WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban hispanic adolescents

  1. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  2. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  3. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  4. Promoting Multivitamins to Hispanic Adolescents and Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mackert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs can be reduced by 50% to 70% with sufficient periconceptional intake of folic acid. Hispanic women are up to 3 times more likely than non-Hispanics to have a child affected by NTDs. This disparity is complicated by health literacy, as women impacted by this disparity are also at-risk for low health literacy. The purpose of this project was to pilot advertisements to promote multivitamins, increasing folic acid consumption, among Hispanic adolescents. The advertisements for Hispanic adolescents and their mothers focused on broad benefits of a multivitamin, downplaying folic acid’s role in prenatal health. Participants were Hispanic mothers (n = 25 and adolescents (n = 25 at a clinic in the Southwestern United States. Likert-type survey items and an open-ended question were used to assess attitudes toward multivitamins and advertisements. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS was used to assess participants’ health literacy. Participants’ impressions of the ads were positive. Both groups expressed the intent to start taking a daily multivitamin after viewing the ads—adolescents for themselves and mothers to start their daughters on a daily multivitamin. There was no relationship between participants’ health literacy and perceptions of the advertisements or intentions to begin a multivitamin habit. This research illustrates the potential of messages that rely on peripheral health benefits to overcome communication barriers posed by health literacy and address serious health problems such as NTDs.

  5. Effects of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parents' expectation of the child's acculturation on the substance use behaviors of urban, Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Unger, Jennifer B; Wagner, Karla D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Sussman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,936 Hispanic adolescents of mean age 14.0 years (standard deviation= 0.4) from seven Los Angeles area schools. The effects of perceived parental monitoring and parent-child communication on the adolescents' self-reported past thirty day cigarette smoking and alcohol and marijuana use behaviors were analyzed. In addition, the relationships between parents' expectations of the child's acculturation and adolescents' drug use behaviors were examined. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were found to have statistically significant inverse associations with all three drug types when controlling for one another and the demographic variables assessed in the study. Parents' expectation of the child's acculturation to the U.S. was found to be inversely related with alcohol use. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were not found to mediate the relationship between parents' expectation of the child's acculturation and alcohol use.

  6. Intrapersonal and Ecodevelopmental Factors Associated with Smoking in Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…

  7. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  9. CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents. Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and measures of regional (central) adiposity. High prevalence of markers of dysmetabolic state in urban adolescents. ~10% prevalence of dysglycemia in overweight / obese school children.

  10. Adolescent health in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramadass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, from ages 10 to 19 years. It is a period of dynamic brain development. During this period, adolescents learn from the social behavior and environmental surroundings of their community. Because of rapid urbanization without accounting for the basic health-care amenities, health disparities tend to arise. In this review, we have tried to describe the health profile of adolescents in urban India. Relevant articles were extracted from PubMed and related websites. Adolescents in urban areas perceive their physical environment as very poor. Social capital and social cohesion are very important in their development. Increasing child marriage and poor antenatal care among adolescents are key challenges in improving the reproductive and sexual health. More than half of adolescents are undernourished. About 56% of adolescent girls are anemic. At this time of fighting against under-nutrition, burden of overweight and obesity is increasing among the urban adolescents. Mass media use and increased sedentary lifestyle increase the risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Labile mental and emotional behavior makes them prone to suicide and intentional self-harm. Another avoidable key challenge among adolescents is addiction. Urban living and regular media exposure are positively associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. Among unintentional injuries, road traffic accidents dominate the picture. Various health programs targeting adolescent health have been launched in the recent past.

  11. Hispanic and Black American Adolescents' Beliefs Relating to Sexuality and Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the level of scientific knowledge regarding sexuality and contraception of Black and Hispanic inner-city adolescents. Results indicated that Hispanic males were the most knowledgeable, Hispanic females the least, and Black males and females were intermediate. A cultural basis for this difference is considered, and the need to design…

  12. Hispanic Mothers' Beliefs Regarding HPV Vaccine Series Completion in Their Adolescent Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, A. M.; Ward, K. K.; Carmack, C. C.; Muñoz, B. T.; Cribbs, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (~39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers' salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series.…

  13. Physical activity among Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino white visitors to urban-proximate public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia A. Wilhelm Stanis; Ingrid E. Schneider; Kimberly J. Shinew; Deborah J. Chavez; Mary C. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity are well recognized and documented, yet obesity rates remain high in the United States, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos. As our population becomes more urban and ethnically diverse, a greater understanding of specific populations may help agencies better address issues related to obesity and sedentary lifestyles. This study...

  14. Risk and protection for HIV/AIDS in African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Robin; Buck, Raymond; Shattell, Mona M

    2008-07-01

    African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV infection is often acquired during adolescence, a time when risky sexual behaviors are at their peak. This study explored relationships among selected risk factors, protective factors, and risky sexual behaviors among African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents, from a sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. African-Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have sexual intercourse without the use of birth control than were Whites. African-Americans were more likely to have sexual behavior with multiple sexual partners than either Hispanics or Whites were, and African-Americans had higher self-esteem than did Hispanics and Whites. In order to develop culturally sensitive, effective interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS in adolescents, racial differences in risk and protective factors must be examined.

  15. Depression and Self-Concept: Personality Traits or Coping Styles in Reaction to School Retention of Hispanic Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Robles-Piña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether depression and self-concept could be construed as personality characteristics and/or coping styles in reaction to school retention or being held back a grade. The participants in this study were 156 urban Hispanic adolescents, ages 12–18, and of these, 51 or 33% had been retained in school. Students who had been retained reported a lower self-concept score, higher GPA, and higher rates of depression, and they were more likely to be male than students who had not been retained. The findings of this study indicated that self-concept was a personality characteristic that, due to its malleability, is also a coping style in regards to retention with this Hispanic adolescent population.

  16. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…

  17. Acculturation-Related Stress and Mental Health Outcomes among Three Generations of Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Padilla, Amado M.; Napper, Lucy E.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.

    2013-01-01

    Stress associated with acculturation and minority status among Hispanic youth is understudied. Using survey data from the Hispanic Stress Inventory-Adolescent Version (HSI-A), we examined psychosocial stress across eight domains including family economic stress and acculturation-gap stress in a national sample of three generations (first, second,…

  18. Cultural values associated with substance use among Hispanic adolescents in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Claradina; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W; Black, David Scott; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Cultural values can shape people's attitudes toward substance use and influence their risk of experimentation with drugs. This article examines the relationships between cultural values (familism, respeto, and machismo), fatalism (a culturally encouraged personality disposition), and substance use among Hispanic adolescents. In 2005, cross-sectional data were collected from 1,616 Hispanic ninth grade students in Los Angeles. Each cultural value was associated with lifetime substance use; however, these relationships depended on the type of substance and gender. Our findings suggest that it might be useful to incorporate the cultural values and address the personality trait of fatalism in prevention programs for Hispanic adolescents. The study's limitations are noted.

  19. Targeting Hispanic adolescents with outdoor food & beverage advertising around schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A L; Pasch, K E

    2017-02-09

    Although some research has focused on the food environment and food marketing, little has examined outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising, particularly its relationship to the Hispanic composition in schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of outdoor FB advertising was greater around middle and high schools with a majority Hispanic population as compared to schools with a lower Hispanic population. All FB advertisements located within a half-mile of 47 schools in Central Texas were documented. Advertisements were coded as free standing or on establishments. Advertisements were coded for theme including price (emphasizing price) and deals/value meals (promoting discounted price/meal deals). These two themes were combined to create an overall price promotion variable. In order to determine if the prevalence of FB advertising varied by the Hispanic composition of the students in the school, data from the Texas Education Agency was used to create a variable which dichotomized the schools into two groups: schools that reported ≥60% Hispanic students or 'Hispanic schools' (n = 21) and schools that reported advertising was greater around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Hispanic schools had more overall outdoor FB advertisements as compared to non-Hispanic schools (p = 0.02). Similarly, we found significantly more outdoor FB establishment (p = 0.02) and price promotion (p = 0.05) around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Differences in freestanding advertisements by school type approached significance (p = 0.07) with Hispanic schools having more freestanding FB advertisements on average. Further research is needed that documents the content of these advertisements and determines the extent to which these advertisements affect Hispanic and other racial/ethnic minority youth's attitudes and behaviors toward the consumption of these products.

  20. Expectancy-Value Beliefs of Early-Adolescent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayssan Safavian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value (E-V theory to test the influence of motivation on mathematics achievement and enrollment using data from a cohort of 926 seventh-grade prealgebra students (49% male, 76% Hispanic, 76% low income, and 55% English learner. E-V beliefs were assessed in seventh grade along with achievement, and enrollment was measured in eighth grade. Differential associations of motivation, achievement, and enrollment were examined across Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations. Expectancy for success and task value uniquely predicted seventh-grade achievement and eighth-grade algebra enrollment after controlling for prior achievement and a full set of demographic controls, including low socioeconomic status and English fluency. The association of interest value and achievement differentiated across Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth, suggesting that the effect of interest value on mathematics achievement was weaker for Hispanic youth than for non-Hispanics after accounting for success expectations and prior achievement.

  1. Expectancy-Value Beliefs of Early-Adolescent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Nayssan Safavian; AnneMarie Conley

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value (E-V) theory to test the influence of motivation on mathematics achievement and enrollment using data from a cohort of 926 seventh-grade prealgebra students (49% male, 76% Hispanic, 76% low income, and 55% English learner). E-V beliefs were assessed in seventh grade along with achievement, and enrollment was measured in eighth grade. Differential associations of motivation, achievement, and enrollment were examined across Hispanic and non-His...

  2. Adolescent and Parent Alliances with Therapists in Brief Strategic Family Therapy[TM] with Drug-Using Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Michael S.; Mayorga, Carla C.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Szapocznik, Jose; Turner, Charles W.; Alexander, James F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between alliance and retention in family therapy. Alliance was examined at the individual (parent, adolescent) and family level (within-family differences) for families that either dropped out or completed family therapy. Participants were 31 Hispanic adolescents and their family members who received brief…

  3. Panic disorder phenomenology in urban self-identified Caucasian-Non-Hispanics and Caucasian-Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Finley, M Rosina; Skipper, Betty

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology of panic disorder is well known, but data about some phenomenological aspects are sparse. The symptom criteria for panic disorder were developed largely from rational expert consensus methods and not from empirical research. This fact calls attention to the construct validity of the panic disorder diagnosis, which may affect accuracy of epidemiological findings. Seventy self-identified Non-Hispanic-Caucasian (Anglo) and Hispanic-Caucasian (Hispanic) people who were diagnosed with DSM-III-R panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were invited to complete a Panic Phenomenological Questionnaire (PPQ), which was constructed for this study from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale Items and The DSM-III-R panic symptoms. Fifty (71%) subjects agreed to participate, and there was no response bias detected. Seven symptoms on the PPQ that are not in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were reported to occur with a high prevalence in this study. Furthermore, many symptoms that occurred with a high frequency and were reported to be experienced as severe are also not included in current nosology. A few of the DSM-IV criterion symptoms occurred with low prevalence, frequency, and severity. Cognitive symptoms were reported to occur with higher frequency and severity during attacks than autonomic or other symptoms. There were modest differences between ethnic groups with regard to panic attack phenomena. Further research using multiple empirical methods aimed at improving the content validity of the panic disorder diagnosis is warranted. This includes utilizing consistent methods to collect data that will allow for rational decisions about how to construct valid panic disorder criteria across cultures. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Placement and Achievement of Urban Hispanic Middle Schoolers with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrocas, Lisa; Cramer, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined achievement gains in reading and math for Hispanic middle school students with specific learning disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings in a large urban school district. The authors report learning gains for students with and without disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings. Results indicate no…

  5. Effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index among Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L; Miller, Tracie L; Lipshultz, Steven E; Messiah, Sarah E

    2013-02-01

    Ethnic minority adolescents, Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow-up data available (91 %) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Among 71 adolescents (80 % Hispanic, 77 % female), mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P surgery. Our results show that bariatric surgery, gastric bypass procedure in particular, can markedly reduce weight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducing weight in a group of adolescents who are at a particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences.

  6. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Influence of Acculturation on Traumatic Stress Following Childbirth Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl; Strickland, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have explored the role of acculturation on health outcomes; however, no studies to date have examined relationships between acculturation and the traumatic stress of childbirth among Hispanic adolescents. A convenience sample of 66 Hispanic adolescents 13 to 19 years of age completed the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II), a demographic sheet, birth appraisal scale, and the Impact of Event Scale within 72 hours of birth. Significant associations were found between the ARSMA-II subscales and acculturation proxy variables, excluding language; however, only the Mexican Orientation Subscale and generation proxy variable influenced the birth experience. The study findings showed that Hispanic adolescents reporting a more traumatic childbirth identified closer with the Mexican culture and reported fewer family generations residing in the United States. As an overlooked area of research, our findings support the need for additional research related to the traumatic stress of birth among Hispanic adolescents. Using multiple acculturation measurements, including the ARSMA-II, with larger, more diverse samples of adolescents, equally balanced between all categories of acculturation and placement within the five-tier generation matrix, can provide some insightful information and directed health care.

  8. Hispanic Young Males' Mental Health From Adolescence Through the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Abbott, Collin; Rutsohn, Joshua; Penedo, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between the transition to fatherhood and depressive symptoms scores among Hispanic men. Using the sample of Hispanic men included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, depressive symptom scores were examined from 1994 to 2008. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created that included the men's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores as well as residency status with the child. By regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptom scores, associations between mental health scores of Hispanic men and their transition to fatherhood were identified. Among the 1,715 Hispanic men, resident ( n = 502) and nonresident ( n = 99) Hispanic fathers reported an increase in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during the first 5 years after entrance into fatherhood (β = 0.150, 95% CI [0.062, 0.239] and β = 0.153, 95% CI [0.034, 0.271], respectively) compared to non-fathers ( n = 1,114), representing an increase of 10% for resident fathers and a 15% for nonresident fathers. Hispanic non-fathers reported a decrease in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during parallel ages. Hispanic fathers, regardless of residency status, reported increased depressive symptoms in the first 5 years after the transition into fatherhood, a period critical in child development.

  9. Adolescent and parent alliances with therapists in Brief Strategic Family Therapy with drug-using Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Michael S; Mayorga, Carla C; Mitrani, Victoria B; Szapocznik, José; Turner, Charles W; Alexander, James F

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between alliance and retention in family therapy. Alliance was examined at the individual (parent, adolescent) and family level (within-family differences) for families that either dropped out or completed family therapy. Participants were 31 Hispanic adolescents and their family members who received brief strategic family therapy for the treatment of adolescent drug use. Videotapes of first sessions were rated to identify parent and adolescent alliances with the therapist. Results demonstrated that Completer cases had significantly higher levels of alliance across all family members than Dropout cases, and Dropout cases had significantly higher unbalanced alliances than Completer cases. Clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Preventing Drug Abuse among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.

    2015-01-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…

  11. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  12. Social Media Use and its Association with Sexual Risk and Parental Monitoring among a Primarily Hispanic Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Dina L; Garnett, Chelsea; Younger, Alayna P; Stockwell, Melissa S; Soren, Karen; Catallozzi, Marina; Neu, Natalie

    2017-08-01

    In this study we assessed the association between social media (SM) use with sexual risk, and with parental monitoring among Hispanic adolescents. Self-administered anonymous survey. Urban primary care clinics. Primarily Hispanic adolescents ages 13-21 years old. Chi-square and regression analyses controlling for age and gender were used to assess associations between SM use or sexting and sexual behaviors (kissing, touching genitals, vaginal oral, and anal sex), sexual risk (≥4 lifetime partners, >1 recent partner, inconsistent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis) and contraceptive use. Similar analyses were used to assess relationships between adolescent-reported parental monitoring and SM use, and sexting. Participants with frequent SM use (social networking sites or apps) had greater odds of all sexual activity. Ever sexters had greater odds of penetrative sex only (oral, vaginal, and anal sex) as well as use of hormonal contraception (except long-acting reversible contraception). Approximately half of the participants reported parental access to profiles on SM. Female participants had higher odds of parental access to online profiles and having a parental discussion of privacy settings. Those having privacy discussions had greater odds of "private" profiles on SM and lower odds of ever sexting. Frequent SM use and sexting was associated with an increase in all types of sexual behaviors; sexting alone was associated with more lifetime and recent sexual partners. Parental discussion of privacy settings was found to be protective. Providers and parents should be aware of the effect of SM use on sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  14. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  15. Acculturation and Substance Use among Hispanic Early Adolescents: Investigating the Mediating Roles of Acculturative Stress and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Van Tyne, Kathryne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the extent to which Hispanic orientation and American orientation are associated with substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana) both directly and indirectly through acculturative stress and self-esteem. Participants were 347 Hispanic early adolescents (50.7% male; mean age = 12.57, SD = 0.92, range 11-15) from two middle…

  16. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  17. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Hursh, Hilary A

    2015-10-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive-behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed.

  18. Familias Unidas: a family-centered ecodevelopmental intervention to reduce risk for problem behavior among Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the theoretical and empirical foundations of Familias Unidas, a multilevel, family-centered intervention designed to prevent problem behavior in Hispanic adolescents. The main theoretical tenets for the intervention model; an ecological-developmental perspective, the centrality of ethnic and cultural themes, application of empowerment principles, and a family focus are reviewed. The literature on the risk and protective factors that provided the justification for the intervention's targeted mediators and the core clinical applications that are intended to alter them are discussed. Familias Unidas engages Hispanic immigrant parents into an empowerment process in which they first build a strong parent-support network and then use the network to increase knowledge of culturally relevant parenting, strengthen parenting skills, and then apply these new skills in a series of activities designed to reduce risks frequently found in poor, urban environments. The available evidence supporting the efficacy of Familias Unidas is summarized, as are future goals and a current, second-generation application of the intervention.

  19. Hispanic adolescent farmworkers' perceptions associated with pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Mary K; Napolitano, Marie; Scherer, Jennifer A; McCauley, Linda A

    2004-03-01

    The migrant farmworker population in the United States is a vulnerable and understudied population whose characteristics are constantly shifting. The number of youth involved in agriculture work is increasing, and they, in particular, may be at increased risk for occupational hazards, such as pesticide exposure. The present study utilized an ecological framework for focus group discussions with 33 adolescent migrant farmworkers in Oregon. Adolescents' risk perception and health beliefs associated with pesticide exposure are examined on four levels of environmental influence: microenvironment, organizational environment, social/community environment, and macroenvironment. Adolescents provided insight on such topics as perceived vulnerability of illness due to pesticide exposure, attitudes toward farmwork, influence of their boss, knowledge of occupational hazards, safety training, and barriers to occupational choice. Cultural influences on occupational safety and health are discussed and increased attention to safety training is recommended.

  20. Field testing a questionnaire assessing parental psychosocial factors related to consumption of calcium-rich foods by Hispanic, Asian, and Non-Hispanic white young adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyduna, Jennifer L; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine M; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry W; Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Schram, Jessica; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Intervention strategies to increase calcium intake of parents and young adolescent children could be improved by identifying psychosocial factors influencing intake. The objective was to develop a tool to assess factors related to calcium intake among parents and Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white young adolescent children (10-13 years) meeting acceptable standards for psychometric properties. A parent questionnaire was constructed from interviews conducted to identify factors. Parents (n = 166) in the United States completed the questionnaire, with seventy-one completing it twice. Two constructs (Attitudes/Preferences and Social/Environmental) were identified and described by eighteen subscales with Cronbach's alpha levels from .50 to .79. Test-retest coefficients ranged from .68 to .85 (p food intake among parents and young adolescent children.

  1. The Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Substance Use and Risky Sex Behaviors in Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Cynthia; Stoutenberg, Mark; Janowsky, Mariel; Asfour, Lila; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the potential relationships in Hispanic adolescents (n = 575) between substance use and/or risky sexual behaviors and (a) physical activity (PA) and (b) sedentary time and (c) the moderating effect of gender. PA levels and sedentary behaviors were assessed using the PA Questionnaire for Adolescents,…

  2. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation: Links with Family Functioning and Mental Health in Recent-Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Córdova, David; Mason, Craig A.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Lizzi, Karina M.; Szapocznik, José

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine acculturative changes, and their effects on mental health and family functioning, in recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 Hispanic adolescents was assessed five times over a 2½-year period. Participants completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. practices, collectivist and individualist values, and ethnic and U.S. identity at each timepoint. Baseline and Time 5 levels of mental health and family functioning were also assessed. Latent class growth analyses produced two-class solutions for practices, values, and identifications. Adolescents who increased over time in practices and values reported the most adaptive mental health and family functioning. Adolescents who did not change in any acculturation domain reported the least favorable mental health and family functioning. PMID:25644262

  4. Susceptibility to Food Advertisements and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Non-Hispanic Black and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervi, Meredith M; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Dwyer, Laura A; Thai, Chan L; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    Obesity among adolescents in the United States has risen by 16% in the past 30 years. One important contributing factor may be the increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), which is encouraged by advertisements for unhealthy foods and drinks that are targeted to adolescents. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between susceptibility to food and drink advertisements and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescents and to examine if BMI is associated with SSB consumption. Data were obtained from 765 NHB and NHW of ages 14-17 who were surveyed in the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. Two weighted adjusted logistic regression models were conducted. The first examined the associations of advertisement susceptibility, race, and BMI with SSB consumption. The second examined the associations of race and BMI with advertisement susceptibility. Adolescents with high advertisement susceptibility were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21, 2.47). Additionally, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08, 2.85) and more likely to be highly susceptible to advertisements (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48) than non-Hispanic whites. No significant associations were found between BMI and advertising susceptibility or BMI and daily SSB consumption. One approach to addressing the consumption of SSBs may be to reduce advertising that markets unhealthy food and beverages to adolescents and minorities.

  5. Acculturation, sexual behaviors, and health care access among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents and young adults in the United States, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Dittus, Patricia J; Loosier, Penny S; Rhodes, Scott D; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S

    2014-11-01

    To examine national estimates of sexual behaviors and health care access by acculturation among adolescents. Using the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, four acculturation groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites aged 15-24 years were analyzed by sexual behaviors and health care access. In analyses adjusted for demographics, English-speaking immigrants, Hispanic natives, and non-Hispanic white youth were less likely to have a partner age difference of ≥6 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], .28; 95% confidence interval [CI], .13-.60; AOR, .13; 95% CI, .07-.26; AOR, .16; 95% CI, .08-.32, respectively) and more likely to use a condom at the first vaginal sex (AOR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.10-3.61; AOR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.33-3.31; AOR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.53-3.74, respectively) than Spanish-speaking immigrants. Non-Hispanic white youth and Hispanic natives were more likely to have a regular place for medical care (AOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.36-3.16; AOR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.36-5.68, respectively) and a chlamydia test in the past 12 months (AOR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.52-8.60; AOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.32-6.54) than Spanish-speaking immigrants. Interventions to reduce risk and increase health care access are needed for immigrant Hispanic youth, particularly Spanish-speaking immigrants. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Acculturation, Sexual Behaviors, and Health Care Access Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States, 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Loosier, Penny S.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine national estimates of sexual behaviors and health care access by acculturation among adolescents. Methods Using the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth, four acculturation groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites aged 15–24 years were analyzed by sexual behaviors and health care access. Results In analyses adjusted for demographics, English-speaking immigrants, Hispanic natives, and non-Hispanic white youth were less likely to have a partner age difference of ≥6 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], .28; 95% confidence interval [CI], .13–.60; AOR, .13; 95% CI, .07–.26; AOR, .16; 95% CI, .08–.32, respectively) and more likely to use a condom at the first vaginal sex (AOR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.10–3.61; AOR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.33–3.31; AOR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.53–3.74, respectively) than Spanish-speaking immigrants. Non-Hispanic white youth and Hispanic natives were more likely to have a regular place for medical care (AOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.36–3.16; AOR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.36–5.68, respectively) and a chlamydia test in the past 12 months (AOR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.52–8.60; AOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.32–6.54) than Spanish-speaking immigrants. Conclusions Interventions to reduce risk and increase health care access are needed for immigrant Hispanic youth, particularly Spanish-speaking immigrants. PMID:25156896

  7. Why Play Sports? How Organized Sports Participation Can Contribute to the Healthy Development of Adolescent Hispanic Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Horst

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the research question, “What is meaningful to Hispanic girls about their organized sports participation during the first year of high school?” Purposeful sampling (Maxwell, 1996 was used to select 15 9th-grade girls to participate in individual interviews about their organized sport participation. Transcripts were analyzed via inductive coding. Findings showed that organized sports offered Hispanic girls in this sample a venue for healthy youth development, including opportunities for the “5 C’s” – competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring (Lerner, Fisher, & Weinberg, 2000. This article highlights the salience of connection, caring, and competence in adolescent Hispanic girls’ organized sports experiences. Insights from girls’ narratives may help coaches and other educators structure athletic programs to best meet the needs of Hispanic girls during adolescence (AAUW, 1991; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Erkut, Fields, Sing, & Marx, 1996; Gil & Vazquez, 1996; Sadker & Sadker, 1994.

  8. Momentary Assessment of Psychosocial Stressors, Context, and Asthma Symptoms in Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Dzubur, Eldin; Li, Marilyn; Huh, Jimi; Intille, Stephen; McConnell, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a novel real-time data capture strategy, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to examine whether within-day variability in stress and context leads to exacerbations in asthma symptomatology in the everyday lives of ethnic minority adolescents. Low-income Hispanic adolescents (N = 20; 7th-12th grade; 54% male) with chronic asthma completed 7 days of EMA on smartphones, with an average of five assessments per day during non-school time. EMA surveys queried about where (e.g., home, outdoors) and with whom (e.g., alone, with friends) participants were at the time of the prompt. EMA surveys also assessed over the past few hours whether participants had experienced specific stressors (e.g., being teased, arguing with anyone), asthma symptoms (e.g., wheezing, coughing), or used an asthma inhaler. Multilevel models tested the independent relations of specific stressors and context to subsequent asthma symptoms adjusting for age, gender, and chronological day in the study. Being outdoors, experiencing disagreements with parents, teasing, and arguing were associated with more severe self-reported asthma symptoms in the next few hours (ps time data capture strategy, results provide preliminary evidence that being outdoors and experiencing social stressors may induce asthma symptoms in low-income Hispanic children and adolescents with chronic asthma. The results of this preliminary study can serve as a basis for larger epidemiological and intervention studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Acculturation, Social Self-Control, and Substance Use Among Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents’ substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents’ level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents’ extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents’ self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming. PMID:23772765

  10. Comparison of breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among rural and urban Hispanic and American Indian women in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.

  11. Hispanic mothers’ beliefs regarding HPV vaccine series completion in their adolescent daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, A. M.; Ward, K. K.; Carmack, C. C.; Mu�oz, B. T.; Cribbs, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (∼39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers’ salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series. Thirty-two mothers of girls (aged 11–17) that had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine, completed in-depth interviews. Six girls had received one dose of the HPV vaccine, 10 girls had received two doses, and 16 girls had received all three doses. The questions elicited salient: (i) experiential and instrumental attitudes (behavioral beliefs); (ii) supporters and non-supporters (normative beliefs) and (iii) facilitators and barriers (control beliefs). Directed content analysis was employed to select the most salient beliefs. Mothers: (i) expressed salient positive feelings (e.g. good, secure, happy and satisfied); (ii) believed that completing the series resulted in positive effects (e.g. protection, prevention); (iii) believed that the main supporters were themselves, their daughter’s father and doctor with some of their friends not supporting series completion and (iv) believed that vaccine affordability, information, transportation, ease of scheduling and keeping vaccination appointments and taking their daughter’s immunization card to appointments were facilitators. This study represents the first step in building theory-based framework of vaccine series completion for this population. The beliefs identified provide guidance for health care providers and intervention developers. PMID:28088755

  12. Personal and cultural identity development in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca, Alan; Sabet, Raha F; Farrelly, Colleen M; Benitez, Cynthia G; Schwartz, Seth J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Picariello, Simona; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M

    2017-07-01

    This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. The sample consisted of 302 recent (identity coherence and both ethnic and U.S. identity. Ethnic and U.S. affirmation/commitment (A/C) positively and indirectly predicted optimism and negatively predicted rule breaking and aggression through coherence. However, confusion predicted lower self-esteem and optimism and higher depressive symptoms, rule breaking, unprotected sex, and cigarette use. Results further indicated significant site differences. In Los Angeles (but not Miami), ethnic A/C also negatively predicted confusion. Given the direct effects of coherence and confusion on nearly every outcome, it may be beneficial for interventions to target personal identity. However, in contexts such as Los Angeles, which has at least some ambivalence toward recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents, it may be more beneficial for interventions to also target cultural identity to reduce confusion and thus promote positive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-03

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents' risk behaviors.

  14. The impact of a 12-week resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept of Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Amelia; Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2010-04-01

    Current evidence suggests that a resistance training program may be physically and psychologically beneficial for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a structured resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept in normal and overweight Hispanic adolescents. Male and female participants (n = 28; 16.1 +/- 0.2 y; 164.5 +/- 1.4 cm; 63.3 +/- 2.5 kg; 20.0 +/- 1.7% body fat [BF]) were recruited from a predominantly Hispanic high school. Prior to the 12-week program, strength, body composition, and self-concept were assessed. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CON; n = 15) or to a resistance training group (RT; n = 13) that participated in supervised strength training 3 days/week. All measures were repeated at the end of the 12-week program. RT had significantly greater strength increases for bench press (p increased %BF. RT had an increase in condition/stamina competence (p = 0.008), attractive body adequacy (p = 0.017), and global self-worth (p = 0.013) from pretest to posttest, whereas no change was observed for CON. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in significant physiological and psychological improvements in Hispanic adolescents compared to typical school-based activities. These findings indicate that resistance training can be incorporated into the activities of Hispanic adolescents to promote improved health and fitness.

