness about breast cancer among women in an urban resettlement colony in Delhi. A community based, cross-sectional study carried out in a resettlement colony in South Delhi. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect information regarding breast cancer. Modified Kuppuswamy scale was used for assessing the socio-economic status. A total of 333 women were included. The mean age was 36 years+/-15.1 and 46% were illiterate. Only 185 (56%) women were aware of breast cancer; among them, 51% knew about at least one of the signs /symptoms, 53% were aware that breast cancer can be detected early, and only 35% mentioned about risk factors. Thus, awareness about breast cancer is low amongst women in this community. There is a need for awareness generation programs to educate women about breast cancer, propagation of correct messages and promote early detection of breast cancer.

  16. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice of modern contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozumba, B C; Obi, S N; Ijioma, N N

    2005-04-01

    The contraceptive information and services offered to single women in most developing countries is compromised by stigma attached to premarital sex. This study was to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria, using a cross-sectional survey of 279 and 295 single women in Ngwo (rural) and Enugu (urban) community. The mean age of the population was 21.3 years. Contraceptive awareness was more among the urban than rural respondents (90.2% vs 34.1%). The major sources of contraceptive knowledge were mass media (68%) and peer groups (86.3%) for the urban and rural respondents, respectively. Most respondents in both groups had positive attitude towards contraception. More urban than rural respondents (68.3% vs 12.5%) began sexual activity during adolescence and the level of contraceptive use during first coitus were 48.4% and 13.7%, respectively. Of the currently sexually active respondents, 32.5% (rural) and 59.7% (urban) were using a form of modern contraception. Condoms, followed by oral pills were the most popular contraceptive method because they can easily procure them over the counter. Poor contraceptive information, highly critical behavior of family planning providers towards unmarried women seeking contraception and attitude of male partners militate against contraceptive practice. There is need to promote information and education on contraception among single women, their male partners and family planning providers.

  18. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  19. Barriers to Higher Education: Commonalities and Contrasts in the Experiences of Hindu and Muslim Young Women in Urban Bengaluru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N.

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and…

  20. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in pregnant women attending urban tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care and is based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduce delay in obtaining care. Study Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of birth preparedness, knowledge on danger signs, and emergency readiness among pregnant women attending outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Patients and Methods: Six hundred pregnant women attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital for the first time in an urban setting were interviewed using a tool adapted from the “Monitoring BP/CR-tools and indicators for maternal and new born health” of the “JHPIEGO.” The outcomes of the study were birth preparedness, knowledge of severe illness, and emergency readiness. Results: Six hundred pregnant women were in the study. Mean age of respondents was 25.2 (±4 years. The mean gestation at enrolment was 18.7 ± 8 weeks. Among the women who participated in the survey, 20% were illiterate, 70% were homemakers and nearly 70% had a monthly family income >Rs. 15,197 (n = 405. Three hundred and sixteen mothers (52% were primigravida. As defined in the study, 71.5% were birth prepared. However, 59 women (9.8% did not identify a place of delivery, 102 (17% had not started saving money, and 99 mothers (16.5% were not aware of purchasing materials needed for delivery. The predictors of birth preparedness are multiparity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–3.1, registration in the antenatal clinic in the first trimester (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.2–6.1, educational status of women (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0, and pregnancy supervison by a doctor (OR: 5, 95% CI: 2.8–6.6. One hundred and sixty-four women (27% made no arrangements in the event of an emergency, 376 women (63% were not aware of their blood group

  1. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anu Taneja; Siddhu, Anupa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant factors for maintaining normal BMI were: Younger age, less parity, nuclear family, normal weight status of parents, postpartum weight gain between 2 and 3 kg, regularity in taking meals, fixed meal size, self-perceived normal weight, and shorter sitting time and television viewing time. Multivariate regression analysis identified five determining factors for maintaining BMI, which are normal weight of father, self-perceived normal weight, fixed meal size, sitting time less than 6 h/day, and television viewing time less than 1 h/day. By small lifestyle modifications, normal BMI can be maintained.

  2. Women's health care: the experiences and behaviors of rural and urban lesbians in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barefoot, K Nikki; Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated that, in comparison to their cisgender heterosexual counterparts, lesbians face a multitude of women's healthcare-related disparities. However, very little research has been conducted that takes an intersectionality approach to examining the potential influences of rural-urban location on the health-related needs and experiences of lesbians. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare rural and urban lesbians' access to women's health care, experiences with women's healthcare providers (WHCPs), and preventive behavior using a large, diverse sample of lesbians from across the USA. A total of 895 (31.1% rural and 68.9% urban) lesbian-identified cisgender women (ie not transgender) from the USA participated in the current online study. As part of a larger parent study, participants were recruited from across the USA through email communication to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-focused organizations and online advertisements. Participants were asked to complete a series of questions related to their women's healthcare-related experiences and behaviors (ie access to care, experiences with WHCPs, and preventive behavior). A series of χ2 analyses were utilized in order to examine rural-urban differences across dependent variables. An examination of sexual risks revealed that relatively more rural lesbians reported at least one previous male sexual partner in comparison to the urban sample of lesbians (78.1% vs 69.1%, χ2(1, N=890)=7.56, p=0.006). A similarly low percentage of rural (42.4%) and urban (42.9%) lesbians reported that they have a WHCP that they see on a regular basis for preventive care. In terms of experiences with WHCP providers, relatively fewer rural lesbians indicated that their current WHCP had discussed/recommended the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in comparison to urban lesbians (27.5% vs. 37.2%; χ2 (1, N=796)=7.24, p=0.007). No other rural-urban differences in

  3. Patterns, levels and correlates of self-reported physical activity in urban black Soweto women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-09-08

    Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p travel (both p travel is a major contributor to physical activity, future research should attempt to determine whether the intensity of this activity plays a role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  4. Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Tazeen S.; Krantz, Gunilla; Gul, Raisa; Asad, Nargis; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pakistan is a patriarchal society where men are the primary authority figures and women are subordinate. This has serious implications on women’s and men’s life prospects. Objective: The aim was to explore current gender roles in urban Pakistan, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men’s and women’s life circumstances. Design: Five focus group discussions were conducted, including 28 women representing employed, unemployed, educated and uneducated women from diffe...

  5. Anger as a moderator of safer sex motivation among low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Kerstin E E; Carey, Michael P

    2005-10-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median split). The theoretically expected "rational pattern" was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an "irrational pattern" emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge- and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women.

  6. Women's Environmental Literacy As Social Capital In Environmental Management For Environmental Security of Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteria, Donna; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.

    2016-02-01

    This study is about experience of women's role in environmental management to raise environmental security and form of women's emancipation movement. Environmental concerns conducted by residents of urban women who become environmental activists based on environmental literacy. Because of that, women's experience in interacting with both physic and social environment have differences in managing the environment including managing household waste by applying the principles of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) and their persuasive efforts on their communities. This is the key to achieving sustainable development by anticipating environmental problem and preserving the environment. This study is conducted qualitative research method and its type is descriptive-explanative. The result of this study is environmental literacy of women activist on pro-environment action in their community that has achieved spiritual environmental literacy. Environmental literacy may differ due to internal and external condition of each individual. Pro-environment activities conducted as a form of responsibility of environmental concern such as eco-management, educational, and economic action, by persuading residents to proactively and consistently continue to do environmental management and develop a sense of community in shaping the networks of environmental concern in local context for global effect.

  7. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in HIV-positive women in urban Lusaka, Zambia

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    Maria L Alcaide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs remain an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. STIs in HIV-positive women are associated not only with gynecological complications but with increased risk of HIV transmission to HIV-negative partners and newborns. Aims: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of chlamydia (CT and gonorrhea (GC and examine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors associated with these STIs in a group of HIV-positive women in Lusaka, Zambia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study of a sample of HIV-infected women enrolled in two large studies conducted in urban Lusaka, Zambia. Materials and Methods: HIV-seropositive women (n = 292 were assessed for demographic and behavioral risk factors and tested for CT and GC. Univariate analysis was used to determine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors associated with having CT or GC. Results: The identified prevalence of CT was 1% and of GC was 1.4%. There was an association of CT/GC with the use of alcohol before sex (OR = 9.I, CI = 0.59-0.15, P = 0.03. Conclusions: Rates of CT and GC are described in this sample of HIV-positive women. While being in HIV care may serve to increase medical care and condom use, alcohol use should be addressed in this population.

  8. Study of intimate partner violence against women in an urban locality of Pune

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    Kevin Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Intimate partner violence against women has an adverse effect on the health of women. Aims: To estimate the proportion of physical, emotional, economical and sexual violence against women by the husband (intimate partner and to identify factors that may put women at risk of violence by their husbands. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A convenience consecutive sample of 369 married women (18-49 years age attending the Out Patient Department (OPD of the Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of a Medical College in Pune was interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test and Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to identify the risk factors. Results: Almost half of the study sample had experienced some form of violence. The associated factors with intimate partner violence were drinking alcohol by husband (OR = 4.54, 95% CI = 2.52, 8.18, P < 0.001, aggressive nature of husband (OR = 11.81, 95% CI = 3.53, 39.47, P < 0.001 and family history of domestic violence (OR = 11.0, 95% CI = 3.83, 31.63, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Intimate partner violence was high in our study. Risk factors for domestic violence were alcohol use by husband, aggressive nature of husband and family history of domestic violence.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTIVES AND ITS PRACTICE AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW DISTRICT

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    Andleeb Rizvi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Not many studies have been conducted regarding contraceptive practices in the slums of Lucknow. This study will be helpful in the assessing the current scenario of prevalence of contraceptive use and various bio-social characteristics that can affect the contraceptive use by the women residing in urban slums of Lucknow. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of contraceptives and its practices among married women in urban slums of Lucknow district. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Based on thirty cluster sampling technique, thirty urban slums were selected. Total 600 married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years were interviewed in the period of one year from August 2010 to August 2011. Data was collected through preformed and pretested schedule and analysis was done using chi squared test and multiple logistic regression through SPSS 17.0 software. Results: It was found that 99.2 percent married women had the knowledge of contraceptives but its use was only 46.7 percent. Most commonly used contraceptive was condom. Among women who had ever used contraceptives, about 56.3 percent women were current users. Fear of side effects/ health concern was the main reason for discontinuing contraceptive use. Conclusions: Though knowledge of contraceptives among women residing in urban slums of Lucknow was good but contraceptive use was far lagging behind.

  10. The Variables Associated With Health Promotion Behaviors Among Urban Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Millie

    2018-04-24

    To improve understanding of variables impacting health promotion behaviors among urban Black women. A cross-sectional survey was used. Urban Black women (N = 132) between the ages of 30 to 64 years participated. The study was conducted in a U.S. metropolitan region in 2015. Health literacy (Newest Vital Sign [NVS]), self-efficacy (New General Self-Efficacy Scale [NGSE]), and readiness for change (Health Risk Instrument [HRI]) were correlated with health promotion behaviors (Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II [HPLPII]). Univariate statistics addressed demographic characteristics; bivariate/simultaneous linear regression determined the relationships between the NVS, NGSE, and HRI to health promotion behaviors (HPLPII). Demographics: 72.6% completed high school and 25% completed college, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was >32. Positive correlations existed between each variable to health promotion behaviors: NVS (r = .244, p promotion behaviors. Education and health literacy were also correlated (r s = .414, p = .001). Although health literacy, self-efficacy, and readiness for change are associated with health promotion behaviors, readiness for change was the most highly correlated. The development and incorporation of interventions to promote health promotion behaviors should include readiness for change, health literacy, BMI, and education, especially among urban Black women in order to reduce critical health disparities. Community-based and culturally relevant strategies in promoting health that are integrated into existing lifestyles and designed to impact readiness for change will have the greatest impact on reducing health disparities both in the United States and in countries experiencing rapid urbanization. For example, healthy eating behaviors or increased physical activity may be best adopted when integrated into existing community-based spiritual or cultural events via trusted community leaders. Replication of this study in other populations of Black

  11. Seroprevalence study of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women referred to Aleshtar rural and urban health centers in 2008

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    korosh Cheraghi pour

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the a parasitic infectious caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause abortion or fetus damage in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis (IgG & IgM among the pregnant women referred to Aleshtar rural and urban health centers in 2008. Materials and Methods: Total 331 blood samples were collected from 204 urban and 127 rural pregnant wemon referred to rural and urban health centers of Aleshtar. After recording their information in the questionnaire and preparation of sample, all samples were evaluated with IgG- and IgM-ELISA to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: In this study seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in urban and rural pregnant women were 36/2% and 44%, respectively. And 11. 2% of the urban and 9. 4% of the rural women suffered from acute Toxoplasma infection while 25% and 34. 6% of the urban and the rural cases had chronic infection, respectively. The results of analysis showed that there were significant relationships between seropositivity (IgG and IgM and education level, age, contact with raw meat, contact with cat, kind of food, washing vegetables, consumption of vegetables and milk in both urban and rural pregnant women (p<0. 05. There was no significant difference between seropositivity and other variables. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the high level of education and preferment health awareness can reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, %60. 8 of the pregnant women in this study didn’t have previous history of toxoplasma infection and are exposed to primary infectin and acute disease. Therefore, preventive measures and controlled programs are necessary.

  12. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

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    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  13. The experiences of urban, professional women when combining breastfeeding with paid employment in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina

    2013-06-01

    Pakistan has the second highest child mortality rate in South Asia. Breastfeeding can promote infant health, prevent infection and possibly mortality. However, a gradual decline in breastfeeding is reported for Pakistan; especially among urban, educated, employed women. Little research exists regarding the experiences of professional women in Pakistan who are breastfeeding and employed. To describe the experiences of urban, professional women who breastfeed and are employed, as related to facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding. Using a qualitative descriptive design, nine full-time employed women were recruited through purposive sampling from a private tertiary care health setting in Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used for an in-depth interview of 40-45min with each participant. Most women spoke about the challenges of combining breastfeeding with employment, which resulted in early cessation of breastfeeding. The study indicated that positive maternal attributes such as knowledge about breastfeeding, planning, self-commitment, and open communication, as well as availability of social and workplace support is essential to enable urban, professional women in Pakistan to continue breastfeeding while employed. Pakistan has high infant and child mortality rate and decreasing prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among employed professional women. Our findings indicate an urgent need for lactation support programs that include integrated interventions for lactating women that offer informational support, social support, and formal workplace support. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A multidisciplinary approach to improving women's health in semi-urban Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancon, Andrea R; Kelly, Sean G; Valsangkar, Bina; Iyengar, Preetha; Malani, Preeti N

    2009-10-01

    To examine women's reasons for seeking care at The Quito Project (TQP), a student-led organization that aims to improve the health, education, and well-being of a semi-urban community in Quito, Ecuador, and to explore the need for additional preventative interventions. An oral survey was administered to 86 adult patients in 2008. We also completed a chart review to evaluate patient demographics and medical conditions. Sixty-three (73.3%) survey respondents were female. Nearly three-quarters of the women reported an income below the minimum wage; 60% reported that the cost of medical care posed a burden. Fifty-two percent sought care at TQP because the services were free. Additionally, 77% of women reported going to the doctor only when ill and did not access preventative services. By offering medical, dental, and tutoring services, along with preventative health workshops, TQP addresses established barriers to achieving adequate women's health. Survey results have reinforced TQP's focus on prevention.

  15. Influenza vaccine acceptance among pregnant women in urban slum areas, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Afshin Alaf; Varan, Aiden Kennedy; Esteves-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Siddiqui, Mariam; Sultana, Shazia; Ali, Asad S; Zaidi, Anita K M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-09-22

    Facilitators and barriers to influenza vaccination among pregnant women in the developing world are poorly understood, particularly in South Asia. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine among ethnically diverse low-income pregnant women in Pakistan. From May to August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women who visited health centers in urban slums in Karachi city. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine against socio-demographic factors, vaccination history, vaccine recommendation sources, and other factors. In an unvaccinated study population of 283 respondents, 87% were willing to accept the vaccine, if offered. All except two participants were aware of symptoms typically associated with influenza. Perceived vaccine safety, efficacy, and disease susceptibility were significantly associated with intention to accept influenza vaccine (p<0.05). Regardless of intention to accept influenza vaccine, 96% rated healthcare providers as highly reliable source of vaccine information. While a recommendation from a physician was critical for influenza vaccine acceptance, parents-in-law and husbands were often considered the primary decision-makers for pregnant women seeking healthcare including vaccination. Maternal influenza vaccination initiatives in South Asia should strongly consider counseling of key familial decision-makers and inclusion of healthcare providers to help implement new vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An epidemiological study of overweight and obesity among women in an Urban area of North India

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    Sangeeta Girdhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a complex, multi-factorial chronic disease. Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths. Objectives: To find the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in women aged 20-60 years in Ludhiana city. Methods: The present study is a community based cross sectional study carried out in an urban area of Ludhiana among women aged 20-60 years. Among the study population of 324 women, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to record the socio-demographic and anthropometric profile of women. Chi square test and logistic regression was used to find the association of obesity and hypertension with socio-demographic variables. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.7% and 29.6% respectively. Obesity was found to be more common among middle-aged Punjabi housewives belonging to upper socio-economic strata. There was strong association between overweight/obesity and hypertension.

  17. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Sarcopenia in Black South African Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J; Tieland, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = -.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = -.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

  18. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

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    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  19. The changing economic role of women in the urbanization process: a preliminary report from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis-smith, D W

    1984-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey, conducted to collect information on the present economic situation of women and the constraints they face in the choice of work in Zimbabwe, which has recently witnessed a steady growth in its urbanization. Questionnaires were administered to women in 3 district areas of the city of Harare--a middle class suburb within easy commuting distance to the main white collar employment in the city, a low income area of site-and-service housing in the semiperiphery of the city, and a densely populated, lower income, inner city district. There are clear contrasts among the economic activities of women in the 3 areas studied, but the factors which influence the activities seem to vary between and within the social groups, relating somewhat uneasily to the generalized concepts on the female labor market. The occupational analysis of Harare reveals not only the inadequacy of conventional dualistic theories on the labor market, but the somewhat limited utility of westernized concepts on the domestic role of women. The survey also showed strong spatial and geographic influence on women's work and the different opportunities that arise from particular residential locations in Harare. However, this was clearly tempered by social contacts and migrational histories, especially in the inner city areas, where proximity to potential employment was not exploited by many recent migrants. Political factors too were found to play an important role, in the particular circumstance of Zimbabwe, in affecting the residential and economic opportunities for households. In the middle class suburb and low income area studied, the allocation of site and service plots or mortgages was strongly influenced by one's previous combatant status during the struggle for independence. For instance, families with such a status which could be earned by men as well as women), and who are also members of the ruling ZANU-PF party have been favored since 1980.

  20. Ethno beauty: practices of beautification among urban muslim middle-class women in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyani, RH; Sadewo, FX S.; Legowo, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research examines practices of beautification by urban middle-class Muslim women using an ethnomethodology approach. Several theories are employed in this research including the theory of consumption (leisure class), sociology of body, middle-class theory and the concept of modern Islam. Results indicate that the beautiful concept according to Muslim middle-class urban women is white skin without stains, face without wrinkles, nose sharp, eyelashes and thick eyebrows and red lips. To be said to be beautiful, they took various efforts through beauty treatment, diet, fashion and dress up. In this study also revealed that their goal to self-care is pride and recognition in front of other fellow female friends and to happy partner (husband). This shows that the consumption through the body (fashions, diets, make up) and consumption around the body (beauty treatments) represent symbolic and material ways of positioning themselves within contemporary society - thus becoming ‘visible’. The implications of this research are this study is expected to contribute information and enrich the repertoire of social science especially sociology also for the development of research on body and beauty.

  1. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-05-22

    Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  2. Fair Trade and Justice: A Case Study of Fair Trade and its Effect on the Freedom of Bolivia’s Indigenous Women

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    Tamara Stenn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Amartya Sen has written that for justice to be realized, freedom needs to be expanded. Fair Trade, a model of global trade that puts into motion billions of dollars, purports to promote justice, and therefore expands freedom. Fair Trade is a four-pillar structure comprised of institutions, producers, consumers, and government/policy. An economic, ethnographic study of Bolivia’s indigenous women working within the Fair Trade model for the past 15 years reported mixed results. The women questioned the justice of the model based on negative experiences induced by irregular work, stress, and unsupportive communities. At the same time, women acknowledged enhanced capabilities and opportunities emanating from skills development, empowerment, and income. Although it increased women’s freedom, there are ways in which Fair Trade could be made fairer through transparency, reciprocity, and public reasoning. This work is significant in the sense that it creates a new understanding of justice and trade that enables women’s voices to be heard.Amartya Sen ha planteado que para lograr justicia, se necesita expandir la libertad. El Comercio Justo, un modelo de comercio global que pone en movimiento miles de millones de dólares, pretende promover la justicia y, por consiguiente, expandir la libertad. El Comercio Justo es una estructura de cuatro pilares que comprende instituciones, productores, consumidores   y gobiernos/políticas gubernamentales. Un estudio económico y etnográfico de mujeres indígenas de Bolivia que han trabajado con este modelo de comercio los últimos 15 años reportó resultados muy diversos. Las mujeres cuestionaban la justicia de un modelo basado en experiencias negativas resultado del trabajo irregular, del estrés y de la falta de apoyo por parte de las comunidades. Al mismo tiempo, las mujeres reconocían mejoras en las capacidades y oportunidades que emanaban del desarrollo de habilidades, el empoderamiento y los ingresos

  3. Development Projects for Women in the Indigenous Community “El Once”: An Analysis Based on Sharing and Difference

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    Juana Valentina Nieto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the representations of communal work and collective property held by promoters of income-generating projects in the Witoto community “El Once”, near Leticia in the Colombian Amazon. It focuses on the ways women get involved in development projects, in comparison with their organization for the production of handicrafts and subsistence agricultural crops. The main argument is that work in agriculture and handicrafts is organized based on a close connection between the body, the person, and the products of his/her work, in contrast with the development projects promoted by diverse external agencies, which assume a logic of communal work and collective property. All this has as a consequence the dissatisfaction of both parties –the promoters and those “promoted”–with the results of such projects.

  4. Experiences of Traumatic Events and Associations with PTSD and Depression Development in Urban Health Care-seeking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Jessica M.; Page, Gayle G.; Sharps, Phyllis; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2008-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs after a traumatic event and has been linked to psychiatric and physical health declines. Rates of PTSD are far higher in individuals with low incomes and who reside in urban areas compared to the general population. In this study, 250 urban health care-seeking women were interviewed for a diagnosis of PTSD, major depressive disorder, and also the experience of traumatic events. Multivariate logistic regressions were used ...

  5. An Urban-Spatial Analysis of the Women in the Informal Sectors of Greater Guwahati City of Assam, India

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    Zona Bhuyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the use of urban space by women in urban informal sectors in the city of Guwahati located in North East India. The population influx from across the borders in the aftermath of the partition has huge implications both on polity and on economy of the northeastern states in general and Assam in particular.  Importantly, the urban informal sectors have a sizeable share in terms of its significant contributions towards Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as generation of employment opportunities largely. Using a feminist perspective, the research is an attempt to investigate the engagement of women in the informal sector in greater Guwahati. Research findings reveal that the occupations of the women workers are location-specific, that is, the manufacturing sectors (textiles, food preparation, printing and skilled service are mainly home/shop based production (fixed locations whereas the service sectors (leisure, caring, elementary construction, elementary sales and cleaning occupation operate at variable locations (construction sites, street pavements, marketplaces and other various locations. Further analysis shows that the informal sector is highly demand dependent and such demands are in the central business areas of the city, therefore informal sector services (skilled services and elementary services are found to be located in and around the central areas of Guwahati city. Women operators in the informal sector are attracted to the central business district because of the many advantages that it enjoys relative to other parts of a city. The paper concludes by calling on policy makers and physical planning agencies to evolve more pragmatic strategies for urban development matters in order that urban informal sector activities can be integrated into urban development plans. Finally, further research is called for on how urban planners could redesign the urban space with appropriate consideration of the informal sector

  6. Constraints in the adoption of Indigenous farming practices

    OpenAIRE

    K Kanagasabapathi; V Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous farming is a production system, based on renewal of ecological processes and strengthening of ecological functions of farm ecosystem to produce safe, healthy and sustainable food. Indigenous agriculture is being adopted by the farmers of Kolli Hills in centre Tamil Nadu for different reasons. However, a lot of constraints prevent the farmers in adopting indigenous farming practices, that include poor yield, poor marketing facilities, higher production cost and urbanization

  7. Constraints in the adoption of Indigenous farming practices

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    K Kanagasabapathi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous farming is a production system, based on renewal of ecological processes and strengthening of ecological functions of farm ecosystem to produce safe, healthy and sustainable food. Indigenous agriculture is being adopted by the farmers of Kolli Hills in centre Tamil Nadu for different reasons. However, a lot of constraints prevent the farmers in adopting indigenous farming practices, that include poor yield, poor marketing facilities, higher production cost and urbanization

  8. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

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    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Prevalensi kegemukan pada perempuan semakin meningkat terutama di daerahperkotaan yang dapat menyebabkan meningkatnya risiko penyakit kronis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmenganalisis beberapa faktor risiko dominan terhadap obesitas pada wanita usia subur usia yang tinggaldi daerah perkotaan di wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia.Metode: Naskah ini memakai sebagian data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007 data. Subjek terdiridari 76408 wanita di usia subur (15-49 years tinggal di daerah perkotaan yang dengan status gizi normaldan gemuk yang berasal dari 258366 rumah tangga. Data Riskesdas tentang faktor-faktor sosio-demografidan lainnya dikumpulkan dengan kuesioner. Status gizi diukur dengan menggunakan indeks massa tubuh(IMT yang dikategorikan menjadi normal, (18,5–24,9 dan gemuk (27 atau lebih. Analisis menggunakanregresi Cox dengan waktu yang tetap.Hasil: Pada analisis ini terdapat 18,8% (14357 wanita obese dan 81.2% (62052 normal. Wanita berusia 25-49 tahun memiliki 3,5 kali lipat risiko lebih besar menjadi obese [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 3,49; P= 0,000],dan yang bercerai atau menikah berisiko 2,5 kali lipat lebih tinggi terhadap obesitas (masing-masing RRa =2,58; P = 0,000 dan RRa = 2.62; P = 0,000. Wanita tidak bekerja berisiko lebih tinggi untuk menjadi obese(RRa = 1,06; p = 0,000. Selanjutnya, mengkonsumsi protein berlebih, dan sering makan makanan berlemakmemiliki risiko lebih tinggi terhadap obesitas, (RRa = 1,09; P = 0,000 dan RRa = 1,17; P = 0,000.Kesimpulan: Wanita berusia 25-49 tahun, bercerai atau menikah, pengangguran, mengkonsumsi proteinberlebih, dan sering mengkonsumsi makanan berlemak mempunyai risiko obesitas lebih tinggi. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Kata kunci: obesitas, perkotaan, wanita usia subur AbstractBackground: The prevalence of women suffered from obesity is elevating, mostly in urban areas. Thiscould lead problems especially for chronic diseases. This study aimed to

  9. Exploring Group Composition among Young, Urban Women of Color in Prenatal Care: Implications for Satisfaction, Engagement, and Group Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Cunningham, Shayna D; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Stasko, Emily; Tobin, Jonathan; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-01-01

    Group models of prenatal care continue to grow in popularity. However, little is known about how group composition (similarity or diversity between members of groups) relates to care-related outcomes. The current investigation aimed to explore associations between prenatal care group composition with patient satisfaction, engagement, and group attendance among young, urban women of color. Data were drawn from two studies conducted in New Haven and Atlanta (2001-2004; n = 557) and New York City (2008-2011; n = 375) designed to evaluate group prenatal care among young, urban women of color. Women aged 14 to 25 were assigned to group prenatal care and completed surveys during their second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Group attendance was recorded. Data were merged and analyzed guided by the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using multilevel regression. Analyses explored composition in terms of age, race, ethnicity, and language. Women in groups with others more diverse in age reported greater patient engagement and, in turn, attended more group sessions, b(se) = -0.01(0.01); p = .04. The composition of prenatal care groups seems to be associated with young women's engagement in care, ultimately relating to the number of group prenatal care sessions they attend. Creating groups diverse in age may be particularly beneficial for young, urban women of color, who have unique pregnancy needs and experiences. Future research is needed to test the generalizability of these exploratory findings. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumption of indigenous medicines by pregnant women in North India for selecting sex of the foetus: what can it lead to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Sutapa Bandyopadhyay; Negandhi, Preeti H; Ganguli, Abhijit; Chopra, Sapna; Sandhu, Navraj; Gupta, Ravi Kant; Zodpey, Sanjay; Singh, Amarjeet; Singh, Arun; Gupta, Rakesh

    2015-09-04

    Sex ratio is an important indicator of development. Despite all the measures undertaken for improvement, it remains an issue of concern in India, with Haryana having a very low sex ratio in the country. Studies have been conducted indicating that consumption of indigenous drugs used for sex selection (SSD) could be strongly associated with adverse effects on the foetal development, including congenital malformations. Some samples of SSDs were collected from parts of North India and analysed in a standard laboratory for its components. Thirty SSDs used by the local community were procured from various sources in north India through a rigorous process of collection. These were subjected to laboratory tests to investigate the presence of phytoestrogen and testosterone. Following sample extraction, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were carried out for analysing phytoestrogen content. SSDs were available in various forms such as powder, tablets, mostly from faith healers. Around 87% of the samples collected from sources like doctors, quacks and faith healers were to be taken by the pregnant women after conception; 63% drugs were strongly positive for phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, formononetin) and 20% drugs were positive for testosterone. The average dose of the components as calculated after analyses was as follows: daidzein--14.1 mg/g sample, genistein--8.6 mg/g sample, formononetin--5 mg/g sample. These SSDs could be potentially detrimental to the growth and development of the foetus. This is likely to have implications on the health of the community. In view of the results obtained in our study, we strongly attest the importance in curbing this harmful practice by banning the supply of the drugs as well as by advocating behavioural changes in the community.

  11. Anger as a Moderator of Safer Sex Motivation among Low Income Urban Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision-making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational-decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median-split). The theoretically expected “rational pattern” was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an “irrational pattern” emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women. PMID:16247592

  12. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  13. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Determinants of Antenatal Healthcare Utilisation by Pregnant Women in Third Trimester in Peri-Urban Ghana

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    Jones Asafo Akowuah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to quality healthcare still remains a major challenge in the efforts at reversing maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of established maternal health interventions, the health of the expectant mother and the unborn child remains poor due to low utilisation of interventions. The study examined the socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation in peri-urban Ghana using pregnant women who are in their third trimester. Two-stage sampling technique was used to sample 200 pregnant women who were in their third trimester from the District Health Information Management System software. Well-structured questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data from respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including binary logit regression model were used to analyse the data with the help of SPSS and STATA software. The results showed varying utilisation levels of ANC. From the regression result, age, household size, and occupational status were identified as the important socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation among the respondents. The important system factors which influence antenatal care utilisation by the respondents are distance to ANC, quality of service, and service satisfaction. The study concludes that socioeconomic and health system factors are important determinants of antenatal care utilisation. Stepping up of interventions aimed at improving the socioeconomic status and addressing health system and proximity challenges could be helpful in improving antenatal care utilisation by pregnant women in Ghana.

  15. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN A SEMI-URBAN POPULATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Suganthi Ramalingam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  16. Risk factors for breast cancer among women in Bhopal urban agglomerate: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Rama S; Nandeshwar, Sunil; Pal, D K; Shrivastav, Atul; Lodha, K M; Bhagat, Vimal K; Bankwar, Vishal V; Nandeshwar, Sunil; Saxena, D M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. The incidence is on the rise in India, and breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in Indian women. To assess the risk factors for breast cancer patients living in Bhopal. This case-control study was conducted in Bhopal urban agglomerate for a period of a year from October 2008 to August 2009. Demographic data and reproductive risk factor related information was collected using a structured questionnaire with analyses by Epi-info and SPSS 16. A history of oral contraceptive pill use (OR=2.77, 95% CI: 1.15-6.65), history of not having breastfeeding (OR=3.49, 95% CI:1.22-9.97), over weight (OR=0.11, 95%CI:0.02-0.49), obese women (OR=0.24, 95%CI: 0.06-0.88) and family history of breast cancer (OR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.01-14.92) were associated significantly with the occurrence of breast cancer on multivariate analysis. The findings of the present study suggests that positive family history of breast cancer and history of using OCP may be the epigenetic factors promoting the occurrence of breast cancer while breastfeeding reduces the possibility of acquiring breast cancer.

  17. A STUDY ON FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICES AND METHODS AMONG WOMEN OF URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW CITY

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    Arjit Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilization of family planning methods, their side effects and the factors influencing their uses. Aims: To study the family planning practices/methods among the married women of reproductive age (15- 45yrs. Study Design: Community-based study. Study Subjects: The Women of reproductive age groups (15-45yrs adopting family planning methods & those residing in urban slums of, Lucknow. Sample size: 540, Study Period : July 2009 to July 2011. Sampling Technique: thirty cluster sampling. Result: The acceptance of family planning methods both temporary and permanent methods increased with level of literacy of women. About 53.40 % adopted I.U.C.D, 38.83% O.C pills & only 7.77% of their partners used condoms. 66.6% have undergone laparoscopic & 33.4% mini-lap sterilization. Vasectomy was not done for even a single partner. More number of illiterate and primary educated accepted permanent method after 3 or more children than higher educated who accepted it after 1 or 2 children. Among acceptors of permanent methods, total 70.27 % were experiencing side effects and among temporary method users, it accounted 23.30%. Conclusions: Acceptance in family planning is associated with increasing age, nuclear family & level of literacy. IUCD is the most accepted one among all the temporary methods. Vasectomy and newer contraceptives were not at all used.

  18. Scaling up postabortion contraceptive service--results from a study conducted among women having unwanted pregnancies in urban and rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....

  19. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2011-12-16

    In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women's human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on 'universal human rights' are often removed from the reality of adolescent women's everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women's understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and 'rights' exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married

  20. Experience of intimate partner violence among young pregnant women in urban slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuba, Keshab; Mainali, Anustha; Alvesson, Helle M; Karki, Deepak K

    2016-03-05

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an urgent public health priority. It is a neglected issue in women's health, especially in urban slums in Nepal and globally. This study was designed to better understand the IPV experienced by young pregnant women in urban slums of the Kathmandu Valley, as well as to identify their coping strategies, care and support seeking behaviours. Womens' views on ways to prevent IPV were also addressed. 20 young pregnant women from 13 urban slums in the Kathmandu valley were recruited purposively for this qualitative study, based on pre-defined criteria. In-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed, with qualitative content analysis used to analyse the transcripts. 14 respondents were survivors of violence in urban slums. Their intimate partner(s) committed most of the violent acts. These young pregnant women were more likely to experience different forms of violence (psychological, physical and sexual) if they refused to have sex, gave birth to a girl, or if their husband had alcohol use disorder. The identification of foetal gender also increased the experience of physical violence at the prenatal stage. Interference from in-laws prevented further escalation of physical abuse. The most common coping strategy adopted to avoid violence among these women was to tolerate and accept the husbands' abuse because of economic dependence. Violence survivors sought informal support from their close family members. Women suggested multiple short and long term actions to reduce intimate partner violence such as female education, economic independence of young women, banning identification of foetal gender during pregnancy and establishing separate institutions within their community to handle violence against young pregnant women. Diversity in the design and implementation of culturally and socially acceptable interventions might be effective in addressing violence against young pregnant women in humanitarian settings such as urban slums. These

  1. Predictors of women's attitudes toward world health organization framework convention on tobacco control policies in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu Saleh; Yang, Tingzhong; Beard, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    In 2005 China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and committed to implement tobacco control legislation and policies. Wide variation in smoking prevalence between men and women in China and the high exposure of women to secondhand smoke suggest that each component of the FCTC should be analyzed from a gender perspective. This study describes women's attitudes toward and predictors of support for four key FCTC measures in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,408 women in two urban cities on demographics, smoking behavior, and attitudes toward key tobacco control measures. Seventy percent of the study women (n = 1,408) were exposed to secondhand smoke at home, work, or other public places. Support for the four FCTC measures of interest was as follows: 92.5% supported banning smoking in public places, 79.2% supported increasing the cigarette tax, 92% supported stronger health warnings on cigarette packages, and 87.1% favored banning tobacco advertising. The predictors for supporting each of these measures included socioeconomic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors. Urban Chinese women appear to support implementation of key WHO FCTC measures. Predictors of women's attitudes toward the key FCTC measures varied. The formulation process resulting from the tobacco control policy should consider these women-specific predictors in order to facilitate successful implementation of FCTC.

  2. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  3. Prenatal care: associations with prenatal depressive symptoms and social support in low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2017-10-01

    We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.

  4. Neighborhood food retail environment and health outcomes among urban Ghanaian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflin, Helena Janet

    Over the past several decades there has been a global dietary shift, occurring at different rates across time and space. These changes are reflective of the nutrition transition--a series of potentially adverse changes in diet, health and physical activity. These dietary shifts have been associated with significant health consequences, as seen by the global rise in nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NR-NCDs) such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, coronary heart disease as well as obesity. Clinical studies have confirmed that overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for diabetes and hypertension, among other cardiovascular diseases. However, these linkages between the nutrition transition and health are not spatially random. They vary according to personal characteristics ("who you are") and the neighborhood environment in which you live ("where you are"). Leveraging existing demographic and health resources, in this project I aim to investigate the relationship between the food retail environment and health outcomes among a representative sample of urban Ghanaian women ages 18 and older, normally resident in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA), using a mixed methods spatial approach. Data for this study are drawn primarily from the 2008-09 Women's Health Study of Accra (WHSA II) which was funded by the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (John R. Weeks, Project Director/Principal Investigator). It was conducted as a joint collaboration between the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana, the Harvard School of Public Health and San Diego State University. Results from this study highlights the importance of addressing the high prevalence of hypertension among adult women in Accra and should be of concern to both stakeholders and the public. Older populations, overweight and obese individuals, those with partners living at home, limited number of food retailers

  5. Racial Differences in Neighborhood Perceptions and their Influences on Physical Activity among Urban Older Women

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    Wenjun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper levels of physical activity (PA are important to healthy aging. Little is known about racial differences in influences of neighborhood perceptions (NP on PA and use of neighborhood resources among community-dwelling older women. Materials and methods: In 2014 and 2015, 49 white and 44 black women of age 65 and older living in Washington, DC were queried about their PA, NP, use of neighborhood resources and sociodemographic characteristics. They wore an accelerometer and a Global Positioning System device concurrently for 7 consecutive days. Data were analyzed by race. Results: Compared to Whites, Blacks had lower NP scores (71% positive vs. 77%, p = 0.01, lower mean daily step counts (mean (SD: 3256 (1918 vs. 5457 (2989, p < 0.001, and lower frequencies of all exercise activities combined (19.7 (8.7 vs. 25.2 (11.8 per week, p = 0.01. For both Whites and Blacks, better NPs were associated with more frequent PA both at (p = 0.05 and away from home (p = 0.01. However, better NPs were associated with higher frequencies of exercise activities, moderate-to-high intensity activities, and utilitarian walking for Whites but not Blacks (p < 0.05 for race-perception interaction terms. Conclusions: In an urban setting, older Black women were more likely than older White women to have poor NPs, less PA, and weaker or no association of positive NPs with higher levels of certain PAs. Such substantial racial differences warrant further investigation and consideration in health promotion programs.

  6. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  7. Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies.

  8. Association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A; Onsomu, Elijah O; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the association between education and domestic violence with further analysis stratified by urban and rural residence. The main outcome of interest was a three-factor (physical, sexual, and emotional) measure for violence with the main predictor being education. Nearly half of all domestic violence, physical (46%), sexual (45%), and emotional (45%) occurred among women aged 15 to 29. After adjusting for confounding variables, women who resided in urban areas and had a postprimary/vocational/secondary and college/university education were 26% (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: [0.64, 0.86]), p education respectively. This was 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: [0.73, 0.94]), p women who resided in rural areas. A surprising finding was that women residing in rural areas with less than a primary education were 35% less likely to have experienced sexual violence (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: [0.43, 0.99]), p education. These findings suggest that physical, sexual, and emotional violence were prevalent in Kenya among married and formerly married women. This study indicates that more research is needed to understand factors for HIV/AIDS among Kenyan women who have specifically tested positive for HIV or identified as AIDS-positive and the implications for women's health.

  9. Anemia prevalence and risk factors in pregnant women in an urban area of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig-Ansari, Naila; Badruddin, Salma Halai; Karmaliani, Rozina; Harris, Hillary; Jehan, Imtiaz; Pasha, Omrana; Moss, Nancy; McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2008-06-01

    Anemia affects almost two-thirds of pregnant women in developing countries and contributes to maternal morbidity and mortality and to low birthweight. To determine the prevalence of anemia and the dietary and socioeconomic factors associated with anemia in pregnant women living in an urban community setting in Hyderabad, Pakistan. This was a prospective, observational study of 1,369 pregnant women enrolled at 20 to 26 weeks of gestation and followed to 6 weeks postpartum. A blood sample was obtained at enrollment to determine hemoglobin levels. Information on nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and practice and dietary history regarding usual food intake before and during pregnancy were obtained by trained interviewers within 1 week of enrollment. The prevalence of anemia (defined by the World Health Organization as hemoglobin hemoglobin from 9.0 to 10.9 g/dL) and 14.8% had moderate anemia (hemoglobin from 7.0 to 8.9 g/dL). Only 0.7% were severely anemic (hemoglobin education, pregnancy history, iron supplementation, and height showed that drinking more than three cups of tea per day before pregnancy (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 8.0), consumption of clay or dirt during pregnancy (aPOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 12.3), and never consuming eggs or consuming eggs less than twice a week during pregnancy (aPOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5) were significantly associated with anemia. Consumption of red meat less than twice a week prior to pregnancy was marginally associated with anemia (aPOR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.8) but was significantly associated with lower mean hemoglobin concentrations (9.9 vs. 10.0 g/dL, p = .05) during the study period. A subanalysis excluding women with mild anemia found similar associations to those of the main model, albeit even stronger. A high percentage of women at 20 to 26 weeks of pregnancy had mild to moderate anemia. Pica, tea consumption, and low intake of eggs and red meat were associated with

  10. The Vertical Village: indigenous mixture in Rio de Janeiro city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bevilaqua

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon a place called the Vertical Village, a building in the center of Rio de Janeiro inhabited exclusively by indigenous peoples from different ethnic groups belonging to different parts of the country. In this paper, we discuss questions related to the experience of being indigenous in a city, the construction of a residential space as a village, and the constitution of indigenous identity in the urban context. Following the paths of three inhabitants of the building, the questions considered emerge from their transiting between cities and villages, frontiers either real or imaginary, prejudices and expectations of indigenous identity.