  15. Suicide among urban South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of suicide epidemiology in low- and middle-income settings is important for both well-tailored policies and an increased global understanding of suicide macro-determinants. Adolescents are an important target group in that respect, and those from South Africa are a particular concern, given the additional challenges associated with dramatic political, economic, and health transition. This study presents a profile of adolescent suicide occurrence and sex, race, and city differences. Adolescents aged 10-19 years in post-apartheid urban South Africa. Sex-, race- and city-specific suicide rates were calculated for two age groups (10-14, 15-19 years). Using logistic regression, odds ratios were compiled, first adjusting for age, then additionally for sex, race, and city. Female subjects, those classified as 'coloured' (denoting mixed racial origin), and those living in Tshwane were used as reference groups. Proportions (with 95% confidence intervals) of leading suicide methods were compared. Suicide rates were considerably higher among older adolescents and varied by sex, race, and city. Males had more than twice the odds of committing suicide compared with females. In the fully adjusted model, differences between races were not significant, but city-level differences remained. The leading suicide method was hanging for males and both hanging and poisoning for females. In contemporary urban South Africa, male sex, and city of residence, but not race, were associated with the commission of adolescent suicide, which tends to occur by quite specific methods. The findings warrant research into the possible underlying contextual, demographic, and individual mechanisms.

  16. A Longitudinal Test of the Parent–Adolescent Family Functioning Discrepancy Hypothesis: A Trend toward Increased HIV Risk Behaviors among Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, David; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Meca, Alan; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Oshri, Assaf; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Piña-Watson, Brandy M.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning play an important role in HIV risk behaviors among adolescents, yet longitudinal research with recent immigrant Hispanic families remains limited. This study tested the effects of trajectories of parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies on HIV risk behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Additionally, we examined whether and to what extent trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies vary as a function of gender. We assessed family functioning of 302 Hispanic adolescents (47% female) and their parent (70% female) at six time points over a three-year period and computed latent discrepancy scores between parent and adolescent reports at each timepoint. Additionally, adolescents completed measures of sexual risk behaviors and alcohol use. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the feasibility of collapsing parent and adolescent reported family functioning indicators onto a single latent discrepancy variable, tested model invariance over time, and conducted growth mixture modeling (GMM). GMM yielded a three-class solution for discrepancies: High-Increasing, High-Stable, and Low-Stable. Relative to the Low-Stable class, parent–adolescent dyads in the High-Increasing and High-Stable classes were at greater risk for adolescents reporting sexual debut at time 6. Additionally, the High-Stable class was at greater risk, relative to the Low-Stable class, in terms of adolescent lifetime alcohol use at 30 months post-baseline. Multiple group GMM indicated that trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning trajectories did not vary by gender. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:27216199

  17. Depressive symptoms and indoor tanning among U.S. Hispanic adolescents: Results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Manuel; Blashill, Aaron J

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association between depressive symptoms and indoor tanning among U.S. Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). In the current study, only Hispanic adolescents were included, which yielded a total weighted sample of 2,667 (men: N = 1,368; women: N = 1,299). Gender was also explored as a moderator in the association between depressive symptoms (sadness or hopelessness and suicidality) and indoor tanning. Logistic regressions were used, with past 12 month indoor tanning behavior (0 vs. 1 or more sessions) entered as the dependent variable. Across gender, sadness or hopelessness was associated with increased odds of indoor tanning (OR = 1.8, 95% CI [1.2, 3.0], p = .01); however, gender significantly moderated the association between suicidality and indoor tanning. Simple slope analyses revealed that suicidality was significantly associated with increased odds of indoor tanning only among boys (OR = 4.0, 95% CI [2.1, 7.5], p = .001) whereas a nonsignificant association was found among girls (OR = 0.8, 95% CI [0.4, 1.8], p = .65). Results suggest there is a differential relationship between suicidality and indoor tanning as function of gender among U.S. Hispanic adolescents. Skin cancer prevention programs for Hispanic youth may wish to consider the role of gender and negative affect in targeted campaigns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Companeros: High school students mentor middle school students to address obesity among Hispanic adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promotoras, Hispanic community health workers, are frequently employed to promote health behavioral change with culturally bound Hispanic lifestyle behaviors. Peer health mentors have been used in schools to promote healthy nutrition and physical activity behaviors among students. This study investi...

  19. Life Experiences of Hispanic Adolescents: Developmental and Language Considerations in Acculturation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Cordova, David

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth currently constitute the largest and fastest growing of all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. In addition to normal developmental life stressors, Hispanic youth also face minority status and acculturation-related stress. This study examined the psychosocial and acculturative stressors of Hispanic youth (n=170) residing…

  20. The association of cysteine with obesity, inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Hispanic children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany K Elshorbagy

    Full Text Available Plasma total cysteine (tCys independently relates to fat mass in adults. Dietary cyst(eine promotes adiposity and decreases glucose tolerance in some rodent models, but alleviates insulin resistance in others.To investigate whether the association of tCys with body fat extends to children at particular risk of obesity, and whether tCys is associated with insulin resistance and obesity-associated inflammation.We explored the cross-sectional relations of fasting plasma tCys and related metabolites with body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 984 Hispanic children and adolescents aged 4-19 years from the Viva La Familia Study. Linear and logistic regression and dose-response curves were used to evaluate relations of tCys with obesity, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers including interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and C-reactive protein (CRP.tCys, methionine and total homocysteine (tHcy increased with age. Upper tCys quartile was independently associated with a 5-fold increased risk of obesity (95% CI 3.5-8.0, P<0.001, and 2-fold risk of insulin resistance (95% CI: 1.6-5.0, P<0.001; adjusted for body fat%. Within the overweight/obese subgroup, but not in normal-weight children, tCys accounted for 9% of the variability in body fat% (partial r = 0.30, P<0.001; adjusted for age and gender. tCys correlated positively with serum non-esterified fatty acids and leptin, partly independent of body fat, but was not associated with serum IL-6, TNF-α or MCP-1. A positive correlation with CRP disappeared after adjustment for BMI.tCys is independently associated with obesity and insulin resistance in Hispanic children and adolescents, highlighting a previously underappreciated link between the sulfur amino acid metabolic pathway and obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

  1. Reaching Urban Female Adolescents at Key Points of Sexual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive .... the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned. Action38. ...... World Health Organization.

  2. Environmental literacy of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuth, Amber M.

    With the global crises facing the planet that bring major implications, (Hart & Nolan, 1999; Hungerford & Simmons, 2003) it is imperative that there be an environmentally literate citizenry who can identify, solve, and prevent environmental issues. Since middle school students are evolving into participating citizens and are developing the ability to think in abstract terms, they are a critical group to study regarding levels of environmental literacy. Additionally, with the increased resource needs and decreased air and water quality in highly populated urban areas, focusing on the environmental literacy of students living and attending school in urban areas is essential. The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of environmental literacy of a group of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas. Sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who attend a charter school in Houston, Texas were given, the Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey (MSELS). This survey has been developed to measure components of environmental literacy as related to domains identified critical to environmental literacy (McBeth et al., 2008). The four domains include ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior. Data collected from the survey was used to determine levels of environmental literacy in the following variables: ecological knowledge, verbal commitment, actual commitment, environmental sensitivity, general environmental feelings, and environmental issue and action skills. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed for each grade level and as an entire sample for each variable in order to generate a profile of the group. Composite scores were calculated in the four domains (ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior) and were compared to high, moderate, and low levels of environmental literacy set forth by top environmental education researchers (McBeth et al., 2008). Additionally, two

  3. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding at 4 months postpartum in a sample of urban Hispanic mothers in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ana Maria; Rayens, Mary K; Dozier, Ann; Wiggins, Amanda; Dignan, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Although Hispanic mothers in the United States have slightly higher rates of breastfeeding initiation than the national average, they are more likely to supplement with formula. To describe infant feeding decisions in a sample of 72 urban Hispanic mothers and assess whether demographic and personal factors influence exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 4 months postpartum. The study was longitudinal and included assessments during pregnancy, in the hospital following childbirth, and monthly up to 4 months following birth. Nearly all of the 72 mothers were breastfeeding at discharge after the birth of their infant (94%); half of these were EBF. By 2 months postpartum, the rate of EBF had declined to 26%, dropping to 22% by 4 months. Significant predictors of EBF status at 4 months included the baseline indicator for mother's partner as the most important person in life (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-28.66) and breastfeeding self-efficacy score at 1 month (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34). These findings have particular relevance in this population, given the high rate of breastfeeding initiation coupled with breastfeeding self-efficacy being a modifiable factor. Support during pregnancy and postpartum, including consultation with a lactation consultant, may increase the self-efficacy of EBF in this low-income population, leading to higher rates of extended EBF among Hispanics. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Learning Strategies in the Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boveja, Marsha E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between perceived parenting styles and urban adolescents' learning and studying strategies. Results revealed that those adolescents who perceived their parents as being authoritative tended to engage in more effective learning and study strategies. Discusses implications for counselors and teachers using this information…

  5. Motivating Urban Youth: Honoring the Experiences of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in nearly the last decade has drawn attention to the fact that adolescents often feel disconnected with schooling. Youth are described as bored, unmotivated, uninterested, not listening, and feeling averse to learning. In studies highlighting urban adolescents, feelings of disconnection, disaffection, and despair are noted.…

  6. Reaching urban female adolescents at key points of sexual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban areas include large numbers of adolescents (ages 15-19) and young adults (ages 20-24) who may have unmet sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs. Worldwide, adolescents contribute 11% of births, many of which are in low and middle-income countries. This study uses recently collected longitudinal data ...

  7. Evaluating the Hispanic Paradox in the Context of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior: The Role of Parent Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Hollis C; Callahan, Tiffany; Schmiege, Sarah J; Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, Hispanic adolescents are at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to risky sexual behavior. To evaluate potential protective factors for this group, we examined the fit of the Hispanic Paradox for sexual behavior among high-risk youth and the moderating role of parent monitoring. We enrolled 323 justice-involved Hispanic youth (73% male; mean age 16 years), and measured generational status, parent monitoring (monitoring location, who children spend time with outside of school, family dinner frequency), and sexual risk behavior. There were no main effects for generational status on sexual behavior. Parent monitoring of location moderated the relationship between generational status and sexual behavior, such that greater monitoring of location was associated with less risky sexual behavior, but only for youth second generation and above. Rather than direct evidence supporting the Hispanic Paradox, we found a more nuanced relationship for generational status in this sample. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Correlates of Early Alcohol and Drug Use in Hispanic Adolescents: Examining the Role of ADHD with Comorbid Conduct Disorder, Family, School, and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Barbara; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Wang, Wei; Pantin, Hilda

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of early adolescent alcohol and drug use in a community sample of 217 eighth-grade adolescents with behavior problems and from Hispanic/Latino immigrant families. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships of multiple contexts (e.g., family, school, and peers) to alcohol and drug use. Results…

  9. Examining depressive symptoms and use of counseling in the past year among Filipino and non-Hispanic white adolescents in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Lahiff, Maureen; Ferrer, Rizaldy R; Huffman, Lynne C

    2010-05-01

    We compared measures of depressive symptoms and use of counseling in the past year for Filipino versus non-Hispanic white adolescents in California. This cross-sectional study used data from 4421 adolescents who completed the 2003 and 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Bivariate analyses, linear regression, and logistic regression were performed. Compared to non-Hispanic white adolescents, Filipino adolescents had higher mean 8-item version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores (5.43 vs 3.94) and were more likely to report a clinically significant level of depressive symptoms (defined as 8-item version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score > or = 7) (29.0 vs 17.9%). Filipino adolescents are just as likely as their non-Hispanic white counterparts to report low use of counseling in the past year (17.6 vs 28.4%). Multivariate analyses indicate that depressive symptoms were positively associated with Filipino ethnicity, female gender, living in a single parent household, lower parental education, and poverty. The effect that ethnicity had on use of counseling in the past year varied by gender, income level, and parental education level. Filipino male adolescents with family incomes > or = 300% federal poverty level and parents with more than a college degree were significantly less likely than their non-Hispanic white counterparts to report use of counseling in the past year (odds ratio, 0.01; confidence interval, 0.0004-0.44). Filipino female adolescents with family incomes Filipino adolescents.

  10. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  11. Comparing sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur'aini Nur'aini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disturbances commonly occur in adolescents. Socioeconomic levels, lifestyle, and urban or suburban environments influence the sleep patterns of adolescents. The modernization process in urban environments is marked by the development of information technology media, and the lack of parental monitoring potentially influencing adolescent sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may affect children's physical growth, as well as their emotional, cognitive, and social development. Objective To assess for sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents, and to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of sleep disturbances. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 to 15-year-old junior high school students in urban (n=350 and suburban (n=350 environments in the city of Medan, North Sumatera. The study was undertaken from May to June 2010 using the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children (SDSC, a set of questionnaires. The SDSC was filled out by parents based on what they remembered about their children's sleep patterns in the prior 6 months. Results In the urban group, there were 133 (38.0% subjects with sleep disturbances, 182 (52.0% were borderline, and 35 (10.0% were normal. In the suburban group, there were 132 (37.7% subjects with sleep disturbances, 180 (51.4% were borderline, and 38 (10.9% were normal. The most influential factors for sleep disturbances in urban and suburban youth were environmental noise (P=0.001 and consuming beverages that contain caffeine (P=0.001. There were three types of sleep disorders that significantly found more in urban adolescents: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhidrosis. Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disturbances do not differ between urban and suburban adolescents. Howevet; there are significant differences in the types of sleep disorders experienced. The most influential factors on sleep disturbance in both

  12. A comparison of peer influence measures as predictors of smoking among predominately hispanic/latino high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Fujimoto, Kayo; Soto, Daniel; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Unger, Jennifer B

    2013-03-01

    Consistent evidence has shown that one of the most significant influences on adolescent smoking is peer influence. There is considerable variation, however, in how peer influence is measured. This study constructs social network influence and selection variables from egocentric and sociometric data to compare their associations with smoking, with considerations of perceived smoking norms and adolescent popularity. Longitudinal data were collected in the 9th and 10th grades in October 2006 and 2007 from predominantly Hispanic/Latino adolescents in seven Southern California schools; among these adolescents, 1,950 completed surveys at both waves. Both cross-sectional (separately for 9th and 10th graders) and longitudinal models were estimated. An egocentric measure of perceived friend smoking was strongly and consistently associated with individual smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ≈ 1.80, p peer influence and underscores the importance of perceptions and popularity as mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban Natural Environments, Obesity, and Health-Related Quality of Life among Hispanic Children Living in Inner-City Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam; Sohn, Wonmin

    2016-01-12

    Although a substantial body of literature has provided evidence supporting the positive effects of natural environments on well-being, little has been known about the specific spatial patterns of urban nature in promoting health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children. This study assessed the association that the urban natural environment measured by landscape spatial patterns may have with obesity and HRQOL among Hispanic children. Ninety-two 4th and 5th grade students were recruited from Houston, Texas, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was used to capture the children's HRQOL. The quality of urban natural environments was assessed by quantifying the landscape spatial patterns, using landscape indices generated by Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. From the bivariate analyses, children's body mass index showed a significantly negative association with their HRQOL. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, the results revealed that larger and more tree areas were positively correlated with children's HRQOL. In addition, those children living in areas with tree patches further apart from each other showed higher HRQOL. This research adds to the current multi-disciplinary area of research on environment-health relationships by investigating the roles of urban greeneries and linking their spatial structures with children's HRQOL.

  14. Influence of experiences of racial discrimination and ethnic identity on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Hanh; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian; Tsang, Kathy; Wright, Rosalind J

    2012-04-01

    Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking among minority women exceeds the projected 2010 national objective, data on the determinants of prenatal smoking among minorities remain sparse. We examined associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women aged 18-44 years (n=677). Our main independent variable was created from the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between EOD (moderate EOD as the referent group) and smoking for the entire sample and then separately by race/ethnicity adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We also examined the role of ethnic identity (EI) as a buffer to racial discrimination (n=405). The prevalence of smoking was 18.1% versus 10% for black and Hispanic women, respectively (p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the level of EOD based on race. In multivariate regressions, compared to those reporting moderate EOD, women reporting high discrimination (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.60) had higher odds of smoking. In stratified analyses, this relationship remained significant only in black women. Results suggest that foreign-born Hispanic women with higher EI were less likely to smoke compared to their low-EI counterparts (3.5 vs 10.1%; p=0.08). These are the first data in pregnant minority women showing an association between discrimination and increased risk of smoking particularly among black women. Ethnic identity and nativity status were also associated with smoking risk. Smoking cessation programmes should consider such factors among childbearing minority women.

  15. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11-13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families ( N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation.

  16. The relationship between obesity, hyperglycemia symptoms, and health-related quality of life among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohrer James E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of overweight, hyperglycemia symptoms, Hispanic ethnicity, and language barriers on health-related quality of life (HRQoL among children and adolescents. Methods Parents'/guardians of a population based sample of 5530 children between ages 3 and 18 were administered the parents' version of the KINDL® survey instrument to assess HRQoL in children and adolescents. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships between HRQoL, body mass index, and hyperglycemia symptoms categories. Results The mean age of children was 10.6 (SD = 4.3. The mean KINDL® total score was 79.7 (SD = 11.6 and the mean physical functioning score was 81.9 (SD = 20.3. Male children exhibited better physical health as compared to the female children (p p = 0.008. However, the association was not significant for the four of the six subscales including the physical health domain. Children with hyperglycemia symptoms and a family history of diabetes also had significantly lower overall and physical health HRQoL (p p p = 0.001. Conclusion Results suggest that overweight may reduce overall quality of life among children, though it does not directly influence physical functioning. However, hyperglycemia symptoms may affect both overall health and physical functioning. Findings also suggest the need for developing programs directed at overcoming language barriers that may face Spanish-speaking children or their parents. Furthermore, targeting children who have hyperglycemia symptoms with public information campaigns may be more appropriate than targeting overweight children.

  17. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  18. Domains of Acculturation and their Effects on Substance Use and Sexual Behavior in Recent Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the immigrant paradox by ascertaining the effects of multiple components of acculturation on substance use and sexual behavior among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents primarily from Mexico (35%) and Cuba (31%). A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) from Miami (n = 152) and Los Angeles (n = 150) provided data on Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identifications at baseline and provided reports of cigarette use, alcohol use, sexual activity, and unprotected sex approximately one year later. Results indicated strong gender differences, with the majority of significant findings emerging for boys. Supporting the immigrant paradox (i.e., that becoming oriented toward U.S. culture is predictive of increased health risks), individualist values predicted greater numbers of oral sex partners and unprotected sex occasions for boys. However, contrary to the immigrant paradox, for boys, both U.S. practices and U.S. identification predicted less heavy drinking, fewer oral and vaginal/anal sex partners, and less unprotected vaginal/anal sex. Ethnic identity (identification with one’s heritage culture) predicted greater numbers of sexual partners but negatively predicted unprotected sex. Results indicate a need for multidimensional, multi-domain models of acculturation and suggest that more work is needed to determine the most effective ways to culturally inform prevention programs. PMID:23828449

  19. Weight status and eating habits of adolescent Nigerian urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depression, anxiety, low self-esteem and feelings of guilt.[1-3] Studies have shown ... relation to the eating habits of adolescent urban secondary school girls in Benin City, Nigeria. ..... Malaysian Journal of Nutrition 2006;12:1-10. 25. Shaw ME.

  20. Rap Therapy? An Innovative Approach to Groupwork with Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Alonzo

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study in which young, urban African American adolescents with behavior problems participated in weekly group sessions that used rap music to promote the development of appropriate social skills related to morality, identity, judgement, decision making, anger management, impulse control, and crime and punishment. Overall, student…

  1. Ways to Say No: Refusal Skill Strategies among Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations among adolescents' generated verbal strategies (ie, Simple No, Declarative Statements, Excuse, Alternatives) and underlying nonverbal assertiveness in 2 refusal situations: smoking and shoplifting. Methods: Sixth-grade urban minority students (N = 454) participated in videotaped role-play assessments of peer…

  2. Globalization and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of globalization in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their daily lives due to globalization and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic…

  3. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  4. The Relationship between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms in Urban Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.

    2008-01-01

    Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depres...

  5. Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Andrés G; Wagner, Eric F; Tubman, Jonathan G

    2004-11-01

    This study presents preliminary analyses examining the effects of an alcohol and other drug use (AOD) intervention with minority juvenile offenders. Furthermore, the study investigates the impact of cultural factors on baseline AOD use among Hispanic and African American youth, as well as on treatment outcome. Participants were 213 juvenile offenders referred for treatment (mean age = 15.7 years), 97 of whom have completed treatment to date. The intervention was carried out in clinics placed within the neighborhoods in which the participants resided. Intervention Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) is a controlled clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of a brief motivational, cognitive behavioral intervention, guided self-change (GSC). Participants are assigned randomly to the individual format of guided self-change (I-GSC), the family involved format of guided self-Change (F-GSC), choice of one of these two, or a waiting list control condition. Only participants involved in active intervention are included in the present report. Data were collected via structured face-to-face interviews. Alcohol and marijuana use measures were collected using the Time-line Follow-back interview (TLFB). There were significant reductions in alcohol and marijuana use for all ethnic groups from baseline to post-intervention. Cultural factors (discrimination, acculturation, ethnic pride and cultural mistrust) were associated with pre-intervention levels of alcohol and marijuana use. Among Hispanics, pre-intervention level of substance use were higher among foreign-born than US-born youth. Analyses conducted with the US-born Hispanic group showed that ethnic orientation and ethnic pride were associated positively with greater reductions in alcohol use. The intervention provided through ATTAIN appears to be effective with a multi-ethnic population of juvenile delinquents. Cultural factors, such as ethnic orientation and ethnic mistrust, appear to constitute

  6. Multiple Voices, Multiple Realities: Self-Defined Images of Self among Adolescent Hispanic English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi J.

    2006-01-01

    Acquisition of multiple identities to negotiate new forms of social participation and the concomitant attendant multiple languages and multiple cultures is "sine qua non" to success in English language learning classrooms. This study therefore, investigates how middle school Hispanic students reconceptualize their identities to negotiate…

  7. Urban Adolescents' Postschool Aspirations and Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, David; Saxon, Karyn; Cowell, Molly; Kenny, Maureen E.; Perez-Gualdron, Leyla; Jernigan, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    The young adult years (approximately the age when one leaves high school to age 23) are pivotal to adult life success. They are the years when adolescents typically assume dramatic increases in responsibility for self-direction in areas such as socialization, independent living, citizenship, employment, education, and mental and physical health.…

  8. Perception of Risk of HIV among Adolescents' Living in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Using the Health Belief Model, the study investigated factors influencing perception of risk of. HIV among adolescents ... Keywords: HIV; risk perception; adolescents; urban slum; Ghana. Résumé ..... World Health Organization. "Global health ...

  9. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrigen Kr. Deka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Results: Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%. Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs. The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%, more girls (46% were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001, those with better educated parents (P < 0.000, and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000. Conclusion: Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  10. Using Social Marketing Theory as a Framework for Understanding and Increasing HPV Vaccine Series Completion Among Hispanic Adolescents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Carmack, Chakema C; Muñoz, Becky T; Cano, Miguel A; Cribbs, Felicity

    2017-02-01

    HPV vaccine series completion rates among adolescent Hispanic females and males (~39 and 21 %, respectively) are far below the Healthy People 80 % coverage goal. Completion of the 3-dose vaccine series is critical to reducing the incidence of HPV-associated cancers. This formative study applies social marketing theory to assess the needs and preferences of Hispanic mothers in order to guide the development of interventions to increase HPV vaccine completion. We conducted 51 in-depth interviews with Hispanic mothers of adolescents to identify the key concepts of social marketing theory (i.e., the four P's: product, price, place and promotion). Results suggest that a desire complete the vaccine series, vaccine reminders and preventing illnesses and protecting their children against illnesses and HPV all influence vaccination (product). The majority of Completed mothers did not experience barriers that prevented vaccine series completion and Initiated mothers perceived a lack of health insurance and the cost of the vaccine as potential barriers. Informational barriers were prevalent across both market segments (price). Clinics are important locations for deciding to complete the vaccine series (place). They are the preferred sources to obtain information about the HPV vaccine thus making them ideal locations to deliver intervention messages, followed by television, the child's school and brochures (promotion). Increasing HPV vaccine coverage among Hispanic adolescents will reduce the rates of HPV-associated cancers and the cervical cancer health disparity among Hispanic women. This research can inform the development of an intervention to increase HPV vaccine series completion in this population.

  11. Urban Adolescents Readily Comply with a Complicated Asthma Research Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Adolescents are often cited as having poor rates of compliance with medical regimens and research protocols. We quantified compliance in a cohort of urban adolescents participating in a complex research protocol in which measures were obtained without direct supervision by research personnel. Methods A total of 54 early adolescents ages 10-13 were asked to wear a vest containing a personal air pollutant exposure monitor for two 24-hour periods and to perform daily peak expiratory flow (PEF for six consecutive days. Compliance with wearing the vest was measured by comparing accelerometer data from a device within the vest to one worn continuously on the child's wrist. Daily PEF data were recorded using an electronic meter. Results A priori definition of compliance was met by 85% of the adolescents by wearing the exposure monitoring vest and 72% by performing PEF. Conclusions These findings suggest that early adolescents can be compliant with complex research protocols that are needed to help bridge gaps in pediatric asthma research.

  12. Observed differentials in the levels of selected environmental contaminants among Mexican and other Hispanic American children, adolescents, adults, and senior citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2018-02-01

    Starting with the 2007-2008 cycle, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) also oversampled Hispanics other than Mexicans (OHISP) making it possible to treat OHISP as a separate demographic group along with Mexican Americans (MAs), non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs). Yet, more often than not, OHISP have been merged with MA to form an all-Hispanic demographic group (HISP) thus limiting comparisons between NHW, NHB, and HISP. Consequently, for the first time, this study was undertaken to evaluate differences in the observed levels of selected environmental contaminants between MA and OHISP from five groups of environmental contaminants, namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iodine uptake inhibitors (IUIs), environmental phenols (EPHs), priority pesticides (PPs), and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Data for 2007-2010 from NHANES were used to conduct this study. OHISP children born in USA had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA, and Mexican-born MA adolescents had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA adolescents. USA-born adolescent MA had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born adolescent OHISP, and OHISP adults born in another Spanish-speaking country had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born OHISP adults. USA-born MA adults and seniors had higher levels of selected dichlorophenols than Mexico-born MA adults and seniors, respectively. Females had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites, EPHs, and PPs than males among children, adolescents, adults, and seniors, but the reverse was true for the levels of selected IUIs and PFAAs among adolescents and seniors. Smokers had higher levels of almost all PAH metabolites than non-smokers for adolescents, adults, and seniors. The same was true for urinary thiocynate for adolescents, adults, and seniors. OHISP is a multiracial multiethnic demographic group substantially different from MA with possibly

  13. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E.; Cummings, Amanda A.; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents ("JOVEN"/YOUTH: "Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios"/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate…

  14. Urban Adolescent Students and Technology: Access, Use and Interest in Learning Language and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine; White, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents today have vastly different opportunities to learn and process information via pervasive digital technologies and social media. However, there is scant literature on the impact of these technologies on urban adolescents with lower socioeconomic status. This study of 531 urban students in grades 6-8 used a self-reported survey to…

  15. Hispanic Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 The following hypotheses have been presented regarding suicidal behavior among Hispanics: • Family needs are placed above individual ... the parents and elders is of major importance • Suicidal behavior among Hispanic femails may be related to the ...