  11. Factors associated with being underweight, overweight and obese among ever-married non-pregnant urban women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Kraemer, A

    2009-08-01

    Extremes of body mass index (BMI), viz. underweight, overweight and obese categories, are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, low birth weight, poor quality of life and higher mortality. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of underweightness is very high with an increasing trend of overweightness and obesity. This is a serious public health concern as it indicates a dual burden of disease. The present study assessed the associations of being underweight, overweight and obese with socioeconomic, demographical and migration variables among ever-married non-pregnant urban Bangladeshi women aged 13-49 years. The data was extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Bivariable, factor and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed in this study. The prevalence of being underweight, overweight and obese among ever-married non-pregnant urban women in Bangladesh was 25.2 percent, 15.7 percent and 3.9 percent, respectively. Age, education, region of residence, marital status, current use of contraception and type of occupation were significantly associated with BMI categories. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that women with a high socioeconomic status were significantly negatively associated with being underweight (odds ratio [OR] 0.55, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.63) but positively associated with being overweight (OR 1.70, 95 percent CI 1.48-1.96) and obese (OR 2.48, 95 percent CI 1.89-3.26), as compared to the women with normal BMI. In contrast, women who migrated from rural to urban areas showed a significantly positive association with being underweight (OR 1.15, 95 percent CI 1.04-1.27) but negative associations with being overweight (OR 0.80, 95 percent CI 0.71-0.89) and obese (OR 0.75, 95 percent CI 0.62-0.92), when compared with women who did not migrate. Suitable interventions based on further studies are needed to reduce the

  12. Dietary health behaviors of women living in high rise dwellings: a case study of an urban community in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Swee, Winnie Chee Siew; Liew, Siew Ying; Ng, Boon Koon; Chinna, Karuthan

    2013-02-01

    Diet-related non-communicable disease (DR-NCD) occurrence is a serious problem amongst Malaysian women and urbanization is probably a challenge to their achieving the nutritional environment conducive to healthy eating. This case study aimed to determine diet quality of an urban community using women respondents from high rise dwellings in Kuala Lumpur. The sample consisted of 135 households and a healthy eating index (HEI) scale was used to evaluate the women's diet quality. A total of 128 women (Malays = 45, Chinese = 56, Indian = 27) participated. Total HEI score was significantly different (P 0.05) regardless of ethnicity. Income strata (ρ = 0.159, P = 0.048) and eating out frequency (ρ = -0.149, P = 0.046) also independently affected HEI scores. Income negatively correlated with sodium restriction score (ρ = -0.294, P = 0.001) but positively with cereals (ρ = 0.181; P = 0.025), fruits (ρ = 0.178; P = 0.022), dairy products (ρ = 0.198; P = 0.013) and food variety (ρ = 0.219, P = 0.007). Decreased vegetable intake (ρ = -0.320; P diet quality of urban women.

  13. [Evaluation of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain among urban and rural women from southwestern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhengyan; Li, Ming; Rui, Li; Sun, Xiaohong; Pang, Xuehong; Zhou, Lan; Zeng, Guo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the situation of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) of women in the urban and rural areas of southwest of China. Total 3391 women whose infants and young children aged 6 - 24 months were selected from urban and rural areas of Kunming, Guiyang and Chengdu cities by stratified cluster random sampling. Data of pre-pregnancy height and weight, prenatal weight and pregnancy age for subjects was obtained using a questionnaire. Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were calculated. According to the BMI standard for adults from WHO and GWG Guidelines from IOM (2009), the status of pre-pregnancy weight and GWG were assessed. Average BMI of pre-pregnancy for them is (20.3 +/- 2.4). Percentage of normal weight, underweight, and overweight/obesity of pre-pregnancy were 72.7%, 24.1% and 3.2% respectively. The average GWG was (14.9 +/- 6.0) kg, and there was a significant difference between urban and rural group (P lower (P women aged below 23 years old (P women aged 24 - 34 years old (P pay more attention to improve the underweight of pre-pregnancy and abnormal GWG among women in the southwest of China.

  14. Comparison of breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among rural and urban Hispanic and American Indian women in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.

  15. Balancing multiple roles among a group of urban midlife American Indian working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, L

    2000-06-01

    Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.

  16. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah B; Lepore, Stephen J; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S

    2015-05-22

    Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.

  17. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah B. Nelson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UP is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.

  18. Indigenous Storytelling in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...

  19. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  20. Barriers to higher education: commonalities and contrasts in the experiences of Hindu and Muslim young women in urban Bengaluru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N

    2017-03-04

    Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and explores the barriers they confronted in fulfilling their aspirations. We highlight the similarities amongst the young women, as well as the distinctive experiences of the Hindu and Muslim interviewees. Financial constraints, lack of safety for women in public space, and gender bias, gossip and social control within the family and the local community affected Hindu and Muslim interviewees in substantially similar ways. For the Muslim interviewees, however, gender disadvantage was compounded by their minority status. This both underlines the importance of incorporating communal politics into our analysis and undermines popular discourses that stereotype Muslims in India as averse to girls' and young women's education.

  1. "Coming to town": the impact of urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and network norms on the smoking attitudes of black women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chyvette T; Grier, Sonya A; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women's smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women's networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women's attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted.

  2. Determinantes próximos de la fecundidad: comportamiento reproductivo de las indígenas Chamibida de Antioquia, Colombia Proximal determinants of fertility: reproductive behavior among Chamibida indigenous women in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Arias-Valencia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es caracterizar el calendario reproductivo en las Chamibida en el Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Este es un estudio sociodemográfico realizado en el año 2000 con la técnica de historia reproductiva. Se visitaron todas las 234 viviendas de la Reserva Indígena de Cristianía para obtener 253 historias reproductivas correspondientes a 83,1% de las mujeres de 15 a 49 años. El comportamiento reproductivo se caracteriza por una entrada a la unión a los 17,8 años en promedio; intervalos intergenésicos cortos en 69,0%, con una tasa de fecundidad ajustada de 5,12 hijos. Este patrón reproductivo es diferente frente a las demás etnias y subgrupos de Antioquia. Como explicación se destaca que de las mujeres chamibida conocen y aceptan la planificación familiar occidental y, tienen mayor acceso a la escolaridad formal. Las políticas actuales están lejos de ser apropiadas, en tanto pasan por alto la especificidad de estos grupos étnicos.The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive timing used by Chamibida indigenous women in Antioquia, Colombia. This socio-demographic study used the reproductive history technique and was conducted in the year 2000. Two hundred and thirty-four homes on the Cristianía indigenous reservation were visited to obtain 253 reproductive histories (83.1% of the women ages 15 to 49. Reproductive behavior was characterized by sexual debut at age 17.8 years (mean, with short intergenesic intervals in 69.0% and an adjusted fertility rate of 5.12 children. This reproductive pattern differs from all other indigenous groups and subgroups in Antioquia. As an explanation, Chamibida women are familiar with and accept Western birth control methods, besides having more access to formal schooling. Current Colombian health system policies are far from appropriate, since they fail to take the indigenous groups' specificities into account.

  3. [Migration from a rural zone to an urban one is associated with android distribution of body fat in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barranco, J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Roiz-Simancas, M; Bravo-García, A L; Fanghänel-Salmón, G; Laviada Arrigunaga, E; Castaño, L R; García Tapia, M P

    2001-01-01

    Studies about migration to industrialized countries have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemias, all of them related to android body fat distribution. Migration status might be influence body fat distribution but it has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and migration from rural to urban areas in Mexico. This sequential sample of 433 women were seen in the outpatient obesity clinic of four federal states: Tabasco (n = 81), Mexico City (n = 166), Coahuila (n = 80), and Yucatan (n = 106). Migration history from rural to urban area, familial history of diabetes, ages of onset of obesity, height and weight circumferences were obtained. A regression logistic model was used and maintained as dependent variable body fat distribution. Age and federal state were considered as confounders and they adjusted the model. Migrating women from rural to urban area were 121 (27.9%). The waist circumference was higher in Tabasco (102.2 +/- 12 cm), and lesser in Yucatan (93.6 +/- 15 cm, p < 0.001); no differences were found for hip circumference. The logistic regression model showed that body fat distribution is associated to migration from rural to urban area, and also to diabetes of mother and age of onset of obesity. Migrating from rural to urban area is a risk factor for android body fat distribution and this risk increases with age, history of diabetes in mother and adulthood onset o obesity.

  4. Cardiovascular dynamics of Canadian Indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Warburton, Darren E R

    2018-12-01

    Limited understanding of Indigenous adults' cardiovascular structure and function exists despite high rates of cardiovascular disease. This investigation characterised cardiovascular structure and function among young Indigenous adults and compared to age- and sex-matched European descendants. Echocardiographic assessments included apical two- and four-chamber images, parasternal short-axis images and Doppler. Analyses included cardiac volumes, dimensions, velocities and strains. Cardiovascular structure and function were similar between Indigenous (n=10, 25 ± 3 years, 4 women) and European-descendant (n=10, 24 ± 4 years, 4 women,) adults, though European descendants demonstrated greater systemic vascular resistance (18.19 ± 3.94 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 15.36 ± 2.97 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.03). Among Indigenous adults, women demonstrated greater arterial elastance (0.80 ± 0.15 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 vs. 0.55 ± 0.17 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 , p=0.02) and possibly greater systemic vascular resistance (17.51 ± 2.20 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 13.93 ± 2.61 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.07). Indigenous men had greater cardiac size, dimensions and output, though body size differences accounted for cardiac size differences. Similar cardiac rotation and strains were observed across sexes. Arterial elastance and cardiac size were different between Indigenous men and women while cardiovascular structure and function may be similar between Indigenous and European descendants.

  5. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are

  6. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Sabina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on

  7. FCJ-209 Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Pattern Thinking: An Expanded Analysis of the First Indigenous Robotics Prototype Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Abdilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In November 2014, the lead researcher’s interest in the conceptual development of digital technology and her cultural connection to Indigenous Knowledge Systems created an opportunity to explore a culturally relevant use of technology with urban Indigenous youth: the Indigenous Robotics Prototype Workshop. The workshop achieved a sense of cultural pride and confidence in Indigenous traditional knowledge while inspiring the youth to continue with their engagement in coding and programming through building robots. Yet, the outcomes from the prototype workshop further revealed a need to investigate how Indigenous Knowledge Systems, and particularly Pattern Thinking, might hint toward a possible paradigm shift for the ethical and advanced design of new technologies. This article examines the implications of such a hypothetical shift in autonomous systems in robotics and artificial intelligence (AI, using the Indigenous Robotics Prototype Workshop as a case study and springboard.

  8. Nutritional status of indigenous children younger than five years of age in Mexico: results of a national probabilistic survey

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    Rivera Juan A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of undernutrition and anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children 0.05. The prevalence of anemia in indigenous children was one third greater than in non-indigenous children at the national level (p0.05 in rural areas. These differences were reduced to about half when adjusting for SES but remained significantly higher in indigenous children (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous children have higher probabilities of stunting and underweight than non-indigenous children. The differences are larger in urban areas and in higher socioeconomic geographic regions and are explained mostly by socioeconomic factors. The overall difference in the probability of anemia is small, is higher only in urban relative to rural areas, and is explained to a lesser degree by socioeconomic factors. Policy and programs should be designed and implemented to reduce the dramatic differences in nutritional status between indigenous and non-indigenous children in Mexico.

  9. Test–Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Behavior History in Urbanized Nigerian Women

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    Eileen O. Dareng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies assessing risk of sexual behavior and disease are often plagued by questions about the reliability of self-reported sexual behavior. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of self-reported sexual history among urbanized women in a prospective study of cervical HPV infections in Nigeria.MethodsWe examined test–retest reliability of sexual practices using questionnaires administered at study entry and at follow-up visits. We used the root mean squared approach to calculate within-person coefficient of variation (CVw and calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC using two way, mixed effects models for continuous variables and (κ^ statistics for discrete variables. To evaluate the potential predictors of reliability, we used linear regression and log binomial regression models for the continuous and categorical variables, respectively.ResultsWe found that self-reported sexual history was generally reliable, with overall ICC ranging from 0.7 to 0.9; however, the reliability varied by nature of sexual behavior evaluated. Frequency reports of non-vaginal sex (agreement = 63.9%, 95% CI: 47.5–77.6% were more reliable than those of vaginal sex (agreement = 59.1%, 95% CI: 55.2–62.8%. Reports of time-invariant behaviors were also more reliable than frequency reports. The CVw for age at sexual debut was 10.7 (95% CI: 10.6–10.7 compared with the CVw for lifetime number of vaginal sex partners, which was 35.2 (95% CI: 35.1–35.3. The test–retest interval was an important predictor of reliability of responses, with longer intervals resulting in increased inconsistency (average change in unreliability for each 1 month increase = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.07–0.38, p = 0.005.ConclusionOur findings suggest that overall, the self-reported sexual history among urbanized Nigeran women is reliable.

  10. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

  11. Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pak0istan: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeen S Ali

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a patriarchal society where men are the primary authority figures and women are subordinate. This has serious implications on women's and men's life prospects.The aim was to explore current gender roles in urban Pakistan, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men's and women's life circumstances.Five focus group discussions were conducted, including 28 women representing employed, unemployed, educated and uneducated women from different socio-economic strata. Manifest and latent content analyses were applied. Two major themes emerged during analysis: ‘Reiteration of gender roles’ and ‘Agents of change’. The first theme included perceptions of traditional gender roles and how these preserve women's subordination. The power gradient, with men holding a superior position in relation to women, distinctive features in the culture and the role of the extended family were considered to interact to suppress women. The second theme included agents of change, where the role of education was prominent as well as the role of mass media. It was further emphasised that the younger generation was more positive to modernisation of gender roles than the elder generation.This study reveals serious gender inequalities and human rights violations against women in the Pakistani society. The unequal gender roles were perceived as static and enforced by structures imbedded in society. Women routinely faced serious restrictions and limitations of autonomy. However, attainment of higher levels of education especially not only for women but also for men was viewed as an agent towards change. Furthermore, mass media was perceived as having a positive role to play in supporting women's empowerment.

  12. Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tazeen S; Krantz, Gunilla; Gul, Raisa; Asad, Nargis; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is a patriarchal society where men are the primary authority figures and women are subordinate. This has serious implications on women's and men's life prospects. The aim was to explore current gender roles in urban Pakistan, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men's and women's life circumstances. Five focus group discussions were conducted, including 28 women representing employed, unemployed, educated and uneducated women from different socio-economic strata. Manifest and latent content analyses were applied. TWO MAJOR THEMES EMERGED DURING ANALYSIS: 'Reiteration of gender roles' and 'Agents of change'. The first theme included perceptions of traditional gender roles and how these preserve women's subordination. The power gradient, with men holding a superior position in relation to women, distinctive features in the culture and the role of the extended family were considered to interact to suppress women. The second theme included agents of change, where the role of education was prominent as well as the role of mass media. It was further emphasised that the younger generation was more positive to modernisation of gender roles than the elder generation. This study reveals serious gender inequalities and human rights violations against women in the Pakistani society. The unequal gender roles were perceived as static and enforced by structures imbedded in society. Women routinely faced serious restrictions and limitations of autonomy. However, attainment of higher levels of education especially not only for women but also for men was viewed as an agent towards change. Furthermore, mass media was perceived as having a positive role to play in supporting women's empowerment.

  13. Awareness of climate change and indigenous coping strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the awareness and indigenous coping mechanism employed by women crop farmers to cope with climate change in Kogi State, Nigeria. Respondents' socioeconomic characteristic, level of awareness about climate change, and indigenous coping strategies to climate change as well as activities of ...

  14. In the Way of Development: Indigenous Peoples, Life Projects and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Indigenous peoples today are enmeshed in the expanding modern economy, subject to the ... It explores the complex relationships between indigenous peoples' organizations, civil society, and the environment. ... is pleased to announce that the first call for applications for the new Early Career Women.

  15. Perceived Influences on Farmers' Market Use among Urban, WIC-enrolled Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Monica, Dorothy; Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe

    2017-09-01

    We identified perceived barriers and facilitators to purchasing fruits and vegetables (FV) at farmers' markets, FV shopping practices, and reactions to a planned online lesson to promote farmers' market use among urban, inner-city WIC-enrolled women. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 3-5 participants each (N = 54). Common barriers were structural (transportation issues) and informational (not knowing the locations of markets). Improving access (by increasing the number of area markets, expanding market hours and locations, and increasing transportation options to markets) and raising awareness of the importance of eating healthfully were common facilitators. Information was sought on the locations of farmers who accept FV vouchers provided by WIC, FV sold at farmers' markets, reasons to eat locally grown FV, and FV food safety and preparation skills. Questions were raised about the accessibility of an online lesson; providing information via inperson seminars and handouts also was recommended. Although purchasing FV at supermarkets and corner stores and bodegas was common, concerns were expressed about the freshness, cost, quality, and variety of produce sold at these venues. Findings aid understanding of factors to consider in designing interventions to promote farmers' market use in this population.

  16. Unmet need for contraception among married women in an urban area of Puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulthana, Bahiya; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Sunderamurthy, Bhuvaneswary; Manoharan, Keerthana; Subramanian, Manimozhi

    2015-01-01

    Unmet need for contraception remains a national problem. The study was conducted in an urban area of Puducherry, India, among the eligible couples to assess the unmet need for contraception and to determine the awareness and pattern of use of contraceptives along with the socio-demographic factors associated with the unmet needs for contraception. This cross-sectional study included eligible couples with married women in age group of 15-45 yr as the study population (n=267). Probability proportional to size sampling followed by systematic random sampling was used. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect data from the respondents. Double data entry and validation of data was done. Unmet need for contraception was 27.3 per cent (95% CI: 22.3-33); unmet need for spacing and limiting was 4.9 and 22.5 per cent, respectively. Among those with unmet need (n=73), 50 per cent reported client related factors (lack of knowledge, shyness, etc.); and 37 per cent reported contraception related factors (availability, accessibility, affordability, side effects) as a cause for unmet need. Our study showed a high unmet need for contraception in the study area indicating towards a necessity to address user perspective to meet the contraception needs.

  17. Unmet need for contraception among married women in an urban area of Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahiya Sulthana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Unmet need for contraception remains a national problem. The study was conducted in an urban area of Puducherry, India, among the eligible couples to assess the unmet need for contraception and to determine the awareness and pattern of use of contraceptives along with the socio-demographic factors associated with the unmet needs for contraception. Methods: This cross-sectional study included eligible couples with married women in age group of 15-45 yr as the study population (n=267. Probability proportional to size sampling followed by systematic random sampling was used. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect data from the respondents. Double data entry and validation of data was done. Results: Unmet need for contraception was 27.3 per cent (95% CI: 22.3-33; unmet need for spacing and limiting was 4.9 and 22.5 per cent, respectively. Among those with unmet need (n=73, 50 per cent reported client related factors (lack of knowledge, shyness, etc.; and 37 per cent reported contraception related factors (availability, accessibility, affordability, side effects as a cause for unmet need. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed a high unmet need for contraception in the study area indicating towards a necessity to address user perspective to meet the contraception needs.

  18. Awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women attending urban health care center Azizabad Sukkur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.A.; Nisar, N.

    2008-01-01

    To assess level of awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women (15-49 years) of reproductive age at Urban Health Center, Azizabad Sukkur, Sindh. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2005 at Urban Health Care Center Azizabad Sukkur. Two hundred women of reproductive age group were interviewed by using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire visiting the health care center during the study period. Information was obtained after taking informed consent regarding socio demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and pattern of utilizing family planning services. The data was entered and analyzed by using statistical package SPSS version 13. About 75% of women and 42.5% husbands were found illiterate, 85% women were housewives, 69.5% were married before 18 years of age and 54% had nuclear family. Regarding desired number of children women responded one child (3%), 2-3 children (11%), 4-5 (37.5%), more than five children (36%), 5.5% said that children are God gifted and 7% did not answer. About 60% of women reported use of at least one contraceptive method and 40% had never used any contraceptive method. The women who received counseling from the health care provider were 48.5% and only 6% received information through media. Religious prohibition, shortage of female staff and cost of family planning contraceptive methods were the main reasons identified for not utilizing contraceptive methods. The unsatisfactory variables were long waiting hours at the center, non-availability of contraceptive, shortage of the female staff and cost. Limited number of women was aware and practice contraception in the area and utilization of family planning services were low. The efforts should be made for providing information to couple and improving quality of family planning services in the area. (author)

  19. Prevalence of induced abortions and contraceptive use among married women in an urban slum of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    To document abortion practices and contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Delhi. Data were collected as part of a cross-sectional study conducted in an urban resettlement colony in the North East District of Delhi between November 2010 and December 2011. Systematic random sampling was used to enroll 200 married women aged 15-49 years from each of the four blocks of the colony. Participants were interviewed and data were entered into a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Among 802 participants, 284 (35.4%) reported at least one spontaneous or induced abortion, and 196 (24.4%) reported induced abortions. Unsupervised medical termination was reported by 78 (27.5%) of the 284 women. Overall, only 207 (25.8%) women practiced any type of contraception. The predominant decision maker regarding contraception was the husband for 95 (45.9%) women and the mother-in-law for 78 (37.7%). There is a need for focused community-based education to address specific issues, particularly regarding the dangers of unsafe abortion and choosing a method of contraception in consultation with a healthcare practitioner. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Cultured to Fail? Representations of Gender-Entangled Urban Women in Two Short Stories by Valerie Tagwira

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Nyambi

    2014-01-01

    There is a subtle yet discernible connection between the post-2000 political power struggle and the gender struggle in Zimbabwe. In both cases, a patriarchal power hierarchy shaped by tradition and history is perpetuated and justified as the mark of the nation’s unique identity. In cultural, political, and economic spheres, the status of most urban Zimbabwean women is still reflected as inferior to that of most men. Du...

  1. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aduragbemi O Banke-Thomas

    Full Text Available Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000 and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006. The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%. Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%. Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%. All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine

  2. "To My Relations": Writing and Refusal toward an Indigenous Epistolary Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Nora Alba

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an Indigenous Epistolary Methodology (IEM) to reflect on what it means for Indigenous women to engage the notion of refusal in traditional writing methods and qualitative research. The author proposes that an IEM, nestled within her familial genealogies, Indigenous Knowledges and Chicana Feminist Epistemology…

  3. Citizens and indigenous peoples in the populist state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes how post-colonial elites in the Peruvian Andes were able to remove an indigenous presence from the towns. This was done through recourse to a discourse of hygiene and (Indian) disease and by transforming ideas of shared urban space (the commons) into a new excluding urban public...