  16. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity and bronchodilator response in black and Hispanic children and adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Meghan E; Castellanos, Elizabeth; Thakur, Neeta; Oh, Sam S; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A; Avila, Pedro C; Farber, Harold J; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with poor asthma control, increased asthma morbidity, and decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids. We hypothesized that obesity would be associated with decreased bronchodilator responsiveness in children and adolescents with asthma. In addition, we hypothesized that subjects who were obese and unresponsive to bronchodilator would have worse asthma control and would require more asthma controller medications. In the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE II) and the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study, two identical, parallel, case-control studies of asthma, we examined the association between obesity and bronchodilator response in 2,963 black and Latino subjects enrolled from 2008 to 2013 using multivariable logistic regression. Using bronchodilator responsiveness, we compared asthma symptoms, controller medication usage, and asthma exacerbations between nonobese (< 95th% BMI) and obese (≥ 95th% BMI) subjects. The odds of being bronchodilator unresponsive were 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.49) higher among obese children and adolescents compared with their not obese counterparts after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, recruitment site, baseline lung function (FEV1/FVC), and controller medication. Bronchodilator-unresponsive obese subjects were more likely to report wheezing (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13-1.70), being awakened at night (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.65), using leukotriene receptor inhibitors (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.70), and using inhaled corticosteroid with long-acting β2-agonist (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.78) than were their nonobese counterpart. These associations were not seen in the bronchodilator-responsive group. Obesity is associated with bronchodilator unresponsiveness among black and Latino children and adolescents with asthma. The findings on obesity and bronchodilator unresponsiveness represent a unique opportunity to identify factors affecting asthma

  18. Individuation among bedouin versus urban arab adolescents: ethnic and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-11-01

    Three scales assessing individuation (Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status [OMEIS], Separation-Individuation Test of Adolescence [SITA], and Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale [MIS]) were administered to 40 female and 38 male Bedouin Arab adolescents and to 39 female and 38 male urban Arab adolescents in Grade 12. It was hypothesized that Bedouin Arab adolescents and female adolescents would manifest less individuation than urban Arab adolescents and male adolescents, respectively. Results from the OMEIS revealed that the identity foreclosed mean of the Bedouin adolescents was higher than that of the urban adolescents. As for the SITA, significant differences were found between Bedouin and urban Arabs in terms of dependency denial, separation anxiety, teacher enmeshment, peer enmeshment, and rejection expectancy. Significant gender differences were found in regard to dependency denial, and a borderline difference was found for separation anxiety. Significant effects of ethnicity and gender were found on the financial interconnectedness subscale of the MIS. The results support the present hypotheses concerning ethnicity differences and indicate that urbanization seems to narrow the differences in individuation between male and female adolescents. 2004 APA

  19. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  20. Student and Parental Message Effects on Urban Hispanic-American Students' Intention To Enroll in High School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn Bicknell; Crawley, Frank E.

    This research examined the effects of belief-based messages on the intentions of ninth and tenth grade, Hispanic-American students to enroll in their first elective science course at the pre-college level, chemistry. The design of the study was guided by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1989) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of…

  1. Association between neighborhood safety and overweight status among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Renee M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse. Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students. Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6% of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p p = 0.025. In the fully adjusted model (including grade and school stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among

  2. Ethnicity and acculturation: do they predict weight status in a longitudinal study among Asain, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White early adolescent females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has increased over the past decade. Prevalence rates are disparate among certain racial and ethnic groups. In this study, the relationship between overweight status (> 85th percentile according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

  3. Examining Rural/Urban Differences in Prescription Opioid Misuse Among US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M; Rigg, Khary K

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in prescription opioid misuse (POM) among adolescents in rural, small urban, and large urban areas of the United States and identifies several individual, social, and community risk factors contributing to those differences. We used nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and estimated binary logistic regression and formal mediation models to assess past-year POM among 32,036 adolescents aged 12-17. Among adolescents, 6.8% of rural, 6.0% of small urban, and 5.3% of large urban engaged in past-year POM. Net of multiple risk and protective factors, rural adolescents have 35% greater odds and small urban adolescents have 21% greater odds of past-year POM compared to large urban adolescents. The difference between rural and small urban adolescents was not significant. Criminal activity, lower perceived substance use risk, and greater use of emergency medical treatment partially contribute to higher odds among rural adolescents, but they are also partially buffered by less peer substance use, less illicit drug access, and stronger religious beliefs. Researchers, policy makers, and treatment providers must consider the complex array of individual, social, and community risk and protective factors to understand rural/urban differences in adolescent POM. Potential points of intervention to prevent POM in general and reduce rural disparities include early education about addiction risks, use of family drug courts to link criminal offenders to treatment, and access to nonemergency medical services to reduce rural residents' reliance on emergency departments where opioid prescribing is more likely. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Income inequality within urban settings and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Dunn, Erin C; Gilman, Stephen E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Molnar, Beth E

    2016-10-01

    Although recent evidence has shown that area-level income inequality is related to increased risk for depression among adults, few studies have tested this association among adolescents. We analysed the cross-sectional data from a sample of 1878 adolescents living in 38 neighbourhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. Using multilevel linear regression modelling, we: (1) estimated the association between neighbourhood income inequality and depressive symptoms, (2) tested for cross-level interactions between sex and neighbourhood income inequality and (3) examined neighbourhood social cohesion as a mediator of the relationship between income inequality and depressive symptoms. The association between neighbourhood income inequality and depressive symptoms varied significantly by sex, with girls in higher income inequality neighbourhood reporting higher depressive symptom scores, but not boys. Among girls, a unit increase in Gini Z-score was associated with more depressive symptoms (β=0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.47, p=0.01) adjusting for nativity, neighbourhood income, social cohesion, crime and social disorder. There was no evidence that the association between income inequality and depressive symptoms was due to neighbourhood-level differences in social cohesion. The distribution of incomes within an urban area adversely affects adolescent girls' mental health; future work is needed to understand why, as well as to examine in greater depth the potential consequences of inequality for males, which may have been difficult to detect here. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Differential impacts of social support on mental health: A comparison study of Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and their urban counterparts in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2017-02-01

    The number of internal migrant children in China has reached 35.8 million by the end of 2010. Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings regarding the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, as well as the impact of peer, teacher and parental support on the mental health of Chinese adolescent migrants. Using a comparative approach, this study attempted to compare the mental health status between migrant and urban-born adolescents and to clarify the specific roles of different sources of social support in the mental health of migrant and urban adolescents. A cross-sectional survey using a cluster convenience sampling strategy was performed in Beijing, China. A structured questionnaire was filled out by 368 rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and 325 urban-born adolescents. A significant difference was found only for positive affect (PA) but not for negative affect (NA) between the two groups, favouring the urban-born adolescents. Social support from all the three sources were all predictive of PA among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, while only peer support contributed to PA among urban-born adolescents. Unexpectedly, teachers' support contributed to an increase in NA among urban-born adolescents. The findings contribute to understanding of the mental health status of migrant adolescents in China and the differential impact of the various sources of social support on migrant and urban-born adolescents. Also the findings may inform the development of mental health services and programmes that can potentially benefit a large number of internal migrant adolescents in China.

  6. Changes in the strength of peer influence and cultural factors on substance use initiation between late adolescence and emerging adulthood in a Hispanic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-01-01

    We examine whether peer substance use and cultural factors differentially influence the initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in adolescence and emerging adulthood (EA) among a community-based sample of Hispanics. Participants provided data in 11th grade (M = 16.8 years old, SD = 0.54) and emerging adulthood (M = 20.3 years old, SD = 0.6). Peer tobacco use had a stronger association with initiation of tobacco use in emerging adulthood (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.89) than in adolescence (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.40), but this pattern was not observed with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use. Cultural orientation is associated with initiation of tobacco use during EA but not with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use.

  7. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  8. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Matos, Marcos André de

    2018-01-01

    Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the tota...

  9. Area Deprivation Affects Behavioral Problems of Young Adolescents in Mixed Urban and Rural Areas : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; de Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urbanization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and

  10. Rural and Urban Differences in Sexual Behaviors Among Adolescents in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Mahony, Helen; Noble, Charlotte; Wang, Wei; Ziemba, Robert; Malmi, Markku; Maness, Sarah B; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R; Daley, Ellen M

    2018-04-01

    The national teen birth rate is higher in rural compared to urban areas. While national data suggest rural areas may present higher risk for adverse sexual health outcomes among adolescents, it is unknown whether there are differences within the state of Florida. Overall, Florida has poorer sexual health indicators for adolescents compared to national rates. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in sexual behaviors among Florida adolescents by rural-urban community location. This study includes baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Florida high schools. Of the 6316 participants, 74% were urban and 26% were rural. Participants responded to questions on sexual behaviors, sexual behavior intentions, and demographics. We estimated the effect of rural-urban status on risk outcomes after controlling for demographic variables using generalized linear mixed models. More teens from rural areas reported ever having sex (24.0%) compared to urban teens (19.7%). No significant differences were observed for most of sexual behaviors assessed. Nonetheless, urban participants were less likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to rural participants (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Overall, there were no major differences in sexual behaviors between rural and urban adolescents in Florida. However, sexual intentions differed between rural and urban adolescents; specifically, rural adolescents were more likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to urban adolescents. Understanding the specific disparities can inform contraception and sexual health interventions among rural youth.

  11. Reliability and validity of the Spanish Language Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd Edition) in a sample of American, urban, Spanish-speaking Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Laura; Li, Susan Tinsley; Pliskin, Neil H

    2008-05-01

    The utility of the Spanish WAIS-III was investigated by examining its reliability and validity among 100 Spanish-speaking participants. Results indicated that the internal consistency of the subtests was satisfactory, but inadequate for Letter Number Sequencing. Criterion validity was adequate. Convergent and discriminant validity results were generally similar to the North American normative sample. Paired sample t-tests suggested that the WAIS-III may underestimate ability when compared to the criterion measures that were utilized to assess validity. This study provides support for the use of the Spanish WAIS-III in urban Hispanic populations, but also suggests that caution be used when administering specific subtests, due to the nature of the Latin America alphabet and potential test bias.

  12. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  13. Cultivating the Academic Integrity of Urban Adolescents with Ethical Philosophy Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study considered the effects of ethical philosophy programming at a high-performing, high-poverty urban high school upon the academic integrity of participating adolescents ("n" = 279). Analyses of pre-post survey data revealed that participating adolescents reported significantly higher levels of academic integrity…

  14. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  15. Correlates of Shyness and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Urban and Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differentiation and correlates of shyness and unsociability during early adolescence in urban and rural China. Participants were 93 urban and 229 rural Chinese sixth- to eighth-graders. Students rated their shyness, unsociability, fear of negative evaluation, self-efficacy for peer interactions, and…

  16. Urban Teens: Trauma, Posttraumatic Growth, and Emotional Distress among Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeanette R.; Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Ethier, Kathleen A.

    2006-01-01

    Urban teens face many traumas, with implications for potential growth and distress. This study examined traumatic events, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress over 18 months among urban adolescent girls (N = 328). Objectives were to (a) describe types of traumatic events, (b) determine how type and timing of events relate to profiles of…

  17. Contextual factors influencing leisure physical activity of urbanized indigenous adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Feng-En; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Lee, Ming-Been; Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous populations suffer from disparities in socioeconomic resources and health status. One approach to addressing these disparities is by targeting modifiable risk factors such as leisure physical activity (LPA). This study investigated and compared factors related to LPA among urbanized indigenous and nonindigenous adolescent students. This cross-sectional survey comprised fifth to ninth grade indigenous and nonindigenous students (n = 733). The nonindigenous students were matched with indigenous students on sex and academic achievement and used as a reference group. Data were collected through telephone interviews using structured questionnaires. Major items included: demographic characteristics; average time spent watching television per bout; participation in LPA; and stress and depression experiences. With the exception of the duration of television watching per bout, Chi-square and independent t tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between indigenous and nonindigenous adolescents in the selected LPA-related factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis including terms investigating interaction between ethnicity and the contextual factors included in this study indicated that the following factors were correlated with LPA participation: age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.94], male sex (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.19-2.61), total hours spent watching television in the past 2 weeks (OR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.63-0.99), life satisfaction (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = 1.04-4.90), and exercise enjoyment (OR = 3.40, 95%CI = 1.71-6.74). However, neither indigenous status (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.19-5.79) nor any of the interaction terms reached the significant level. No significant ethnic differences were found in LPA participation. LPA was significantly correlated with age, male sex, total time spent watching television, life satisfaction, and enjoyment of exercise. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-10-01

    The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.

  19. Correlates of overweight and obesity among urban adolescents in Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For better perception of adolescent overweight and obesity as a global public health problem, systematic collection of baseline data is urgently needed in India. Objective: A community-based study was undertaken for better perception of the prevalence and correlates of obesity in an adolescent urban community in Katihar, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among urban adolescents in the eastern part of India to find out prevalence of overweight and obesity and sociodemographic correlates by interview technique followed by clinical examination with ethical consideration. Results: Out of 400 adolescent study participants, 21% were overweight or obese. The study showed that there was a significant association between less consumption of vegetable foods, fruits, meals cooked outside the home, alcohol consumption, yoga practice, socioeconomic status, and the occurrence of overweight/obesity in the adolescents. Conclusions: We attempted to find out the prevalence and risk correlates of overweight and obesity among adolescents and found it quite alarming compared to developed countries. The urban underserved population in India has difficulty to access quality healthcare and not conscious enough to seek healthcare until critically ill. Community-based studies are required to highlight the problem of obesity among urban adolescents by a comprehensive approach.

  20. Talking Circles for Adolescent Girls in an Urban High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Schumacher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Practices (RP in schools is a new and emerging field. Meeting in Circles to build friendships, develop emotional literacy skills, resolve conflict, or learn interactively are some of the core components of these programs. This article describes a 2-year study of 12 weekly Talking Circles organized under the auspices of a RP program in an urban high school with 60 adolescent girls. Primary data sources included 257 hr of participant observations in Talking Circles and individual, semi-structured interviews with 31 students. The Relational Cultural model, rooted in the work of Jean Baker Miller, served as the conceptual framework for understanding teens’ interactions within the Circle’s unique set of social conditions in a school environment. Findings demonstrated that Talking Circles provided a safe space for peers helping peers, and that the girls improved their listening, anger management, and empathic skills, which led to greater self-efficacy. It appears that Talking Circles could provide another venue for developing social-emotional literacy skills and growth-fostering relationships in schools.

  1. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Rai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.

  2. Adolescent deliveries in semi-urban Cameroon: prevalence and adverse neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Agbor, Valirie Ndip

    2017-06-26

    Adolescent pregnancies are high risk due to the increased probability of adverse outcomes; as adolescents are usually considered to be ill-equipped to deal with the burden of pregnancy. We sought to determine the prevalence of adolescent deliveries in a secondary-level care hospital in semi-urban Cameroon-Bamenda, the adverse neonatal outcomes and to assess if previous obstetric history could preclude adolescents from having adverse outcomes in their present pregnancy. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 8.7% (95% CI 7.01-10.73%). The neonates of adolescent mothers were more likely to have severe asphyxia (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2-12.9; p = 0.03) and low birth weight (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.4; p adolescents were just as likely to have complications as multipara adolescents. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries (8.7%) in the Regional Hospital Bamenda is high. Their babies are at a high risk of adverse neonatal outcomes irrespective of their previous obstetric history (previous delivery) emphasising that adolescents are generally ill-prepared to deal with pregnancy. Strategies to reduce the prevalence of adolescent deliveries should be investigated and implemented in view of attaining the sustainable development goals.

  3. Effects of overweight and leisure-time activities on aerobic fitness in urban and rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Jaju, Deepali; Hassan, Mohammed O

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effects of overweight and leisure-time activities on maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) in urban and rural Omani adolescents. A total of 529 (245 males, 284 females) adolescents, aged 15-16 years were randomly selected from segregated urban and rural schools. Maximal aerobic capacity was estimated using the multistage 20-meter shuttle-run test. The body mass index (BMI) of urban boys and girls was significantly higher than that of rural boys and girls. Urban boys and girls spent significantly less weekly hours on sports activities and significantly more weekly hours on TV/computer games than their rural counterpart. Urban boys and girls achieved significantly less VO(2)max than rural boys and girls (44.2 and 33.0 vs. 48.3 and 38.6 mL/kg/min, respectively). Maximal aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with BMI in urban boys. Overweight and inactivity had significant negative effects on cardiorespiratory fitness in urban boys and girls as compared to their rural counterparts. Weight gain in adolescence requires early intervention.

  4. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  5. Video games use patterns and parenteral supervision in a clinical sample of Hispanic adolescents 13-17 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette; Nazario, Lelis L; Gutiérrez, Roberto; González, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Video games have become a popular entertainment among adolescents. Although some video games are educational, there are others with high content of violence and the potential for other harmful effects. Lack of appropriate supervision of video games use during adolescence, a crucial stage of development, may lead to serious behavioral consequences in some adolescents. There is also concern about time spent playing video games and the subsequent neglect of more developmentally appropriate activities, such as completing academic tasks. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess video game use patterns and parental supervision among 55 adolescent patients 13-17 years old (mean age 14.4 years; 56.4% males) and their parents. Parental supervision /monitoring of the adolescents video games use was not consistent and gender related differences were found regarding their video game use. Close to one third (32%) of the participants reported video game playing had interfered with their academic performance. Parents who understood video games rating system were more likely to prohibit their use due to rating. These findings underscore the need for clear and consistently enforced rules and monitoring of video games use by adolescents. Parents need to be educated about the relevance of their supervision, video games content and rating system; so they will decrease time playing and exposure to potentially harmful video games. It also supports the relevance of addressing supervision, gender-based parental supervisory styles, and patterns of video games use in the evaluation and treatment of adolescents.

  6. Knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls in an urban slum, Bijapur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgiri, Rekha; Angadi, M M; Patil, Shailaja; Sorganvi, Vijaya

    2010-08-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period in woman's life. The adolescent girls of today are the mothers of tomorrow in whose hand lie the future of her family, community and the nation. Because of the scarcity of information regarding the problems of adolescent girls, particularly in urban areas, the present study was undertaken to elicit information about the knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. With this objective, a community-based cross-sectional study was done in an urban field practice area of BLDEA's Shri BM Patil Medical College, Bijapur. The study subjects included all adolescent girls who had attained menarche. Data was collected by questionnaire method and analysed. Out of 342 adolescent girls 324 (94.74%) were literate. Only 63 (18.42%) had knowledge about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche and this association was found to be statistically significant. The main source of information about menstruation was mother ie, 195 (57.01%). Nearly 81.58% adolescent girls were lacking knowledge about menstruation prior to menarche, this reflects upon the standard of awareness in the society to such important event and it also leads to negative reaction to menarche.

  7. How urban African American young adolescents spend their time: time budgets for locations, activities, and companionship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R W; Richards, M H; Sims, B; Dworkin, J

    2001-08-01

    The time budgets of a population of youth provide important information about their daily experience and socialization. This study reports data on the time budgets of a sample of 253 urban African American poor to working- and middle-class 5th-8th graders in Chicago. These youth were found to spend less time in school than other postindustrial adolescent populations, but spent no less time doing homework than White suburban U.S. young adolescents. They spent large quantities of time at home and with their families--at rates comparable to rates for young adolescents in a society with collectivist values like India. Unlike with other populations, early adolescence was not associated with major age changes in time allocations. Amount of time in schoolwork did not differ by grade, and amount of time with family did not show the decline with age that has been found for European American suburban adolescents.

  8. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…

  9. Oral and general health behaviours among Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Jiang, Han; Peng, Bin

    2008-01-01

    distributions, regression analyses and factor analyses. RESULTS: Oral health-related behaviours among adolescents were associated with socioeconomic status of parents, school performance and peer relationships. The odds of a dental visit was 0.63 in adolescents of poorly educated parents and the corresponding...

  10. Gender Consciousness among Urban Adolescents in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to find out whether adolescents express their consciousness about the two dimensions of gender (public and private) and to determine the level ofmanifestations of gender consciousness among early and late adolescents. For the purpose of this study, 100(M=56, F=44) were randomly selected from ...

  11. Mother and Adolescent Eating in the Context of Food Insecurity: Findings from Urban Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Lucio, Joanna; Brennhofer, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Anecdotal evidence suggests that parents protect their children from food insecurity and its effects, but few studies have concurrently assessed food insecurity among youth and parents. The purpose of this study was to examine food insecurity and eating behaviors among an urban sample of mother-adolescent dyads. Methods Mother-adolescent dyads (n = 55) were from six public housing sites in Phoenix, Arizona who completed surveys during 2014. Multivariate mixed linear and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between mother and adolescent eating behaviors in the context of food insecurity. Results Food insecurity was prevalent with 65.4% of parents and 43.6% of adolescents reporting food insecurity; 34.5% of parents and 14.5% of adolescents reported very low food security. After adjusting for food insecurity status, parents' and adolescents' fruit, vegetable, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was not associated. However, significant associations were observed between mothers' and adolescents' fast food intake (β = 0.52; p insecurity given the lower prevalence of food insecurity observed among adolescents. Interventions addressing food insecurity among mothers and adolescents may want to capitalize on shared eating patterns and address issues related to binge eating and leverage site-based strengths of public housing.

  12. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity among Urban Black and Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Kerstin; Way, Niobe

    2006-01-01

    The current study modeled developmental trajectories of ethnic identity exploration and affirmation and belonging from middle to late adolescence (ages 15-18) and examined how these trajectories varied according to ethnicity, gender, immigrant status, and perceived level of discrimination. The sample consisted of 135 urban low-income Black and…

  13. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  14. Parent Involvement and Academic Outcomes among Urban Adolescents: Examining the Role of School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…

  15. An Analysis of Family-School Collaboration in Preventing Adolescent Violence in Urban Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C. J. Gerda; Emslie, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people. Empirical evidence indicates…

  16. Information and Communications Technology Acceptance among Malaysian Adolescents in Urban Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halili, Siti Hajar; Sulaiman, Hamidah; Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the information communication and technology (ICT) usage among adolescents in urban poverty and their acceptance of using ICT in teaching and learning (T&L) process. The Technology Acceptance Model was used in determining the acceptance of ICT by focusing on factors such as perceived ease of use and…

  17. Neighborhood disorder, peer network health, and substance use among young urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J; Light, John M; Mennis, Jeremy; Rusby, Julie C; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Zaharakis, Nikola; Way, Thomas; Flay, Brian R

    2017-09-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effect of peer networks on neighborhood disorder's association with substance use in a sample of primarily African American urban adolescents. A convenience sample of 248 adolescents was recruited from urban health care settings and followed for two years, assessing psychological, social, and geographic risk and protective characteristics. A subset of 106 substance using participants were used for the analyses. A moderation model was tested to determine if the influence of neighborhood disorder (percent vacant housing, assault index, percent single parent headed households, percent home owner occupied, percent below poverty line) on substance use was moderated by peer network health (sum of peer risk and protective behaviors). Evidence for hypothesized peer network moderation was supported. A latent growth model found that peer network health is most strongly associated with lower baseline substance use for young adolescents residing in more disordered neighborhoods. Over the course of two years (ages approximately 14-16) this protective effect declines, and the decline is stronger for more disordered neighborhoods. Understanding the longitudinal moderating effects of peer networks within high-risk urban settings is important to the development and testing of contextually sensitive peer-based interventions. suggest that targeting the potential protective qualities of peer networks may be a promising approach for interventions seeking to reduce substance use, particularly among younger urban adolescents living in high-risk neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  19. Ghetto Fabulous: Reading Black Adolescent Femininity in Contemporary Urban Street Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth; Staples, Jeanine; Gibson, Simone

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors provide a general overview of the controversies associated with urban street fiction, a brief introduction to the genre and an introduction to the complex representations of Black adolescent femininity within two contemporary titles, "Black and Ugly" (Styles, 2006) and "Bitch" (King, 2006). The authors provide a…

  20. Acting "Tough" in a "Tough" World: An Examination of Fear among Urban African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Diane M.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    African American adolescents (132 males and 128 females; age M=14.8 years, SD=0.92) enrolled in an urban community social skills development program participated in a study assessing the relationship among perceptions of family and community social support, fear of calamitous events, depression, and anger expression. Expressing fear of calamitous…

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among preparatory school adolescents in Urban Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Talat

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study found a relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents aged 12–15 years in urban Sharkia Governorate. Risk factors of overweight and obesity were low level of parent education, faulty feeding habits and physical inactivity.

  2. Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

    2010-01-01

    Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

  3. Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

  4. Assessment of difference in physical activities in urban and rural adolescents of Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of adolescents who are overweight is one of the most pressing public health problems in India. Aims & Objectives: To find the difference in Physical Activities(PA among urban adolescents to that of rural in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study among high school students using a standard questionnaire (PAQ-A to elicit total hours of PA during the past seven days. Results: Average age of the adolescents was 13.9. We could find 56% boys and 44% girls studying in urban schools and 53.3% boys and 46.6 % girls in rural. Seventy seven percent of the total students do running/jogging as their major PA and 66.6% students do cycling. Only 32.8% students had PA while coming to school every day and it was most common among boys in rural schools (55%. Total PA Score for rural areas was 453.5 with a mean of 3.06(out of 5. For Urban areas, total score was 376.3 with a mean of 2.5 and the difference in proportion was statistically significant. Conclusion: We found that the adolescents studying in the schools of rural areas had better physical activities compared to their urban school counterparts.

  5. Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…

  6. Assessment of difference in physical activities in urban and rural adolescents of Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of adolescents who are overweight is one of the most pressing public health problems in India. Aims & Objectives: To find the difference in Physical Activities(PA among urban adolescents to that of rural in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study among high school students using a standard questionnaire (PAQ-A to elicit total hours of PA during the past seven days. Results: Average age of the adolescents was 13.9. We could find 56% boys and 44% girls studying in urban schools and 53.3% boys and 46.6 % girls in rural. Seventy seven percent of the total students do running/jogging as their major PA and 66.6% students do cycling. Only 32.8% students had PA while coming to school every day and it was most common among boys in rural schools (55%. Total PA Score for rural areas was 453.5 with a mean of 3.06(out of 5. For Urban areas, total score was 376.3 with a mean of 2.5 and the difference in proportion was statistically significant. Conclusion: We found that the adolescents studying in the schools of rural areas had better physical activities compared to their urban school counterparts.

  7. Parental Nurturance and the Mental Health and Parenting of Urban African American Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…

  8. Food Safety Is a Key Determinant of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Urban Beninese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Eunice S.; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Lachat, Carl K.; Dossa, Romain A.; Kolsteren, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in urban Beninese adolescents and elements to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable program. Design: Sixteen focus groups conducted with a key word guide. Setting and Participants: Two private and 2 public secondary schools in Cotonou, Benin. One hundred fifty-three…

  9. Technology Use and Self-Perceptions of English Language Skills among Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine; Jiang, Jingjing; Edwards, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Technology including social media and other technology applications enabled by different technology devices offer many possibilities for second language learners to improve their learning, if they are interested in doing so. We investigated purposes for using technology among urban adolescents, including both English language learners (ELLs) and…

  10. "Spinning Themselves into Poetry": Images of Urban Adolescent Writers in Two Novels for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the educational research and policy literature depicting urban adolescents as reluctant and struggling readers and writers, young people in recent young adult novels claim writing as an efficacious practice for self-discovery and social understanding. Analysis of the images of writers and writing in "Locomotion" and "Call Me Maria"…

  11. Association of Youth and Caregiver Anxiety and Asthma Care Among Urban Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Reigada, Laura C; Lamm, Alexandra; Wang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zandieh, Stephanie O; Klein, Rachel G

    To examine the association of adolescent asthma-related anxiety, social anxiety, separation anxiety, and caregiver asthma-related anxiety with asthma care by urban adolescents. Participants were 386 ethnic minority adolescents (mean age 12.8 years) with persistent asthma and their caregivers. Adolescents reported what they do to prevent asthma symptoms and to manage acute symptoms, and if they or their caregiver is responsible for their asthma care. Adolescents completed the Youth Asthma-Related Anxiety Scale, and the social and separation anxiety subscales of the Screen for Child Anxiety and Emotional Disorders (SCARED); caregivers completed the Parent Asthma-Related Anxiety Scale. Linearity of the associations was assessed by generalized additive models. When there was no evidence for nonlinearity, linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the effects of the predictors. Adolescent asthma-related anxiety had a strong curvilinear relationship with symptom prevention (P Adolescents took more prevention steps as their anxiety increased, with a plateau at moderate anxiety. There was a linear relationship of adolescent asthma-related anxiety to symptom management (β = 0.03, P = .021) and to asthma responsibility (β = 0.11, P = .015), and of caregiver asthma-related anxiety to adolescent symptom prevention (β = 0.04, P = .001). Adolescent social and separation anxiety had weak to no relationship with asthma care. Results remained consistent when controlling for each of the other anxieties. Asthma-related anxiety plays an important, independent role in asthma care. When low, adolescents may benefit from increased support from caregivers and awareness of the consequences of uncontrolled asthma. When elevated, health providers should ensure the adolescents are not assuming responsibility for asthma care prematurely. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Weight status and eating habits of adolescent Nigerian urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of declining levels of physical activity as well as nutrition transition characterised by a trend ... The developmental transition (physical, psychological and social) during ...... status in adolescents over Europe: An overview of current studies in the ...

  13. Gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Sutherland, Melissa A; Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an ecological lens to explore gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. This was a secondary analysis of data from a larger behavioral intervention trial that targeted drinking behaviors among adolescents. Data from a total of 2,560 male and female urban adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 were analyzed for personal, interpersonal, and community exposure to violence and risky sexual behavior. Violence has an impact on sexual risk. For females, carrying a weapon (p= 0.020) and feeling safe in intimate relationships (p= 0.029) were individual correlates of risky sexual behavior, while for males, race/ethnicity (p= 0.019) and being in a physical fight (p= 0.001) were significant correlates of risky sexual behavior. Risky sexual behavior among adolescents may lead to negative reproductive health outcomes. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to affect change in this population through their frequent contact with adolescents in a variety of community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are also well-prepared to identify at-risk adolescents and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Pregnancy, contraception and emergency contraception: the language of urban adolescent young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, C J; Fernando, M; Hayes, K L; Barg, F K

    2012-08-01

    We sought to characterize how a group of urban adolescent females understands the domains of pregnancy, contraception, and emergency contraception (EC). We used the research strategy of freelisting as part of an in-depth interview study. Urban adolescent females presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department. Participants were enrolled using a purposive sampling strategy if they were black, English-speaking females, 15-19 years old, who resided in 1 of 11 zip codes surrounding the hospital. Smith's saliency score. Freelists were analyzed for the entire sample, as well as for subgroups. Thirty adolescents completed the interview. We found that this group of adolescents uses different words to characterize the domains of pregnancy, contraception, and EC. The only overlapping salient term was "abortion," which appeared in the overall lists for pregnancy and EC and in the younger group's list for contraception. In addition, lack of knowledge was cited as an important factor related to contraception. Adolescent patients may not fully understand the concepts of contraception and EC. Providers should consider the potential need to provide an explanation for terms used, and they should consider explicitly differentiating between routine forms of contraception and EC, as well as between EC and abortion. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A 12-Week Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Hepatic Fat Accumulation and Insulin Resistance in Obese, Hispanic Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.; Rodriguez, Luisa M.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities and determinants of oral hygiene status among Urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manu Raj; Tsakos, Georgios; Parmar, Priyanka; Millett, Christopher J; Watt, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    To assess the socioeconomic inequalities in oral hygiene and to explore the role of various socioeconomic and psychosocial factors as determinants of these inequalities among adolescents residing in Delhi National Capital Territory. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1386 adolescents aged 12-15 years from three different socioeconomic groups according to their area of residence (middle-class areas, resettlement colonies and urban slum colonies). Level of oral hygiene was examined clinically using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to measure key socio-demographic variables and psychosocial and health-related behaviours. Logistic regression analysis tested the association between area of residence and poor oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene was observed in 50.2% of the adolescents. There was a socioeconomic gradient in poor oral hygiene, with higher prevalence observed at each level of deprivation. These differences were only partly explained, and the differences between adolescent groups remained statistically significant after adjusting for various demographic variables, standard of living, social capital, social support and health-affecting behaviours (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.30-2.76; and OR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.60-3.92 for adolescents from resettlement colonies and urban slums, respectively, than middle-class adolescents). Area of residence emerged as a strong socioeconomic predictor of prevalence of poor oral hygiene among Indian adolescents. Various material, psychosocial and behavioural factors did not fully explain the observed inequalities in poor oral hygiene among different adolescent groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Contemporary patterns of adolescent sexuality in urban Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, D; Ahmed, G

    2000-10-01

    In Botswana, as in other areas in southern Africa, there is a growing concern about the risks associated with adolescent sexuality. To facilitate the design of policies that can address these problems, it is necessary to gain a thorough understanding of contemporary patterns of adolescent sexual behaviour, and the factors that affect them. This paper examines these issues using data from the 1995 Botswana Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey in conjunction with data from focus group discussions. The results suggest that adolescents become sexually active at an early age, and that many of them, males and females alike, have multiple sex partners. This early sexual initiation implies that adolescent reproductive health programmes should target youths aged 13 or younger. For school-based programmes this implies starting no later than Grade 6 or Standard 1, and preferably earlier. Young males appear to be a particularly vulnerable group that needs further attention. Adolescents perceive that teachers, peers and parents have the largest influence on their reproductive health attitudes. Schools appear to have the most potential for providing reproductive health information, because they reach youths both directly and indirectly by educating their peers. The results also show that male and female sexual behaviour is affected by different factors. Among males, having secondary education strongly increases the odds of being sexually active, presumably because such males make attractive partners. Among females, on the other hand, being in school significantly reduces the odds of being sexually active. This finding is consistent with the policy imposing a one-year school expulsion for pregnant schoolgirls, which was implemented as a deterrent to schoolgirl pregnancy.

  18. Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women It is a common misconception that osteoporosis only ... seizures. Are There Any Special Issues for Hispanic Women Regarding Bone Health? Several studies indicate a number ...

  19. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  20. Goals, beliefs, and concerns of urban caregivers of middle and older adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Krouse, Helene J

    2013-04-01

    Caregiver goals, an integral part of a partnership for asthma management, have been found to influence asthma outcomes in children. These goals are likely to change during the transitional period of adolescence to address the needs of teenagers as they mature and assume greater responsibilities for their own care. Little is known about the goals, beliefs, and concerns of caregivers as they begin to shift responsibilities for asthma management to teens. This study sought to identify the asthma management goals, beliefs, and concerns of primarily African American caregivers of urban middle and older adolescents. Fourteen caregivers of urban African American adolescents aged 14-18 years with asthma participated in a focus group session. An iterative process was used to identify themes from the session related to asthma management goals, concerns, and beliefs of caregivers. Caregivers identified goals that related to supporting their teens' progress toward independent asthma self-management. They described significant concerns related to the teens' ability to implement asthma self-management, especially in school settings. Caregivers also revealed beliefs that represented knowledge deficits related to asthma medications and factors that improved or worsened asthma. Most caregivers identified grave concerns about school policies regarding asthma medication administration and the lack of knowledge and support provided by teachers and staff for their teen. Caregivers are an invaluable resource in the care of adolescents with asthma. An opportunity exists to improve caregiver understanding of asthma medications and to provide support through improvements in asthma care for adolescents in school-based settings.

  1. Early to bed: a study of adaptation among sexually active urban adolescent girls younger than age sixteen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.; Ruchkin, V.; Caminis, A.; Vermeiren, R; Henrich, C.C.; Schwab-Stone, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health

  2. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  3. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe; Pedro T. Pisa; Alison B. Feeley; Titilola M. Pedro; Kathleen Kahn; Shane A. Norris

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...

  4. Residential mobility and trajectories of adiposity among adolescents in urban and non-urban neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Antwan

    2015-04-01

    Using data from the 1994-2008 National Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Add Health), this research examines the relationship between residential mobility and weight gain over time among urban and non-urban young adults. It is theorized that changes in residence act as a barrier to achieving an active lifestyle, which would increase an individual's body mass index (BMI) over time. Relying on linear mixed-effects growth curve models, the results indicate that mobility is protective against weight gain over time after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. For young adults who are residentially stable in urban neighborhoods, increases in physical activity are associated with a linear decline in BMI. In non-urban areas where respondents are residentially mobile, body weight does not fluctuate as sedentary behavior increases. However, in those areas, weight increases as sedentary behavior increases for those who did not move. Overall, the results suggest that the effect of mobility on weight gain is partially due to the kind of health behaviors that one engages in as well as whether or not one lives in an urban area. Policies geared toward relocating residents (such as Moving to Opportunity), and neighborhood processes that can lead individuals to change residences (such as foreclosures or gentrification) may have adverse health effects depending on whether they are occurring in urban or non-urban areas.

  5. UNMET NEED OF SEX EDUCATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN URBAN SLUM AREA: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY

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    Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.

  6. Teen Culture, Technology and Literacy Instruction: Urban Adolescent Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students’ language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of technology on teens, and scant literature is available that incorporates the perspective of urban and linguistically diverse students on the feasibility of applying new technologies in teaching and learning literacy in intact classrooms. This paper reports urban adolescents’ perspectives on the use of technology within teen culture, for learning in general and for literacy instruction in particular. Focus group interviews were conducted among linguistically diverse urban students in grades 6, 7 and 8 in a lower income neighborhood in the Northeastern region of the United States. The major findings of the study were that 1 urban teens primarily and almost exclusively used social media and technology devices for peer socializing, 2 they were interested in using technology to improve their literacy skills, but did not appear to voluntarily or independently integrate technology into learning, and 3 8th graders were considerably more sophisticated in their use of technology and their suggestions for application of technology to literacy learning than 6th and 7th graders. These findings lead to suggestions for developing effective literacy instruction using new technologies.

  7. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14–25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents’ suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim’s classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human De...

  8. Differences in adolescents' physical activity from school-travel between urban and suburban neighbourhoods in Metro Vancouver, Canada

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    Amanda Frazer

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Urban dwelling may facilitate greater school-travel MVPA in adolescents. School-travel MVPA is an important contributor to adolescents' school-day MVPA. Where feasible, physically active options for school-travel should be promoted, including public transit.

  9. Recognizing Internet Addiction: Prevalence and Relationship to Academic Achievement in Adolescents Enrolled in Urban and Rural Greek High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2013-01-01

    This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males,…

  10. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of adolescent asthma in urban Latin America: an ecological analysis

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    Gisel Lorena Fattore

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of asthma is high in urban areas of many Latin-American countries where societies show high levels of inequality and different levels of development. This study aimed to examine the relationship between asthma symptoms prevalence in adolescents living in Latin American urban centers and socioeconomic and environmental determinants measured at the ecological level. Asthma prevalence symptoms were obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC phase III. A hierarchical conceptual framework was defined and the explanatory variables were organized in three levels: distal, intermediate, proximal. Linear regression models weighed by sample size were undertaken between asthma prevalence and the selected variables. Asthma prevalence was positively associated with Gini index, water supply and homicide rate, and inversely associated with the Human Development Index, crowding and adequate sanitation. This study provides evidence of the potential influence of poverty and social inequalities on current wheezing in adolescents in a complex social context like Latin America.

  11. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially-diverse urban youth

    OpenAIRE

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p < .0001), family dinner frequency was positively associa...

  12. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  13. The environment and urban adolescents' use of recreational facilities for physical activity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Amy V; Gittelsohn, Joel; Voorhees, Carolyn C; Roche, Kathleen M; Clifton, Kelly J; Astone, Nan M

    2008-01-01

    Investigate environmental factors influencing the use of recreational facilities for physical activity by urban African-American adolescents. Qualitative in-depth interviews and direct observation. Two public high schools and 24 public recreational facilities in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-eight African-American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Data from 48 in-depth interviews and 26 observations were coded using NVivo software and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Facility use is influenced by characteristics of the physical, social, organizational, and economic environments. Adolescents are attracted to low-cost, well-maintained facilities that offer preferred activities and that are within close proximity to home. Adolescents with limited access to facilities use alternative play spaces, like the streets or vacant lots, where they risk injury from falling or being hit by a car. They are drawn to facilities where they find active adolescents, and they avoid those where young people are engaged in drug or gang activity. Concerns about facility safety largely determine use, particularly for adolescent girls. Previous research points to the importance of increasing facility availability as a means of promoting physical activity, particularly in minority communities in which availability is disproportionately limited. This study shows that, while availability is important, additional facility characteristics should be considered when using environmental change to promote facility use for physical activity.

  14. Physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics among adolescents living in urban or rural areas of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishukaj, Faton; Shalaj, Ismet; Gjaka, Masar; Ademi, Besim; Ahmetxhekaj, Rrustem; Bachl, Norbert; Tschan, Harald; Wessner, Barbara

    2017-09-16

    High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population) and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population) were selected. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were determined from a total of 354 adolescents (216 urban: 14.5 ± 0.4 years, 138 rural: age 14.5 ± 0.4 years) who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study performed in 2013/14. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% in girls and 28.2% in males and excess body fat was detected in 18.2% of the girls and 15.9% of the boys with no differences between rural and urban adolescents. Rural adolescents performed slightly better in relative handgrip strength (+4.7%, p = 0.032) and running speed (10 m: +2.2%, p = 0.012; 20 m: +1.9%, p = 0.035), but no other differences were detected in standing long jump, counter movement jump, cardiorespiratory fitness and sit and reach test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female was associated with a lower relative risk for overweight (RR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03-0.34, p fitness were associated with a higher relative risk for overweight and excess body fat. In contrast, lower handgrip strength increased the risk for experiencing thinness (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.96, p < 0.001). It could be shown that there is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, especially in 14 to 15 year old boys in Kosovo which does not differ between rural and urban areas. Worse physical performance is associated with a higher risk

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Rojas, Gaudi; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Medico endocrinólogo pediatra; Cabello-Morales, Emilio; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Medico endocrinólogo pediatra magíster en Salud Pública; Hernádez-Diaz, Herminio; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico pediatra; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico nefrólogo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the criteria of the WHO and CDC in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study included 1,743 school children of 12 to 17 years of age selected from ten public and private educational institutions, using a randomized and stratified sample of “conglomerados” (neighborhoods). In the selected schools, weight and height were measured. For the diagnosis of ove...

  16. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  17. "Mad Scared" versus "I Was Sad": Emotional expression and response in urban adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Christopher S; Pollastri, Alisha R; Cardemil, Esteban V; Addis, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    Decades of masculinity research have concluded that society places higher demands on males to adhere to norms for low emotional expression; yet, countless studies find that emotional expression is integral to well-being. Unfortunately, this contradiction places boys and men in a tenuous position as they must navigate a bombardment of societal messages about the importance of emotional stoicism and invincibility. For urban adolescents, the situation is more complicated as they encounter environmental stressors that place greater emphasis on projecting a tough façade. Thus, our primary aim was to assess to what degree dyads of close adolescent male friends from urban, low-income neighborhoods are able to engage in emotional expression and response and to explore some of the underlying mechanisms and interpersonal processes. Qualitative findings from our sample suggest that urban boys exhibit a wide range of behaviors when participating in dyadic emotional disclosure and response, including being highly emotionally expressive and supportive in the context of close male friendship. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental influences of sexual risk among urban African American adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L; Sutherland, Melissa A; Hutchinson, M Katherine

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the influence of parental marital status, parent-child sexual communication, parent-child closeness on the HIV-related knowledge, safer-sex intentions, and behaviors of late adolescent urban African American males. The study employed a cross-sectional design with retrospective recall of salient parental influences and behaviors. Data were collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaire from 134 late adolescent African American males, 18 to 22 years of age, recruited from urban communities in and around Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations, paired t tests, and regression modeling. Young men reported greater amounts of sexual communication with mothers than fathers (p fathers (p permissive sexual attitudes (p father-son communication and develop strategies to help parents communicate effectively with sons. Evidence has shown that African American adolescent males are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Understanding the sexual risk communication between African American adolescent males and their parents is important to developing strategies in reducing sexual risk behavior. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.

  20. Utilization of maternal healthcare among adolescent mothers in urban India: evidence from DLHS-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Abhishek; Pranjali, Pragya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low use of maternal healthcare services is one of the reasons why maternal mortality is still considerably high among adolescents mothers in India. To increase the utilization of these services, it is necessary to identify factors that affect service utilization. To our knowledge, no national level study in India has yet examined the issue in the context urban adolescent mothers. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap. Data and Methods. Using information from the third wave of District Level Household Survey (2007-08), we have examined factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among urban Indian married adolescent women (aged 13-19 years) who have given live/still births during last three years preceding the survey. The three outcome variables included in the analyses are 'full antenatal care (ANC)', 'safe delivery' and 'postnatal care within 42 days of delivery'. We have used Chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion and the binary logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on the utilization of maternity care. Results. About 22.9% of mothers have received full ANC, 65.1% of mothers have had at least one postnatal check-up within 42 days of pregnancy. The proportion of mother having a safe delivery, i.e., assisted by skilled personnel, is about 70.5%. Findings indicate that there is considerable amount of variation in use of maternity care by educational attainment, household wealth, religion, parity and region of residence. Receiving full antenatal care is significantly associated with mother's education, religion, caste, household wealth, parity, exposure to healthcare messages and region of residence. Mother's education, full antenatal care, parity, household wealth, religion and region of residence are also statistically significant in case of safe delivery. The use of postnatal care is associated with household wealth, woman's education, full antenatal care, safe

  1. Utilization of maternal healthcare among adolescent mothers in urban India: evidence from DLHS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low use of maternal healthcare services is one of the reasons why maternal mortality is still considerably high among adolescents mothers in India. To increase the utilization of these services, it is necessary to identify factors that affect service utilization. To our knowledge, no national level study in India has yet examined the issue in the context urban adolescent mothers. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap.Data and Methods. Using information from the third wave of District Level Household Survey (2007–08, we have examined factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among urban Indian married adolescent women (aged 13–19 years who have given live/still births during last three years preceding the survey. The three outcome variables included in the analyses are ‘full antenatal care (ANC’, ‘safe delivery’ and ‘postnatal care within 42 days of delivery’. We have used Chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion and the binary logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on the utilization of maternity care.Results. About 22.9% of mothers have received full ANC, 65.1% of mothers have had at least one postnatal check-up within 42 days of pregnancy. The proportion of mother having a safe delivery, i.e., assisted by skilled personnel, is about 70.5%. Findings indicate that there is considerable amount of variation in use of maternity care by educational attainment, household wealth, religion, parity and region of residence. Receiving full antenatal care is significantly associated with mother’s education, religion, caste, household wealth, parity, exposure to healthcare messages and region of residence. Mother’s education, full antenatal care, parity, household wealth, religion and region of residence are also statistically significant in case of safe delivery. The use of postnatal care is associated with household wealth, woman

  2. Role of urbanization and air pollution in adolescent asthma: a mass screening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R S; Sung, F C; Huang, S L; Gou, Y L; Ko, Y C; Gou, H W; Shaw, C K

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma in school children in Taiwan is increasing. This study used mass screening among middle school children in Taiwan to determine the prevalence of asthma and related factors. Data were collected from parents using a self-reported questionnaire and from children using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video questionnaire. Six study teams conducted the survey nationwide in 1995-1996, with the assistance of middle school nurses and teachers. Among the 1,018,031 students at 795 middle schools who returned questionnaires, 8.5% had a history of asthma (ranging in prevalence from 4.2% to 13% in 25 areas). The prevalence of asthma was higher in boys than in girls (10.0% vs 7%) and was highest in more urbanized areas (11.2%), followed by moderately urbanized areas (7.4%) and less urbanized and rural areas (6.5%). Controlling for age, family smoking, family incense burning, and parental education level, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that children living in an area with heavy air pollution were more likely to have asthma than those in an area with no or light pollution (odds ratio, OR = 2.01 and 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.94-2.09 based on parental ranking of pollution level, or OR = 1.30 and 95% CI = 1.18-1.42 based on pollution level reported by the Environmental Protection Administration). Adolescent asthma in Taiwan is most prevalent in the most urbanized areas and decreases in prevalence in less urbanized areas. This study also found that higher parental education level and higher area air pollution were associated with higher adolescent asthma prevalence.

  3. Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage and Dating Violence among Urban Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Neighborhood Social Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  4. Emerging changes in reproductive behaviour among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2006-05-01

    Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives.

  5. Hispanic and Immigrant Paradoxes in U.S. Breast Cancer Mortality: Impact of Neighborhood Poverty and Hispanic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi L. Pruitt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the Hispanic and Immigrant Paradoxes—i.e., survival advantages despite a worse risk factor profile—and the modifying role of neighborhood context, we examined associations between patient ethnicity, birthplace, neighborhood Hispanic density and neighborhood poverty among 166,254 female breast cancer patients diagnosed 1995–2009 in Texas, U.S. Of all, 79.9% were non-Hispanic White, 15.8% Hispanic U.S.-born, and 4.2% Hispanic foreign-born. We imputed birthplace for the 60.7% of Hispanics missing birthplace data using multiple imputation. Shared frailty Cox proportional hazard models (patients nested within census tracts adjusted for age, diagnosis year, stage, grade, histology, urban/rural residence, and local mammography capacity. Whites (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Foreign-born (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Living in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods was generally associated with increased mortality, although associations differed slightly in magnitude and significance by ethnicity, birthplace, and neighborhood poverty. We found no evidence of an Immigrant Paradox and some evidence of a Hispanic Paradox where protective effects were limited to U.S.-born Hispanics. Contrary to prior studies, foreign birthplace and residence in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods were associated with increased mortality. More research on intersections between ethnicity, birthplace and neighborhood context are needed.

  6. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the total participants (n=105, 27.6% (95CI 20.0-36.9% had used illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, LSD and inhalants. The consumption of these substances was associated with male gender, use of body piercing and/or tattoos, licit drug use and self-report of signs and/or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion: High prevalence of illicit drug use was found in the individuals investigated, ratifying the presence of risk factors to the vulnerability of the settlers to use these substances in the urban settlement population.

  7. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Matos, Marcos André de

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Of the total participants (n=105), 27.6% (95CI 20.0-36.9%) had used illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, LSD and inhalants. The consumption of these substances was associated with male gender, use of body piercing and/or tattoos, licit drug use and self-report of signs and/or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. High prevalence of illicit drug use was found in the individuals investigated, ratifying the presence of risk factors to the vulnerability of the settlers to use these substances in the urban settlement population.

  8. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Shandong, China: Urban-Rural Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The pattern of urban-rural disparity in childhood obesity varies across countries. The present study examined the change trend of urban-rural disparity in childhood overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from four cross-sectional surveys of school children carried out in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2014 in Shandong Province, China. In this study, 39 943 students aged 7-18 years were included (14 458 in 1985, 7198 in 1995, 8568 in 2005 and 9719 in 2014). Height and weight of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) was calculated from their height and weight. The BMI cutoff points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was increasing continuously both in urban and rural areas over the past 29 years (1985-2014). The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was significantly higher in urban than in rural children and adolescents in 1985, 1995 and 2005 (p overweight and obesity was observed in rural areas after 2005; as a result, the urban-rural disparity was getting narrower, and no significant urban-rural disparity was observed in 2014 (p > 0.05). The change trend of urban-rural disparity should be concerned in the future; policies and interventions focused on childhood overweight and obesity should pay attention to rural areas. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

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    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  10. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Urban Versus Rural Areas of the United States: The Influence of Tobacco Control Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Robarts, Adam M T

    2017-07-01

    Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use. This study analyzes repeated cross-sectional data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey for the years 2011-2014. We estimate the associations between rural residence, cigarette taxes, tobacco advertisement exposure, and ease of access to tobacco with six tobacco use outcomes: current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, multiple tobacco products, and any tobacco. E-cigarette use among urban youths aged 11-17 years in the United States increased from .82% in 2011 to 8.62% in 2014 (p e-cigarettes. Our predictors account for approximately 40% of the difference in urban-rural cigarette use. Sociodemographics, cigarette taxes, and tobacco advertisement exposure are significant predictors of adolescent tobacco use in the United States but do not entirely explain urban-rural disparities. In addition, e-cigarettes appear to be rapidly changing traditional patterns of tobacco use, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A picture of Indian adolescent mental health: an analysis from three urban secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Katelyn N G; Gren, Lisa H; Long, Paul M; Jaggi, Rachel; Banik, Srabani; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L

    2017-08-01

    Purpose Mental health disorders are a pressing issue among adolescents around the world, including in India. A better understanding of the factors related to poor mental health will allow for more effective and targeted interventions for Indian adolescents. Methods The Indian Adolescent Health Questionnaire (IAHQ), a validated questionnaire designed specifically for use in schools, was administered to approximately 1500 secondary students in three private urban Indian schools in 2012. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) module assessed mental health. Linear regression was used to predict SDQ scores. The biopsychosocial framework was used as an organizing framework to understand how each explanatory variable in the final model might impact the SDQ score. Results One thousand four hundred and eight students returned IAHQ surveys (93.9% response rate); 1102 students completed questions for inclusion in the regression model (78.3% inclusion rate). Statistically significant (p health, negative peer pressure, insults from peers, kindness of peers, feeling safe at home, at school, or with friends, and grades. Discussion Schools have a role to play in improving adolescent mental health. Many of the significant variables in our study can be addressed in the school environment through school-wide, long-term programs utilizing teachers and lay counselors. The IAHQ and SDQ can be used by schools to identify factors that contribute to poor mental health among students and then develop targeted programs to support improved mental health.

  12. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru

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    Bimala Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors.

  13. Patterns, Characteristics, and Correlates of Adolescent Bully-Victims in Urban Tanzania

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    Benjamin A. Kamala

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is an understudied issue of public health importance in low-income countries. In the present study, we aimed to explore social and demographic factors associated with bullying among adolescents in a low-income country urban setting. We divided a sample of 2,154 school-attending adolescents into two groups, those who had been bullied during a 30-day period and those who were not. We considered age, sex, mental health, parent-relationship, hunger and social deprivation and truancy in our comparison of these two groups using logistic regression. Multinomial regression was also used to determine if there was a dose response relationship between bullying frequency and the aforementioned selected variables. We found that school-attending adolescents in Dar es Salaam were more likely to be truant, suffer from mental health problems and have experienced hunger. Adolescents who had parents which were more aware of their free time activities, were less likely to report being bullied. There were also significant differences in bullying frequency and certain variables, most notably with truancy, economic and social deprivation, and signs of depression. School settings in Dar es Salaam offer a potential for intervening in what are potentially harmful effects of bullying behavior among bully victims.

  14. Condom use: the reality of adolescents and young adults from an urban settlement

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    Brenda Kelly Gonçalves Nunes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the use of male condoms in adolescents and young adults from urban settlement areas in a city of central-western Brazil. This is a cross-sectional investigation with 105 adolescents and young students aged 12 to 24 years, which used a structured questionnaire. Of the total number of interviewees, 61 (58.1% had started their sexual life; of these, only 38.3% reported regular condom use. Education over six years (p=0.02, access to sexuality information with parents (p=0.05 and at school (p=0.04 were factors associated with condom use. The results confirm the importance of investing in health policies that invest in working together among healthcare professionals, families and educational institutions, in order to minimize the vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Infections.

  15. The psychological world of adolescence: a comparative evaluation between rural and urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoundiyal, Manju; Venkatesh, Renuka

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to get an insight into the psychological world of adolescence and to study the influence of locality and school-going activity on it. The study group comprised of 240 girls in the age group 12-18 years equally representing urban and rural areas. Using two psychological tests, namely Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire and Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory, the results revealed that two-third of them were in the problematic and borderline category as per SDQ and one-third as per PedsQL. Further, there was a definite linear relationship between the total problem score of both scales. This was irrespective of the locale and school-going activity. The results indicate the need for building psychological infrastructure into the social system to help adolescents girls grow to their potential.

  16. The psychological world of adolescence: A comparative evaluation between rural and urban girls

    OpenAIRE

    Dhoundiyal Manju; Venkatesh Renuka

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to get an insight into the psychological world of adolescence and to study the influence of locality and school-going activity on it. The study group comprised of 240 girls in the age group 12–18 years equally representing urban and rural areas. Using two psychological tests, namely Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire and Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory, the results revealed that two-third of them were in the problematic and borderline categor...

  17. [Nutritional evaluation, micronutrient deficiencies and anemia among female adolescents in an urban and a rural zone from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Pablo; Leal, Jorymar; Amaya, Daysi; Chávez, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Female adolescents in reproductive age are a susceptible group to anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to know the nutritional, anthropometric and dietetic status, the prevalence of anemia, depletion of iron deposits (FeD) and Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in female adolescents. Seventy-eight not pregnant female adolescents (15.9 +/- 1.1 years old), from an urban and a periurban zone of Maracaibo, and a rural zone near this city, without infectious and inflammatory processes, were analyzed. Anemia in adolescents was considered when Hb zone showed significant lower values of weight (p = 0.0024), height (p = 0.0027), body mass index BMI (p = 0.0487), fatty area (p = 0.0183), MCV (p = 0.0241), MCH (p = 0.0488), MHCC (p = 0.0228), and the highest prevalence of anemia (66.67%), anemia+FeD (33.33%), and anemia+FeD+RVAD (5.56%), with respect to adolescents from the urban zone. Although, anemic adolescents from the rural zone showed a non significant decrease of the iron percentage adjustment. Iron requirements are increased during adolescence, reaching a maximum at the peak of growth and remaining almost as high in girls after menarche, to replace menstrual losses. The low iron status among adolescents from the rural zone determine that this is a high risk group to anemia and FeD and they require prevention, control and suplementation strategies.

  18. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population ar...