  4. Violencia y contrapoder: una ventana al mundo de las mujeres indígenas migrantes, en México Violence and means to counteract power: a view to migrant indigenous women in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara María Lara Flores

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las condiciones en las que las mujeres se incorporan al sector agrícola de exportación en México. Este sector genera una fuerte demanda de mano de obra en el nivel nacional, lo cual ocasiona importantes flujos de migración en los que algunas indígenas participan de manera significativa. El artículo muestra cómo dicha incorporación de mano de obra femenina al mercado de trabajo pone en juego desigualdades de género y étnicas que se traducen en una segmentación dentro de las ramas y sectores de la economía. Asimismo, el estudio describe los procesos a que recurren las indígenas con el fin de contrarrestar la violencia real y simbólica de que son objeto.The article analizes the conditions in which women farmers incorporate into México’s exports processes. This sector has a great need of labour at the national level, which in turn brings about many migration fluxes in which indigenous women play an important role. The study shows how this feminine incorporation into the labour market triggers gender as well as ethnic inequalities that manifest themselves in a segmentation within the branches and sectors of the national economy. Also, the article describes the means to which indigenous women turn to in order to counteract the actual and symbolic violence they are submitted to.

  5. “Coming to Town”: The Impact of Urbanicity, Cigarette Advertising, and Network Norms on the Smoking Attitudes of Black Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Chyvette T.; Grier, Sonya A.; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, whi...

  6. Domestic Violence against Women – An Unsolved Issue: A Community Based Study in an Urban Slum of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Pal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic Violence against women is still an unsolved issue in India, though, it is an important public health problem contributing to physical, mental illness and low quality of life. Aim: The study was undertaken with the aim to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence against ever married women in an urban slum and the associated factors contributing to it. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study had been conducted among 430 ever married women of reproductive age group, selected using a systematic random sampling technique in an urban slum of Kolkata. Interviews were conducted using pre-designed, pre-tested semi structured schedule regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, violence experienced by the subjects in their lifetime, type of violence (physical, emotional and sexual violence and the person responsible for the same. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS 20.0 version. Results: The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was (59.3%. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual violence was 61.6%, 84.3%and 58.8%, respectively. The occurrence of the event was reported by only 33.1% of the victims. Multivariate analysis revealed violence was higher among women belonging to families with low per capita income (6 years, low educational background of husband, not able to bear a male child, unemployment amongst both the spouses, leave the household on any pretext without prior permission from husband and where the wives did not attend household activities properly. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence in urban slum of Kolkata was high which is an alarming public health problem which needs to be addressed at the earliest through awareness programmes and empowerment of women.

  7. INDIGENOUS AND RIGHTS UNDER THE COMPANIES MULTIETHNIC AND MULTICULTURAL LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Bonfil-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a general reflection on the discussion of the specific rights of indigenous women in different countries of Latin America. The analysis puts into context the need to understand that the struggle for recognition and legitimacy of the rights of indigenous women is part of the demands of their peoples and the progress made in legislation and regulatory frameworks in Latin America, not is still sufficient to reduce the gap of implementation at local level and on behalf of indigenous women. Finally, the text refers to the processes of development and rights-driven demand for indigenous women's organizations in the countries of the region.

  8. Indigeneity: global and local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlan, Francesca

    2009-06-01

    The term indigenous, long used to distinguish between those who are "native" and their "others" in specific locales, has also become a term for a geocultural category, presupposing a world collectivity of "indigenous peoples" in contrast to their various "others." Many observers have noted that the stimuli for internationalization of the indigenous category originated principally from particular nation-states-Anglo-American settler colonies and Scandinavia. All, I argue, are relevantly political cultures of liberal democracy and weighty (in different ways) in international institutional affairs. However, international indigeneity has not been supported in any unqualified way by actions taken in the name of several nation-states that were among its main points of origin. In fact, staunch resistance to the international indigenous project has recently come from four of them. In 2007, the only four voting countries to reject the main product of international indigenist activity over the past 30 years, the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, were Australia, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. In these locations, forms of "indigenous relationship" emerged that launched international indigeneity and that strongly influenced international perceptions of what "indigeneity" is and who "indigenous peoples" may be. Some other countries say the model of indigenous relationship that they see represented by the "establishing" set is inapplicable to themselves (but have nonetheless had to take notice of expanding internationalist indigenism). The apparently paradoxical rejection of the draft declaration by the establishing countries is consistent with the combination of enabling and constraining forces that liberal democratic political cultures offer.

  9. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Theresa HM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. Methods We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Results Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8% versus rural (-7.5% and low- (-13.0% or middle- (-13.8% versus high- (-9.6% poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Conclusion Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  10. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausauer, Amelia K; Keegan, Theresa H M; Chang, Ellen T; Glaser, Sally L; Howe, Holly; Clarke, Christina A

    2009-06-26

    Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8%) versus rural (-7.5%) and low- (-13.0%) or middle- (-13.8%) versus high- (-9.6%) poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  11. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake and high bone turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Marlena C.; Kruger, Iolanthé Marike; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2011-01-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the Nor...

  12. Influence of experiences of racial discrimination and ethnic identity on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Hanh; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian; Tsang, Kathy; Wright, Rosalind J

    2012-04-01

    Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking among minority women exceeds the projected 2010 national objective, data on the determinants of prenatal smoking among minorities remain sparse. We examined associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women aged 18-44 years (n=677). Our main independent variable was created from the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between EOD (moderate EOD as the referent group) and smoking for the entire sample and then separately by race/ethnicity adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We also examined the role of ethnic identity (EI) as a buffer to racial discrimination (n=405). The prevalence of smoking was 18.1% versus 10% for black and Hispanic women, respectively (p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the level of EOD based on race. In multivariate regressions, compared to those reporting moderate EOD, women reporting high discrimination (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.60) had higher odds of smoking. In stratified analyses, this relationship remained significant only in black women. Results suggest that foreign-born Hispanic women with higher EI were less likely to smoke compared to their low-EI counterparts (3.5 vs 10.1%; p=0.08). These are the first data in pregnant minority women showing an association between discrimination and increased risk of smoking particularly among black women. Ethnic identity and nativity status were also associated with smoking risk. Smoking cessation programmes should consider such factors among childbearing minority women.

  13. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  14. Attitudes toward HPV Vaccination among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf

    2013-01-01

    Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…

  15. Food Groups Associated with a Composite Measure of Probability of Adequate Intake of 11 Micronutrients in the Diets of Women in Urban Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Seghieri, C.; Arimond, M.; Koreissi, Y.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Kok, F.J.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21

  16. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Household food insecurity (HFI is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin. Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81% among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact.

  17. La economía del grupo doméstico: determinante de muerte materna entre mujeres indígenas de Chiapas, México The household economy: a determinant of maternal death among indigenous women in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Herrera Torres

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la situación económica y las relaciones de género en cuanto factores determinantes de muerte materna en la subregión de Patwitz, en Chiapas, México. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo y cualitativo mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a 158 familias, entrevistas a profundidad a personas vinculadas con los casos de muerte materna y a líderes sociales de la región, así como grupos focales con parteras. RESULTADOS: La toma de decisiones respecto a la salud de la mujer en el seno de la familia constituye un problema crítico por cuanto depende exclusivamente del esposo y los familiares de este. Cuando el embarazo o el parto conllevan algún riesgo, tal situación introduce restricciones en la elección de opciones de atención fuera de la comunidad, de modo que 48,7% de los casos obstétricos son atendidos por parteras, 45,3% por familiares y 6% por la pareja. El problema se agrava por la alta marginación y el muy bajo índice de desarrollo humano que caracterizan a la región estudiada, por la falta de acceso de las mujeres a la posesión de bienes, incluida la herencia de la tierra, y por el hecho de que 97,7% de ellas hablan solamente lenguas indígenas. CONCLUSIONES: Las inequidades por razones de género en las familias indígenas, aunadas a una economía que no cubre las necesidades básicas, son factores que contribuyen a que las mujeres no reciban atención en el proceso reproductivo. Debido al bajo nivel socioeconómico, las decisiones que se toman en torno a la atención del embarazo, el parto y el puerperio tienen un alto costo en la salud y en la vida de las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To assess the determining role of financial situation and gender relations on maternal mortality among Indigenous women in Chiapas, Mexico. METHODS: A quantitative/qualitative study was performed by means of a survey of 158 families, as well as in-depth interviews of persons linked to cases of maternal death, community

  18. Cultural capital and self-rated health in low income women: evidence from the Urban Health Study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using chi (2) tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95-6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09-4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancy among married women in an urban and rural community, Khartoum state, Sudan

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    Majdi Mohammed Sabahelzain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended or unplanned pregnancy has been a distressing reality among females in the reproductive age group particularly in developing countries. The repercussions of such events range from illegal abortions to various health related problems associated with pregnancy in mothers. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among married women in an urban and rural community in Khartoum state, to determine the associated factors of unintended pregnancy and to verify the reasons behind unintended pregnancy as perceived by the married women in the area. Methodology: It was a community?based; cross sectional study conducted in Riyadh and Alshekh Elfadni areas in Khartoum state. The sample size was calculated as 341. The study population were married women of reproductive age (15?49 years, selected by multistage stratified sampling. Data was collected by a pre?tested questionnaire and analysed by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to test the association between the dependent and independent variables. Level of significance was determined at 95% (P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Prevalence of unintended pregnancy was high at 30.2% among the study sample. Significant association (95% CI, p<0.05 was seen between unintended pregnancy and education, household size, parity and use of modern contraceptives methods Conclusion: This study concluded that the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among married women in rural and urban communities in Khartoum state is high. The unintended pregnancy increases as the level of education increases. Women with big household size and high parity are more likely to have experienced unintended pregnancy. The most important reason behind unintended pregnancy is less spacing between one pregnancy and the other.

  20. Circumstances leading to intimate partner violence against women married as children: a qualitative study in Urban Slums of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Abbas, Safdar; Safdar, Rabia

    2015-08-25

    Child marriage (women who were married as children in urban slums of Lahore, Pakistan. Women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were married prior to 18 years, for at least 5 years were recruited from most populous slum areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Themes for the interview guide were developed using published literature and everyday observations of the researchers. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers in Urdu language and were translated into English. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, analyzed and categorized into themes. All 19 participants were married between 11 and 17 years. Most respondents were uneducated, poor and were working as housemaids. Majority of participants experienced verbal abuse, and threatened, attempted and completed physical violence by their husbands. A sizeable number of women reported unwanted sexual encounters by their husbands. Family affairs particularly issues with in-laws, poor house management, lack of proper care of children, bringing insufficient dowry, financial problems, an act against the will of husband, and inability to give birth to a male child were some of the reasons narrated by the participants which led to IPV against women. Women married as children are vulnerable to IPV. Concerted efforts are needed from all sectors of society including academia, public health experts, policy makers and civil society to end the child marriage practice in Pakistan.

  1. Voices from the margins Part 1: narrative accounts of indigenous family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kierrynn; Taylor, Bev

    2002-12-01

    The needs of informal supporters of rural women surviving domestic violence from the supporter's perspective were explored through the use of storytelling. Eleven women were interviewed. Of those eleven, three informal supporters spoke about supporting Indigenous women in family violence. These three stories have been grouped as a separate cohort and are discussed in two papers. Of the women who told stories of supporting Aboriginal women, two were Indigenous and one was non Aboriginal, although her partner was Indigenous. It was clear from the stories told by these women that Indigenous family violence is situated in a context of a history and experience of colonisation and human rights abuses. Therefore, this article explores the context of Indigenous family violence and the second explores the strategies for strengthening support for Aboriginal families experiencing violence.

  2. Sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Ross, Amélie; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2015-06-01

    Sexual abuse leads to short-term and long-lasting pervasive outcomes, including addictions. Among Indigenous Peoples, sexual abuse experienced in the context of residential schooling may have led to unresolved grief that is contributing to social problems, such as pathological (disordered) gambling. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between child sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling. The participants were 358 Indigenous persons (54.2% women) aged between 18 and 87 years, from two communities and two semi-urban centers in Quebec (Canada). Probable pathological gambling was evaluated using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and sexual abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). The results indicate an 8.7% past-year prevalence rate of pathological gambling problems among participants, which is high compared with the general Canadian population. Moreover, 35.4% were sexually abused, while 28.1% reported having been schooled in a residential setting. The results of a logistic regression also indicate that experiences of child sexual abuse and residential schooling are associated with probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples. These findings underscore the importance of using an ecological approach when treating gambling, to address childhood traumas alongside current addiction problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultured to Fail? Representations of Gender-Entangled Urban Women in Two Short Stories by Valerie Tagwira

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    Oliver Nyambi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a subtle yet discernible connection between the post-2000 political power struggle and the gender struggle in Zimbabwe. In both cases, a patriarchal power hierarchy shaped by tradition and history is perpetuated and justified as the mark of the nation’s unique identity. In cultural, political, and economic spheres, the status of most urban Zimbabwean women is still reflected as inferior to that of most men. During this economic and political crisis period, the prevailing gender power-relations evolved into gendered appraisals of the impact of the crisis and this created the potential for rather universal and androcentric conclusions. The consequent eclipse of female-centric voices of the political and gender struggle tends to suppress women’s perspectives, consequently inhibiting a gender-inclusive imagining of the nation. This article argues that discourses about gender struggle in Zimbabwe’s post-2000 crisis have not sufficiently addressed the question of space; that is, the significance of the oppressed women’s physical and social space in shaping their grievances and imaginings of exit routes. Similarly, the article argues that representations of this historic period in literary fiction have accentuated the wider political and economic struggles at the expense of other (especially gender struggles, thereby rendering them inconsequential. Using two short stories by Valerie Tagwira (“Mainini Grace’s Promise” and “The Journey”, the article explores the stories’ focalization of gender-entangled women in an urban space to understand the literary evocation of the condition of women caught up in a crisis in urban settings.

  4. Study To Assess Utilization of Antenatal and Intranatal Services Amongst Women in an Urban Slum of Mumbai

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    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the utilization of antenatal & intra-natal services by antenatal women and the socio-demographic factors affecting the utilization. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in urban slum from July to September 2011. Study population comprised of women who had delivered in last one year preceding study, irrespective of place and outcome of delivery. Only women who were residing at current address for at least 1 year were included. Women not consenting and pregnant women were excluded. All such women were interviewed face to face after obtaining their informed consent using pre tested semi-structured questionnaire which included details of their antenatal care (ANC and intra-natal services availed. Hospital Management Information System (HMIS and Systems, Applications and Products (SAP software were used for obtaining information regarding antenatal and intra-natal care. RESULTS: Antenatal services were utilized by 158(77.8% of study participants. 161(79.3% subjects had institutional delivery and 42(20.7% home delivery, out of which, only 3(7.1% subjects had an assisted home delivery. Low education status and poor socio-economic class had a significant association (P < 0.05 with utilization of ANC services. CONCLUSION: Public sector was the major source of utilization of antenatal care services and intra natal services in 62.7% subjects and 78% subjects respectively. It is suggested that low-income, uneducated women should be targeted for promotion of utilization of antenatal and intra-natal services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 157-164

  5. Complex association between rural/urban residence, household wealth and women's overweight: evidence from 30 cross-sectional national household surveys in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani Janet; Letamo, Gobopamang

    2017-01-01

    We sought to demonstrate that the relationship between urban or rural residence and overweight status among women in Sub-Saharan Africa is complex and confounded by wealth status. We applied multilevel logistic regression to data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries which were collected between 2006 and 2012 to examine the association between women's overweight status (body mass index ≥ 25) and household wealth, rural or urban place of residence, and their interaction. Macro-level statistics from United Nations agencies were used as contextual variables to assess the link between progress in globalization and patterns of overweight. Household wealth was associated with increased odds of being overweight in nearly all of the countries. Urban/rural living and household wealth had a complex association with women's overweight status, shown by 3 patterns. In one group of countries, characterised by low national wealth (median per capita gross national income (GNI) = $660 in 2012) and lower overall prevalence of female overweight (median = 24 per cent in 2010), high household wealth and urban living had independent associations with increased risks of being overweight. In the second group of less poor countries (median per capita GNI = $870) and higher national levels of female overweight (median = 29), there was a cross-over association where rural women had lower risks of overweight than urban women at lower levels of household wealth, but in wealthier households, rural women had higher risks of overweight than urban women. In the final group of countries, household wealth was an important predictor of overweight status, but the association between urban or rural place of residence and overweight status was not statistically significant. The median per capita GNI for this third group was $800 and national prevalence of female overweight was high (median = 32% in 2010). As nations develop and household wealth increases, rural African women

  6. Symptoms of reproductive tract infections and mental distress among women in low-income urban neighborhoods of Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Marwan; Kaddour, Afamia; Zurayk, Huda; Choueiry, Nathalie; El-Kak, Faysal

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between symptoms of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and mental distress among women residing in three low-income urban neighborhoods in Greater Beirut. A cross-sectional survey of currently married women aged 15-49 years (n = 1506) from the 2003 Urban Health Study was undertaken. The dependent variables were complaining of vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, and pain during intercourse. The main independent variable was mental distress, measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ). Other variables included decision-making power, "comfort" with husband, age, education, income, household wealth, employment, community of residence, displacement by war, presence of chronic disease, reported reproductive health problem, membership in any group, receipt of favor last month, and smoking. Analysis was conducted using logistic regression models on the complaint of any symptom of RTIs and on individual complaints. Forty-two percent of the interviewed women reported at least one symptom of RTIs. Vaginal discharge was the most commonly reported symptom, with 33% of currently married women complaining from it. Mental distress was significantly associated with any reported RTI symptom (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.83), pelvic pain (OR = 2.38; CI = 1.71-3.30), vaginal discharge (OR = 1.35; CI = 1.03-1.77), and pain during intercourse (OR = 2.37; CI = 1.66-3.40) after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and health risk factors. A significant association between mental distress and reported RTI symptoms was established by this study. A new approach to gynecological morbidity is needed, one that integrates biomedical and psychosocial factors into a unified framework.

  7. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake, and high bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-10-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disparities in the use of mobile phone for seeking childbirth services among women in the urban areas: Bangladesh Urban Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Hoque, Md Rakibul; Yaya, Sanni

    2017-12-29

    In Bangladesh, similar to its other South Asian counterparts, shortage of health workers along with inadequate infrastructure constitute some of the major obstacles for the equitable provision of reproductive healthcare services, particularly among the marginalized and underserved neighbourhoods. However, given the rapidly expanding broadband communication and mobile phone market in the country, the application of eHealth and mHealth technologies offer a window of opportunities to minimise the impact of socioeconomic barriers and promote the utilization of maternal healthcare services thereby. In the present study we aimed to investigate 1) the prevalence of usage of mobile phones for seeking childbirth services, 2) neighbourhood and socioeconomic disparities in the use, and 3) association between using mobile phones and the uptake of postnatal care among mothers and neonates. Data for the present study came from Bangladesh Urban Health Survey 2013. Study subjects were 9014 married women aged between 15 and 49 years. The overall rate of use of mobile phone was highest in City Corporation non-Slum areas (16.2%) and lowest in City Corporation Slum areas (7.4%). The odds of using mobile for seeking childbirth services were significantly higher among those who were living in non-slum areas, and lower among those who never attended school and lived in poorer households. Results also indicated that women in the slum areas who used mobile phone for childbirth service seeking, were 4.3 times [OR = 4.250;95% CI = 1.856-9.734] more likely to receive postnatal care for themselves, and those from outside the city-corporation areas were 2.7 times [OR = 2.707;95% CI = 1.712-4.279] more likely to receive postnatal care for the newborn. Neighbourhood, educational and economic factors were significantly associated with the mobile phone utilization status among urban women. Promoting access to better education and sustainable income earning should be regarded as an

  9. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  10. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Cheng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH and subjective health complaints (SHC of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL.We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II. Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%, eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%, and insomnia (1542, 18.9%. Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000 and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37.Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  11. Exclusive Breast Feeding-Knowledge In Different Groups Of Women In Rural And Urban Areas Of Lucknow District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Naim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on S6 females was conducted in the rural and urban areas of Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh to assess the knowledge of females about exclusive breast-feeding. Knowledge from adolescent girls, married and lactating women was assessed by a pre­tested questionnaire for biosocial correlates (such as marital status,educational status, medium of education, working status, socio-economics status and family size, sources of information, time of initation of breast-feeding and the best method of feeding a baby <4 months of age. Only 9.8% in urban and 13.3% in rural areas had complete knowledge of Exclusive breast-feeding. Educated females had more knowledge in both urban and rural areas of initiating breast-feeding within 1 hr of delivery as compared to un-educated females. The study highlights the needs for continuing medical education and for including knowledge about Exclusive breast-feeding in school curriculum of adolescent girls.

  12. Productive and Reproductive Choices.Report of a Pilot Survey of Urban Working Women in Karachi

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHNAZ KAZI; ZEBA A SATHAR

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the survey was to collect information on women's productive and reproductive choices within the broader context of the conditions in their household. Since women bear the main responsibility of domestic work and child care, their employment outside the house is closely interrelated with household decisions pertaining to fertility, division of domestic duties, etc. Hence, to clearly understand the linkages between work status and domestic roles of women, it is necessar...