  19. Winter birth, urbanicity and immigrant status predict psychometric schizotypy dimensions in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimarakis, D; Roumeliotaki, T; Roussos, P; Giakoumaki, S G; Bitsios, P

    2018-01-01

    Urbanicity, immigration and winter-birth are stable epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia, but their relationship to schizotypy is unknown. This is a first examination of the association of these epidemiological risk factors with positive schizotypy, in nonclinical adolescents, controlling for a range of potential and known confounders. We collected socio-demographics, life-style, family and school circumstances, positive schizotypy dimensions and other personality traits from 445 high school pupils (192 males, 158 immigrants) from 9 municipalities in Athens and Heraklion, Greece, which covered a range of host population and migrant densities. Using multivariate hierarchical linear regressions models, we estimated the association of schizotypy dimensions with: (1) demographics of a priori interest (winter-birth, immigrant status, urban characteristics), including family financial and mental health status; (2) factors resulting from principal component analysis (PCA) of the demographic and personal data; (3) factors resulting from PCA of the personality questionnaires. Adolescent women scored higher on schizotypy than men. High anxiety/neuroticism was the most consistent and significant predictor of all schizotypy dimensions in both sexes. In the fully adjusted models, urbanicity predicted magical thinking and unusual experiences in women, while winter-birth and immigration predicted paranoid ideation and unusual experiences respectively in men. These results support the continuum hypothesis and offer potential insights in the nature of risk conferred by winter-birth, urbanicity and immigration and the nature of important sex differences. Controlling for a wide range of potential confounding factors increases the robustness of these results and confidence that these were not spurious associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  1. Physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics among adolescents living in urban or rural areas of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faton Tishukaj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Methods Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population were selected. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were determined from a total of 354 adolescents (216 urban: 14.5 ± 0.4 years, 138 rural: age 14.5 ± 0.4 years who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study performed in 2013/14. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% in girls and 28.2% in males and excess body fat was detected in 18.2% of the girls and 15.9% of the boys with no differences between rural and urban adolescents. Rural adolescents performed slightly better in relative handgrip strength (+4.7%, p = 0.032 and running speed (10 m: +2.2%, p = 0.012; 20 m: +1.9%, p = 0.035, but no other differences were detected in standing long jump, counter movement jump, cardiorespiratory fitness and sit and reach test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female was associated with a lower relative risk for overweight (RR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.34, p < 0.001 and high body fat content (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05–0.56, p < 0.001. In addition, higher handgrip strength, longer sprinting time and lower aerobic fitness were associated with a higher relative risk for overweight and excess body fat. In contrast, lower handgrip strength increased the risk for experiencing thinness (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89–0.96, p < 0.001. Conclusions It could be

  2. Assessment of an Integrated Nutrition Communication Approach to Educate the School-Going Adolescent Girls Living in Urban Slums of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. Raghunatha; Vijayapushpam, T.; Rao, N. Amulya; Dube, Anilkumar; Venkaiah, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Consumption of right diet during the adolescent phase is a critical issue among the adolescent population as their eating behavior is significantly influenced by the peers. Therefore, a study was carried out to educate the school-going adolescent girls living in urban slums of Hyderabad, Telangana, India on right nutrition. Methods: The…

  3. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

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    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  4. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  5. Psychosocial factors influencing the frequency of fast-food consumption among urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Aragón, M Catalina; Herrera-Raven, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that influence fast-food consumption in urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents. A self-administered questionnaire designed for the study asked about sociodemographic information, frequency of fast-food consumption, meaning of "fast food," location of purchase, and psychosocial correlates. Five psychosocial factors were extracted by using principal components analysis with Varimax rotation method and eigenvalues. Descriptive statistics and a hierarchical linear regression model were used to predict the frequency of fast-food consumption. Responses from 400 adolescents (ages 12-17 y) reveal that daily consumption of fast food was 1.8 times more frequently mentioned by rural adolescents compared with urban youth. Urban and rural differences were found in the way adolescents classified fast foods (rural adolescents included more traditional foods like chips, sandwiches, and Casado-a dish consisting of rice, black beans, plantains, salad, and a meat), and in purchasing locations (rural adolescents identified neighborhood convenience stores as fast-food restaurants). Living in rural areas, convenience and availability of foods, and the presence of external loci of control were predictors of a higher frequency of fast-food consumption, whereas health awareness predicted a lower frequency. The development of interventions to reduce fast-food consumption in Costa Rican adolescents should consider not only convenience, but also the availability of these foods where adolescents are more exposed, particularly in rural areas. Interventions such as improving the convenience of healthy fast foods available in school canteens and neighborhood stores, policies to increase the price of unhealthy fast food, and activities to provide adolescents with the skills to increase self-efficacy and reduce the effect of external loci of control are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Residential mobility, socioeconomic context and body mass index in a cohort of urban South African adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Carren; Griffiths, Paula L.; Richter, Linda M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who are changing residence, as well as their social and economic circumstances may experience lifestyle changes that have an effect on body composition outcomes such as undernutrition, overweight or obesity. This paper uses data from Birth to Twenty, a birth cohort of South African urban children, to determine the relationship between residential mobility and body mass index (BMI) amongst Black adolescents aged 15 (n=1613), and to examine the role of changes in household socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the sample was 25% in females and 8% in males. Amongst the females, a strong positive association between residential mobility and BMI was observed for those who also experienced an increase in household SES between birth and 15 years (β=0.42, SE=0.13), while no effect was identified for males. The study shows the potential for environmental change and increased resources to influence the risk for obesity. It also highlights the value in considering the range of social environmental factors and changes across the early life course that might play a part in evolving nutritional patterns in urban transitioning environments. PMID:23211581

  7. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  8. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially-diverse urban youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p family dinner frequency was positively associated with adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores over time (p families with teenagers may enhance parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. Additionally, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of 6th grade may be protective through 8th grade. PMID:20545399

  9. Dietary Intake Patterns of Low-Income Urban African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Youfa; Jahns, Lisa; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Xie, Bin; Rockett, Helaine; Liang, Huifang; Johnson, LuAnn

    2010-01-01

    Studies have indicated that family meals may be a protective factor for childhood obesity; however, limited evidence is available in children with different racial, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine family meal frequency (FMF) as a protective factor for obesity in a US-based sample of non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic children aged 6 to 11, and to identify individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors that moderate thi...

  10. Dietary intake, physical activities and nutritional status of adolescent girls in an urban population of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbas Mohammad Kurshed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, under-nutrition is a common health problem, but for socio-cultural background, it is most predominant among the female population starting from their early life to motherhood. For the adolescent girls, there has been no such study though they will be the future mothers. Therefore, this study is designed to address the lifestyle and nutrition of the Bangladeshi female adolescents. The study was conducted purposively in Dhaka selecting randomly 15 of 95 City corporation wards of Dhaka City. All adolescent girls aged 10–18 years were considered eligible participants of an urban population of Bangladesh. The study included socio-demographic information, clinical examination, dietary intake, physical activities and body mass index (BMI = weight in kg / height in m. sq.. Overall, 352 adolescent girls volunteered. Socio-economically, 51% of them had monthly family income ³ 20,000 BDT and 11.4% had <10,000 BDT. Of the participants, 14.8% had BMI <18.5, 80.7% had 18.5 – 24.9, and 4.6% had ³ 25. BMI was found not to have significant association with physical activities. No clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency were observed. On clinical examination 75% of the participants were found healthy, 15.9% had anemia and 5.7% had diarrhea. Compared with the national dietary intake, the cereal intake was lower but protein containing foods like pulse and nuts, meat, egg, fish, milk and milk products were found very much close to the national intake. On the average, 95 % of calorie, 93.5 % of protein and 96.5 % of fat requirement were met. For micronutrient requirement, very low intake was observed with calcium (62 % and iron (63 %. In conclusion, the participants consumed rice daily with frequent consumption of vegetables. Although the study subjects were mostly from higher class of urban dwellers their dietary intake was found not healthy as evidenced by daily rice intake and very low intake of fruits, calcium and iron indicating lack of

  11. Stability of maternal depressive symptoms among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-04-01

    Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions and experiences of adolescents, parents and school administrators regarding adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues in urban and rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Banura, Cecily; Mugooda, Herbert; Kwesiga, Doris; Bastien, Sheri; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2015-11-30

    Evidence suggests that in spite of some adolescents being sexually active, many parents do not discuss sex-related issues with them due to lack of age-appropriate respectful vocabulary and skills. The likelihood of parent-adolescent communication improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes appears plausible. The desire to understand parent-adolescent communication and how to improve it for promotion of healthy sexual behaviours inspired this research. The paper is meant to describe perceptions of adolescents, parents and school administrators about parent-adolescent communication on sexual issues; describe the content of such communication and identify factors that influence this communication. The study was done among two urban and two rural secondary school students in their second year of education. Data were collected from 11 focus group discussions and 10 key Informants Interviews. Data management, analysis and interpretation followed thematic analysis principles. Illuminating verbatim quotations are used to illustrate findings. Parental warmth and acceptability of children was perceived by parents to be foundational for a healthy adolescent- parent communication. Perceptions of adolescents tended to point to more open and frequent communication with mothers than fathers and to cordial relationships with mothers. Fathers were perceived by adolescents to be strict, intimidating, unapproachable and unavailable. While adolescents tended to generally discuss sexual issues with mothers, male adolescents communicated less with anyone on sex, relationships and condoms. Much of the parent-adolescent communication was perceived to focus on sexually transmitted infections and body changes. Discussions of sex and dating with adolescents were perceived to be rare. Common triggers of sexuality discussions with female adolescents were; onset of menstruation and perceived abortion in the neighbourhood. Discussion with male adolescents, if it occurred was perceived to

  13. El Embarazo Precoz: Childbearing among Hispanic Teenagers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, Katherine

    Adolescent pregnancy in the Hispanic community warrants attention both because it has been underresearched and because its consequences may be particularly dramatic. In addition to economic disadvantage, Hispanic adolescents in the United States must contend with conflicting messages from two cultures regarding standards of sexuality, timing of…

  14. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  15. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are

  16. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Sabina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on

  17. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2011-12-16

    In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women's human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on 'universal human rights' are often removed from the reality of adolescent women's everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women's understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and 'rights' exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married

  18. Relational aggression and adverse psychosocial and physical health symptoms among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Fredland, Nina; Han, Hae-Ra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Kub, Joan E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relational aggression and its relationship with adverse psychosocial and physical health symptoms among urban, African American youth. Quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. The sample consisted of 185 predominantly African American (95.1%) seventh-grade students (mean age: 13.0; female: 58%) attending 4 urban middle schools. The Children's Social Behavior Scale and Social Experience Questionnaire were used to measure relational aggression and relational victimization. The Pediatric Symptom Checklist was used to assess psychosocial difficulties, including internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and attention problems. Physical health symptoms were measured with questions about colds/flu, headaches, and stomach aches. 2-way multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences in externalizing behavior, with perpetrators reporting higher levels than nonperpetrators. Victims reported more internalizing behavior than nonvictims; however, this was only significant for males. For females, significant negative effects on health outcomes were found, resulting from the interaction of perpetration and victimization. Findings suggest that relational aggression is a common occurrence among urban, minority adolescents and may result in adverse health outcomes. These results provide several avenues for future research and implications for healthcare practice. Intervention strategies are needed to prevent relational aggression and continual or subsequent adverse health symptoms.

  19. Socio-economic status and urbanization are linked to snacks and obesity in adolescents in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene

    2011-12-01

    To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.

  20. Early to Bed: A Study of Adaptation among Sexually Active Urban Adolescent Girls Younger than Age Sixteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…

  1. Randomized Trial Outcomes of a TTM-Tailored Condom Use and Smoking Intervention in Urban Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…

  2. Gender-Specific HIV Prevention with Urban Early-Adolescent Girls: Outcomes of the Keepin' It Safe Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of Keepin' It Safe, a theory-based, gender-specific, CD-ROM-mediated HIV prevention program for urban, early adolescent girls. Intervention effects were examined in a randomized, pretest-posttest wait-list control-group design. Changes in HIV/AIDS knowledge, protective attitudes, and skills for reducing HIV…

  3. School Engagement among Urban Adolescents of Color: Does Perception of Social Support and Neighborhood Safety Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P.; Shin, Richard Q.; Thakral, Charu; Selders, Michael; Vera, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of risk factors (perceived neighborhood crime/delinquency problems, neighborhood incivilities) and protective factors (teacher support, family support, peer support) on the school engagement of 123 urban adolescents of color. Age and gender were also examined to determine if different ages (younger or older)…

  4. Impact of Witnessing Violence on Growth Curves for Problem Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies used latent growth-curve analysis to examine the relation between witnessing violence and changes in problem behaviors (drug use, aggression, and delinquency) and attitudes during early adolescence. In Study 1, six waves of data covering 6th to 8th grades were collected from 731 students in urban schools serving mostly African-American…

  5. Uncovering and responding to needs for sexual and reproductive health care among poor urban female adolescents in Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Segura, Z.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To meet the needs of female adolescents from low-income urban areas for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, vouchers providing free-of-charge access to SRH care at 19 primary care clinics were distributed in Managua, Nicaragua. These vouchers substantially increased the use of

  6. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  7. “Without Porn…I Wouldn’t Know Half The Things I Know Now”: A Qualitative Study of Pornography Use Among a Sample Of Urban, Low-Income, Black and Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson

    2014-01-01

    Information about pornography-viewing habits of urban, low income, youth of color in the U.S. is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16-18 year old urban-residing, low income, Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching, where, and for what purpose?; (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors?; and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (a) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse, but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (b) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (c) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (d) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (e) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youths’ use of pornography, but under-equipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a prefererence for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity. PMID:25350847

  8. "Without Porn … I Wouldn't Know Half the Things I Know Now": A Qualitative Study of Pornography Use Among a Sample of Urban, Low-Income, Black and Hispanic Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    Information about the pornography-viewing habits of urban, low-income youth of color in the United States is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16- to 18-year-old urban-residing, low-income Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching; where and for what purpose? (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors? and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (1) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (2) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (3) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (4) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (5) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youth's use of pornography but underequipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a preference for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity.

  9. Assessing the psychometric and ecometric properties of neighborhood scales using adolescent survey data from urban and rural Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gina; Inchley, Joanna; Humphris, Gerry; Currie, Candace

    2017-03-28

    Despite the well-established need for specific measurement instruments to examine the relationship between neighborhood conditions and adolescent well-being outcomes, few studies have developed scales to measure features of the neighborhoods in which adolescents reside. Moreover, measures of neighborhood features may be operationalised differently by adolescents living in different levels of urban/rurality. This has not been addressed in previous studies. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish instruments to measure adolescent neighborhood features at both the individual and neighborhood level, 2) assess their psychometric and ecometric properties, 3) test for invariance by urban/rurality, and 4) generate neighborhood level scores for use in further analysis. Data were from the Scottish 2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, which included an over-sample of rural adolescents. The survey responses of interest came from questions designed to capture different facets of the local area in which each respondent resided. Intermediate data zones were used as proxies for neighborhoods. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. Invariance was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Multilevel models were used to estimate ecometric properties and generate neighborhood scores. Two constructs labeled neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood disorder were identified. Adjustment was made to the originally specified model to improve model fit and measures of invariance. At the individual level, reliability was .760 for social cohesion and .765 for disorder, and between .524 and .571 for both constructs at the neighborhood level. Individuals in rural areas experienced greater neighborhood social cohesion and lower levels of neighborhood disorder compared with those in urban areas. The scales are appropriate for measuring neighborhood characteristics experienced by adolescents across urban and rural Scotland, and can be used in

  10. Knowledge and causal attributions for mental disorders in HIV-positive children and adolescents: results from rural and urban Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalukenge, W; Martin, F; Seeley, J; Kinyanda, E

    2018-05-02

    Increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has led HIV to be considered a chronic disease, shifting attention to focus on quality of life including mental wellbeing. We investigated knowledge and causal attributions for mental disorders in HIV-positive children and adolescents in rural and urban Uganda. This qualitative study was nested in an epidemiological mental health study among HIV-positive children and adolescents aged 5-17 years in rural and urban Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers of HIV-positive children (5-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) in HIV care. Interviews were audio recorded with permission from participants and written consent and assent sought before study procedures. Thirty eight participants (19 caregivers, 19 children/adolescents) were interviewed. Age range of caregivers was 28-69 years; majority were female (17). Caregivers had little knowledge on mental disorders ;only 3 related the vignette to a mental problem  and attributed it to: improper upbringing, violence, poverty and bereavement. Five adolescents identified vignettes as portraying mental disorders caused by: ill-health of parents, bereavement, child abuse, discrimination, HIV and poverty. Caregivers are not knowledgeable about behavioural and emotional challenges in HIV-positive children/adolescents. Mental health literacy programmes at HIV care clinics are essential to enhance treatment-seeking for mental health.

  11. Dysmenorrhoea in different settings: Are the rural and urban adolescent girls perceiving and managing the dysmenorrhoea problem differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avasarala Atchuta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It is well-known that every health problem, not only presents itself with different epidemiological profiles in different population settings, but is also perceived and managed differently. Having knowledge of these variations in its presentations and perceptions in different population settings, for example, in urban and rural settings, will be useful for its successful management. Aim: To study differences in epidemiological profiles, perceptions, socio economic losses, and quality-of-life losses and management of dysmenorrhoea in different settings for effective management. Design and Setting: A comparative cross-sectional study among adolescent school girls (101 girls in urban areas and 79 girls in rural areas in the district of Karimnagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a pretested questionnaire was conducted among 180 adolescent girls in urban and rural settings. Statistical Analyses Used: Proportions and X 2 test. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea is 54% (53% in girls in urban areas and 56% in girls in rural areas (X 2 df = 0.1, P = 0.05. Sickness absenteeism (28-48%, socio economic losses, and perceived quality of life losses are more prevalent among girls in urban areas than in girls in rural areas. Girls in rural areas resort to physical labor and other natural methods to obtain relief while the girls in urban areas are mainly depending on medications. Conclusions: Dysmenorrhoea can also be managed effectively by natural methods without resorting to medicines, provided one is psychologically prepared to face it without anxiety.

  12. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant ( P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI ( P < 0.01), SBP ( P < 0.05), and NC ( P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95 th percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95 th percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP.

  13. Weight- and race-based bullying: health associations among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-04-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially diverse urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Pasch, Keryn E; Stigler, Melissa H; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L; Komro, Kelli A

    2010-06-01

    We examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication using growth curve models conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5-year period among a population of racially diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4,750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p parent-child communication scores over time (p parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. In addition, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of sixth grade may be protective through eighth grade. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hispanic whites have a bachelor's degree or higher. Economics: According to a 2015 U.S. Census Bureau report, ... non-Hispanic whites, Puerto Ricans have a low birth weight rate that twice that of non-Hispanic whites. Also, ...

  16. Exercise and eating habits among urban adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Soumitra; Ray, Saumitra; Roy, Debabrata; Ganguly, Kajal; Dutta, Sibananda; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Gupta, Kinnori; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Das, Mrinal Kanti; Guha, Santanu; Deb, Pradip K; Banerjee, Amal K

    2017-05-18

    Unhealthy eating and lack of exercise during adolescence culminated into earlier onset and increasing burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) worldwide. Among urban Indian adolescents, prevalence of these risk factors of CVD seemed to be high, but data regarding their pattern and predictors was limited. To address this dearth of information, a survey was conducted among urban adolescent school-students in Kolkata, a highly populated metro city in eastern India. During January-June, 2014, 1755 students of 9th-grade were recruited through cluster (schools) random sampling. Informed consents from parents and assents from adolescents were collected. Information on socio-demographics, CVD-related knowledge and perception along with eating and exercise patterns were collected with an internally validated structured questionnaire. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed in SAS-9.3.2. Among 1652 participants (response rate = 94.1%), about 44% had poor overall knowledge about CVD, 24% perceived themselves as overweight and 60% considered their general health as good. Only 18% perceived their future CVD-risk and 29% were engaged in regular moderate-to-vigorous exercise. While 55% skipped meals regularly, 90% frequently consumed street-foods and 54% demonstrated overall poor eating habits. Males were more likely to engage in moderate-to-vigorous exercise [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.40(95% confidence interval = 2.55-4.54)] while students of higher SES were less likely [AOR = 0.59(0.37-0.94)]. Males and those having good CVD-related knowledge were more likely to exercise at least 1 h/day [AOR = 7.77(4.61-13.07) and 2.90(1.46-5.78) respectively]. Those who perceived their future CVD-risk, skipped meals more [2.04(1.28-3.25)] while Males skipped them less [AOR = 0.62(0.42-0.93)]. Subjects from middle class ate street-foods less frequently [AOR = 0.45(0.24-0.85)]. Relatively older students and those belonging to higher SES were less

  17. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Rojas, Gaudi; Cabello-Morales, Emilio; Hernádez-Diaz, Herminio; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the criteria of the WHO and CDC in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012. This cross-sectional study included 1,743 school children of 12 to 17 years of age selected from ten public and private educational institutions, using a randomized and stratified sample of "conglomerados" (neighborhoods). In the selected schools, weight and height were measured. For the diagnosis of overweight and obesity, criteria from the WHO and CDC were used. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. According to the WHO criteria, the prevalence of overweight was 33.7% (95% CI 31.5-36.0) and obesity was 14.4% (95% CI 12.8-16.1). According to CDC criteria, the prevalence of overweight was 26.5% (95% CI 24.4-28.6) and obesity was 13.9% (95% CI 12.3-15.6). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in males aged 12 and 13 years old and private educational institutions (poverweight and obesity. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, predominantly in male students between 12 and 13 years and private educational institutions. It is necessary to initiate intervention measures that can contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases in adulthood, secondary to obesity in adolescence.

  18. The effect of correct and consistent condom use on chlamydial and gonococcal infection among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Koumans, Emilia H; Sternberg, Maya; Pierce, Antonya; Papp, John; Unger, Elizabeth R; Sawyer, Mary; Black, Carolyn M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between self-reported correct and consistent condom use and chlamydial and gonococcal infection. Cross-sectional study. An urban adolescent health care clinic. Patients A total of 509 adolescent girls tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection by urine nucleic acid amplification tests. Main Outcome Measure Effect of condom use on infection rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea. Consistent condom use was defined as using condoms for every act of vaginal sex and correct use as consistent use without any of the following: beginning sex without a condom, taking it off before finishing sex, flipping it over, condom breakage, or condom slippage. A total of 95% of the participants were African American, with a mean age of 16.6 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 21% (105/509) and gonorrhea prevalence was 7% (36/509). Condom errors were reported by 316 (71%) of 442 participants who had reported using a condom at least once in the previous 3 months. Consistent use was reported by 176 patients (35%); however, both correct and consistent use was reported by only 80 patients (16%). After adjusting for confounders, correct and consistent use was protective for chlamydia (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.0) and highly protective for gonorrhea (odds ratio, 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0-0.7). Our findings indicate that assessing both correctness and consistency of use is important for evaluation of condom effectiveness.

  19. Sexual identities and lifestyles among non-heterosexual urban Chiang Mai adolescents: implications for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon quantitative and qualitative data we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexual lifestyles and relationships among more than 1,750 adolescents aged 17-20 years who reside in urban Chiang Mai, Thailand. We focus on respondents’ representations and understandings of their sexual/gender identities derived mainly from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, supplemented with observations and field notes. Our results show that while many young Thais described themselves as heterosexual males or females others described themselves as gay, kathoey, tom, dii, bisexual or something else. Some were still questioning their own identities. The terms gay, kathoey, tom and dii are commonly used by these Thais to describe a range of sexual/gender identities relating to persons who are sexually or romantically attracted to the same biological sex. We use case studies to illustrate the distinctive characterizations, sexual lifestyles and relationships of each of these identities. We conclude that the sexual lifestyles encountered among Northern Thai non-heterosexual adolescents could lead to negative health consequences and indicated a need for improved relationship education, counselling and sensitive sexual health services. PMID:20665299

  20. Nutritional status and dietary habits of urban and rural Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the basic food ingredient level and some nutritional status indices between the two groups of adolescents: the first one from the urban environment and the other one from the rural environment. A series of tests were conducted on a 400-teenager-group (200 girls and 200 boys), which was divided into two age groups: 10.5-year-olds and 13.5-year-olds. Nutritional status was estimated on the basis of the following anthropometric measurements: body height, body mass index, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness. Food intake was assessed by means of a 24-h dietary recall. The analysis of the results of the investigation showed: rare overweight and obesity occur in rural children aged 10.5 years and a higher risk of undernutrition among rural children, especially boys; more frequent overweight and obesity in rural girls and urban boys aged 13.5 years; a lower protein consumption, especially animal protein, and a lower percentage of the accomplishment of the norm for many mineral components and vitamins in rural girls and boys.

  1. What are the characteristics of 'sexually ready' adolescents? Exploring the sexual readiness of youth in urban poor Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biney, Adriana A E; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo

    2016-01-05

    Adolescent sexual activity, especially among the urban poor, remains a challenge. Despite numerous interventions and programs to address the negative consequences arising from early and frequent sexual activity among youth in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, only slight progress has been made. A plausible explanation is that our understanding of what adolescents think about sex and about their own sexuality is poor. In that sense, examining how adolescents in urban poor communities think about their sexual readiness, and identifying characteristics associated with that sexual self-concept dimension, should deepen our understanding of this topical issue. A total of 196 male and female adolescents, ages 12 to 19, were surveyed in the 2011 RIPS Urban Health and Poverty Project in Accra, Ghana. The youth responded to three statements which determined their levels of sexual readiness. Other background characteristics were also obtained enabling the assessment of the correlates of their preparedness to engage in sex. The data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression models. Overall, the majority of respondents did not consider themselves ready for sex. Multivariate analyses indicated that sexual experience, exposure to pornographic movies, gender, ethnicity and household wealth were significantly linked to their readiness for sex. Sexual readiness is related to sexual activity as well as other characteristics of the adolescents, suggesting the need to consider these factors in the design of programs and interventions to curb early sex. The subject of sexual readiness has to be investigated further to ensure adolescents do not identify with any negative effects of this sexual self-view.

  2. An Olympic Legacy? Did the Urban Regeneration Associated With the London 2012 Olympic Games Influence Adolescent Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Smuk, Melanie; Cummins, Steven; Eldridge, Sandra; Fahy, Amanda; Lewis, Daniel; Moore, Derek G; Smith, Neil; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    Public expenditure on large events such as the London 2012 Olympic Games is often justified by the potential legacy of urban regeneration and its associated health and well-being benefits for local communities. In the Olympic Regeneration in East London Study, we examined whether there was an association between urban regeneration related to the 2012 Games and improved mental health in young people. Adolescents aged 11-12 years attending schools in the Olympic host borough of Newham in London or in 3 adjacent comparison London boroughs completed a survey before the 2012 Games and 6 and 18 months after the Games (in 2013 and 2014, respectively). Changes in depressive symptoms and well-being between baseline and each follow-up were examined. A total of 2,254 adolescents from 25 randomly selected schools participated. Adolescents from Newham were more likely to have remained depressed between baseline and the 6- and 18-month follow-up surveys (for 6-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.83; for 18-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.70) than adolescents from the comparison boroughs. No differences in well-being were observed. There was little evidence that urban regeneration had any positive influence on adolescent mental health and some suggestion that regeneration may have been associated with maintenance of depressive symptoms. Such programs may have limited short-term impact on the mental health of adolescents.

  3. Perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviour among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents: Mediating effects of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia

    2017-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in urban areas of Beijing, China, we examined the mediating effects of social support (i.e. teacher support and classmate support) in the relationship between perceived discrimination (PD) and antisocial behaviour (ASB) among Chinese migrant adolescents. Participants were 897 adolescents (459 boys and 438 girls, mean age = 13.34 years) from four migrant schools (68.8%) and four public schools (31.2%). Participants completed self-report questionnaires concerning PD, ASB, teacher support and classmate support. Results indicated that Chinese migrant adolescents who perceived more discrimination were more likely to engage in ASB. Teacher support partially mediated the relationship between PD and ASB. Gender moderated this mediational relationship, such that teacher support exerted a mediating role among girls, but not boys. The findings suggest that reductions in teacher support may partially account for the effect of PD on ASB among Chinese migrant adolescents girls. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  5. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório de; Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes Dos; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro de

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio - OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. Analisar os níveis de atividade física e o comportamento sedentário em adolescentes das áreas urbanas e rurais. Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa e abrangência estadual, cuja amostra foi constituída por 6.234 estudantes (14 a 19 anos), selecionados por meio de uma estratégia de amostragem aleatória de conglomerados. As análises foram realizadas por meio do teste χ2 e da regressão logística binária. Na amostra, 74,5% dos adolescentes eram residentes em área urbana. Após o ajuste, constatou-se que os adolescentes oriundos da área rural usavam menos televisão (odds

  6. Physical activity inversely associated with the presence of depression among urban adolescents in regional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang YaQiong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between physical activity (PA and depression among adolescents has been reported in developed communities without consideration of sedentary behaviors (SB, including sitting for course study, viewing TV, and sleeping. We explored the association between recreational PA time (hr/wk and depression after adjustment with SB and other possible confounders among Chinese adolescents. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Nanjing municipality of China in 2004 using a multi-stage cluster sampling approach. A total of 72 classes were randomly selected from 24 urban junior high schools and all students completed the structured questionnaire. Adolescent depression was examined by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI of Chinese version with cutoff point value of 20 or above as the presence of depression. Recreational PA time was measured by a question on weekly hours of PA outside of school. Descriptive statistics, multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used in analysis. Results The overall prevalence of depression was 15.7% (95%CI: 14.3%, 17.1% among 2,444 eligible participants. It was found that physical activity was negatively associated with depression. After adjustment for sedentary behaviors and other potential confounders, participants who spent 1–7 hr/wk, 8–14 hr/wk and 15+ hr/wk for recreational PA, respectively, had odds ratios of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.57, 0.86, 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53, 0.88 and 0.66 (95% CI = 0.50, 0.87 for likelihood of being depressive, compared to their counterparts who spent 0–0.9 hr/wk for PA. This inverse relationship between PA time and depression remained statistically significant by gender and grade. Conclusion This study, conducted among Chinese adolescents, strengthened the evidence that physical activity was inversely associated with depression. Our study has important implications for health officers and public health

  7. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Adebajo, Sylvia; Adeyemi, Adedayo; Ogungbemi, Kayode Micheal

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria. We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban

  8. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day, sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers, sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner, and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5% of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001 and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04. Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02, and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007. More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005. More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04 and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001 areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04 and

  9. Medical decision-making among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites with chronic back and knee pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffrey N; Lyons, Nancy; Wolff, Lisa S; Silverman, Jodie; Emrani, Parastu; Holt, Holly L; Corbett, Kelly L; Escalante, Agustin; Losina, Elena

    2011-04-21

    Musculoskeletal disorders affect all racial and ethnic groups, including Hispanics. Because these disorders are not life-threatening, decision-making is generally preference-based. Little is known about whether Hispanics in the U.S. differ from non-Hispanic Whites with respect to key decision making preferences. We assembled six focus groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White patients with chronic back or knee pain at an urban medical center to discuss management of their conditions and the roles they preferred in medical decision-making. Hispanic groups were further stratified by socioeconomic status, using neighborhood characteristics as proxy measures. Discussions were led by a moderator, taped, transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed ethnic differences in several areas pertinent to medical decision-making. Specifically, Hispanic participants were more likely to permit their physician to take the predominant role in making health decisions. Also, Hispanics of lower socioeconomic status generally preferred to use non-internet sources of health information to make medical decisions and to rely on advice obtained by word of mouth. Hispanics emphasized the role of faith and religion in coping with musculoskeletal disability. The analysis also revealed broad areas of concordance across ethnic strata including the primary role that pain and achieving pain relief play in patients' experiences and decisions. These findings suggest differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in preferred information sources and decision-making roles. These findings are hypothesis-generating. If confirmed in further research, they may inform the development of interventions to enhance preference-based decision-making among Hispanics.

  10. Walking, cycling and the urban form: A Heckman selection model of active travel mode and distance by young adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity of children and adolescents is a major public health challenge of the modern era but, when adequately promoted and nurtured, active travel offers immediate health benefits and forms future sustainable and healthy travel habits. This study explores jointly the choice...... and the extent of active travel of young adolescents while considering walking and cycling as distinct travel forms, controlling for objective urban form measures, and taking both a "street-buffer" looking at the immediate home surroundings and a "transport-zone" looking at wider neighborhoods. A Heckman...... selection model represents the distance covered while cycling (walking) given the mode choice being bicycle (walk) for a representative sample of 10-15 year-olds from the Capital Region of Denmark extracted from the Danish national travel survey. Results illustrate the necessity of different urban...

  11. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Mental Health Service Use by Urban, Under-Resourced Black Youth: Adolescent and Caregiver Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A; Chambers, Kerri; Pohle, Cara; Beall, Peggy; Lucksted, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Black adolescents with mental health problems are less likely than non-Black adolescents with mental health problems to receive treatment, primarily for non-financial reasons including negative perceptions of services and providers, and self-stigma associated with experiencing mental health problems. To better understand these obstacles, 16 adolescents and 11 caregivers, recruited from two K-8th grade elementary-middle schools, participated in four focus groups guided by the unified theory of behavior to explore mental health help-seeking behaviors and perceptions of mental health services. In the focus groups, caregivers acknowledged more positive attitudes about seeking mental health services than adolescents, but both expected the experience of actually doing so to be negative. Adolescents and caregivers also acknowledged social norms that inhibit their mental health help-seeking. Therefore, we conclude that interventions targeting expectancies and social norms might increase the connection of urban, under-resourced Black adolescents and their families to mental health services, and be particularly important given the long-term consequences of untreated mental health problems for this group.

  12. Differences in adolescents' physical activity from school-travel between urban and suburban neighbourhoods in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Amanda; Voss, Christine; Winters, Meghan; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Higgins, Joan Wharf; McKay, Heather

    2015-01-01

    To investigate differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from school-travel between adolescents in urban and suburban neighbourhoods and to describe its relative contribution to MVPA on school days. We measured 243 adolescents (51% male, grades 8-10) from Vancouver's walkable downtown core and its largely car-dependent suburb Surrey (fall 2011, 2013). We estimated mean school-travel MVPA from accelerometry (hour before/after school on ≥ 2 days; n = 110, 39% male) and compared school-travel MVPA by neighbourhood type and school-travel mode. The influence of mean school-travel MVPA on mean school-day MVPA (≥ 600 min valid wear time on ≥ 2 days) was examined by linear regression. Over half of students used active modes (urban: 63%, suburban: 53%). Those using active travel and living in the urban neighbourhood obtained the most school-travel MVPA (22.3 ± 8.0 min). Urban passive travellers used public transit and obtained more school-travel MVPA than suburban students (16.9 ± 6.2 vs. 8.0 ± 5.3, p travel MVPA (R (2) = 0.38, p travel MVPA in adolescents. School-travel MVPA is an important contributor to adolescents' school-day MVPA. Where feasible, physically active options for school-travel should be promoted, including public transit.

  13. Variation in blood pressure among adolescent schoolchildren in an urban slum of Kolkata, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Muktisadhan; Bandyopadhyay, Lina

    2017-11-01

    High blood pressure in childhood is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The roots of essential hypertension in adults may be initiated in childhood. This study was conducted to investigate blood pressure profiles of adolescent schoolchildren in the practice field area of the Urban Health Centre, Chetla, Kolkata. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension in adolescent schoolchildren, to compare the blood pressure between boys and girls, and to study the association between selected variables and blood pressure. The study was conducted among adolescent schoolchildren aged 10-19 years in two randomly selected secondary schools situated in the practice field area of the Urban Health Centre, Chetla, Kolkata. All students aged 10-19 years present on the day of the visit were included in the study; the sample was 129. A predesigned questionnaire was used to carry out the study. Measurements of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were made using standardised physical instruments following standard operative guidelines. The data were collected and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 10.1% (11.1% in boys and 8.8% in girls). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 20.2% (16.7% in boys and 24.6% in girls). Hypertension was found to be significantly associated with physical exercise (p<0.05) and salt intake (p<0.05); BMI was also significantly associated with both systolic blood pressure (p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05). There was a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with BMI (r=0.303, p<0.05; r=0.262, p<0.05), age (r=0.326, p<0.05; r=0.267, p<0.05) and height (r=0.322, p<0.05; r=0.174, p<0.05). There was a negative correlation between hypertension and physical exercise (r=-0.313, p<0.05) and a positive correlation between hypertension and

  14. Tracking of blood pressure among adolescents and young adults in an urban slum of Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis of hypertension (HT is an important strategy in its control. Tracking of blood pressure (BP has been found useful in identifying persons with potential HT, particularly in youngsters. A cohort of 756 subjects (with baseline information as a cross-sectional study in 2002 was followed up in 2006 to comment on the distribution of BP and its attributes. Objectives: To track BP distribution in a cohort of adolescents and young adults, and assess the persistence of high/low normotensives; to measure the incidence of HT and study the relationship of BP with age, sex, socioeconomic status, BMI, physical exercise, salt intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. Materials and Methods: The baseline study cohort (2002 of 756 subjects (19-24 years in urban field area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, JIPMER, was followed up between May and November 2006 by house visits for measurement of sociodemographic variables, anthropometry, salt intake, physical activity and BP. Results: A total of 555 subjects from the 2002 cohort were contacted (73.4%, in that 54.5% subjects who were below 5 th percentile, 93.6% subjects between 5 th and 95 th percentiles and 72% of those above 95 th percentile previously persisted in the same cut-offs for systolic blood pressure (SBP. The corresponding figures for diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 46.2, 92.2 and 74.1%, respectively. Shift from one cut-off to another was not significant for both SBP and DBP, proving the tracking phenomenon. Annual incidence of HT was 9.8/1000. Baseline BP was the significant predictor of current BP for the entire cohort; BMI and salt intake were significant predictors only in certain sections of the study cohort. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of hypertension even among adolescents/young adults is an important preventive measure, as tracking exists in the population.

  15. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction. Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. Objective. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. Material and methods. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13–18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions. The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES included 6 features. The SES index (SESI was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR of underweight (BMI0.05. The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05. The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05. Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Conclusions. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  16. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor - incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Długosz, Tomasz; Wądołowska, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13-18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions). The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES) included 6 features. The SES index (SESI) was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of underweight (BMI0.05). The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05). The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05). Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  17. Hispanic Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.

  18. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population are similar to that of African Americans. Although a multitude of previous studies have looked at the impact of segregation among African Americans, the literature remains under-represented in terms of multi-city macro-level analyses among Hispanics. This current study extends the analysis of segregation’s effects on lethal violence to this population. To this end, two measures of segregation were used, the index of dissimilarity and exposure. Using data from the census and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC mortality files, negative binominal regression models were created using a sample of 236 U.S. cities. The results indicated that both measures of segregation show a strong positive influence on rates of Hispanic homicides.

  19. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2015-02-01

    The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use ‘Nasza Klasa’ (Our Classmates online social networking service.

  20. Pocket Money: Influence on Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, V C; Amudhan, A; Sivaprakasam, P; Rathnaprabhu, V

    2014-12-01

    To explore the influence of pocket money on Dental Caries and Body Mass Index. A cross-sectional study was conducted wherein urban adolescent schoolchildren of age 13-18(n=916) were selected by two stage random sampling technique. Dental caries was measured using the DMFT Index. The children's nutritional status was assessed by means of anthropometric measurements. Body Mass Index using weight and height of children was evaluated using the reference standard of the WHO 2007. RESULTS showed that 50% of children receive pocket money from parents. The average amount received was Rs. 360/month. There was a significant correlation between age and amount of money received (r=0.160, p=.001). The average amount received by male children was significantly higher (Rs. 400) when compared to female children (Rs. 303). It was observed that income of the family (>30,000 Rs./month) and socioeconomic status (Upper class) was significantly dependent on the amount of money received by children (ppocket money or not. When BMI categories and pocket money were considered, statistically significant difference was seen among overweight and obese and normal weight children (ppocket money from parents could influence their eating habits in turn affect general health. Parents and teachers should motivate children on healthy spending of their pocket money.

  1. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence.

  2. Associations among Depressive Symptoms, Dating Violence, and Relationship Power in Urban, Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations among dating violence (DV), aggression, relationship power, and depressive symptoms. Design A cross-sectional survey secondary analysis. Setting An urban, school based health center, October, 2009 through May, 2009. Participants Low income, adolescent girls (n= 155), ages 14–18. Methods Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted to illustrate patterns and associations among variables. Key variables included depressive symptoms, DV victimization and aggression, and relationship power. We used mediation analyses to determine the direct and indirect effects among variables. Results Both DV victimization and aggression were reported frequently. Furthermore, DV victimization had a significant direct effect on depression and an indirect effect through relationship power. Depressive symptoms and relationship power were associated with DV aggression. Although relationship power did have a significant inverse effect on depressive symptoms, it was not through DV aggression. Conclusions Complex associations remain between mental health and DV; however, relationship power partially accounts for DV victimization's effect on depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are associated with DV victimization and aggression; therefore, nurses should address relationship power in clinical and community interventions. PMID:22697267

  3. A study on knowledge and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among rural and urban adolescent girls in Udupi Taluk, Manipal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescent girls often lack knowledge regarding reproductive health including menstruation hygiene which can be due to socio-cultural barriers in which they grow up. Objectives: To explore the knowledge, practices and sources of information regarding menstruation and hygiene among adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, India. Methods: An epidemiologic study was undertaken using cross-sectional study method among 550 school-going adolescent girls aged13-16 years. A total of 270 were from urban and 280 from the rural area. Stratified cluster sampling was adopted to select the schools and simple random sampling technique to select the participants. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.Results Around 34% participants were aware about menstruation prior to menarche, and mothers were the main source of information among both groups. Overall, 70.4% of adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 25.6% were using both cloth and sanitary napkins. Almost half of the rural participants dried the absorbent inside their homes. Conclusions: There is a need to equip the adolescent girls with knowledge regarding safe, hygienic practices to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life.

  4. Taking a first puff: cigarette smoking experiences among ethnically diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C S; Allen, P; Crawford, M A; McCormick, L K

    1999-11-01

    To study the social contexts and physiological consequences of an initial cigarette smoking experience among adolescents from four ethnic groups (African American, European American, Hispanic, Native American) who vary by gender and locale (e.g. urban vs rural). A qualitative study using individual interviews and focus groups. Results both amplify and reinforce conclusions about peer and family influences on adolescent smoking initiation reported in quantitative studies of teen smoking. Within the broader themes of peers and family, several important sub-themes emerged. The study findings suggest that peer influence can be characterized as social conformity or social acceptance. Males were more likely than females to describe experiences involving peers exerting strong messages to conform to smoking behaviors. Roles played by family members in the initiation process were complex and included those of initiator, prompter, accomplice, and inadvertent source of cigarettes. European American and Hispanic girls provided descriptions of parents/family members as instigators of their first smoking experience. Hispanic adolescents descripted instances in which family members prompted cigarette use at a young age by encouraging the young person to light the adult's cigarette. Finally, ethnic differences in the physiological responses to initial smoking suggest the need to further explore the role of brand preference and variations in inhaling among ethnically diverse adolescents. In order to design effective cigarette smoking prevention programs for adolescents, it is important to understand the meaning of smoking behaviors for adolescents from different ethnic and social backgrounds.

  5. Urban Greenspace is Associated with Reduced Psychological Stress among Adolescents: A Geographic Ecological Momentary Assessment (GEMA) Analysis of Activity Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Ambrus, Andreea

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the momentary association between urban greenspace, captured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat imagery, and psychological stress, captured using Geographic Ecological Momentary Assessment (GEMA), in the activity spaces of a sample of primarily African American adolescents residing in Richmond, Virginia. We employ generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate the effect of exposure to urban greenspace on stress and test for moderation by sex, emotional dysregulation, season, neighborhood disadvantage, and whether the observation occurs at home or elsewhere. Results indicate that urban greenspace is associated with lower stress when subjects are away from home, which we speculate is due to the properties of stress reduction and attention restoration associated with exposure to natural areas, and to the primacy of other family dynamics mechanisms of stress within the home. Subjects may also seek out urban greenspaces at times of lower stress or explicitly for purposes of stress reduction. The greenspace-stress association away from home did not differ by sex, emotional dysregulation, neighborhood disadvantage, or season, the latter of which suggests that the observed greenspace-stress relationship is associated with being in a natural environment rather than strictly exposure to abundant green vegetation. Given the association of urban greenspace with lower stress found here and in other studies, future research should address the mediated pathways between greenspace, stress, and stress-related negative health outcomes for different population subgroups as a means toward understanding and addressing health disparities.

  6. Urban-rural differences in adolescent self-esteem, leisure boredom, and sensation-seeking as predictors of leisure-time usage and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W R; Caltabiano, M L

    1996-01-01

    Australia's "sporting nation" image has been challenged by adolescents' decreasing involvement in active leisure pursuits. A significant number of adolescents experience leisure boredom and dissatisfaction, which have been implicated in drug use and delinquency. Researchers have largely ignored the multivariate nature of adolescent leisure experiences. This North Queensland, Australian adolescent leisure study explored the extent to which adolescent leisure experiences were mediated by individual and situational variables. Seventy-five Cairns and 65 Atherton high school students (66 males and 74 females) were surveyed from grades 8, 10, and 12 (ages 12 to 19), during normal class periods. The Self-Rating Scale (SPS) measure of self-esteem, Sensation-Seeking Scale Form II (SSS), Leisure Boredom Scale (LBS), and a time-use inventory yielded quantitative data. Urban adolescents reported less leisure satisfaction. Participation was highest for passive leisure and lowest for active leisure. Urban adolescents reported higher social leisure, while rural adolescents engaged in more passive leisure. For both Cairns and Atherton, the heaviest substance users were those who scored low on self-esteem and high on sensation-seeking. Atherton adolescents who scored low on self-esteem but high on sensation-seeking, reported the most crime involvement. Methodological issues and implications are discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  7. A study on health risk behavior of mid-adolescent school students in a rural and an urban area of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: High-risk behaviors can have adverse effects on health of adolescents. It is essential to identify risks so that modification can be initiated before any damage. The present study was conducted among adolescents to study their risk behaviors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study based on the concept of Global School-based Student Health Survey was conducted by interviewing adolescents of one urban and one rural randomly selected school. For quick overall assessment of their risk behaviors, a predesigned three-point scoring system was followed. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Results: The study of six domains of important risk behaviors among 788 school-going adolescents (rural: 436 [55.3%], urban: 352 [44.7%], (male: 406 [51.5%], female: 382 [48.5%] revealed that occurrence of dietary high-risk behavior was more in urban students (11.4% than rural students (1.8%. Regarding violence, occurrence of high-risk behavior was also higher among urban students (18.8% vs. 6%. The number of mentally disturbed girls is more than boys. Conclusion: The mean risk scores in all domains, except personal hygiene, are either in ′Moderate′ or ′high′ risk grade. It is of great concern that rural and urban, male and female adolescents are at risk though their vulnerability varies.

  8. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective. [/b]The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and the risk of developing this addiction in Polish adolescents attending junior high schools and high school in Lublin Province, to indicate the differences regarding the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms, and the types of online activity of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. The examined group comprised 1,860 participants (1,320 girls and 540 boys with an average age of 17 years. 760 students lived in urban areas and 1,100 lived in rural areas. The following were used in the study: the Socio-demographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire designed by Potembska, the Internet Addiction Test by Young and the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Internetu – KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. [b]Results[/b]. The adolescents living in urban areas showed a significantly greater intensity of Internet and computer addiction symptoms measured by the KBUI Questionnaire, compared to those living in rural areas. [b]Conclusions.[/b] The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use ‘Nasza Klasa’ (Our Classmates online social networking service.

  9. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; Kędzierski, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and the risk of developing this addiction in Polish adolescents attending junior high schools and high school in Lublin Province, to indicate the differences regarding the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms, and the types of online activity of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. The examined group comprised 1,860 participants (1,320 girls and 540 boys) with an average age of 17 years. 760 students lived in urban areas and 1,100 lived in rural areas. The following were used in the study: the Socio-demographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire designed by Potembska, the Internet Addiction Test by Young and the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Internetu - KBUI) designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. The adolescents living in urban areas showed a significantly greater intensity of Internet and computer addiction symptoms measured by the KBUI Questionnaire, compared to those living in rural areas. The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM) services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use 'Nasza Klasa' (Our Classmates) online social networking service.

  10. Urban Rural Comparisons of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Burden among Adolescent Girls in a Hospital Setting in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a multifaceted disorder characterized by varying clinical presentations. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine urban and rural differences in the burden of polycystic ovarian syndrome among Indian adolescent females aged 12 to 19 years. Methods. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of one month (August-September 2013 at Balaji Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. The final sample included 126 study participants located in various urban (50%, n=63 and rural (50%, n=63 settings. Information was gathered on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical history, occurrence of acne and hirsutism, serum testosterone levels, obstetric history, family history of chronic diseases, menstrual history, physical activity, and dietary intake. Results. Eighteen percent of the participants were confirmed of having PCOS by recent guidelines of Rotterdam Consensus for adolescent diagnosis of PCOS (presence of all three elements. Majority of the individuals with PCOS had an average age of 16 (SD = 2 (P=.02 years with an average age of menarche 12 years (SD = 1. Conclusion. The proportion of participants diagnosed with PCOS was higher among urban participants in comparison to rural participants.

  11. Examining Race/Ethnicity and Fears of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Differences between White, African American, and Hispanic Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…

  12. Parent-child communication: a model for Hispanics on HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Raquel; Bonazzo, Claude; Torres, Rosamar

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has become a global epidemic that has affected many different racial and ethnic groups. One group that has lacked attention is the Hispanic population, due to its distinctive cultural characteristics. Many of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections in Hispanics occur in adolescents. A protective factor for preventing HIV infections in adolescents is parent-child communication about sexual intercourse; however discussions about sexuality are uncommon in Hispanic families. When promoting parent-child communication among Hispanics regarding sex, it is essential to include cultural characteristics and the use of a model for empowering both parents and adolescents. The cultural characteristics examined in this article are allocentrism, familialism, personal space, time orientation, power distance, gender roles, and fatalism. A partnership model for empowering parents and adolescents, and 5 steps of the partnership process are discussed.

  13. CKD Progression and Mortality among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J; Hsu, Jesse Y; Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Amanda H; Bazzano, Lydia; Cuevas, Magdalena M; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Renteria, Amada; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Raj, Dominic S; Rosas, Sylvia E; Pan, Qiang; Yaffe, Kristine; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2016-11-01

    Although recommended approaches to CKD management are achieved less often in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics, whether long-term outcomes differ between these groups is unclear. In a prospective longitudinal analysis of participants enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies, we used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between race/ethnicity, CKD progression (50% eGFR loss or incident ESRD), incident ESRD, and all-cause mortality, and linear mixed-effects models to assess differences in eGFR slope. Among 3785 participants, 13% were Hispanic, 43% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), and 44% were non-Hispanic black (NHB). Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years for Hispanics and 6.8 years for non-Hispanics, 27.6% of all participants had CKD progression, 21.3% reached incident ESRD, and 18.3% died. Hispanics had significantly higher rates of CKD progression, incident ESRD, and mean annual decline in eGFR than did NHW (P<0.05) but not NHB. Hispanics had a mortality rate similar to that of NHW but lower than that of NHB (P<0.05). In adjusted analyses, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between Hispanics and NHW or NHB. However, among nondiabetic participants, compared with NHB, Hispanics had a lower risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.95) and incident ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.84). At higher levels of urine protein, Hispanics had a significantly lower risk of mortality than did non-Hispanics (P<0.05). Thus, important differences in CKD progression and mortality exist between Hispanics and non-Hispanics and may be affected by proteinuria and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Comparisons Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Informal Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J. Karlin; Joyce Weil; James Gould

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17) and non-Hispanic White (n = 17) caregivers in this study in several areas. H...

  15. Prevalence and correlates of condom use at last sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents in urban areas of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twa-Twa, J M; Oketcho, S; Siziya, S; Muula, A S

    2008-04-01

    Correct and consistent condom use remains an important public health intervention against the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and other sexually transmitted infections. There is paucity of information on sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents in Uganda. We, therefore, used secondary data of the Uganda Global School-based Health Survey (UGSHS) conducted in 2003 to determine the prevalence and correlates of condom use at last sexual intercourse in urban areas of Uganda. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Altogether 1709 students participated in the survey in urban areas of whom 179 (14.9% of males, and 7.9% of females) had sexual intercourse within 12 months before the survey. Overall 77.3% (79.7% of male, and 72.3% of female) adolescents used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Adolescents who drank alcohol and used drugs were 64% (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.54, 1.75) and 68%, (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.56, 1.81) more likely to have used a condom, respectively. Meanwhile, adolescents who ever got drunk, and who reported to ever had 2 or more sex partners were 55% (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.42, 0.48) and 35% (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.62, 0.68) less likely to have used a condom compared to those who had never got drunk, and who ever had 1 sex partner, respectively. Finally, adolescents who reported receiving no parental supervision were 45% (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.53, 0.58) less likely to have used a condom compared to those who reported receiving parental supervision. Parental supervision may be effective in promoting condom use among adolescents. Furthermore, drinking alcohol was associated with condom use probably due to peer pressure and easy access of condoms in drinking places as condoms are not actively promoted in schools. There is need for further research on how in-school adolescents could access condoms.

  16. The Prevalence and Comorbidity between Delinquency, Drug Abuse, Suicide Attempts, Physical and Sexual Abuse, and Self-Mutilation among Delinquent Hispanic Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Jeanette; Curry, Theodore R.

    2007-01-01

    Representative data show that drug abuse, delinquency, and suicide attempts are major concerns among adolescent Hispanic females. Although comorbidity research indicates that such problems tend to be related to each other, this research largely neglects Hispanic females. Using data from presentence investigations on 141 Hispanic girls sentenced to…

  17. Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Multiple Partners in the Context of the Sexual Double Standard and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274

  18. [Parental stance towards alcohol consumption in 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from six urban areas in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Cerdá, Joan Carles; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles; Danet, Alina; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; García Toyos, Noelia; Ruiz Román, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    To determine the opinions of urban parents on alcohol drinking in teenagers and their positioning regarding the legal restrictive measures. We performed a qualitative study of six focal groups including 42 mothers and fathers of adolescents from six different Spanish regions and from diverse social strata. The quantitative part of the study consisted of a 1-10 scale questionnaire, measuring parents' acceptance and opinion about legal measures restricting underage drinking. Means and standard deviation were calculated. Parents did not consider adolescent alcohol drinking to be a problem so long as it was moderate and leisure time-related. The social and cultural context was permissive with the alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake depended on both external (social pressure) and internal (family) factors. Fathers' preferred to exercise authority, while mothers preferred communication and education skills. Parents approved of teachers' interventions, especially when based on the student's overall education and not restricted to knowledge transmission. Public institutions and authorities were held responsible for adolescents' lack of information, the scarcity of leisure-time alternatives and for not ensuring compliance with current regulations. Parents approved restrictions regarding the sale and advertising of alcohol. Parents recognize adolescent alcohol drinking as a problem and tend to deal with it. Parents use distinct intervention strategies and generally approve legal measures. Copyright 2008 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart Disease in Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...

  20. Hispanic Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  1. 'He always thinks he is nothing': The psychosocial impact of discrimination on adolescent refugees in urban Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Horn, Rebecca; Canavera, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Armed conflict causes massive displacement, erodes the social fabric of communities, and threatens the healthy development of a nation's future - its youth. Although more than half of the world's registered refugees under the age of eighteen currently reside in urban areas, research on the unique needs of and realities experienced by this population remain limited. In Uganda, as in many refugee-receiving countries, most regulated refugee protections and entitlements fail to extend beyond the confines of official settlements or camps. This dearth of support, in combination with few material resources, uncertain local connections, and little knowledge of the language, leaves refugee families vulnerable to the added burden of an unwelcome reception in cities. Drawing on qualitative data from a study conducted in March and April 2013 with Congolese and Somali adolescents, caregivers, and service providers in refugee settlements in Kampala, this manuscript explores the pervasive nature of discrimination against urban refugees and its effects upon adolescent well-being. Findings suggest that discrimination not only negatively impacts acculturation as youth pursue social recognition in the classroom and among neighborhood peers, but it also impedes help-seeking behavior by caregivers and restricts their ability to ameliorate protection concerns, thereby lowering adolescents' psychosocial well-being. Youth reported low self-worth, withdrawal from school, and an adverse turn toward street connections. Targeted and innovative strategies along with reformed policies that address the unique challenges facing urban refugees are paramount to ensuring that young people in this population experience greater protection, well-being, and future success. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of a patient-centred computer-based clinic intervention, Health-E You/Salud iTu, to reduce health disparities in unintended pregnancies among Hispanic adolescents: study protocol for a cluster randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebb, Kathleen P; Rodriguez, Felicia; Pollack, Lance M; Trieu, Sang Leng; Hwang, Loris; Puffer, Maryjane; Adams, Sally; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Brindis, Claire D

    2018-01-10

    Teen pregnancy rates in the USA remain higher than any other industrialised nation, and pregnancies among Hispanic adolescents are disproportionately high. Computer-based interventions represent a promising approach to address sexual health and contraceptive use disparities. Preliminary findings have demonstrated that the Health-E You/Salud iTu, computer application (app) is feasible to implement, acceptable to Latina adolescents and improves sexual health knowledge and interest in selecting an effective contraceptive method when used in conjunction with a healthcare visit. The app is now ready for efficacy testing. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe patient-centred approaches used both in developing and testing the Health-E You app and to present the research methods used to evaluate its effectiveness in improving intentions to use an effective method of contraception as well as actual contraceptive use. This study is designed to assess the effectiveness of a patient-centred computer-based clinic intervention, Health-E You/Salud  iTu, on its ability to reduce health disparities in unintended pregnancies among Latina adolescent girls. This study uses a cluster randomised control trial design in which 18 school-based health centers from the Los Angeles Unified School District were randomly assigned, at equal chance, to either the intervention ( Health-E You app) or control group. Analyses will examine differences between the control and intervention group's knowledge of and attitudes towards contraceptive use, receipt of contraception at the clinic visit and self-reported use of contraception at 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The study began enrolling participants in August 2016, and a total of 1400 participants (700 per treatment group) are expected to be enrolled by March 2018. Ethics approval was obtained through the University of California, San Francisco Institutional Review Board. Results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peer

  3. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center – “Health in Beagá” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ralil da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents.METHODS Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, physical activity, markers of nutritional habits, and subjective well-being (body image, personal satisfaction, and satisfaction with their present and future life. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using robust Poisson regression.RESULTS The prevalence of bullying was 26.2% (28.0% among males, 24.0% among females. The location of most bullying cases was at or on route to school (70.5%, followed by on the streets (28.5%, at home (9.8%, while practicing sports (7.3%, at parties (4.6%, at work (1.7%, and at other locations (1.6%. Reports of bullying were associated with life dissatisfaction, difficulty relating to parents, involvement in fights with peers and insecurity in the neighborhood.CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of bullying among participating adolescents was found, and the school serves as the main bullying location, although other sites such as home, parties and workplace were also reported. Characteristics regarding self-perception and adolescent perceptions of their environment were also associated with bullying, thus advancing the knowledge of this type of violence, especially in urban centers of developing countries.

  4. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  6. Bicultural Advertising and Hispanic Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…

  7. HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Acceptability among Hispanic Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Julie; Byrne, Margaret M.; Vanderpool, Robin; Shin, Sarah; Kobetz, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and vaccine acceptability in a convenience sample of immigrant Hispanic men, many of whom are parents of adolescents. Data on 189 male callers were collected from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service Spanish-language call center. Most participants…

  8. Learning to Be Gendered: Gender Socialization in Early Adolescence Among Urban Poor in Delhi, India, and Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sharmistha; Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Acharya, Rajib; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti for coding and thematic analysis. Boys and girls growing up in the same community were directed onto different pathways during their transition from early to late adolescence. Adolescents and parents in both sites identified mothers as the primary actor, socializing adolescents into how to dress and behave and what gender roles to play, although fathers were also mentioned as influential. Opposite-sex interactions were restricted, and violations enforced by physical violence. In Delhi, gender roles and mobility were more strictly enforced for girls than boys. Restrictions on opposite-sex interactions were rigid for both boys and girls in Delhi and Shanghai. Sanctions, including beating, for violating norms about boy-girl relationships were more punitive than those related to dress and demeanor, especially in Delhi. Education and career expectations were notably more equitable in Shanghai. Parents teach their children to adhere to inequitable gender norms in both Delhi and Shanghai. However, education and career expectations for boys and girls in the two sites differed. Although gender norms varied by site according to the particular cultural and historical context, similar patterns of gender inequity reflect the underlying patriarchal system in both settings. The tendency of parents to pass on the norms they grew up with is evident, yet these results illustrate the social construction of gender through children

  9. Hispanic Health: CDC Vitalsigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  10. Hispanic American Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…

  11. Study of School Environment and Prevalence of Obesity & Its Predictors among Adolescent (10-13 Years) Belonging to a Private School in an Urban Indian City

    OpenAIRE

    Mehan Meenakshi, Munshi Aparna, Surabhi Somila, Bhatt Trushna, Kantharia Neha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent shift in lifestyle and behavioral patterns in population have caused an obesity epidemic during formative years. Present study evaluated existing health and nutrition policies in a private school in an urban Indian city and assessed prevalence of obesity in adolescent children & their association if any, with predictive behaviors of obesity. Methods: A private coeducational school located in an urban Indian city was selected and its existing health policies were eva...