  13. Health/Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Healthy Weight Gain and Physical Activity in Pregnant, Urban First Nations Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine health/service providers' perspectives of barriers to healthy weight gain and physical activity for urban, pregnant First Nations women in Ottawa, Canada. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, we explored 15 health/service providers' perspectives on the complex barriers their clients face. By using a postcolonial feminist lens and a social determinants of health framework, we identified three social determinants of health that the health/service providers believed to have the greatest influence on their clients' weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy: poverty, education, and colonialism. Our findings are then contextualized within existing Statistics Canada and the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study data. We found that health/service providers are in a position to challenge colonial relations of power. We conclude by urging health/service providers, researchers, and policymakers alike to take into consideration the ways in which these social determinants of health and their often synergistic effects affect urban First Nations women during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The association between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life among Polish postmenopausal women from urban and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, M; Pacholska-Bogalska, J; Kwaśniewski, W; Kotarski, J; Halerz-Nowakowska, B; Goździcka-Józefiak, A

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, more scholarly attention has been paid to a growing range of geographic characteristics as antecedents of inequalities in women's health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in health-related quality of life between rural and urban Polish postmenopausal women. Using a data set from a reproductive health preventive screening of 660 postmenopausal women aged 48-60 years, inhabitants of Wielkopolska and Lublin provinces, the association of place of residence, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors with health-related quality of life (the SF-36 instrument) was evaluated using ANCOVA models and multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination steps. A consistent rural-to-urban gradient was found in all indices of physical health functioning and well-being but not in vitality, social functioning, emotional role and mental health scales with women in large cities being likely to enjoy the highest and those in villages the lowest quality of life. The rural-urban disparities in health-related quality of life were mediated by women's socioeconomic status. The likelihood of worse physical and mental functioning and well-being was 2-3 times greater for the low socioeconomic status rural women than their counterparts from more affluent urban areas. The educational attainment and employment status were the most powerful independent risk factors for health-related quality of life in both rural and urban women. Better understanding of the role of socioeconomic status that acts as a mediator in the association between area of residence and health-related quality of life may be useful in developing public health policies on health inequalities among women at midlife. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Responding to Cultural Loss: Providing an Integral Indigenous Perspective of a "Kichwa Child"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maigua, Yolanda Terán; Gutierrez-Gomez, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    As Indigenous populations around the world migrate, urbanize, and come into contact with a variety of other cultures, they risk loss of their ancient languages and cultural practices. In 2007, the UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. In addition to the broader human rights like employment, security, and…

  16. Muskrat Theories, Tobacco in the Streets, and Living Chicago as Indigenous Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan; Curley, Lawrence; Kessel, Adam; Marin, Ananda; Suzukovich, Eli S., III; Strack, George

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to contribute to ongoing work to uncover the ways in which settler colonialism is entrenched and reified in educational environments and explore lessons learned from an urban Indigenous land-based education project. In this project, we worked to re-center our perceptual habits in Indigenous cosmologies, or land-based…

  17. Determinants of Poverty among Rural and Urban Women Who Live Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Cautley, Eleanor

    Using data from the 1980 Census Public Use Microdata Sample, this paper examines characteristics of women who live alone and incidence of poverty in this group. Results show there are two distinct subgroups among women who live alone: the elderly, most of whom are widowed; and the young, many of whom are single or divorced. For both groups, about…

  18. Menopause and metabolic syndrome: A study of 498 urban women from western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Results: Prevalence of MS amongst postmenopausal women was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than that in premenopausal women by both, IDF (premenopausal 45% and postmenopausal 55% and H_MS criteria (premenopausal 44% and postmenopausal 56%. However, this significance disappeared when data was adjusted for the confounding variable of age.

  19. Negotiating between patriarchy and emancipation : rural-to-urban migrant women in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Erka; Bailey, Ajay; van Wissen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    It is essential to explore the role of gender while analysing internal migration in Albania to account for the differing experiences of men and women. Quantitative studies suggest that Albanian internal migration is pioneered by men, with women merely acceding to their wishes. This article addresses

  20. Clinical and hormonal features of women with polycystic ovary syndrome living in rural and urban areas

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    Krzysztof Katulski

    2017-09-01

    The clinical and biochemical indices differed significantly between women diagnosed with PCOS living in cities and villages. In general in Poland, the PCOS phenotype is more severe in women living in rural areas. This study shows that different living conditions significantly affect the PCOS phenotype.

  1. Socio-economic, environmental and nutritional characteristics of urban and rural South Indian women in early pregnancy: findings from the South Asian Birth Cohort (START).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Vasudevan, Anil; Thomas, Tinku; Anand, Sonia S; Desai, Dipika; Gupta, Milan; Menezes, Gladys; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2018-06-01

    High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women. Prospective observational cohort. A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State. Pregnant women (n 843) aged 18-40 years recruited in early pregnancy from whom detailed sociodemographic, environmental, anthropometric and dietary intake information was collected. A high proportion of low BMI (32 v. 26 %, Pwomen were younger, had lower body weight, tended to be shorter and less educated. They lived in poor housing conditions, had less access to piped water and good sanitation, used unrefined fuel for cooking and had lower standard of living score. The age (β=0·21, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·29), education level of their spouse (β=1·36, 95 % CI 0·71, 2·71) and fat intake (β=1·24, 95 % CI 0·20, 2·28) were positively associated with BMI in urban women. Our findings indicate that risk factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy are different in rural and urban settings. It is important to study population-specific risk factors in relation to perinatal health.

  2. Constructions of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaveh, Daniel Y; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Okyerefo, Michael P K; Reysoo, Fenneke; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2015-01-01

    Using qualitative data gathered through in-depth interviews with women in Accra, Ghana, this paper explores narratives of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women. While women framed 'proper' masculinity in terms of stereotypical reproductive norms, they also acknowledged the fluidity and multiplicity of masculinities. Femininity was more uniformly characterised in terms of physical attractiveness and beauty, responsibility and reproduction. These features, especially those related to adherence to morally and socially appropriate sexual norms (e.g., menstrual and bodily hygiene, unplanned pregnancy etc.), influenced women's approach to sexual negotiation. Work aiming to support women to negotiate sex safely needs to pay attention to their notions of gender and practices of sexual negotiation.

  3. The understanding and acceptability of assisted reproductive technology (ART) among infertile women in urban Lagos, Nigeria.

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    Fabamwo, A O; Akinola, O I

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to assess the awareness and acceptability of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) among infertile women in Lagos, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires on the knowledge of ART in the women were used. After a brief exposé on ART, questions relating to their attitude were answered. A total of 166 women were studied. Only 51.8% had any knowledge of ART and most of these had poor knowledge. A total of 137 women would embrace ART if offered but 29 would not, for reasons such as religion, fear of side-effects, failure and unaffordable costs. There is a paucity of good knowledge of ART. A significant number of the women would consider ART if offered. There is thus a need to create more awareness about the possibilities offered by ART, as well as instituting low cost ART strategies in developing world countries.

  4. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow

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    Anjali Pal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need for family planning signifies the gap between the reproductive intentions of couples and their actual contraceptive behaviour. The National Family Health Surveys carried out in India in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2004-2005 have revealed that for a sizable proportion of the population in the reproductive age group, the need for contraceptive services are not met with despite the existence of a National Policy on family planning since 1983. This study was carried out to assess the extent of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow and identify the various factors affecting it. Study design: Cross sectional Setting: four urban slums of Lucknow Participants: 414 married women in the age group of 15- 44 years Study variables: age, education, occupation, religion, parity Statistical analysis: chi- square test, logistic regression analysis, fisher’s exact test Results: the extent of unmet need among married women of reproductive age group was 53.1%. The unmet need was found to be significantly associated with age, number of living sons, discussion of family planning with husband, perception of husband’s view on family planning and husbands’ behaviour towards use of family planning method. Logistic regression analysis of unmet need showed that the lower age of the woman, lesser number of living sons and husband’s discouragement towards the use of FP method were correlated with the unmet need for Family Planning.

  5. Role of Women in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: The Case of Urban Boys in India

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    Das, Saswati; Mukherjee, Diganta

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th round (1999-2000), to show that for urban male children there exists significant wage incentive for schooling, though school dropout rate and child labour incidence are not so small. The parents' level of education plays an important role in…

  6. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

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    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  7. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  8. [Health and indigenous peoples in Brazil: reflections based on the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition].

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    Carlos, E A Coimbra

    2014-04-01

    The current configuration of indigenous peoples' health in Brazil results from a complex historical trajectory, responsible for major delays for this population segment in the countrywide social advances seen in recent decades, particularly in the fields of health, education, housing, and sanitation. The main focus of this contribution is to review synthetically a selection of the main results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition, conducted in the period 2008-2009, which visited 113 villages across the Brazil and interviewed 6,692 women and 6,128 children. Among the results, emphasis is given to the observed poor sanitation conditions in villages, high prevalence of chronic malnutrition, anemia, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections in children, and the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases in women. The scenario depicted by this survey requires urgent critical review of indigenous health policy in order to better meet the health needs of Brazil's indigenous population.

  9. An overall approach to health care for indigenous peoples.

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    King, Malcolm

    2009-12-01

    Indigenous peoples across all the continents of the globe live with major gaps in health status and health outcomes associated with well-described social determinants of health, such as poverty and poor education. Indigenous peoples face additional health determinant issues associated with urbanization, isolation from traditional territories, and loss of cultural continuity. Indigenous children are particularly vulnerable as they grow up in isolation from their cultural and social roots and yet are also separated from the mainstream environment of their society. Programs to address these difficult health issues should be viewed as complex clinical interventions with health researchers, social scientists, and clinicians working together with Indigenous peoples to identify the most pressing needs and most appropriate and workable solutions that will result in effective policies and practices.

  10. Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

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    Thomas David P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, national smoking prevalence has successfully fallen below 20%, but remains about 50% amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous tobacco control is framed by the idea that nothing has worked and a sense of either despondency or the difficulty of the challenge. Methods This paper examines the trends in smoking prevalence of Australian Indigenous men and women aged 18 and over in three large national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2002 and 2004. Results From 1994 to 2004, Indigenous smoking prevalence fell by 5.5% and 3.5% in non-remote and remote men, and by 1.9% in non-remote women. In contrast, Indigenous smoking prevalence rose by 5.7% in remote women from 1994 to 2002, before falling by 0.8% between 2002 and 2004. Male and female Indigenous smoking prevalences in non-remote Australia fell in parallel with those in the total Australian population. The different Indigenous smoking prevalence trends in remote and non-remote Australia can be plausibly explained by the typical characteristics of national tobacco epidemic curves, with remote Indigenous Australia just at an earlier point in the epidemic. Conclusion Reducing Indigenous smoking need not be considered exceptionally difficult. Inequities in the distribution of smoking related-deaths and illness may be reduced by increasing the exposure and access of Indigenous Australians, and other disadvantaged groups with high smoking prevalence, to proven tobacco control strategies.

  11. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

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    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Correlates of anaemia in pregnant urban South Indian women: a possible role of dietary intake of nutrients that inhibit iron absorption.

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    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Finkelstein, Julia; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women. Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes. A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore. Pregnant women (n 366) aged ≥18 and ≤40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ≤14 weeks of gestation. Mean age was 22·6 (sd 3·4) years, mean BMI was 20·4 (sd 3·3) kg/m2 and 236 (64·5 %) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb poultry (1·94; 1·29, 2·91). Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India.

  13. Exploration of barriers to breast-self examination among urban women in Shah Alam, Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

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    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alabsi, Aied M; Abdul Manaf, Mohd Rizal; Ijaz, Sharea; Kassim, Saba

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Barriers for practicing breast self examination (BSE) await exploration. To assess the practice of BSE and its correlated factors and particularly barriers amongst urban women in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 222 Malaysian women using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean (SD) age was 28.5 (±9.2) years, 59.0% were university graduates. Of the total, 81.1% were aware of breast cancer and 55% practiced BSE. Amongst 45% of respondents who did not practice BSE, 79.8% did not know how to do it, 60.6% feared being diagnosed with breast cancer, 59.6% were worried about detecting breast cancer, 22% reported that they should not touch their bodies, 44% and 28% reported BSE is embarrassing or unpleasant, 29% time consuming, 22% thought they would never have breast cancer or it is ineffective and finally 20% perceived BSE as unimportant. Logistic regression modeling showed that respondents aged ≥45 years, being Malay, married and having a high education level were more likely to practice BSE (pcultural, perception and environmental factors were identified as barriers. BSE practice was associated significantly with socio-demographic factors and socioeconomic status.

  14. Validation of the Whooley questions for antenatal depression and anxiety among low-income women in urban South Africa

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    Carina Marsay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: In South Africa, approximately 40% of women suffer from depression during pregnancy. Although perinatal depression and anxiety are significant public health problems impacting maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, no routine mental health screening programmes exist in the country. A practical, accurate screening tool is needed to identify cases in these busy, resource-scarce settings. Method: A convenience sample of 145 women between 22 and 28 weeks gestation was recruited from Rahima Moosa Hospital antenatal clinic in Johannesburg. All women completed a biographical interview, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, the Whooley questions and a structured clinical interview. Results: The results demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the Whooley questions and the EPDS in identifying depression, anxiety and stress disorders of varying severity. The importance of personal, social and cultural context in influencing the content and expression of these common perinatal conditions was also identified. Discussion and conclusion: The validity of the Whooley questions in the context of urban South Africa, and the importance of ensuring clinical interviews to supplement any screening tools, is emphasised.

  15. Knowledge and beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination among urban and rural women in León, Nicaragua.

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    Rees, Hannah D; Lombardo, Alexandra R; Tangoren, Caroline G; Meyers, Sara J; Muppala, Vishnu R; Niccolai, Linda M

    2017-01-01

    In Nicaragua, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death for women ages 15-44, yet access to the HPV vaccine is limited to those with financial resources to pay for it. Cervical cytology is provided free of charge in public clinics; however, only 10% of women receive Pap smears at the nationally recommended frequency. Previous studies have not investigated how beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening may differ for urban and rural populations in Nicaragua. Furthermore, no investigation has assessed Nicaraguan women's beliefs about a potential HPV immunization campaign. Given beliefs' influence on health behavior, we investigated the structural, sociocultural, and knowledge-based factors influencing women's beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening among urban and rural women in León, Nicaragua, and assessed acceptance of a potential HPV immunization program. Our sequential explanatory mixed-methods study consisted of two phases: (1) a close-ended questionnaire, followed by (2) a qualitative, in-depth interview. Our quantitative sample contained 117 urban and 112 rural participants aged 18-49. We assessed beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening using a 22-item scale, with higher scores indicating screening-promoting beliefs in simple linear and multiple linear regressions. Twenty qualitative interviews, exploring the sociocultural dimensions of knowledge and attitudes indicated by our quantitative findings, were conducted with a sample of 13 urban and 7 rural women aged 19-46. The multiple linear regression indicates that greater knowledge of Pap smears, HPV, and cervical cancer is significantly associated with screening-promoting beliefs after adjusting for other relevant factors. There was no significant difference in screening knowledge and beliefs for urban and rural women. Four recurrent themes representing determinants of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding cervical cancer screening arose from interviews and built on

  16. Urban violence: the Latin American Women and Habitat Network (the case of Colombia

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    María Catalina Monroy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the international programmes of the Latin American Women and Habitat Network and draws some lines of action for incorporating a rights perspective into the formulation of public policies. The purpose of it is to close the gap that exists between international standards and the reality of women in cities. By juxtaposing feminist concepts and the experiences of the Women and Habitat Network, the need to implement public policies that guarantee the rights of women is discussed. In this sense, the article conceptualises the spaces of the home as part of the city, questions the limits of women’s mobility and autonomy and recognises the intersectionality of violence.

  17. Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.

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    Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2010-09-01

    Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment.

  18. The relationship between stressors and mental health among Japanese middle-aged women in urban areas.

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    Suzuki, Junko; Takeda, Fumi; Kishi, Kaori; Monma, Takafumi

    2017-04-27

    In middle age, some people may become mentally or emotionally unstable. Additionally, in Japan, mood disorders, such as depressive symptoms, occur mostly among middle-aged women (i.e., aged 40-49 years). However, few studies have examined stressors related to mental health. In the present study, we developed a stressor scale for middle-aged women and examined stressors correlated with middle-aged women's mental health. In January 2015, an anonymous, self-administered survey was mailed to 1,000 randomly selected women aged 45 through 64 years living in Tokyo, Japan. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 329 women (32.9 percent). Factor analysis identified the following stressor categories: "relationship with my husband," "uneasiness about old age," "health concerns," "work-life balance," and "relationship with my friends." "Uneasiness about old age" and "health concerns" were correlated negatively with participants' mental health. Improving middle-aged women's health requires interventions that relieve stressors resulting from age-related problems and promote a positive image of old age.

  19. Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in non-urban pregnant women in Vellore, S. India.

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    Navjyot K Vidwan

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants.Pregnant women (≥28 weeks gestation in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing.Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67% endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18-39 yrs and 22% (95% CI: 19.7-24.4% were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0-0.38% true positive CT infection using NAAT.To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.

  20. Age-dependent Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer: Mastectomy and Reconstructive Trends at an Urban Academic Institution.

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    Rodby, Katherine A; Robinson, Emilie; Danielson, Kirstie K; Quinn, Karina P; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is an important aspect of treatment after breast cancer. Postmastectomy reconstruction bears a significant impact on a woman's postsurgical confidence, sexuality, and overall well-being. Previous studies have inferred that women under age 40 years have unique characteristics that distinguish them from an older cohort. Identifying age-dependent trends will assist with counseling women on mastectomy and reconstruction. To identify age-dependent trends, 100 consecutive women were sampled from a prospectively maintained breast reconstruction database at an urban academic institution from June 2010 through June 2013. Women were placed into two cohorts mastectomy, reconstructive and symmetry procedures were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software. In 100 patients of the sample study cohort, 151 reconstructions were performed. Increasing age was associated with one or more comorbidities [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, P = 0.005], whereas younger age was associated with metastatic disease (OR = 0.88, P = 0.006), chemotherapy (OR = 0.94, P = 0.01), and radiation (OR = 0.94, P = 0.006); split cohorts demonstrated similar trends (P Mastectomy and reconstructive characteristics associated with younger age included bilateral mastectomy (OR = 0.94, P = 0.004), tissue expander (versus autologous flap) (OR = 0.94, P = 0.009), extra high implant type (OR = 0.94, P = 0.049), whereas increasing use of autologous flaps and contralateral mastopexy symmetry procedures (OR = 1.09, P = 0.02) were associated with an aging cohort. Increasing age was not associated with an increasing likelihood of complications (P = 0.75). Age-related factors play a role in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Younger women typically present with more aggressive features requiring oncologic treatment including chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy and reconstructive choices also demonstrate age-dependent characteristics. Women in younger age groups are more

  1. Perceptions of physical activity, activity preferences and health among a group of adult women in urban Ghana: a pilot study.

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    Tuakli-Wosornu, Y A; Rowan, M; Gittelsohn, J

    2014-03-01

    Obesity and other lifestyle-related chronic diseases impact urban West African women at high rates. Physical activity (PA) can improve these health outcomes but there is little published data on the associated psychosocial predictors in this population. We aimed to explore preliminary associations between perceptions of PA, PA behaviours, and health in a group of Ghanaian women. Non-experimental, cross-sectional case study using a mixed-methods approach. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of Ghanaian women, fitness trainers and clergy comprised the qualitative phase. A self-administered survey (n=218) comprised the quantitative phase. Constant comparative method, logistic regression, component and factor analyses were used for analysis. Women viewed activities of daily living like housework as PA; rarely utilized organized fitness facilities; understood "rigorous" PA as professional male athleticism; and took interest in socialized PA. Mean age was 49.4 years. Mean body mass index was 30.3 kg/m2. The majority (75.9 %) reported exercising sometimes or often. Half (48.4%) reported a lifestyle-related chronic disease. "Weight loss," "health concerns" and "increased energy," were top motivators for PA. "Can't find the time," "work/family obligations," and "don't have a facility" were top barriers. Presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and prior weight loss correlated with the slimming motivator (adjusted odds ratio 2.59, p=0.008; AOR 3.56, p=0.012; AOR 3.36, p=surveyed, PA motivators and barriers were associated with demographics, PA exposure, and health status. Further research on unique PA perceptions, behaviours and health could catalyze health promotion through culturally relevant fitness programming.

  2. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women.

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    Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention.

  3. Seeking conception: experiences of urban Indian women with in vitro fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widge, Anjali

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports on a study of involuntarily childless Indian women/couples seeking in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The focus is on the social context of infertility and on women's perceptions of and experiences with IVF. Twenty-two childless women/couples who sought IVF. The sample was drawn from consenting clients of clinics in two major Indian cities, viz. New Delhi and Mumbai. In-depth interviews revealed that infertility is deeply feared, women's status and security are affected, and they experience stigmatisation and isolation. IVF was pursued after less intrusive avenues had been exhausted. Inadequate information/counselling is provided, success rates are low, IVF is commercialised and the process is physiologically, emotionally and financially stressful. In Indian society fertility defines womanhood and motherhood, and infertility is stigmatised. Women faced a lot of pressures to produce a biological child, and go through all kinds of treatments, including the expensive ARTs, to have a child. Integration of infertility services into the state's reproductive health programme and disseminate information on infertility and to offer other appropriate choices, such as adoption. Effective counselling on coping with psychosocial/sexual problems. Monitoring of the prevalence of sex preselection.