  12. Stress in the City: Influence of Urban Social Stress and Violence on Pregnancy and Postpartum Quality of Life among Adolescent and Young Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Powell, Adeya; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent and young mothers transitioning from pregnancy to postpartum need to maintain an optimal quality of life. Stress and exposure to violence (e.g., intimate partner violence (IPV), nonpartner violence) are predictors of poor quality of life for adult women; however, these associations remain understudied among adolescent and young mothers in urban areas. Guided by the social ecological model, the current study created a latent variable, urban social stress, to examine the impact of the urban social environment (i.e., stressful life events, discrimination, family stress, and neighborhood problems) on the quality of life of adolescent and young mothers during both pregnancy and postpartum. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 296 expectant young mothers recruited at obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Results from structural equation and multigroup models found that higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life during pregnancy, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-exposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. In the postpartum period, higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-unexposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. Stress reduction programs need to help adolescent and young mothers in urban areas develop stress management skills specific to urban social stress. Pregnancy and parenting programs need to be tailored to the specific needs of young mothers in urban areas by becoming sensitive to the role of IPV and nonpartner violence in these young women's lives.

  13. Adolescent and parent use of new technologies for health communication: a study in an urban Latino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Smaldone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mobile communication technologies provide novel opportunities to support clinic-based health initiatives. Adoption of technologies for daily use and for health communication can differ between communities, depending upon demographic and cultural characteristics. Design and methods. A survey was administered in adolescent primary care and subspecialty clinics to assess parent-adolescent preferences in use of mobile technologies and social media to support provider-patient communication in an urban Latino community. Results. Of 130 respondents (65 parent-adolescent pairs, approximately half frequently sent and received text messages but lacked agreement regarding the other’s text messaging use. In contrast, adolescents only rarely used email compared to parents (15.4% versus 37.5%, P=0.006. Of social media, FacebookTM/MySpaceTM was most frequently used by parents and youth (60% and 55.4%, P=0.59; however, most lacked interest in using social media for health communication. Parents reported more interest than adolescents in receiving email (73.4% versus 35.9%, P<0.001 and text messages (58.5% versus 33.9%, P=0.005 for health, but had more concerns about privacy issues (26.2% versus 9.2%, P=0.01. Respondents who were American born (aOR 5.7, 95%CI 1.2-28.5 or regularly used Instant Messaging or FacebookTM/MySpaceTM (aOR 4.6, 95%CI 1.4-14.7 were more likely to be interested in using social media for health communication. Conclusions. These findings underscore the importance of targeted assessment for planning the utilization of communication technologies and social media in clinical care or research for underserved youth.

  14. The Internet as a source of reproductive health information among adolescent girls in an urban city in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagwu, Williams E

    2007-12-20

    There exists some research evidence regarding how adolescents utilize the Internet for health information seeking purposes. The purpose of this study is to understand how in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls in Owerri, Nigeria use online resources to meet their reproductive health information needs. The result could be considered very crucial in assessing the potential role of the Internet in providing health information to adolescent girls in a typical Nigerian urban city. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 1011 adolescent girls in selected secondary schools in the communities, and also from 134 out-of-school girls selected from the same communities. More than 73% of the girls reported having ever used the Internet; more than 74% and 68% of them being in-school and out-of-school respectively. The in-school girls (43.9%) reported having home access more than the out-of-school (5.6%) although the out-of-school have used the Internet for finding reproductive and related information more than the in-school. While parents (66.22%) and teachers (56.15%) are the two sources most used to the in-school girls, friends (63.18%) and the Internet (55.19%) were reported by the out-of-school youth as the two most used sources of information to them. The Internet is not a first choice of source of reproductive health information for both the in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls in Owerri, Nigeria. The source is however, more commonly used by the out-of-school than the in-school, but the in-school have a more favorable assessment of the quality of information they obtain from the Internet.

  15. Amount of Hispanic youth exposure to food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, Frances; Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to large numbers of television advertisements for foods and beverages with little or no nutritional value likely contributes to poor diet among youth. Given higher rates of obesity and overweight for Hispanic youth, it is important to understand the amount and types of food advertising they view. To quantify the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by Hispanic youth on Spanish- and English-language television and compare it with the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by non-Hispanic youth. Data on gross rating points that measured advertising viewed on national broadcast and cable television in 2010 using a Nielsen panel of television-viewing households of Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers (2-5 years), children (6-11 years), and adolescents (12-17 years). Food and beverage television advertisements viewed on English- and Spanish-language television by product category and television-viewing times by age and language preference. EXPOSURE Food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television. RESULTS In 2010, Hispanic preschoolers, children, and adolescents viewed, on average, 11.6 to 12.4 television food ads per day; the majority of these ads (75%-85%) appeared on English-language television. Fast food represented a higher proportion of food ads on Spanish-language television. Consistent with television-viewing patterns, Hispanic preschoolers saw more Spanish-language food advertisements than did Hispanic children and adolescents. Owing to somewhat less food advertising on Spanish-language television, Hispanic children and adolescents viewed 14% and 24% fewer food ads overall, respectively, compared with non-Hispanic youth. Spanish-language television viewing was highly concentrated among youth who primarily speak Spanish. Both Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth view large numbers of television advertisements for nutrient-poor categories of food and beverage. Although Hispanic children and adolescents see somewhat

  16. DOES RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION PLACE ADOLESCENTS AT RISK OF DELETERIOUS SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OUTCOMES? EVIDENCE FROM HAITI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the links between migration and sexual and reproductive health among rural-to-urban migrant youth in Haiti. It evaluates behavioural, knowledge and attitudinal components from the perspective of three competing explanations for migrants' behaviours: adaptation, disruption and selection. Discrete-time event history analysis is employed to compare these hypotheses using Haiti Demographic and Health Survey data (N=1215 adolescent girls, N=829 adolescent boys). Multi-level models are used to compare changes in knowledge and attitudes in individuals using data from the Haiti Youth Transitions Study (N=223). The findings reveal that disruption is the most plausible explanation for the timing of migration and first sex among girls. However, contrary to the assumption that migrant youth risk experiencing first sex earlier, girls are less likely to experience first sex near the time they migrate, and rural-to-urban migrant boys may experience first sex at later ages. The high aspirations of migrant youth provide a likely explanation for these findings. Furthermore, male migrants accumulate less protective knowledge, which is consistent with the disruption hypothesis, and migrants endorse premarital sex similarly to non-migrants. Sexual and reproductive health curricula should be adapted to the unique needs of migrant youth, and youth should be targeted before they migrate.

  17. Dysphoria among Hispanic Working Women: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Five affective and personality instruments were completed by 126 urban Hispanic working women, aged 18-65. Dysphoria was positively related to role conflict and negatively related to masculinity (instrumentality), life satisfaction, and self-esteem (the latter 3 having positive correlations with each other). Educational attainment was negatively…

  18. Cross-Cultural Standardization of TEMAS in Three Hispanic Subcultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    TEMAS is an apperception test depicting Hispanic and Black characters (minority version) or White characters (non-minority version) interacting in urban settings and expressing culturally oriented themes. It is scored for cognitive, affective, and personality functioning. The normative profiles, reliability, and criterion-related validity of TEMAS…

  19. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  20. Correlates of Anxiety Sensitivity among African American Adolescents Living in Urban Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lambert, Sharon F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines individual, social, and contextual correlates of anxiety sensitivity among African American adolescents living in public housing. The study also reports prevalence of anxiety sensitivity among this population of youth. Participants included 238 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.6) living in three public housing…

  1. Online Activities of Urban Malaysian Adolescents: Report of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Eng; Yen Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee; Guan Saw, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The literacy practices of many communities today show new ways of meaning making in the contemporary, technological and digital culture. A number of Malaysian adolescents belong to this culture. This pilot study reports the preliminary findings of a larger study aimed at describing the online activities of Malaysian adolescents. Fifty-four…

  2. The Association between Asthma and Sleep in Urban Adolescents with Undiagnosed Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinis Mitchell, Daphne; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Williams, Brittney; Cespedes, Amarilis; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined associations between asthma and sleep in a sample of inner-city adolescents with asthma-like symptoms who are undiagnosed, and to assess the extent to which youth's report of perceived stress moderates this association. Methods: A total of 349 adolescents (83% girls), with a mean age of 15.8 years, and their primary…

  3. Sociocultural Variations in the Body Image Perceptions of Urban Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…

  4. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Modiehi Heather; Pisa, Pedro T; Feeley, Alison B; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural ( n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban ( n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114-2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106-2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007-1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For "Year 15" adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099-2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299-0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218-0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324-0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  5. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02, eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01, and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05 were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01, was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  6. Adolescent and parent use of new technologies for health communication: a study in an urban latino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Arlene; Stockwell, Melissa S; Osborne, Jennel C; Cortes, Yamnia; Bekele, ElShadey; Green, Nancy S

    2015-02-20

    Mobile communication technologies provide novel opportunities to support clinic-based health initiatives. Adoption of technologies for daily use and for health communication can differ between communities, depending upon demographic and cultural characteristics. A survey was administered in adolescent primary care and subspecialty clinics to assess parent-adolescent preferences in use of mobile technologies and social media to support provider-patient communication in an urban Latino community. Of 130 respondents (65 parent-adolescent pairs), approximately half frequently sent and received text messages but lacked agreement regarding the other's text messaging use. In contrast, adolescents only rarely used email compared to parents (15.4% versus 37.5%, P=0.006). Of social media, Facebook™/MySpace™ was most frequently used by parents and youth (60% and 55.4%, P=0.59); however, most lacked interest in using social media for health communication. Parents reported more interest than adolescents in receiving email (73.4% versus 35.9%, PInstant Messaging or Facebook™/MySpace™ (aOR 4.6, 95%CI 1.4-14.7) were more likely to be interested in using social media for health communication. These findings underscore the importance of targeted assessment for planning the utilization of communication technologies and social media in clinical care or research for underserved youth. Significance for public healthCommunication technologies provide novel opportunities to support clinic-based health initiatives for underserved youth. However, adoption of technologies among communities may differ depending upon demographic and cultural characteristics. We surveyed a sample of urban Latino parents and youth regarding their current use of mobile and social media technologies and preferences for use of these technologies for health communication. This is the first study to compare the perspective of underserved parents and their youth regarding use of a wide variety of mobile and

  7. Ecological correlates of multiple sexual partnerships among adolescents and young adults in urban Cape Town: a cumulative risk factor approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchiri, Evans; Odimegwu, Clifford; Banda, Pamela; Ntoimo, Lorreta; Adedini, Sunday

    2017-07-01

    Studies in South Africa have reported unsafe levels of risky sexual behvaiours among adolescents and young adults, with the country reporting the highest burden of HIV/AIDS globally, as well as a high rate of teenage pregnancy. While determinants of risky sexual behaviours have been investigated for factors occurring at the individual and household levels, not fully explored in the literature is the effect of community level factors. Furthermore, it is unclear whether risk factors occurring within the ecology of adolescents and young adults act cumulatively to influence their sexual practices. This article aims to address this knowledge gap using a case study of the Cape Area Panel Study of adolescents and young adults in urban Cape Town, South Africa. The ecological framework was adopted to guide the selection of risk factors at the individual, household, and community levels. Multivariate linear discriminant function analyses were used to select significant risk factors for multiple sexual partnerships and used to produce risk indices for the respondents. The cumulative risk approach was applied to test whether significant risk factors acted cumulatively. Findings point to the importance of ecological factors in influencing outcomes of multiple sexual partnerships among respondents and further demonstrate that ecological risk factors may act cumulatively. These findings are important for South Africa that is grappling with teenage pregnancy and disproportionate HIV epidemic among the youth.

  8. Health status of Hispanic elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassford, T L

    1995-02-01

    Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.

  9. Does Parental Monitoring Moderate the Relation between Parent-Child Communication and Pre-Coital Sexual Behaviours among Urban, Minority Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Swank, Paul; Baumler, Elizabeth; McCurdy, Sheryl; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parental monitoring (PM) as a potential moderator of the relation between parent-child communication (PCC) and pre-coital sexual behaviours (PCSB) in an urban, minority, early adolescent population. Seventh-grade students (n = 1609) reported PCC, PM and PCSB. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess for…

  10. Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem, and Perceived Efficacy as Mediators of the Relation of Supportive Parenting to Psychosocial Outcomes among Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, R.R.; Prelow, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships among supportive parenting, ethnic identity, self-esteem, perceived efficacy, and psychological adjustment in an urban sample of 133 African American (M age=16.37) and 110 European American (M age=16.43) adolescents. Although the mediational model was partially supported for both…

  11. Comparisons Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Informal Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Karlin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17 and non-Hispanic White (n = 17 caregivers in this study in several areas. Hispanic caregivers indicated fewer sources of income, had less investment money for family member’s treatment, reported caregiving as a greater interference with life’s accomplishments, and indicated a lesser percentage of the total care cost provided by the family member. Non-Hispanic White caregivers reported having completed a higher level of formal education and that organized religion’s importance prior to becoming a caregiver was not quite as important as compared with the Hispanic care provider. With current trends, of demographic and cultural changes, it is crucial to fully understand the changing role and needs of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White caregivers.

  12. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R Isasi

    Full Text Available The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084, a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing, and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and percentage body fat (%BF. Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background. Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF. These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  13. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Kaplan, Robert C; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  14. Urban adolescent high-risk sexual behavior: corroboration of focus group discussions through pile-sorting. The AIDS Youth Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Aronson, R; Borgatti, S; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1993-01-01

    Risk activities for acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain prevalent among urban adolescents. While interdisciplinary approaches to examine the variables contributing to risk/protective behaviors have been promoted, strategies for such explorations require further formulation. Recently we employed focus group discussions to explore factors placing urban adolescents at risk for engaging in HIV risk behaviors. The focus group format enables substantial interaction on a topic in a limited time period, but does not always provide expression of the full range of behavioral options. In this study we investigated the use of pile-sorts for confirmation of impressions from focus group discussions among 57 urban youths aged 10-14. The pile-sorts revealed some support for most of the views expressed in the group discussions. However, the sorts revealed more variability in views than was expressed in the group discussions. Substantial gender and age-based differences in perceptions were revealed with potentially important intervention implications.

  15. Intersections between polyvictimisation and mental health among adolescents in five urban disadvantaged settings: the role of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mphatso Kamndaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvictimisation (PV – exposure to violence across multiple contexts – causes considerable morbidity and mortality among adolescents. Despite high levels of violence in urban disadvantaged settings, gender differences in associations between PV and mental health have not been well established. Methods We analysed data from a survey with 2393 adolescents aged 15-19 years, recruited using respondent-driven sampling from urban disadvantaged settings in Baltimore (USA, Delhi (India, Ibadan (Nigeria, Johannesburg (South Africa and Shanghai (China. PV was defined as exposure to two or more types of violence in the past 12 months with family, peers, in the community, or from intimate partners and non-partner sexual violence. Weighted logistic regression models are presented by gender to evaluate whether PV is associated with posttraumatic stress, depression, suicidal thoughts and perceived health status. Results PV was extremely common overall, but ranged widely, from 74.5% of boys and 82.0% of girls in Johannesburg, to 25.8 and 23.9% respectively in Shanghai. Community violence was the predominant violence type, affecting 72.8–93.7% across the sites. More than half of girls (53.7% and 45.9% of boys had at least one adverse mental health outcome. Compared to those that did not report violence, boys exposed to PV had 11.4 higher odds of having a negative perception of health (95%CI adjusted OR = 2.45-53.2, whilst this figure was 2.58 times in girls (95%CI = 1.62-4.12. Among girls, PV was associated with suicidal thoughts (adjusted OR = 4.68; 95%CI = 2.29-9.54, posttraumatic stress (aOR = 4.53; 95%CI = 2.44-8.41 and depression (aOR = 2.65; 95%CI = 1.25-5.63. Among boys, an association was only detected between PV and depression (aOR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.00-3.33. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that PV is common among both sexes in urban disadvantaged settings across the world, and that it is associated

  16. Intersections between polyvictimisation and mental health among adolescents in five urban disadvantaged settings: the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Pisa, Pedro T; Chersich, Matthew F; Decker, Michele R; Olumide, Adesola; Acharya, Rajib; Cheng, Yan; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2017-07-04

    Polyvictimisation (PV) - exposure to violence across multiple contexts - causes considerable morbidity and mortality among adolescents. Despite high levels of violence in urban disadvantaged settings, gender differences in associations between PV and mental health have not been well established. We analysed data from a survey with 2393 adolescents aged 15-19 years, recruited using respondent-driven sampling from urban disadvantaged settings in Baltimore (USA), Delhi (India), Ibadan (Nigeria), Johannesburg (South Africa) and Shanghai (China). PV was defined as exposure to two or more types of violence in the past 12 months with family, peers, in the community, or from intimate partners and non-partner sexual violence. Weighted logistic regression models are presented by gender to evaluate whether PV is associated with posttraumatic stress, depression, suicidal thoughts and perceived health status. PV was extremely common overall, but ranged widely, from 74.5% of boys and 82.0% of girls in Johannesburg, to 25.8 and 23.9% respectively in Shanghai. Community violence was the predominant violence type, affecting 72.8-93.7% across the sites. More than half of girls (53.7%) and 45.9% of boys had at least one adverse mental health outcome. Compared to those that did not report violence, boys exposed to PV had 11.4 higher odds of having a negative perception of health (95%CI adjusted OR = 2.45-53.2), whilst this figure was 2.58 times in girls (95%CI = 1.62-4.12). Among girls, PV was associated with suicidal thoughts (adjusted OR = 4.68; 95%CI = 2.29-9.54), posttraumatic stress (aOR = 4.53; 95%CI = 2.44-8.41) and depression (aOR = 2.65; 95%CI = 1.25-5.63). Among boys, an association was only detected between PV and depression (aOR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.00-3.33). The findings demonstrate that PV is common among both sexes in urban disadvantaged settings across the world, and that it is associated with poor mental health outcomes in girls, and with poor

  17. A cross-sectional study to assess awareness about menstruation in adolescent girls of an urban slum in western Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudeja, Puja; Sindhu, Apoorva; Shankar, Pooja; Gadekar, Tukaram

    2016-10-14

    Reproductive health of adolescent girls is crucial as it determines the health of future generations. School girls when experiencing menarche find themselves in a setting without water, toilets or a supportive female teacher to explain the changes happening in their body. An important concern for adolescent girls is to have adequate, correct knowledge along with facilities and the cultural environment to manage menstruation hygienically and with dignity. Hence, the present study was done to assess knowledge and practices about menstruation in adolescent school girls of an urban slum. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among girls of a Government School located in an urban slum of western Maharashtra. A total of 250 girls participated. Data collection was through a pilot-tested questionnaire. The data thus collected were entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using the SPSS 20 software. All girls were educated about menstrual hygiene after the study. The mean age of the students was 14.9±1.75 years. The mean age at menarche was 11.97 (95% CI: 11.94-11.99). It was observed that only half (56.4%) had acquired prior knowledge about attaining menarche. Out of these in a large proportion, the knowledge was imparted to them by their mothers (60.7%), followed by friends (31.8%). There was no significant association between educational status of mother and awareness in respondent about menstruation. Regarding the organ of menstrual blood flow, half (50.7%) knew the correct answer (i.e. uterus); whereas the rest believed that it was stomach/kidney, etc. Most of the school girls (90.5%) used sanitary pads. Almost 90% of the young women faced physical complaints or health problems during menstruation. Most of the participants had some kind of restrictions on them during the menstruation and most of these were religious restrictions (69.7%) followed by physical (41.2%) and social restrictions (22.3%). All of them were unsatisfied with the toilets and

  18. A STUDY OF HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOUR AMONGST 14-19 YEAR ADOLESCENT STUDENTS IN URBAN AREAS OF DISTRICT JHANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Kariwal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the prevalence of health risk behaviours amongst 14-19 year adolescent students in urban areas of District Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Units of study and Study area: 14-I9year old adolescent students studying in various Colleges ofJhansi. Sampling technique: Two stage cluster sampling. Participants :366 students [263 (71.86% male and I 03 (28.14% female]. Results: Main risk behaviour amongstudents found to be cigarette/bidi smoking, drinking alcohol and tobacco use. 15.30% students tried cigarette/bidi smoking at least once in lifetime while 5.46% smokers tried smoking at age less than 14 years. 0.82% students were found doing heavy smoking. Among smokers 21.03% never fried to quit smoking in past 6 months. All these behaviours were more common among male than in female. Out of all students, 19.95% had ever drink alcohol and 4.64% had theirfirst drink of alcohol at age less than14 years. Drinking habits were also more common among male than in female. Favourite celebrity were the most common role models seen smoking (38.79% and drinking (16. 94% followed by father smoking (24.60% and drinking (14.48%.

  19. Disordered eating and body image issues and their associated factors among adolescents in urban secondary schools in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Hazmi, Helmy; Chang, Ching Thon

    2017-04-01

    Eating disorders are common health issues among the adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and their relationship with body mass index, body part satisfaction and perception on body weight among urban secondary school children. It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Kuching, Sarawak. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire that consist of the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), perception on body part satisfaction and body weight, and anthropometric measurement. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 22. A total of 329 respondents participated in this study with 59% females and 60.5% Malays. There were 14.3% of the respondents overweight and obese, with higher percentage among males (19.3%). About 18.5% of the respondents were found to be at risk of eating disorders with higher prevalence among males (19.3%). More females reported to have higher prevalence of body part dissatisfaction (46.9%) and body weight (37.6%) compared to males (40%, 28.1%). The statistical results indicated there were significant associations between EAT-26 and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.039), body part satisfaction (p=0.004), and perception of body weight (p=0.038). Eating disorders are becoming more prevalent amongst adolescents, particularly among males. As eating disorder are strongly associated with adolescent mental and physical health, intervention programme on their developmental challenges and issues for both males and females should be in place particularly in the school education syllabus.

  20. impact of life style on body Weight in adolescents on the basis of questionnaire findings in selected group of youth from rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ścibor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and primary obesity in children and adolescents is a crucial problem in public health. Obese children and adolescents are especially susceptible to obesity in adulthood and consequently exposed to many obesity related diseases. Objective: Evaluation of overweight and primary obesity in urban and rural youth populations and comparison of life style concerning: physical activity, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits among overweight and obese adolescents and their peers with proper Body Mass Index value. Materials and methods: The study was performed in the group of 136 students from junior high school. The students with BMI value over 85th percentile of sex-specific growth charts were classified as overweight. Research tool was a questionnaire. Results: 15,9% of adolescents were overweight, out of which 4,5% were obese. There was not a significant relation between Body Mass Index and the place of residence. Overweight and obese adolescents revealed lower physical activity and tendency to spend much more time playing computer games. Adolescents with overweight or obesity did not regularly have breakfast at weekends, more often had sweets and sweet drinks and also high energy and very salty snacks instead. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem among students from junior high school population which calls for taking immediate preventive measures to promote healthy lifestyle among children and adolescents.

  1. Hispanic College Students Library Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Risa; Newman, Eric; Brown, Haakon T.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at undergraduate Hispanic students' interpretations and current perceptions of the academic library's purpose, usefulness and value. What are the reasons to use the library? What are the barriers to use? This study will examine academic libraries' move toward electronic library materials and what it means for Hispanic students.…

  2. Novel psychoactive substances: use and knowledge among adolescents and young adults in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Lupi, Matteo; Carlucci, Leonardo; Cinosi, Eduardo; Santacroce, Rita; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Chillemi, Eleonora; Bonifaci, Ludovica; Janiri, Luigi; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are new psychotropic drugs, not scheduled under the International Conventions on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a relevant public health threat. In this study, we investigated knowledge and use of NPS in a sample of Italian youth in urban and rural areas. Between December 2012 and October 2013, we administered a questionnaire to a sample of 3011 healthy subjects (44.7% men; 55.3% women), aged between 16 and 24 years and recruited in urban, intermediate and rural areas of Italy. Of the global sample, 53.3% declared to have some knowledge on NPS, with a higher knowledge in urban areas. Mephedrone (26%), desomorphine (22.6%) and methamphetamine (21.7%) were the most commonly known drugs. NPS use was reported by 4.7% of the sample, without significant differences between urban and rural areas; mephedrone (3.3%), synthetic cannabinoids (1.2%) and Salvia divinorum (0.3%) consumption has been identified. NPS use was also predictive of binge-drinking behaviours (χ(2) (4) = 929.58, p < .001). Urban areas may represent a focal point for preventive strategies, given the presence of higher levels of NPS knowledge. Moreover, the association between binge-drinking habits and NPS use was really strong. This issue should not be underestimated because of its medical, psychopathological and social consequences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The impact of AIDS on an urban population of high-risk female minority adolescents: implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, K J; Kegeles, S M

    1994-05-01

    This study's purpose was to describe acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related concerns, risk behaviors, and psychosocial/situational determinants of condom use among an urban minority population of sexually active, adolescent girls. In addition we sought to define the accuracy of personal AIDS risk-assessment, the relative importance of AIDS in relation to other concerns, and the broader context of sexual experience and attitudes in this population. A cross-sectional interview study was conducted involving sexually active female adolescents attending a pediatric clinic in an inner-city university-affiliated community hospital. Sixty-nine subjects (ages 13-19 yr, 90% African-American) were enrolled. While the goals of this study were primarily descriptive, subject characteristics felt to impact on condom use were identified prior to data collection and were examined against several measures of usage including: use at the time of last sexual intercourse, overall frequency of condom use, and reported behavior change to include initiation of or increased condom usage. Forty-one percent of participants reported knowing someone with AIDS. Global concern regarding this disease was high, although worry about poverty-related issues was often greater. Despite concern and high measures of AIDS risk (median number of sex partners, 3; past sexually transmitted disease, 55%; past pregnancy 77%), most participants perceived themselves to be at low personal risk owing to current monogamy, lack of intravenous drug use, and implicit trust in their partner's safety. Discussion with their partner about actual risk and awareness of the importance of past behaviors was generally lacking. Although 98% were aware that condoms may prevent AIDS, 64% used condoms half of the time or less when they had sex and use appeared to be primarily for contraception. Several intrinsic cognitive/psychological and extrinsic social/situational factors were found to correlate with measures of

  4. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Peruvian adolescents living in a peri-urban shantytown: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbs, Elizabeth S; Viñoles, José; Alarcón, Jorge O; Johnson, Heather M; Zunt, Joseph R

    2017-05-22

    Adults of the peri-urban Peruvian shantytown of Lomas de Zapallal have a high prevalence of risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-likely due to behavioral choices established during childhood and adolescence. To guide the development of community-based risk reduction programs, we assessed the prevalence of risk factors for developing CVD among adolescents. We collected cross sectional data from adolescents of Peruvian peri-urban shantytown to evaluate four domains of CVD risk factors: (1) clinical (blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids), (2) anthropometric (height, weight, and waist circumference), (3) behavioral (physical activity, diet, and substance abuse), and (4) psychosocial (mental health and violence). We enrolled 275 adolescents (56.4% female, mean age 14 years). Prevalence of overweight or obese status was 27.8%. High blood pressure was more common in males (37.4%) than females (20.5%) (p = 0.002). Total cholesterol was elevated (>170 mg/dL) in nearly half (45.5%) of the adolescents, and 71% had impaired fasting blood glucose (>100 mg/dL). Females were less likely to exercise daily (95.4%) than males (84.2%) (p = 0.002) but reported higher rates of depression (66.4%), anhedonia (67.6%), and self-harm behavior (37.9%) (all p < 0.01). Adolescents living in the peri-urban population of Puente Piedra had high prevalence of risk factors for future development of CVD; preventative efforts focused on improving nutrition, increasing physical inactivity, and addressing mental health conditions could reduce such risk factors.

  5. Poverty and Depressed Mood among Urban African-American Adolescents: A Family Stress Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…

  6. Drug Trafficking and Drug Use among Urban African American Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…

  7. The Female Condom: Effectiveness and Convenience, Not "Female Control," Valued by U.S. Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess

    2008-01-01

    Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…

  8. Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among Greek urban adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Liozidou

    2015-10-01

    Greek adolescents report lower smoking rates than previously reported, yet it is a population experimenting with tobacco products. Electronic cigarette emerged as the third most likely product of experimentation. The social origin of smoking behavior is confirmed, as well as the imperative need to encourage tobacco-free school policies and bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.