  4. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

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    Carmen K M Wong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. RESULTS: A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10 was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  5. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K M; Liang, Jun; Chan, Man L; Chan, Yin H; Chan, Laam; Wan, Kwong Y; Ng, Ming S; Chan, Dicken C C; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S

    2014-01-01

    Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10) was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  6. Determinants of Sexual Activity and Pregnancy among Unmarried Young Women in Urban Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Speizer, Ilene S

    2015-01-01

    With age of marriage rising in Kenya, the period between onset of puberty and first marriage has increased, resulting in higher rates of premarital sexual activity and pregnancy. We assessed the determinants of sexual activity and pregnancy among young unmarried women in urban Kenya. Baseline data from five urban areas in Kenya (Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Machakos, and Kakamega) collected in 2010 by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project were used. Women aged 15-24 years, who had never been married, and were not living with a male partner at the time of survey (weighted n = 2020) were included. Using weighted, multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression analyses, we assessed factors associated with three outcome measures: time to first sex, time to first pregnancy, and teenage pregnancy. One-half of our sample had ever had sex; the mean age at first sex among the sexually-experienced was 17.7 (± 2.6) years. About 15% had ever been pregnant; mean age at first pregnancy was 18.3 (± 2.2) years. Approximately 11% had a teenage pregnancy. Three-quarters (76%) of those who had ever been pregnant (weighted n = 306) reported the pregnancy was unwanted at the time. Having secondary education was associated with a later time to first sex and first pregnancy. In addition, religion, religiosity, and employment status were associated with time to first sex while city of residence, household size, characteristics of household head, family planning knowledge and misconceptions, and early sexual debut were significantly associated with time to first pregnancy. Education, city of residence, household wealth, early sexual debut, and contraceptive use at sexual debut were associated with teenage pregnancy for those 20-24 years. Understanding risk and protective factors of youth sexual and reproductive health can inform programs to improve young people's long-term potential by avoiding early and unintended pregnancies.

  7. Determinants of Sexual Activity and Pregnancy among Unmarried Young Women in Urban Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinelo C Okigbo

    Full Text Available With age of marriage rising in Kenya, the period between onset of puberty and first marriage has increased, resulting in higher rates of premarital sexual activity and pregnancy. We assessed the determinants of sexual activity and pregnancy among young unmarried women in urban Kenya.Baseline data from five urban areas in Kenya (Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Machakos, and Kakamega collected in 2010 by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project were used. Women aged 15-24 years, who had never been married, and were not living with a male partner at the time of survey (weighted n = 2020 were included. Using weighted, multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression analyses, we assessed factors associated with three outcome measures: time to first sex, time to first pregnancy, and teenage pregnancy.One-half of our sample had ever had sex; the mean age at first sex among the sexually-experienced was 17.7 (± 2.6 years. About 15% had ever been pregnant; mean age at first pregnancy was 18.3 (± 2.2 years. Approximately 11% had a teenage pregnancy. Three-quarters (76% of those who had ever been pregnant (weighted n = 306 reported the pregnancy was unwanted at the time. Having secondary education was associated with a later time to first sex and first pregnancy. In addition, religion, religiosity, and employment status were associated with time to first sex while city of residence, household size, characteristics of household head, family planning knowledge and misconceptions, and early sexual debut were significantly associated with time to first pregnancy. Education, city of residence, household wealth, early sexual debut, and contraceptive use at sexual debut were associated with teenage pregnancy for those 20-24 years.Understanding risk and protective factors of youth sexual and reproductive health can inform programs to improve young people's long-term potential by avoiding early and unintended pregnancies.

  8. Digital divide: variation in internet and cellular phone use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Lipika; Hutton, Heidi E; Erbelding, Emily J; Brandon, Elizabeth S; Finkelstein, Joseph; Chander, Geetanjali

    2010-01-01

    We sought to describe: (1) the prevalence of internet, cellular phone, and text message use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, (2) the acceptability of health advice by each mode of information and communication technology (ICT), and (3) demographic characteristics associated with ICT use. This study is a cross-sectional survey of 200 English-speaking women presenting to a Baltimore City STI clinic with STI complaints. Participants completed a self-administered survey querying ICT use and demographic characteristics. Three separate questions asked about interest in receiving health advice delivered by the three modalities: internet, cellular phone, and text message. We performed logistic regression to examine how demographic factors (age, race, and education) are associated with likelihood of using each modality. The median age of respondents was 27 years; 87% were African American, and 71% had a high school diploma. The rate of any internet use was 80%; 31% reported daily use; 16% reported weekly use; and 32% reported less frequent use. Almost all respondents (93%) reported cellular phone use, and 79% used text messaging. Acceptability of health advice by each of the three modalities was about 60%. In multivariate analysis, higher education and younger age were associated with internet use, text messaging, and cellular phone use. Overall rate of internet use was high, but there was an educational disparity in internet use. Cellular phone use was almost universal in this sample. All three modalities were equally acceptable forms of health communication. Describing baseline ICT access and the acceptability of health advice via ICT, as we have done, is one step toward determining the feasibility of ICT-delivered health interventions in urban populations.

  9. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  10. Improvements urban and rural women wish to see in their health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, V A; Romans-Clarkson, S E; Mullen, P E

    1988-02-24

    This study asked 2000 women randomly selected from the community to comment on their health services. Three-quarters did so; one-quarter were satisfied with currently available services but 45% specified changes they would like to see. The criticisms fell into three broad groups: (a) hospital services where delays, centralisation and referral paths were criticised; (b) general practice where doctor-patient communication was mentioned; and (c) cost of certain health services. Women who criticised currently available services tended to be younger, better educated with higher socioeconomic status, to be in paid employment and to have more often poor health or a close relative with poor health than the women who made no comment. These findings are seen as constructive comments from a thoughtful and informed group of health consumers.

  11. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Va, Puthiery; Yang, Wan-Shui; Nechuta, Sarah; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Gao, Shan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality. We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality. Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  12. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiery Va

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality.We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009 and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009, two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09. Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13 and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86 in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88 and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54 mortality.Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  13. Multiliteracies and Family Language Policy in an Urban Inuit Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donna; Budach, Gabriele; Muckpaloo, Igah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the intersection of family language policy with Indigenous multiliteracies and urban Indigeneity. It documents a grassroots Inuit literacy initiative in Ottawa, Canada and considers literacy practices among Inuit at a local Inuit educational centre, where maintaining connections between urban Inuit and their homeland…

  14. Violence against educated women by intimate partners in Urban Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Initially viewed as a human rights issue, partner violence is increasingly seen as an important public health problem of international concern. Objectives: To assess the extent of physical, sexual, psychological, and controlling behavior of intimate partners against women in an educated society and find the association with age, age of marriage, married years, educational status of the women and that of partner. Materials and Methods: A prevalence of 15% was taken and final sample was 200, after considering loss of follow-up. Statistical Methods: Proportion, Z-test, Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of violence against intimate partner in educated society was found to be 40.5% in a South Indian city. Physical assault was high in 30–50 years and increased with duration of marriage from 5.5% at 5 years to 33.3% in 10–20 years of married life. Sexual and psychological assault also increased in <5 years of married life to 35% and 47.6% in 10–20 years duration of marriage, which was statistically significant. Sexual and psychological assault showed a bimodal presentation. Less educated women and their partners were found to report more violence, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Violence against women is not uncommon in the educated society.

  15. Understanding Gender and Domestic Violence from a Sample of Married Women in Urban Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Kerley, Kent R.; Sirisunyaluck, Bangon

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread agreement among gender and family violence investigators that gender and socioeconomic inequalities play key roles in domestic violence against women (DVAW). By integrating the concepts of gender traditionalism and decision-making power into a variety of resource-based theories, this study develops a gender perspective to…

  16. Facebook Advertising to Recruit Young, Urban Women into an HIV Prevention Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J; Porcher, Eloni

    2017-11-01

    Advertising via Facebook to elicit involvement in clinical trials has demonstrated promise in expanding geographic reach while maintaining confidentiality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate Facebook advertising to reach at-risk, predominately African American or Black women in higher HIV prevalence communities for an HIV prevention clinical trial, and to compare baseline characteristics to those recruited on-the-ground. Maintaining confidentiality and the practical aspects of creating and posting ads on Facebook are described. The advertising strategy targeted multicultural affinities, gender, age, interest terms, and zip codes. We report on results during 205 days. A total of 516,498 Facebook users viewed the ads an average of four times, resulting in 37,133 clicks to the study website. Compared to 495 screened on-the-ground, 940 were screened via Facebook ads, of these, half (n = 477, 50.74%) were high risk, and of those at risk, 154 were randomized into the 6-month clinical trial. Black women comprised 71.60% (n = 673) of the total screened online. Roughly twice as many Black women screened via Facebook compared to on-the-ground, yet, the percentage at high risk was similar. Preliminary data suggest that the extent to which ad headlines and photos tap into authentic social experience, advertising on Facebook can extend geographic reach and provide a comparative sample to women recruited on-the-ground.

  17. Poverty Reduction through Entrepreneurship: Microcredit, Learning and Ambivalence amongst Women in Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalla, Rachel Jactan; Carney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Microcredit strategies combine the logic of business, progressive approaches to learning from experience and the key aim to reduce poverty, especially amongst women. The focus in such interventions on the independent, entrepreneurial citizen suggests not only new ways to generate economic growth and sustainable development, but an important…

  18. Awareness of HIV/AIDS among Market Women in an Urban Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In Nigeria the HIV sero- prevalence is steadily increasing. It is presently put at 5.8% of the general population. This implies that even those not necessarily classed as high risk have a 6% chance of getting infected. Market women fall into this category and are also good target groups to enhance information ...

  19. Indigenous Methodology in Understanding Indigenous Nurse Graduate Transition to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L. M. Kurtz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing Indigenous health care professional presence in health care aims to reduce health inequities of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Nurses are the largest health professional group and nurse graduates the main source of recruitment. The quality of graduate transition to practice is evident in the literature; however, little is reported about Indigenous new graduates. We describe using Indigenous methodology and two-eyed seeing (Indigenous and Western perspectives in exploring Indigenous transition experiences. Talking circles provided a safe environment for nurses, nurse educators and students, health managers, and policy makers to discuss Indigenous new graduate case scenarios. The methodology was critical in identifying challenges faced, recommendations for change, and a new collective commitment for cultural safety education, and ethical and respectful relationships within education, practice, and policy.

  20. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. C-reactive protein is differentially modulated by co-existing infections, vitamin deficiencies and maternal factors in pregnant and lactating indigenous Panamanian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Doris; Pons, Emérita Del Carmen; Rueda, Delfina; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa; Murillo, Enrique; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G

    2017-06-02

    The usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a non-specific marker of inflammation during pregnancy and lactation is unclear in impoverished populations where co-existing infections and vitamin deficiencies are common. This cross-sectional study in Panama recruited 120 pregnant and 99 lactating Ngäbe-Buglé women from 14 communities in rural Panama. Obstetric history, indoor wood smoke exposure, fieldwork, BMI, vitamins A, B 12 , D, and folic acid, and inflammation markers (CRP, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), plateletcrit and cytokines) were measured. Multiple regressions explored both associations of CRP with other inflammatory markers and associations of CRP and elevated CRP based on trimester-specific cut-offs with maternal factors, infections and vitamin deficiencies. CRP was higher in pregnancy (51.4 ± 4.7 nmol/L) than lactation (27.8 ± 3.5 nmol/L) and was elevated above trimester specific cut-offs in 21% of pregnant and 30% of lactating women. Vitamin deficiencies were common (vitamin A 29.6%; vitamin D 68.5%; vitamin B 12 68%; folic acid 25.5%) and over 50% of women had two or more concurrent deficiencies as well as multiple infections. Multiple regression models highlighted differences in variables associated with CRP between pregnancy and lactation. In pregnancy, CRP was positively associated with greater indoor wood smoke exposure, caries and hookworm and negatively associated with Ascaris and vaginal Lactobacillus and Bacteroides/Gardnerella scores. Consistent with this, greater wood smoke exposure, caries as well as higher diplococcal infection score increased the odds of trimester-elevated CRP concentrations whereas longer gestational age lowered the likelihood of a trimester-elevated CRP. During lactation, folic acid deficiency was associated with higher CRP whereas parity, number of eosinophils and Mobiluncus score were associated with lower CRP. Also, a higher BMI and Trichomonas vaginalis score increased the likelihood of an

  2. Changing meanings through art: a systematization of a psychosocial intervention with Chilean women in urban poverty situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Marianne; Haz, Ana María

    2011-06-01

    This study explores the experiences that women in urban poverty situation have about their participation in a psychosocial group intervention mediated by artistic techniques. An investigation was done using a qualitative methodology. Participants were ten women older than 21 years old who live in Santiago de Chile in poverty situation. Two group evaluations were performed during the intervention process and once it was completed, ten individual semi-structure interviews. The information was analyzed following the proposals of Grounded Theory, identifying negative experience about tiredness and sacrifice related to the circumstances they live in. It was possible, at the same time, to describe the benefits of an artistic activity including a psychosocial work over the individual well-being. The artistic creation was revealed as a way of expression, of re-viewing oneself and the environment, and relaxation. Transformation is discussed concerning self-affirmation, reparation and transference of this experience in their lives, as a preventive and protective resource to overcome their problems.

  3. Pregnancy, contraception and emergency contraception: the language of urban adolescent young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, C J; Fernando, M; Hayes, K L; Barg, F K

    2012-08-01

    We sought to characterize how a group of urban adolescent females understands the domains of pregnancy, contraception, and emergency contraception (EC). We used the research strategy of freelisting as part of an in-depth interview study. Urban adolescent females presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department. Participants were enrolled using a purposive sampling strategy if they were black, English-speaking females, 15-19 years old, who resided in 1 of 11 zip codes surrounding the hospital. Smith's saliency score. Freelists were analyzed for the entire sample, as well as for subgroups. Thirty adolescents completed the interview. We found that this group of adolescents uses different words to characterize the domains of pregnancy, contraception, and EC. The only overlapping salient term was "abortion," which appeared in the overall lists for pregnancy and EC and in the younger group's list for contraception. In addition, lack of knowledge was cited as an important factor related to contraception. Adolescent patients may not fully understand the concepts of contraception and EC. Providers should consider the potential need to provide an explanation for terms used, and they should consider explicitly differentiating between routine forms of contraception and EC, as well as between EC and abortion. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  5. Maternal experiences with everyday discrimination and infant birth weight: a test of mediators and moderators among young, urban women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-02-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight persist within the USA. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between maternal everyday discrimination and infant birth weight among young, urban women of color as well as mediators (depressive symptoms, pregnancy distress, and pregnancy symptoms) and moderators (age, race/ethnicity, and attributions of discrimination) of this association. A total of 420 women participated (14-21 years old; 62 % Latina, 38 % Black), completing measures of everyday discrimination and moderators during their second trimester of pregnancy and mediators during their third trimester. Birth weight was primarily recorded from medical record review. Path analysis demonstrated that everyday discrimination was associated with lower birth weight. Depressive symptoms mediated this relationship, and no tested factors moderated this relationship. Given the association between birth weight and health across the lifespan, it is critical to reduce discrimination directed at young, urban women of color so that all children can begin life with greater promise for health.

  6. Comparison of frequency of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in pregnant women in urban and rural area of district Swat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.T.; Marwat, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective analytical study was carried out to observe the frequency of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C among the pregnant women of Swat. The study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2008. It was a retrospective study based on review of records of pregnant women admitted to Labour Room of Obstetrics/Gynaecology Unit, Saidu Teaching Hospital, Swat. Patients were screened for Hepatitis B and C by Immuno Chromatographic Technique (ICT) device. The findings were recorded on proforma and analysed. Those found positive on screening test were confirmed by ELISA. Total number of patients screened was 5607. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C (Combined) was 223 (3.98%), out of which 77 (1.37%) were HBsAg positive, 141 (2.52%) were anti HCV positive and 5 (0.09%) were both HBsAg and anti HCV positive. The frequency of Hepatitis B amongst age groups 14-19 , 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 years were 2/77, 33/77, 40/77, and 2/77) respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis C amongst age groups 14-19, 20-29,30-39 and 40-49 years was 4/141, 59/141, 67/141 and 11/141 respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C in multigravida was 41/77, 67/141, in grand multigravida it was 20/77, 43/141 and in primigravida it was 16/77, 31/141 respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C amongst urban and rural population was 32 (39.02%) and 50 (60.98%); and 40 (27.40%) and 106 (72.60%) respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C (Combined) in urban, rural population were 72 (31.58 %) and 156 (68.15 %) respectively. HBsAg and HCV was common infections in pregnant women of Swat. Therefore, every pregnant woman undergoing delivery and/or any other surgical procedure must be screened for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. (author)

  7. The mental health of Indigenous peoples in Canada: A critical review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah E; Wilson, Kathi

    2017-03-01

    Many scholars assert that Indigenous peoples across the globe suffer a disproportionate burden of mental illness. Research indicates that colonialism and its associated processes are important determinants of Indigenous peoples' health internationally. In Canada, despite an abundance of health research documenting inequalities in morbidity and mortality rates for Indigenous peoples, relatively little research has focused on mental health. This paper provides a critical scoping review of the literature related to Indigenous mental health in Canada. We searched eleven databases and two Indigenous health-focused journals for research related to mental health, Indigenous peoples, and Canada, for the years 2006-2016. Over two hundred papers are included in the review and coded according to research theme, population group, and geography. Results demonstrate that the literature is overwhelmingly concerned with issues related to colonialism in mental health services and the prevalence and causes of mental illness among Indigenous peoples in Canada, but with several significant gaps. Mental health research related to Indigenous peoples in Canada overemphasizes suicide and problematic substance use; a more critical use of the concepts of colonialism and historical trauma is advised; and several population groups are underrepresented in research, including Métis peoples and urban or off-reserve Indigenous peoples. The findings are useful in an international context by providing a starting point for discussions, dialogue, and further study regarding mental health research for Indigenous peoples around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Sara L; Geller, Pamela A; Epperson, C Neill

    Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women's health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins.

  9. Knowledge and beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination among urban and rural women in León, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah D. Rees

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In Nicaragua, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death for women ages 15–44, yet access to the HPV vaccine is limited to those with financial resources to pay for it. Cervical cytology is provided free of charge in public clinics; however, only 10% of women receive Pap smears at the nationally recommended frequency. Previous studies have not investigated how beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening may differ for urban and rural populations in Nicaragua. Furthermore, no investigation has assessed Nicaraguan women’s beliefs about a potential HPV immunization campaign. Given beliefs’ influence on health behavior, we investigated the structural, sociocultural, and knowledge-based factors influencing women’s beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening among urban and rural women in León, Nicaragua, and assessed acceptance of a potential HPV immunization program. Methods Our sequential explanatory mixed-methods study consisted of two phases: (1 a close-ended questionnaire, followed by (2 a qualitative, in-depth interview. Our quantitative sample contained 117 urban and 112 rural participants aged 18–49. We assessed beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening using a 22-item scale, with higher scores indicating screening-promoting beliefs in simple linear and multiple linear regressions. Twenty qualitative interviews, exploring the sociocultural dimensions of knowledge and attitudes indicated by our quantitative findings, were conducted with a sample of 13 urban and 7 rural women aged 19–46. Results The multiple linear regression indicates that greater knowledge of Pap smears, HPV, and cervical cancer is significantly associated with screening-promoting beliefs after adjusting for other relevant factors. There was no significant difference in screening knowledge and beliefs for urban and rural women. Four recurrent themes representing determinants of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding cervical

  10. Vitamin D deficiency and depression among women from an urban community in a tropical country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Foong Ming; Hoe, Victor Cw; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Bulgiba, Awang

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association of vitamin D status with depression and health-related quality of life among women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity status, perceived depression and health-related quality of life were assessed via a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for the analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, fasting blood glucose and full lipid profile. Complex samples multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Seven hundred and seventy female teachers were included. The mean age of participants was 41·15 (95 % CI 40·51, 41·78) years and the majority were ethnic Malays. Over 70 % of them had vitamin D deficiency (Malaysia.

  11. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini M Bhattathiry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

  12. An Investigation Into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...

  13. Couple Characteristics and Contraceptive Use among Women and their Partners in Urban Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Laili; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have used couple data to identify individual- and relationship-level characteristics that affect contraceptive use in urban areas. Using matched couple data from urban Kenya collected in 2010, this study determines the association between relationship-level characteristics (desire for another child, communication about desired number of children and FP use) and contraceptive use and intention to use among non-users. Methods Data were collected from three Kenyan cities: Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu. Baseline population-based survey data from the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation Project were used to identify 883couples (weighted value=840). Multivariate regressions used the couple as the unit of analysis. Results Almost two-thirds of couples currently used contraception. Adjusting for individual- and environmental-level characteristics, couples who desired another child were less likely to use contraception than couples wanting more children. In addition, couples where both partners reported communicating with each other regarding desired number of children and FP use were more likely to use contraception compared to couples that did not communicate. Analyses testing the association of relationship-level characteristics and intention to use contraception, among non-users, resembled those of current contraceptive users. Conclusion Couple-level characteristics are associated with current contraceptive use and future intent to use. Couples that discussed their desired number of children and FP use were more likely to use contraception than couples that did not communicate with each other. FP programs should identify strategies to improve communication in FP among couples and to ensure better cooperation between partners. PMID:24733057

  14. Women's Participation in Livestock Markets

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    goats, sheep and local chickens than men. Preference ... women as benefits of indigenous chicken rearing. The very low ... especially through home consumption and occasional sales. ... neighbours (mainly by women) or sold to a collection.

  15. Discrimination and sexual risk among young urban pregnant women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Jessica B; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination predicts increased risk for many negative health outcomes, helping explain a variety of racial and socioeconomic health disparities. Recent research suggests discrimination may play a role in disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, this research has focused on risk behaviors and has yet to establish a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis specifically. This investigation tested whether discrimination predicted condom use, risky sexual partners, and self-reported STI diagnosis among a population disproportionately affected by HIV and STIs in the U.S.: young, pregnant, socioeconomically disadvantaged, women of color. During second and third trimesters, 885 mostly Latina and Black pregnant women, 14-21 years old, attending 14 hospitals and health centers in New York City for prenatal care, completed interviews. Greater discrimination during second trimester predicted greater odds of STI diagnosis and having a risky sexual partner during third trimester, but not condom use. Whether discrimination was attributed to race, identifying as Black, or identifying as Latina did not moderate effects. This is the first investigation establishing a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis, not just risk behavior. It does so among a sample of at-risk, young, pregnant, women of color. Findings suggest implications for sexual risk during pregnancy and across the life span, and risks for the pregnancy and fetus. It is vital to reduce discrimination to eliminate disparities in HIV and STIs. Future research should continue examining the role of discrimination in sexual risk among different populations and work to uncover potential mechanisms. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Ante natal care (ANC) utilization, dietary practices and nutritional outcomes in pregnant and recently delivered women in urban slums of Delhi, India: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Singh, Archna; Shankar, Anuraj; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-03-20

    Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the crucial factors in ensuring healthy outcomes in women and newborns. Nutrition education and counselling is an integral part of ANC that influences maternal and child health outcomes. A cross sectional study was conducted in Pregnant Women (PW) and mothers who had delivered in the past three months; Recently Delivered Women (RDW) in urban slums of North-east district of Delhi, India, to explore ANC utilization, dietary practices and nutritional outcomes. A household survey was conducted in three urban slums to identify PW and RDW. Socio-economic and demographic profile, various components of ANC received including nutrition counselling, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes based on anthropometric indices and anaemia status were assessed. Socio-demographic characteristics, nutrient intake and nutritional status were compared between those who availed ANC versus those who did not using logistic regression. Descriptive summary for services and counselling received; dietary and nutrient intake during ANC were presented. Almost 80% (274 out of 344) women received some form of ANC but the package was inadequate. Determinants for non-utilization of ANC were poverty, literacy, migration, duration of stay in the locality and high parity. Counselling on nutrition was reported by a fourth of the population. Nutrient intake showed suboptimal consumption of protein and micronutrients like iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin niacin, zinc and vitamin B12 by more than half of women. A high prevalence of anaemia among PW (85%) and RDW (97.1%) was observed. There was no difference in micronutrient intake and anaemia prevalence among women who received ANC versus who did not. Pregnant women living in urban poor settlements have poor nutritional status. This may be improved by strengthening the nutrition counselling component of ANC which was inadequate in the ANC package received. Empowering community based health workers in

  17. Patient perception of cervical screening among women living with human immuno-deficiency virus infection attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic in urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, R M; Rebe, K; Burch, V C

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to ascertain the perception of cervical screening practices among HIV-positive women attending an ART clinic in urban South Africa. It is a prospective cross-sectional study of 100 randomly selected patients using semi-structured interviews. Answers to fixed-response questions were recorded for statistical analysis and themes were identified from responses to open-ended questions. The study found that 59% of women surveyed reported ever having had a Papanicolau (Pap) smear and that 41% of these women had never been notified of the result. Many women surveyed lacked understanding of cervical screening; 78% had never heard of cervical cancer and around 40% had no correct knowledge about Pap smears. The findings suggest that cervical screening practices among HIV-positive women living in urban South Africa do not comply with the recommendations that are based on evidence of increased risk for this population. Systematic cervical screening programmes should be offered to HIV-positive women attending ART clinics in South Africa.

  18. Health beliefs and practices related to cancer screening among Arab Muslim women in an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Khlood Faik

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study I investigated the participation status in breast and cervical cancer screening of a group of American immigrant Arab Muslim women (AMW). Perceived knowledge of and barriers to screening participation, relationships among demographic variables, health practice and beliefs, and self-reports of traditionalism and acculturation also are studied. Factors including religious and cultural beliefs, economic concerns, and modesty and embarrassment were considered. To reach the goals of Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010), an effective and meaningful educational initiative to raise awareness about breast and cervical cancer of AMW will require specific interventions consistent with their cultural and religious traditions.

  19. Prevalence of depression among women attending a primary urban care clinic in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Ahmad, Rozali

    2012-07-01

    Depression affects more women than men in Malaysia. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among women attending a government primary care clinic. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive adult female patients attending the clinic during the data collection period were invited to participate. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires (including the validated Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9], which was translated into the Malay language). A total of 895 female patients participated in the study (response rate 87.5%). The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10) was 12.1%. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, certain stressful life events were found to be associated with depression (p depression among participants in this study was clinically significant and corresponded with the findings of other international studies. Factors associated with depression need to be highlighted and addressed accordingly. Clinicians in Malaysia should be aware of this prevalence when making diagnoses in primary care.

  20. Measuring cancer in indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfati, Diana; Garvey, Gail; Robson, Bridget; Moore, Suzanne; Cunningham, Ruth; Withrow, Diana; Griffiths, Kalinda; Caron, Nadine R; Bray, Freddie

    2018-05-01

    It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples. This, in turn, may result in a deprioritization of cancer-related programs and policies among these populations. This commentary describes key issues relating to cancer surveillance among indigenous populations including 1) suboptimal identification of indigenous populations, 2) numerator-denominator bias, 3) problems with data linkage in survival analysis, and 4) statistical analytic considerations. We suggest solutions that can be implemented to strengthen the visibility of indigenous peoples around the world. These include acknowledgment of the central importance of full engagement of indigenous peoples with all data-related processes, encouraging the use of indigenous identifiers in national and regional data sets and mitigation and/or careful assessment of biases inherent in cancer surveillance methods for indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Struggle of Being Toba in Contemporary Argentina: Processes of Ethnic Identification of Indigenous Children in Contexts of Language Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how children experience their ethnic identifications in relation to their knowledge of the Toba language through daily interactions with peers and adults (both indigenous and non-indigenous). The study is focused on an urban setting in Buenos Aires (Argentina) where monolingual (Spanish) practices are replacing…

  2. Perchlorate exposure in lactating women in an urban community in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borjan, Marija [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, UMDNJ-School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Marcella, Stephen [Department of Epidemiology, UMDNJ-School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Blount, Benjamin [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Greenberg, Michael [Bloustien School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Zhang Junfeng [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, UMDNJ-School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Murphy, Eileen [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Science and Research, Trenton, NJ (United States); Valentin-Blasini, Liza [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Robson, Mark, E-mail: robson@aesop.rutgers.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, UMDNJ-School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ (United States); School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate is most widely known as a solid oxidant for missile and rocket propulsion systems although it is also present as a trace contaminant in some fertilizers. It has been detected in drinking water, fruits, and vegetables throughout New Jersey and most of the United States. At sufficiently high doses, perchlorate interferes with the uptake of iodine into the thyroid and may interfere with the development of the skeletal system and the central nervous system of infants. Therefore, it is important to quantify perchlorate in breast milk to understand potential perchlorate exposure in infants. In this study we measured perchlorate in breast milk, urine, and drinking water collected from 106 lactating mothers from Central New Jersey. Each subject was asked to provide three sets of samples over a 3-month period. The average {+-} SD perchlorate level in drinking water, breast milk, and urine was 0.168 {+-} 0.132 ng/mL (n = 253), 6.80 {+-} 8.76 ng/mL (n = 276), and 3.19 {+-} 3.64 ng/mL (3.51 {+-} 6.79 {mu}g/g creatinine) (n = 273), respectively. Urinary perchlorate levels were lower than reference range values for women of reproductive age (5.16 {+-} 11.33 {mu}g/g creatinine, p = 0.03), likely because of perchlorate secretion in breast milk. Drinking water perchlorate levels were {<=} 1.05 ng/mL and were not positively correlated with either breast milk or urine perchlorate levels. These findings together suggest that drinking water was not the most important perchlorate exposure source for these women. Creatinine-adjusted urine perchlorate levels were strongly correlated with breast milk perchlorate levels (r = 0.626, p = < 0.0005). Breast milk perchlorate levels in this study are consistent with widespread perchlorate exposure in lactating women and thus infants. This suggests that breast milk may be a source of exposure to perchlorate in infants. - Research Highlights: {yields} The general population, including infants, is exposed to perchlorate. {yields} Breast

  3. Perchlorate exposure in lactating women in an urban community in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borjan, Marija; Marcella, Stephen; Blount, Benjamin; Greenberg, Michael; Zhang Junfeng; Murphy, Eileen; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Robson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate is most widely known as a solid oxidant for missile and rocket propulsion systems although it is also present as a trace contaminant in some fertilizers. It has been detected in drinking water, fruits, and vegetables throughout New Jersey and most of the United States. At sufficiently high doses, perchlorate interferes with the uptake of iodine into the thyroid and may interfere with the development of the skeletal system and the central nervous system of infants. Therefore, it is important to quantify perchlorate in breast milk to understand potential perchlorate exposure in infants. In this study we measured perchlorate in breast milk, urine, and drinking water collected from 106 lactating mothers from Central New Jersey. Each subject was asked to provide three sets of samples over a 3-month period. The average ± SD perchlorate level in drinking water, breast milk, and urine was 0.168 ± 0.132 ng/mL (n = 253), 6.80 ± 8.76 ng/mL (n = 276), and 3.19 ± 3.64 ng/mL (3.51 ± 6.79 μg/g creatinine) (n = 273), respectively. Urinary perchlorate levels were lower than reference range values for women of reproductive age (5.16 ± 11.33 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.03), likely because of perchlorate secretion in breast milk. Drinking water perchlorate levels were ≤ 1.05 ng/mL and were not positively correlated with either breast milk or urine perchlorate levels. These findings together suggest that drinking water was not the most important perchlorate exposure source for these women. Creatinine-adjusted urine perchlorate levels were strongly correlated with breast milk perchlorate levels (r = 0.626, p = < 0.0005). Breast milk perchlorate levels in this study are consistent with widespread perchlorate exposure in lactating women and thus infants. This suggests that breast milk may be a source of exposure to perchlorate in infants. - Research Highlights: → The general population, including infants, is exposed to perchlorate. → Breast milk is a significant

  4. Influenza vaccine text message reminders for urban, low-income pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Melissa S; Westhoff, Carolyn; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Vargas, Celibell Y; Camargo, Stewin; Vawdrey, David K; Castaño, Paula M

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the impact of influenza vaccine text message reminders in a low-income obstetric population. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that enrolled 1187 obstetric patients from 5 community-based clinics in New York City. The intervention group received 5 weekly text messages regarding influenza vaccination starting mid-September 2011 and 2 text message appointment reminders. Both groups received standard automated telephone appointment reminders. The prespecified endpoints were receipt of either pre- or postpartum influenza vaccination calculated cumulatively at the end of each month (September-December 2011). After adjusting for gestational age and number of clinic visits, women who received the intervention were 30% more likely to be vaccinated as of December 2011 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.003, 1.69 end of September: AOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.85; October: AOR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.75; November: AOR = 1.27; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.65). The subgroup of women early in the third trimester at randomization showed the greatest intervention effect (December 31: 61.9% intervention vs 49.0% control; AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.15). In this low-income obstetric population, text messaging was associated with increased influenza vaccination, especially in those who received messages early in their third trimester.

  5. Why do some women prefer submissive men? Hierarchically disparate couples reach higher reproductive success in European urban humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozifkova, Eva; Konvicka, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Equality between partners is considering a feature of the functional partnerships in westernized societies. However, the evolutionary consequences of how in-pair hierarchy influences reproduction are less known. Attraction of some high-ranking women towards low-ranking men represents a puzzle. Young urban adults (120 men, 171 women) filled out a questionnaire focused on their sexual preference for higher or lower ranking partners, their future in-pair hierarchy, and hierarchy between their parents. Human pairs with a hierarchic disparity between partners conceive more offspring than pairs of equally-ranking individuals, who, in turn, conceive more offspring than pairs of two dominating partners. Importantly, the higher reproductive success of hierarchically disparate pairs holds, regardless of which sex, male or female, is the dominant one. In addition, the subjects preferring hierarchy disparity in partnerships were with greater probability sexually aroused by such disparity, suggesting that both the partnership preference and the triggers of sexual arousal may reflect a mating strategy. These results challenge the frequently held belief in within-pair equality as a trademark of functional partnerships. It rather appears that existence of some disparity improves within-pair cohesion, facilitating both cooperation between partners and improving the pairs' ability to face societal challenges. The parallel existence of submissivity-dominance hierarchies within human sexes allows for the parallel existence of alternative reproductive strategies, and may form a background for the diversity of mating systems observed in human societies. Arousal of overemphasized dominance/submissiveness may explain sadomasochistic sex, still little understood from the evolutionary psychology point of view.

  6. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  7. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban-rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban-rural continuum. A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban-rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban-rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years' nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6-59 months (p=0.032). Childhood undernutrition certainly has a spatial dimension that is highly influenced by the

  8. Therapeutic landscapes of home: Exploring Indigenous peoples' experiences of a Housing First intervention in Winnipeg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaazi, Dominic A; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Evans, Joshua; Distasio, Jino

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we explore Indigenous perspectives of culture, place, and health among participants in a landmark Canadian Housing First initiative: At Home/Chez Soi (AHCS) project. Implemented from 2009 to 2013 in Winnipeg and four other Canadian cities, AHCS was a multi-city randomized control trial that sought to test the effectiveness of Housing First as a model for addressing chronic homelessness among people living with mental illnesses. As Winnipeg's homeless population is over 70% Indigenous, significant efforts were made to accommodate the culturally specific health, spiritual, and lifestyle preferences of the project's Indigenous participants. While a daunting challenge from an intervention perspective, Winnipeg's experience also provides a unique opportunity to examine how Indigenous participants' experiences can inform improved housing and mental health policy in Canada. In our study, conducted independently from, but with endorsement of the AHCS project, we utilized a case study approach to explore the experiences of the project's Indigenous participants. Data were collected by means of in-depth qualitative interviews with Indigenous participants (N = 14) and key informant project staff and investigators (N = 6). Our exploratory work demonstrates that despite relative satisfaction with the AHCS intervention, Indigenous peoples' sense of place in the city remains largely disconnected from their housing experiences. We found that structural factors, particularly the shortage of affordable housing and systemic erasure of Indigeneity from the urban sociocultural and political landscape, have adversely impacted Indigenous peoples' sense of place and home. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks.

  10. The Influence of Gender Role and Women's Empowerment on Couples' Fertility Experiences in Urban Society of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Khadivzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Iran has experienced a great variation in women's status in recent years. There is a little knowledge on how and why advancing gender equality and equity and the empowerment of women play a role in recent fertility reduction in the country. This study was conducted to gain insight into the role of gender beliefs and women's empowerment in the couples 'experiences of fertility in Mashhad, Iran in 2011-2012. Methods: In this exploratory qualitative study in-depth interviews were conducted with 54 purposefully selected eligible male and female participants and some key informants who lived in urban society of Mashhad. Data was collected until saturation was happened and analyzed adopting conventional content analysis approach through giving analytical codes and identification of categories using MAXqda software. Study rigor verified via prolonged engagement, thick description and validation of anlysis through member check. Results:Findings from data analysis demonstrated three major categories about the influence of women’s empowerment and gender role on fertility experiences including: 1 The couple’s understanding of gender roles 2 Women’s empowerment and changing gender roles 3 Couple’s interactions in complementary or parallel roles and 4 Fulfillment of fertility goals based on role division. Some aspects of couples' interaction including equal roles in fertility decisions, choosing and using best fit family planning method and participative child care influenced couples' fertility behavior. Women’s empowerment together with balanced gender role in the family resulted in success in attaining couple’s fertility desire. Conclusion: Managing fertility behaviors needs to understand the roles of spouses in their mutual interaction in fertility decision making and related behaviors. Imbalanced gender role in family acts as an obstacle to reach the fertility goals and leads to lower than desired fertility. Reproductive

  11. Iron status markers in 224 indigenous Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate iron status in indigenous Greenlanders and its relationship to gender, age and intake of traditional Greenlandic foods. Methods: Serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and haemoglobin were evaluated in a population survey in 1993-1994 comprising 224 Greenlandic...... of living. Consumption of traditional foods was assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Intake of traditional foods was more prevalent among elderly than among young individuals and more frequent in Uummannaq than in Ilulissat and Nuuk. Ferritin levels were higher in men than in women (p....06; women, r(s)=0.73, ptraditional foods was correlated with ferritin in men (r(s)=0.29, p=0.01) and women (r(s)=0.40, p

  12. Indigenous Healing Practices and Self-Medication amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous Healing Practices and Self-Medication amongst Pregnant Women in Cape Town, South Africa. Naeemah Abrahams, Rachel Jewkes, Zodumo Mvo. Abstract. This study was conducted in and around Cape Town, South Africa, at two primary obstetric facilities and in the antenatal clinics of two secondary hospitals.

  13. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation of Biological Diversity and Indigenous Traditional Knowledge as Exemplified by the Cases of Asia and Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Akula Udongo (Earth Eating Habits): A Social and Cultural Practice among Chagga Women on the Slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  14. Prevalence and time trends in overweight and obesity among urban women: an analysis of demographic and health surveys data from 24 African countries, 1991–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbuene, Zacharie T; Mberu, Blessing; Muthuri, Stella; Ezeh, Alex C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among non-pregnant urban women in Africa over the past two and a half decades. Design Cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2014. Settings Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), repeated cross-sectional data collected in 24 African countries. Participants Adult non-pregnant women aged 15–49 years. The earlier DHS collected anthropometric data on only those women who had children aged 0–5 years. The main analyses were limited to this subgroup. The participants were classified as overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women increased in all the 24 countries. Trends were statistically significant in 17 of the 24 countries in the case of obesity and 13 of the 24 for overweight. In Ghana, overweight almost doubled (p=0.001) while obesity tripled (p=0.001) between 1993 and 2014. Egypt has the highest levels of overweight and obesity at 44% (95% CI 42%, 46.5%) and 39% (95% CI 36.6%, 41.8%), respectively, in 2014 and the trend showed significant increase (p=0.005) from 1995 levels. Also, obesity doubled in Kenya, Benin, Niger, Rwanda, Ivory Coast and Uganda, while tripled in Zambia, Burkina Faso, Mali, Malawi and Tanzania. Ethiopia and Madagascar had the lowest prevalence of both obesity and overweight, with overweight ranging from 7% to 12% and obesity from 1% to 4%. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are increasing among women of reproductive age in urban Africa, with obesity among this age group having more than doubled or tripled in 12 of the 24 countries. There is an urgent need for deliberate policies and interventions to encourage active lifestyles and healthy eating behaviour to curb this trend in urban Africa. PMID:29079606

  15. Culture-specific influences on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women: the roles of faith and traditional fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Rosa Angelova; Utermohlen, Virginia

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of local culture on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women. Specifically, we focused on two affiliated factors unique to the Bulgarian context: faith and traditional fasting. Findings revealed that women could be divided into two groups who behaved differently based on the severity of their eating disorder symptomatology. For women with higher EAT-40 scores (i.e., vulnerable women), faith seemed to have harmful effects, perhaps by virtue of motivating or reinforcing asceticism and dietary restraint. For these women fasting was likely but one strategy for weight management and the achievement of a desired thin figure consistent with the socio-cultural models. In contrast, among women with lower EAT-40 scores, faith seemed to have a protective effect against excessive dieting. These women were more likely to use fasting in the way intended by religious scripture, for faith-related reasons that have nothing to do with body image. This study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of culturally unique factors that may be implicated in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and overt eating distress in the trans-cultural context. When expanded, this research can be of use in helping formulate custom interventions and public health policies aimed at preventing such conditions in Bulgaria and possibly in similar post-communist cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Double Binds of Indigeneity and Indigenous Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ludlow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, indigenous peoples have often embraced the category of indigenous while also having to face the ambiguities and limitations of this concept. Indigeneity, whether represented by indigenous people themselves or others, tends to face a “double bind”, as defined by Gregory Bateson, in which “no matter what a person does, he can’t win.” One exit strategy suggested by Bateson is meta-communication—communication about communication—in which new solutions emerge from a questioning of system-internal assumptions. We offer case studies from Ecuador, Peru and Alaska that chart some recent indigenous experiences and strategies for such scenarios.

  17. Determinants of non-use of family planning methods by young married women (15-24 years living in urban slums of Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate of Uttar Pradesh is 2.7 with annual growth rate of 16.5. Age specific marital fertility rate (ASMFR in Uttar Pradesh is highest in the age group of 20-24 years (383.9 followed by 15-19 years (271.0 age group. Use of contraceptives is also very low in this most productive age group. Among the Young married women in the age group of 15-24 years the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is only 27.75% which is quite low than the target CPR of 60%. State level data presents a grim picture of contraceptive use in the slum areas in comparison to non-slum areas. This slum population is the most vulnerable section of our society. Aims & Objectives: i To assess the prevalence of non-use of contraceptives among young married women living in urban slums. ii To understand the reasons for non-use of contraceptives among young married women. iii To explore the factors influencing non-use of contraceptive among young married women. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the urban slums of Lucknow. Out of the eight Nagar-Nigam zones in Lucknow, one Urban-Primary Health Centre was selected randomly from each zone. From each Urban- Primary Health Centre, 2 slums were selected randomly. In selected slum, all the households were visited until at least 33 young married women (15-24 years were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to obtain the desired sample size of 535. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: Current use of contraceptives was found to be 33.8 % and almost two-thirds (66.2% of the participants were not using any form of contraceptive method. The important reasons for non-use of contraception were embarrassment / hesitancy / shyness regarding family planning, lack of knowledge about the contraceptive method or place of availability of services, opposition to contraceptive use by husband or family members and women’s desire to get pregnant. About one third of the women had no

  18. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enn, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

  20. Indigenous rights, performativity and protest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanna, Philippe; Langdon, Esther Jean; Vanclay, Frank

    Protests to claim rights are a common practice among Indigenous peoples of the world, especially when their interests conflict with those of nation states and/or multinational corporations regarding the use of their lands and resources. Drawing on a case study of the National Indigenous Mobilization

  1. Indigenous education and heritage revitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ke, Wen-Li

    2011-01-01

    The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and

  2. Indigenous knowledges driving technological innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian Alessa; Carlos Andrade; Phil Cash Cash; Christian P. Giardina; Matt Hamabata; Craig Hammer; Kai Henifin; Lee Joachim; Jay T. Johnson; Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Deanna Kingston; Andrew Kliskey; Renee Pualani Louis; Amanda Lynch; Daryn McKenny; Chels Marshall; Mere Roberts; Taupouri Tangaro; Jyl Wheaton-Abraham; Everett. Wingert

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples' use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial...

  3. The Indigenous Old World Passifloras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1972-01-01

    A short revision of the indigenous Old World taxa in Passifiora in the form of a key, the enumeration of synonyms, descriptions, and an index accounting for all names proposed for the area. Examined specimens, distributional areas, and some notes are given. In the Old World 20 indigenous species are

  4. Protecting indigenous land from mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borde, Radhika

    2017-01-01

    Support for indigenous peoples has been increasing over the last few decades. This can be seen internationally, as well as in several domestic contexts. The support for indigenous people has been linked to the increasingly prominent impetus to conserve the Earth’s biodiversity and environment.

  5. Air pollution and environmental risk factors for altered lung function among adult women of an urban slum area of Delhi: A prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shweta; Rasania, S K; Bachani, D; Gandhi, Asha; Chhabra, S K

    2018-01-01

    Household and ambient air pollution are jointly responsible for about 7 million premature deaths annually. Women living in slums, with unhealthy environment, both indoors and outdoors, particularly those living close to industrial and/or vehicular pollution zones due to multiple sources of air pollution, are at the higher risk of having impaired lung function tests. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal lung functions and to identify the environmental risk factors associated with them among adult women of 18-59 years. A total of 550 women aged 18-59 years were approached in a representative urban slum. Five hundred consented to participate and 299 had prebronchodilator spirometry satisfying ATS standards. House visits to assess environmental conditions were conducted to determine their association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Chi-square test was used to test the association of risk factors with lung functions. ANOVA was used to test the association of mean values of FEV1 and FVC with age. Out of 299 participants with acceptable spirometric curves, 5% had reduced FEV1/FVC ratio than the normal and 26.8% and 17.4% had lower values than predicted for FVC and FEV1, respectively. Altered lung function was related to age, tobacco smoking, and history of respiratory disease. Both ambient and household air pollution have a deleterious pulmonary effect on long-term women residents of a representative urban slum in Delhi.

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous populations of Australia and Canada experience disproportionately high rates of chronic disease. Our goal was to compare cardiovascular (CVD risk profile and diabetes complications from three recent comprehensive studies of diabetes complications in different Indigenous populations in Australia and Canada. Methods We compared participants from three recent studies: remote Indigenous Australians (2002-2003, n = 37 known diabetes, urban Indigenous Australians (2003-2005, n = 99 known diabetes, and remote Aboriginal Canadians (2001-2002, n = 188 known diabetes. Results The three groups were similar for HbA1c, systolic BP, diabetes duration. Although leaner by body-mass-index criteria, remote Indigenous Australians displayed a more adverse CVD risk profile with respect to: waist-hip-ratio (1.03, 0.99, 0.94, remote Indigenous Australians, urban Indigenous Australians, remote Canadians, p Conclusions Although there are many similarities in diabetes phenotype in Indigenous populations, this comparison demonstrates that CVD risk profiles and diabetes complications may differ among groups. Irrespective, management and intervention strategies are required from a young age in Indigenous populations and need to be designed in consultation with communities and tailored to community and individual needs.

  7. Factors Associated with Excessive Body Fat in Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Data from Black South Africans Living in a Rural Community and an Urban Township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okop, Kufre Joseph; Levitt, Naomi; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with excessive body fat among black African men and women living in rural and urban communities of South Africa. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, Cape Town, South Africa conducted in 2009/2010. The study sample included 1220 participants (77.2% women) aged 35–70 years, for whom anthropometric measurements were obtained and risk factors documented through face-to-face interviews using validated international PURE study protocols. Sex-specific logistic regression models were used to evaluate socio-demographic, lifestyle and psychological factors associated with three excessive body fat indicators, namely body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percent (BF%). Results The prevalence of excessive body fat based on BF%, WC and BMI cut-offs were 96.0%, 86.1%, and 81.6% for women respectively, and 62.2%, 25.9%, and 36.0% for men respectively. The significant odds of excessive body fat among the currently married compared to unmarried were 4.1 (95% CI: 1.3–12.5) for BF% and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3–2.9) for BMI among women; and 4.9 (95% CI: 2.6–9.6), 3.2 (95% CI: 1.6–6.4) and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9–6.8) for BF%, WC and BMI respectively among men. Age ≤50 years (compared to age >50 years) was inversely associated with excessive BF% in men and women, and less-than-a-college education was inversely associated with excessive BMI and WC in men. Tobacco smoking was inversely associated with all three excessive adiposity indicators in women but not in men. Unemployment, depression, and stress did not predict excessive body fat in men or women. Conclusion The sex-differences in the socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with the high levels of excessive body fat in urban and rural women and men should be considered in packaging interventions to reduce obesity in these communities. PMID:26447880

  8. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  9. Durbolota (weakness), chinta rog (worry illness), and poverty: explanations of white discharge among married adolescent women in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2007-03-01

    I carried out ethnographic fieldwork among 153 married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, in a Dhaka slum from December 2001 to January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies. I also held discussions with family and community members. In this article, I focus on popular understandings of vaginal discharge being caused by durbolota (weakness) and chinta rog (worry illness), as mentioned by young women. Eighty-eight young women reported that they had experienced white discharge, blaming it on a number of factors such as stress and financial hardships, tensions in the household, marital instability, hunger anxiety, and reproductive burdens. For married adolescent women in the urban slum, white discharge has many levels of meaning linked to the broader social, political, and material inequalities in their everyday lives.

  10. Nigerian women reap benefits from indigenous vegetables

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Working in four administrative states in south- western Nigeria, the Sustainable Production and Utilization of Underutilized Nigerian. Vegetables to Enhance Rural .... children's school fees and health care needs of the family. This will continue to sustain their use of improved production and cultivation once the project has ...

  11. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Nettheim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

  12. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  13. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    champions. However, recently growing number of Chinese companies are seeking to create a foundation for growth and development based on innovation. As a result of this, many of them spread their operations to the countries of the traditional industrial ‘triad’ of North America, Europe and Japan to capture...... a foothold in these markets and to tap into the advanced technologies and concepts originating from this developed context. Another category of Chinese companies includes those who seek to move from routine transactional tasks to more innovation-intensive concepts while remaining in China and relying...... on their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept...

  14. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....

  15. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  16. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections and their determinants in married women residing in an urban slum of North-East Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have adverse implications on the health of the women. Community-based studies in India have shown a high prevalence of RTIs but here is a lack of sizeable literature from urban slums and resettlement areas. The objective was to document the prevalence and determinants of RTIs in married women (15-49 years) residing in an urban slum in Delhi, India. The study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of Gokulpuri in the North-East district of Delhi. Systematic random sampling method was adopted to choose the study subjects, that is, married and non-pregnant women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) residing in the study area. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire, through the house to house visits. The diagnosis of RTIs was made as per the World Health Organization syndromic approach. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 802 women were interviewed. The mean age of study subjects was 30.79 ± 7 years. A total of 352 (43.9%) women currently had symptoms of RTIs. The most frequently reported symptoms included abdominal pain (68.2%), back pain (69.6%), and vaginal discharge (59.3%). Older women (≥25 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.4-3.5), those belonging to the lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.1, 95% CI; 1.5-2.9), those using cloth during menses (OR 2.6, 95% CI; 1.6-4.3), those having more than three pregnancies (OR 1.8, 95% CI; 1.2-2.6) and those using an intrauterine contraceptive device (OR 11.8, 95% CI; 4.3-32.0) had higher odds of having RTIs. A high case load was found based on the syndromic approach. Generating community awareness, ensuring proper menstrual hygiene, and improving the socioeconomic status would help in reducing the cases of RTI.

  17. The willingness for using mobile phone for health education among women caregivers of under 5 children in an urban resettlement colony in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Basu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The delivery of health education through mobile phones either through voice calls or text messages (mHealth provide valuable opportunities for bridging gaps in maternal and child healthcare in resource constrained settings. Aims & Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess willingness to receive m-Health services among women caregivers of under-5 children. Material & Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in an urban resettlement colony of North East District of Delhi during the period from September’ 2016 to Feb’ 2017.  We enrolled 201 adult women up to 35 years of age who were active caregiver of at-least one under 5 child in their familial household. Results: The mean age of the women was 26.4 and mean years of schooling was 10.1 years. Nearly three-fourth (73.2% could read text messages (SMS while more than a third (36.8% were using mobile internet services. The willingness to receive mHealth services for health promotion was affirmed by 157 (78.2% subjects but it was significantly lower in women with low educational attainment. Conclusion: There exists a strong unmet need for mHealth services among young women caregivers of under 5 children. However, bridging the digital divide is a key challenge towards advancing mHealth for all.

  18. Effects of peer health education on perception and practice of screening for cervical cancer among urban residential women in south-east Nigeria: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere; Dim, Cyril; Ezeoke, Uche

    2017-06-09

    Effective female education on cervical cancer prevention has been shown to increase awareness and uptake of screening. However, sustaining increase in uptake poses a challenge to control efforts. Peer health education has been used as an effective tool for ensuring sustained behavior change. This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of peer health education on perception, willingness to screen and uptake of cervical cancer screening by women. A before and after intervention study was undertaken in 2 urban cities in Enugu state, Nigeria among women of reproductive age attending women's meeting in Anglican churches. Multistage sampling was used to select 300 women. Peer health education was provided once monthly for 3 consecutive sessions over a period of 3 months. Data was collected at baseline and after the intervention using pre-tested questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance of observed differences and associations were done at p-value of education, employment status and parity (p education is an effective strategy for increasing women's perception of benefits of early detection of cervical cancer through screening. It is also effective for increasing their practice of screening for cervical cancer.

  19. Single room occupancy (SRO) hotels as mental health risk environments among impoverished women: the intersection of policy, drug use, trauma, and urban space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kelly R; Lopez, Andrea M; Comfort, Megan; Shumway, Martha; Cohen, Jennifer; Riley, Elise D

    2014-05-01

    Due to the significantly high levels of comorbid substance use and mental health diagnosis among urban poor populations, examining the intersection of drug policy and place requires a consideration of the role of housing in drug user mental health. In San Francisco, geographic boundedness and progressive health and housing polices have coalesced to make single room occupancy hotels (SROs) a key urban built environment used to house poor populations with co-occurring drug use and mental health issues. Unstably housed women who use illicit drugs have high rates of lifetime and current trauma, which manifests in disproportionately high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression when compared to stably housed women. We report data from a qualitative interview study (n=30) and four years of ethnography conducted with housing policy makers and unstably housed women who use drugs and live in SROs. Women in the study lived in a range of SRO built environments, from publicly funded, newly built SROs to privately owned, dilapidated buildings, which presented a rich opportunity for ethnographic comparison. Applying Rhodes et al.'s framework of socio-structural vulnerability, we explore how SROs can operate as "mental health risk environments" in which macro-structural factors (housing policies shaping the built environment) interact with meso-level factors (social relations within SROs) and micro-level, behavioral coping strategies to impact women's mental health. The degree to which SRO built environments were "trauma-sensitive" at the macro level significantly influenced women's mental health at meso- and micro-levels. Women who were living in SROs which exacerbated fear and anxiety attempted, with limited success, to deploy strategies on the meso- and micro-level to manage their mental health symptoms. Study findings underscore the importance of housing polices which consider substance use in the context of current and cumulative trauma

  20. The Personal and Social Benefits of Paid Employment for Urban Women in Skilled and Semi-Skilled Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein; Walshok, Marco Gary

    Data from in-depth interviews with more than one hundred women over a three-year period suggest that the experience of women in skilled and semiskilled jobs contradicts the conventional wisdom about the values and motives of these women and challenge many sociological findings regarding the alienating character of much blue collar work. The women…

  1. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  2. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  3. Drug Policy and Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Julian; Kapron, Mary

    2017-06-01

    This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens. They are also victims of the drug producers who remove them from their lands or forcibly recruit them into the production process. As indigenous peoples are caught in the violent world of illicit drug production, law enforcement often targets them first, resulting in disproportionate rates of criminalization and incarceration.

  4. Measuring the Development Patterns of Urban Villages in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban villages are widespread in many Chinese cities, providing affordable and accessible housing for rural migrants. These urban villages are developed by the indigenous village population base on a self-help approach and in an unauthorized style. Consequently, urban villages are characterized by

  5. Spatial diversity of urban village development in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341235814; Geertman, S.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924; Hooimeijer, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073398578; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic urbanization in China during the reform period has led to the emergence and proliferation of so-called urban villages in many cities. The development of urban villages, based on a self-help approach of indigenous villagers, has been satisfying great demand for migrant housing and space for

  6. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  7. Streaming weekly soap opera video episodes to smartphones in a randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV risk in young urban African American/black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2012-07-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of soap opera videos streamed to smartphones to reduce risk of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in young urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Hoover, Donald R; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2013-01-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a soap opera video series created to reduce HIV sex risk in women. LSC was compared to text messages in a randomized trial in 238 high-risk mostly Black young urban women. 117 received 12-weekly LSC videos, 121 received 12-weekly HIV prevention messages on smartphones. Changes in unprotected sex with high risk partners were compared by mixed models. Unprotected sex with high risk men significantly declined over 6 months post-intervention for both arms, from 21-22 acts to 5-6 (p video over the text arm, though this difference was not statistically significant. However, the LSC was highly popular and viewers wanted the series to continue. This is the first study to report streaming soap opera video episodes to reduce HIV risk on smartphones. LSC holds promise as an Internet intervention that could be scaled-up and combined with HIV testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Permeability of public and private spaces in reproductive healthcare seeking: barriers to uptake of services among low income African American women in a smaller urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Annis G

    2014-05-01

    This study was undertaken in partnership with a publicly funded reproductive healthcare organization to better understand barriers to utilization of its services as perceived by low income African American women in its community and how those barriers might be managed. The study uses a place-based, ecological perspective to theorize privacy challenges across different levels of the communication ecology. Analysis of participant observation, interviews, and focus group data identified three key public-private problematics in African American women's experience of reproductive healthcare seeking in a smaller urban setting: a public-private problematic of organizational identity, of organizational regions, and of organizational members. Potential strategies are identified for managing these problematics by the organization and community members. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. SOCIALIZATION AND INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: THEIR IMPACT ON CULTURAL FOOD-RELATED IDENTITY IN URBAN WOMEN MAPUCHE FROM CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Denegri-Coria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addressed the Mapuche food-related cultural identity, focusing on socialization and intergenerational patterns of food consumption in Mapuche women residing in urban areas, considering factors that influence the purchase, preparation and selection of food. The sample consisted of 32 women participants who self-identified as Mapuche and had at least one of their surnames belonged to that ethnicity. A qualitative methodology was used, the unit of analysis being the story, and the data were analysed considering a segmentation of the sample into younger and older than 35 years. The results show a weakening in socialization practices and intergenerational transmission of Mapuche dietary patterns, especially in those younger than age 35, which affects the maintenance of their food-related cultural identity.

  11. Household access to traditional and indigenous foods positively associated with food security and dietary diversity in Botswana.

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    Kasimba, Salome Nduku; Motswagole, Boitumelo Stokie; Covic, Namukolo Margaret; Claasen, Nicole

    2018-04-01

    To determine access to traditional and indigenous foods (TIF) and the association with household food security, dietary diversity and women's BMI in low socio-economic households. Sequential explanatory mixed-methods design, including a random household cross-sectional survey on household food insecurity access (HFIA), household dietary diversity (HDD) and women's BMI, followed by focus group discussions. Two rural and two urban areas of Botswana. Persons responsible for food preparation or an adult in a household (n 400); for BMI, non-pregnant women aged 18-49 years (n 253). Almost two-thirds of households experienced moderate or severe food insecurity (28·8 and 37·3 %, respectively), but more than half of women were overweight or obese (26·9 and 26·9 %, respectively). Median HDD score was 6 (interquartile range 5-7) out of a total of 12. A positive correlation was found between number of TIF accessed and HDD score (r=0·457; Pimportant role in household food security and dietary diversity. There is need to explore potential benefits that may be associated with their optimal use on food security and nutrition outcomes.

  12. Indigenous Rights in the Making: The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Jérémie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines to what extent the recently adopted United Nations Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples participate to the development of indigenous peoples' international human rights.

  13. Physical activity associated with urban environmental characteristics: A correlational study of active women of high socioeconomic status from Brazilian cities of Santa Catarina

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    Leonessa Boing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study aimed to identify urban environmental characteristics, which may be associated with the physical activity (PA level of women from Brazilian cities of Santa Catarina. The sample was composed of 2047 women aged 20 to 59 from six Santa Catarina cities: Blumenau, Chapecó, Criciúma, Florianópolis, Itajaí, and São José. The PA was evaluated through the IPAQ (short version, and the NEWS to environmental variables. An inferential and descriptive statistic was used: Chi-squared test, ANOVA with post hoc, and raw and adjusted multinomial regression analysis (p < .05. The participants from São José presented greater chances to PA practice when they reside close to appropriated areas, sidewalks, fitness centers, well-lit streets, and when invited by relatives to the practice. The PA Program for the community enables greater chances of practice for women in Florianópolis, São José, Criciúma and Blumenau. As a conclusion, some environmental factors appeared to influence PA practice positively in Catarinense women. Besides that, the fact of belonging to the high economic status could increasingly enable practice, since they seem broader access to gyms and PA private professionals.

  14. [Mental Health, Emotional Suffering, Mental Problems and Disorders in Indigenous Colombians. Data From the National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Urrego-Mendoza, Zulma

    2016-12-01

    Indigenous people represent 5% of the world population and one-third of the poor ones. Alcoholism rates, substance abuse problems, and mental disorders are shown to be higher than the general population. An analysis was made of the data from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. In this survey, it was asked if self-recognition as a native was according to the culture, the people, or physical features. A total of 902 indigenous people were surveyed, corresponding to 8.3% of the surveyed adult population. The majority (39.5%) lived in the Pacific region, with 23.7% Atlantic region, and 20% in the Eastern region. More than one-quarter (26.6%) reported a status of poverty, 31.7% spoke the language of their people, and 17.8% reported displacement due to violence. Mental health was defined as, "having good physical health, to eat, sleep and rest, by 42.9%. As regards problems and mental disorders, 8% reported excessive consumption and 7.9% a risk consumption of alcohol. As regards general psychopathology, measured by the (Self-reporting questionnaire) SRQ, 8.1% of the population had symptoms. The life prevalences of anxiety and depressive mental disorders were reported by 6.7% women and 8.4% men, and the associated risk factors that show higher risk were: aged between 18 to 44 years, not speaking the language of their people, living in Bogota, living in urban areas, and consuming psychoactive substances and tobacco. People who recognised themselves as indigenous have higher rates of displacement by violence, report problems and common mental disorders that are associated with factors consistent with loss of cultural characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  15. Pregnancy Desire, Partner Serodiscordance, and Partner HIV Disclosure among Reproductive Age HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Corinne M; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Rana, Aadia I

    2016-01-01

    Women comprise 25% of the US HIV epidemic, with many women of reproductive age. There is a need for providers to address the reproductive needs and desires of women with HIV given that effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease. This cross-sectional study shows high rates of partner serodiscordance (61%) and moderate HIV disclosure to partners (61%). Patients surveyed reported practitioners discuss condoms (94%) and contraception (71%) more often than pregnancy desire (38%). In our sample, 44% of the surveyed women intended future pregnancy, whereas women who did not intend future pregnancy cited HIV/health and serodiscordance as the most common reasons (56% and 35%, resp.). There was no difference in the knowledge of mother-to-child transmission risk between women who intended or did not intend future pregnancy (p = 0.71). These results underline the need for provider training in reproductive counseling to promote risk reduction and education.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety disorders amongst low-income pregnant women in urban South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heyningen, Thandi; Honikman, Simone; Myer, Landon; Onah, Michael N; Field, Sally; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety is highly prevalent in many populations; however, the burden of anxiety disorders amongst pregnant women in low-resource settings is not well documented. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of antenatal anxiety disorders amongst low-income women living with psychosocial adversity. Pregnant women were recruited from an urban, primary level clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview diagnostic interview assessed prevalence of anxiety disorders. Four self-report questionnaires measured psychosocial characteristics. Logistic regression models explored demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity as predictors for anxiety disorders. Amongst 376 participants, the prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 23%. Although 11% of all women had post-traumatic stress disorder, 18% of the total sample was diagnosed with other anxiety disorders. Multivariable analysis revealed several predictors for anxiety including a history of mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03-8.32), Major depressive episode (MDE) diagnosis (AOR 3.83; CI 1.99-7.31), multigravidity (AOR 2.87; CI 1.17-7.07), food insecurity (AOR 2.57; CI 1.48-4.46), unplanned and unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.14; CI 1.11-4.15), pregnancy loss (AOR 2.10; CI 1.19-3.75) and experience of threatening life events (AOR 1.30; CI 1.04-1.57). Increased perceived social support appeared to reduce the risk for antenatal anxiety (AOR 0.95; CI 0.91-0.99). A range of antenatal anxiety disorders are prevalent amongst pregnant women living in low-resource settings. Women who experience psychosocial adversity may be exposed to multiple risk factors, which render them vulnerable to developing antenatal anxiety disorders.

  17. Predictors of inconsistent condom use among a hard to reach population of young women with multiple sexual partners in peri-urban South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanga Z Zembe

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that multiple concurrent sexual partnering may be a key driver of the high HIV prevalence among young women in South Africa. However, little is known about whether and to what extent women who have multiple sexual partners also engage in other high risk sexual behaviors such as inconsistent condom use. And yet, multiple concurrent sexual partnering is of little epidemiological relevance if all partners in these sexual networks use condoms consistently. This study assesses the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and HIV, and predictors of inconsistent condom use among women aged 16-24 with multiple sexual partners in a peri-urban setting in South Africa.We used Respo