  9. Social Support and Low-Income, Urban Mothers: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Roche, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of engaged parenting in explaining longitudinal associations between maternal perceptions of social network support and whether youth engage in delinquent behaviors during the transition into adolescence. The sample included 432 low-income, African American and Latino youth (49% female) and their mothers…

  10. The Relationship between Religiosity and Adjustment among African-American, Female, Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…

  11. Physical Fitness, Grit, School Attendance, and Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jonathan M; Chen, Yen T; Castelli, Darla M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of grit as a construct representing perseverance to overcoming barriers and the total number of school absences to academic performance (AP) while controlling for sociodemographics, fitness (i.e., PACER), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Adolescents ( N = 397, SD = 1.85; 80.9% females; 77.1% Hispanic) from an urban, minority-majority city in the Southern United States completed the FitnessGram® assessment of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and Body Mass Index (BMI)) and the valid and reliable short grit survey. The schools provided sociodemographics, attendance, and AP data for the adolescents. Adolescents with higher grit scores ( r s = 0.21, P < 0.001) and less total absences ( r s = -0.35, P < 0.001) performed better on AP. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that grit and absences were associated with AP ( β = 0.13, P < 0.01 and β = -0.35, P < 0.001, resp.). Grit and a total number of absences are significant contributors to academic success, particularly among Hispanic adolescents. Further, grit and school attendance may serve as a better measure of protective factors over proximal health measures of cardiovascular health and BMI.

  12. Predicting Unprotected Sex and Unplanned Pregnancy among Urban African-American Adolescent Girls Using the Theory of Gender and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing.

  13. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  14. Exposure to Violence and Sexual Risk among Early Adolescents in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Guinosso, Stephanie A.; Glassman, Jill R.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Wilson, Helen W.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between exposure to violence, fear of exposure to violence, and sexual risk among a sample of urban middle school youth. The sample included 911 seventh-grade students who completed self-report surveys. Approximately 20% of the sample reported at least one direct threat or injury with a weapon in the past 3…

  15. Effectiveness of a Combined Tutoring and Mentoring Intervention with Ninth-Grade, Urban Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Wang, Dan; Piliawsky, Monte

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a combined tutoring and mentoring intervention for urban, low-income Black youth during the transition to high school. Participants were 118 ninth-grade students (experimental n = 69; comparison n = 49). After 7 months in the intervention program, students in the experimental group showed…

  16. Adolescents' Motivation in the Context of an Academic Vocabulary Intervention in Urban Middle School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Harris, Julie Russ; Sloane, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    In a large urban district's ELA classrooms, an academic vocabulary intervention designed to improve linguistically diverse 6th-graders' reading and language skills was implemented and evaluated. These classrooms were characterized by high numbers of struggling readers, and linguistic diversity was the norm. As part of the evaluation, this study…

  17. Neighborhood Environment, Self-Efficacy, and Physical Activity in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Yan, Alice F.; Clifton, Kelly J.; Wang, Min Qi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To test the pathways between perceptions of built environment factors and physical activity in urban youth. Methods: Three hundred fifty high school students' perceptions of neighborhood, and barrier self efficacy were measured by a Web survey. Physical activities were assessed using a one-week diary and accelerometers. Results:…

  18. Psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in urban adolescents with suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, M B; Kaslow, N J; Abbate, M F; Cronan, S

    1994-04-01

    This study examined psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in 121 African-American adolescents who attempted suicide. Group means suggested that these youths, when taken together, were not reporting significant psychological distress. However, after classifying the youths into three groups by level of depressive symptoms interesting findings emerged. Youth self-reports of depressive symptoms on the Children's Depression Inventory were associated with the presence of internalizing and externalizing disorders on the Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist, and with a maladaptive attributional style. Sixty-seven percent of participants classified their family types as maladaptive in terms of levels of cohesion and/or adaptability. In fact, the majority of adolescents and parents reported their families as disengaged. These findings are discussed from a culturally and developmentally sensitive framework which considers key demographic variables (race, socioeconomic status, age). Clinical implications are offered for individual and family interventions.

  19. Prosocial Conduct in Urban Middle Schools: Do Young Adolescents' Experiences of the School Context Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    White, Samantha Jane Almaraz Simmons

    2013-01-01

    Young adolescents spend the majority of their time in school, yet little is known about how the school context is associated with their prosocial conduct. The current study focused on 1) the extent to which individual students were teamed with their classmates and 2) their exposure to ethnically diverse peers, and examined the processes by which these aspects of the school context were associated with their prosocial conduct. Multilevel mediation models were fit to multiply imputed question...

  20. Prevalence and correlates of overweight/obesity among adolescents in an Urban City of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Rohilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Obesity and overweight is a growing pandemic affecting millions of adolescents in developed as well as developing countries. Obesity is associated with the onset of major chronic diseases leading to complications and also psychosocial problems in adolescents. The greater concern is that the risks of obesity during childhood will persist into adolescence and adulthood. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of being overweight and obesity and to study the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: 1900 adolescents in the age group of 10-19 years were included in the study. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire which included the variables such as going to school by bus or cycle, eating habits, playing video/computer games or outdoor games and sibling count were recorded. Body weight and height were recorded in subjects for calculating body mass index (BMI. International Obesity Task Force (IOTF classification was used for the estimation of being overweight and obese. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 14.84 years (SD = 2.81. Mean weight increased from 34.7 to 55.09 kg from the age group 10-13 to 17-19 years. Mean height also increased from 1.34 to 1.57 m from the age group 10-13 to 17-19 years. Similarly, the mean body mass index was 19.23 at 10-13 years, followed by 21.11 at 14-16 years and 22.46 at 17-19 years. On binary logistic regression analysis, female gender, bus as a mode of transport, not playing games, and single sibling were found to have independent association with prevalence of being overweight.

  1. Resilience among Urban American Indian Adolescents: Exploration into the Role of Culture, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was…

  2. Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-01-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emo...

  3. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity among Urban Saudi Adolescents: Gender and Regional Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197

  4. Transitions to adulthood in urban Kenya: A focus on adolescent migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Clark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Migration is often intrinsically tied to key adolescent transitions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, while many adolescents move in order to improve their life trajectories, migration may also coincide with new challenges and considerable disruption of family support. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to better understand how migration and associated changes in family support are related to youth's prospects of finishing secondary school, finding employment, getting married, and initiating child-bearing. METHODS Drawing on detailed life history data from over 600 young men and women in Kisumu, Kenya, we use piecewise exponential survival analysis to examine how migration is related to key transitions to adulthood and how variation in family support moderates these relationships. All analyses are run separately for young men and women. RESULTS Migration is associated with a sharp decline in parental support and a corresponding rise in reliance on other relatives, partners, or one's self. For both men and women, migration also frequently coincides with a permanent exodus from school, which cannot be fully explained by changes in family support or transitions into marriage or work. We find strong evidence that young men move to Kisumu to obtain their first jobs and little evidence of subsequent discrimination against male migrants in the labor market. For young women, not only does migration coincide with marriage, but young female migrants also get married and become pregnant at younger ages after they have moved. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent migrants experience significantly lower levels of parental support, are more likely to drop out of school, and make earlier transitions to adult roles, potentially increasing their long-term economic and social vulnerability.

  5. Sleep duration, schedule and quality among urban Chinese children and adolescents: associations with routine after-school activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. METHODS: Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4-8 living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students' sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time, and potential correlates. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001 and went to bed later (p<0.001, a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005 and bedtime (p=0.002. Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children's use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated.

  6. Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form for Assessing Behavior in a Sample of Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Terri N; Thompson, Erin L

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the structure and validity of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form (PBFS-TR) for assessing students' frequency of specific forms of aggression and victimization, and positive behavior. Analyses were conducted on two waves of data from 727 students from two urban middle schools (Sample 1) who were rated by their teachers on the PBFS-TR and the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), and on data collected from 1,740 students from three urban middle schools (Sample 2) for whom data on both the teacher and student report version of the PBFS were obtained. Confirmatory factor analyses supported first-order factors representing 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 3 forms of victimization (physical, verbal and relational), and 2 forms of positive behavior (prosocial behavior and effective nonviolent behavior), and higher-order factors representing aggression, victimization, and positive behavior. Strong measurement invariance was established over gender, grade, intervention condition, and time. Support for convergent validity was found based on correlations between corresponding scales on the PBFS-TR and teacher ratings on the SSIS in Sample 1. Significant correlations were also found between teacher ratings on the PBFS-TR and student ratings of their behavior on the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR) and a measure of nonviolent behavioral intentions in Sample 2. Overall the findings provided support for the PBFS-TR and suggested that teachers can provide useful data on students' aggressive and prosocial behavior and victimization experiences within the school setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Lupus among Asians and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Lupus among Asians and Hispanics Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... compared with white women. Signs and Symptom of Lupus Lupus can affect people of all ages. However, ...

  8. The association between self-reported diet quality and health-related quality of life in rural and urban Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Kristy A; Jacka, Felice; Allender, Steven; Kremer, Peter; Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; de Silva, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between diet quality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in rural and urban Australian adolescents, and gender differences. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools. 722 rural and 422 urban students from 19 secondary schools. Self-report dietary-related behaviours, demographic information, HRQoL (AQoL-6D) were collected. Healthy and unhealthy diet quality scores were calculated; multiple linear regression investigated associations between diet quality and HRQoL. Compared to urban students, rural students had higher HRQoL, higher healthy diet score, lower unhealthy diet score, consumed less soft drink and less frequently, less takeaway and a higher proportion consumed breakfast (P health problems. Such interventions should consider gender and locality. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. Reliability and validity of the modifiable activity questionnaire for an Iranian urban adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Delshad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability on the Persian translation of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ in a sample of Tehranian adolescents. Methods: Of a total of 52 subjects, a sub-sample of 40 participations (55.0% boys was used to assess the reliability and the validity of the physical activity questionnaire. The reliability of the two MAQs was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficients, and validation was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients to compare data between mean of the two MAQs and mean of four physical activity records. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the reliability between two MAQs and the results of leisure time physical activity over the past year were 0.97. Pearson correlation coefficients between mean of two MAQs and mean of four physical activity records were 0.49 (P < 0.001, for leisure time physical activities. Conclusions: High reliability and relatively moderate validity were found for the Persian translation of the MAQ in a Tehranian adolescent population. Further studies with large sample size are suggested to assess the validity more precisely.

  10. Physiological correlates of peer victimization and aggression in African American urban adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLIEWER, WENDY; DIBBLE, ASHLEY E.; GOODMAN, KIMBERLY L.; SULLIVAN, TERRI N.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined physiological correlates (cortisol and α-amylase [AA]) of peer victimization and aggression in a sample of 228 adolescents (45% male, 55% female; 90% African American; M age = 14 years, SD = 1.6 years) who participated in a longitudinal study of stress, physiology, and adjustment. Adolescents were classified into victimization/aggression groups based on patterns with three waves of data. At Wave 3, youth completed the Social Competence Interview (SCI), and four saliva samples were collected prior to, during, and following the SCI. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with victimization/aggression group as the predictor, and physiological measures as outcomes, controlling for time of day, pubertal status, and medication use revealed significant Group×SCI Phase interactions for salivary AA (sAA), but not for cortisol. The results did not differ by sex. For analyses with physical victimization/aggression, aggressive and nonaggressive victims showed increases in sAA during the SCI, nonvictimized aggressors showed a decrease, and the normative contrast group did not show any change. For analyses with relational victimization/aggression, nonaggressive victims were the only group who demonstrated sAA reactivity. Incorporating physiological measures into peer victimization studies may give researchers and clinicians insight into youth’s behavior regulation, and help shape prevention or intervention efforts. PMID:22559136

  11. Instability in Parent-Child Coresidence and Adolescent Development in Urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Letícia J; Cavanagh, Shannon; Prickett, Kate; Clark, Shelley

    2016-03-01

    There is widespread recognition of the importance of family stability for child development. South Africa presents an interesting context in which to study the consequences of family instability because of the traditionally fluid nature of household composition due to labor migration, child fostering, and non-marital fertility. More recently, the HIV pandemic has added another source of instability. Within South Africa, however, patterns of instability differ markedly across racial groups. We use the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS) data to examine the implications of changes in parent-child coresidence for educational and sexual development of young South Africans. We show that changes in maternal and paternal coresidence have implications for the timing of sexual initiation for both black and coloured adolescents. Maternal and paternal transitions also lead to poorer educational outcomes for coloured adolescents, but parental disruptions are not significantly related to educational outcomes for blacks. These findings suggest that the implications of coresidential instability vary by race, reflecting racial differences with respect to cultural, social, and economic conditions. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  12. Building Resilience After School for Early Adolescents in Urban Poverty: Open Trial of Leaders @ Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stacy L; Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Rusch, Dana; Boustani, Maya M; Mehta, Tara G; Reitz, Kristin

    2015-11-01

    Leaders @ Play is a park after-school program for urban middle school youth designed to leverage recreational activities for social emotional learning. Mental health and park staff co-facilitated sports and games to teach and practice problem solving, emotion regulation, and effective communication. Additional practice occurred during multi-family groups and summer internships as junior camp counselors. We examined feasibility and promise via an open trial (n = 3 parks, 46 youth, 100 % African American, 100 % low-income, 59 % female, M = 13.09 years old). Improvements in social skills and reductions in problem behaviors lend support to after school programs as a space for mental health promotion.

  13. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers: The HEALTH-KIDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers. Methods Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago in Fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, and logistic regression models. Results Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal weight- than overweight or obese mothers. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (p<0.05). Conclusions Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association. PMID:19103323

  14. Ethnicity, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and at-risk eating disordered behavior differences of urban adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.

  15. A study of insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and its cut-off value to identify metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashpal; Garg, M K; Tandon, Nikhil; Marwaha, Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and associated metabolic abnormalities are increasingly being reported in the adolescent population. Cut-off value of homeostasis model of assessment IR (HOMA-IR) as an indicator of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents has not been established. This study aimed to investigate IR by HOMA-IR in urban Indian adolescents and to establish cut-off values of HOMA-IR for defining MS. A total of 691 apparently healthy adolescents (295 with normal body mass index (BMI), 205 overweight, and 199 obese) were included in this cross-sectional study. MS in adolescents was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. IR was calculated using the HOMA model. Mean height, waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), waist/height ratio (WHtR), and blood pressure were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. The HOMA-IR values increased progressively from normal weight to obese adolescents in both sexes. Mean HOMA-IR values increased progressively according to sexual maturity rating in both sexes. HOMA-IR value of 2.5 had a sensitivity of >70% and specificity of >60% for MS. This cut-off identified larger number of adolescents with MS in different BMI categories (19.7% in normal weight, 51.7% in overweight, and 77.0% in obese subjects) as compared to the use of IDF or ATP III criteria for diagnosing MS. Odds ratio for having IR (HOMA-IR of >2.5) was highest with WHtR (4.9, p pHOMA-IR increased with sexual maturity and with progression from normal to obese. A HOMA-IR cut-off of 2.5 provided the maximum sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing MS in both genders as per ATP III and IDF criteria.

  16. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  17. Hydration status and fluid intake of urban, underprivileged South African male adolescent soccer players during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reno Eron; Kassier, Susanna Maria; Biggs, Chara

    2015-01-01

    Poor hydration compromises performance and heightens the risk of heat stress which adolescents are particularly susceptible to as they produce comparatively larger amount of metabolic heat during exercise. This study determined the hydration status and fluid intake of socio-economically disadvantaged, male adolescent soccer players during training. A pilot study was conducted among 79 soccer players (mean age 15.9 ± 0.8 years; mean BMI 20.2 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). Hydration status was determined before and after two training sessions, using both urine specific gravity and percent loss of body weight. The type and amount of fluid consumed was assessed during training. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the players' knowledge regarding fluid and carbohydrate requirements for soccer training. Players were at risk of developing heat illness during six of the 14 training sessions (60 - 90 minutes in length). Although on average players were slightly dehydrated (1.023 ± 0.006 g/ml) before and after (1.024 ± 0.007 g/ml) training, some were extremely dehydrated before (24%) and after (27%) training. Conversely some were extremely hyperhydrated before (3%) and after training (6%). The mean percent loss of body weight was 0.7 ± 0.7%. The majority did not consume fluid during the first (57.0%) and second (70.9%) training sessions. An average of 216.0 ± 140.0 ml of fluid was consumed during both training sessions. The majority (41.8%) consumed water, while a few (5.1%) consumed pure fruit juice. More than 90% stated that water was the most appropriate fluid to consume before, during and after training. Very few (5.0%) correctly stated that carbohydrate should be consumed before, during and after training. Approximately a quarter were severely dehydrated. Many did not drink or drank insufficient amounts. The players' beliefs regarding the importance of fluid and carbohydrate consumption did not correspond with their practices. A

  18. Tracking for underweight, overweight and obesity from childhood to adolescence: a 5-year follow-up study in urban Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, M; van Weissenbruch, M M; Prawirohartono, E P; Surjono, A; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2008-01-01

    To assess tracking of body mass index (BMI) of urban Indonesian children from childhood to adolescence and to compare the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old children from two surveys: years 1999 and 2004. A longitudinal study assessing BMI tracking of 308 urban children followed from age 6-8 to 11-13 years and two cross-sectional surveys comparing the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old children: year 1999 (n = 1,524) and 2004 (n = 510). Childhood BMI determined 52.3% variation of later BMI. After 5.1 (0.6) years the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 4.2 and 1.9% in childhood to 8.8 and 3.2% in adolescence. The prevalence of underweight decreased from 27.3 to 18.8%. All obese children remained obese, 84.6% overweight children stayed overweight, 56.0% underweight children remained underweight. In cross-sectional comparison the prevalence of overweight and obesity raised from 5.3 to 8.6% and from 2.7 to 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of underweight remained constant. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increases as children grow into adolescence. Overweight or obese children are more likely to remain overweight or obese. Cross-sectional comparison shows, while the prevalence of underweight stays constant, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increases. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Victims and/or active social agents? A study of adolescent girls with induced abortion in urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2001-01-01

    High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania......High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania...

  20. Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Competence and Self-Worth in Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Grady, Matthew W.; Spoden, Micajah

    2012-01-01

    Problem Urban children who become competent adults despite circumstances that place their development and mental health at risk are considered to be resilient. Less is known about the risk and protective factors that characterize resilience among Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas. Methods Data for regression analyses were collected when children (N = 603; 54% Hispanic/Latino) enrolled in the study in fifth grade, (M=10.4 years of age) and again five years later when they were in high school (M=15 years of age). Findings Statistically significant predictors of competence and self-worth in high schoolers included gender, ethnicity, and mother’s education, as well as stress, temperament (task persistence), and competences measured in grade school. Conclusions Parents’ perceptions of child’s temperament is a significant predictor of future competence and self-worth among rural adolescents. PMID:23121139

  1. Childhood predictors of adolescent competence and self-worth in rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Grady, Matthew W; Spoden, Micajah

    2012-11-01

    Urban children who become competent adults despite circumstances that place their development and mental health at risk are considered to be resilient. Less is known about the risk and protective factors that characterize resilience among Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas. Data for regression analyses were collected when children (n = 603; 54% Hispanic/Latino) enrolled in the study in fifth grade (M = 10.4 years of age), and again 5 years later when they were in high school (M = 15 years of age). Statistically significant predictors of competence and self-worth in high schoolers included gender, ethnicity, and mother's education, as well as stress, temperament (task persistence), and competences measured in grade school. Parents' perception of child's temperament is a significant predictor of future competence and self-worth among rural adolescents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Economic Context and HIV Vulnerability in Adolescents and Young Adults Living in Urban Slums in Kenya: A Qualitative Analysis Based on Scarcity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Mathai, Muthoni; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Trujillo, Antonio; Mak'anyengo, Margaret; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2017-09-01

    Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Results indicated that slum youth made many sexual decisions considered rational from a traditional economics perspective, such as acquiring more sex when resources were available, maximizing wealth through sex, being price-sensitive to costs of condoms or testing services, and taking more risks when protected from adverse sexual consequences. Youth's engagement in sexual risk behaviors was also motivated by scarcity phenomena explained by behavioral economics, such as compensating for sex lost during scarce periods (risk-seeking), valuing economic gains over HIV risks (tunneling, bandwidth tax), and transacting sex as an investment strategy (internal referencing). When scarcity was alleviated, young women additionally described reducing the number of sex partners to account for non-economic preferences (slack). Prevention strategies should address the traditional and behavioral economics of the HIV epidemic.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q and norms for rural and urban adolescent males and females in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Penelo

    Full Text Available AIMS: To contribute new evidence to the controversy about the factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q and to provide, for the first time, norms based on a large adolescent Mexican community sample, regarding sex and area of residence (urban/rural. METHODS: A total of 2928 schoolchildren (1544 females and 1384 males aged 11-18 were assessed with the EDE-Q and other disordered eating questionnaire measures. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis of the attitudinal items of the EDE-Q did not support the four theorized subscales, and a two-factor solution, Restraint and Eating-Shape-Weight concern, showed better fit than the other models examined (RMSEA = .054; measurement invariance for this two-factor model across sex and area of residence was found. Satisfactory internal consistency (ω ≥ .80 and two-week test-retest reliability (ICCa ≥ .84; κ ≥ .56, and evidence for convergent validity with external measures was obtained. The highest attitudinal EDE-Q scores were found for urban females and the lowest scores were found for rural males, whereas the occurrence of key eating disorder behavioural features and compensatory behaviours was similar in both areas of residence. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals satisfactory psychometric properties and provides population norms of the EDE-Q, which may help clinicians and researchers to interpret the EDE-Q scores of adolescents from urban and rural areas in Mexico.

  4. Effect of a text messaging intervention on influenza vaccination in an urban, low-income pediatric and adolescent population: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Melissa S; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Martinez, Raquel Andres; Vargas, Celibell Y; Vawdrey, David K; Camargo, Stewin

    2012-04-25

    Influenza infection results in substantial costs, morbidity, and mortality. Vaccination against influenza is particularly important in children and adolescents who are a significant source of transmission to other high-risk populations, yet pediatric and adolescent vaccine coverage remains low. Traditional vaccine reminders have had a limited effect on low-income populations; however, text messaging is a novel, scalable approach to promote influenza vaccination. To evaluate targeted text message reminders for low-income, urban parents to promote receipt of influenza vaccination among children and adolescents. Randomized controlled trial of 9213 children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years receiving care at 4 community-based clinics in the United States during the 2010-2011 influenza season. Of the 9213 children and adolescents, 7574 had not received influenza vaccine prior to the intervention start date and were included in the primary analysis. Parents of children assigned to the intervention received up to 5 weekly immunization registry-linked text messages providing educational information and instructions regarding Saturday clinics. Both the intervention and usual care groups received the usual care, an automated telephone reminder, and access to informational flyers posted at the study sites. Receipt of an influenza vaccine dose recorded in the immunization registry via an electronic health record by March 31, 2011. Receipt was secondarily assessed at an earlier fall review date prior to typical widespread influenza activity. Study children and adolescents were primarily minority, 88% were publicly insured, and 58% were from Spanish-speaking families. As of March 31, 2011, a higher proportion of children and adolescents in the intervention group (43.6%; n = 1653) compared with the usual care group (39.9%; n = 1509) had received influenza vaccine (difference, 3.7% [95% CI, 1.5%-5.9%]; relative rate ratio [RRR], 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.15]; P = .001). At the

  5. The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities and Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Partners in the Advancement of Hispanic Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon Galdeano, Emily; Flores, Antonio R.; Moder, John

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) and the recognition of Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) occurs at the federal level. HACU's origins and the legislative history of the HSI designation in federal law are explored. The demographic growth and corresponding importance of Hispanics in the…

  6. Hispanic Youth and Military Enlistment Propensity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the issue of Hispanic propensity in more depth than has previously been available, and to identify possible causes of Hispanic youths' declining interest in military service...

  7. [Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in rural and urban adolescents of southern Spain, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and physical and sedentary activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana-María; Moral-García, José-Enrique; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is one of the healthier diet models. Mediterranean food patterns are suffering a deterioration that can especially affect children and adolescents. Determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescents of southern Spain and its relationship with the residence area, sex, age, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and habits of physical activity and sedentary activities. A total of 1973 adolescents (11-18 years) of southern Spain participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. Cut-off value between rural and urban locations was 10000 inhabitants. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was calculated from the KIDMED questionnaire. Life satisfaction, physical activity, and sedentary activities also were measured through valid and reliable questionnaires. Body mass index and % body fat were measured using the TANITA BC-420-S body analyzer. 30.9% of the adolescents reported an optimal quality diet, percent higher in rural locations (P sedentary in front of a screen (P diet had a healthier lifestyle and they showed greater life satisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Durbolota (weakness), chinta rog (worry illness), and poverty: explanations of white discharge among married adolescent women in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2007-03-01

    I carried out ethnographic fieldwork among 153 married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, in a Dhaka slum from December 2001 to January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies. I also held discussions with family and community members. In this article, I focus on popular understandings of vaginal discharge being caused by durbolota (weakness) and chinta rog (worry illness), as mentioned by young women. Eighty-eight young women reported that they had experienced white discharge, blaming it on a number of factors such as stress and financial hardships, tensions in the household, marital instability, hunger anxiety, and reproductive burdens. For married adolescent women in the urban slum, white discharge has many levels of meaning linked to the broader social, political, and material inequalities in their everyday lives.

  9. Role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestation of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-K; Chang, Y-S; Lee, M-H; Hong, S-C; Bae, J-M; Jee, Y-K; Chun, B-R; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Kim, Y-Y

    2002-09-01

    Spider mites such as the citrus red mite and the two-spotted spider mite have been demonstrated to be important allergens for fruit cultivating farmers. To evaluate the role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in urban and rural areas. A total of 16,624 subjects (aged 7 to 18 years) living in urban (metropolitan and non-metropolitan) and rural areas (apple orchards and citrus orchards) in Korea were evaluated by questionnaire and skin prick test for 11 common aeroallergens, including citrus red mite (CRM) and two-spotted spider mite (TSM). The positive skin response rates to TSM were 4.2% of 1,563 metropolitan subjects, 3.8% of 5,568 non-metropolitan subjects and 6.5% of 1,464 subjects living nearby apple farms, and that to CRM 15.6% of 8,029 living nearby citrus farms. The prevalence of current wheeze and rhinitis as reported on a questionnaire was higher among those with a history of visiting fruit farms once or more per year than among those without it (10% vs. 7.1%, 32.8% vs. 26.7%, for wheezing and rhinitis, respectively). Among those with wheezing or rhinitis, the positive skin responses to TSM or CRM were also higher among those with a history of visiting fruit farms than among those without one (11.2% vs. 6.6%, 13.0% vs. 6.6%, respectively), although the positive skin responses to house dust mites were similar in the both groups. Spider mites are common sensitizing allergens in children and adolescents exposed to them, and environmental exposure to these mites may represent an important risk factor in the sensitization and the clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

  10. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  11. Education Level of Catholic Hispanic Deacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed self-reported religiosity, spirituality, faith-related behaviors, leadership styles, and personality dimensions of 156 Hispanic Catholic deacons, based on varied educational degrees assisting in Hispanic (n = 91) or non-Hispanic (n = 65) parishes. Results found no significant differences on any self-reported variables…

  12. Alcoholism among Hispanics--A Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando

    1979-01-01

    A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)

  13. Mentoring Revisited: The Hispanic Woman's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, Breda Murphy

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Hispanic female faculty and administrators revealed mentoring to be important to career development but difficult to obtain. Barriers included limited opportunities for informal contact, compounded stereotypes of women and of Hispanic women, and conflicting values of Hispanic and academic cultures. (SK)

  14. Educational Journeys of Hispanic Women in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antoinette Navalta

    2012-01-01

    Hispanics continue to be the fastest growing minority population in the Nation. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2011; 2008), the Hispanic or Latino population was 16.3 percent in 2010 and is projected to be over 30 percent in 2050. However, only 3.6% of the RN population is Hispanic indicating an unrealistic representation of today's…

  15. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  16. Comparing Black, Hispanic, and White Mothers with a National Standard of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.; Beckert, Troy E.

    2008-01-01

    Black, Hispanic, and White mothers (N = 739) and adolescents (N = 806) completed a Parent Success Indicator to assess maternal behavior related to Communication, Use of Time, Teaching, Frustration, Satisfaction, and Information Needs. Comparisons between each ethnic group and a previously established national parenting standard revealed that both…

  17. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hispanic youth with dysglycemia: Risk for subclinical atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obese Hispanic adolescents (OHAs) with dysglycemia have increased cardiovascular disease risk burden. To investigate if nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers added risk for endothelial dysfunction in these youth. Cross-sectional study. Academic institution. Thirty-six OHAs (15.360.4 years...

  18. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  19. Urban-rural differences in adolescent eating behaviour: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15-year-olds in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A

    2014-08-01

    Improving the diet of the Scottish population has been a government focus in recent years. Population health is known to vary between geographies; therefore alongside trends and socio-economic inequalities in eating behaviour, geographic differences should also be monitored. Eating behaviour data from the 2010 Scotland Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey were modelled using multilevel linear and logistic modelling. Data were collected in schools across urban and rural Scotland. Schoolchildren aged 15 years. Adolescents living in remote rural Scotland had the highest consumption frequency of vegetables (on average consumed on 6·68 d/week) and the lowest consumption frequency of sweets and crisps (on 4·27 and 3·02 d/week, respectively). However, it was not in the major four cities of Scotland (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) but in the geography described by the classification 'other urban' areas (large towns of between 10 000 and 125 000 residents) that adolescents had the poorest diet. Deprivation and rurality were independently associated with food consumption for all but fruit consumption. Sharing a family meal, dieting behaviour, food poverty and breakfast consumption did not differ by rurality. Variance at the school level was significant for fruit and vegetable consumption frequencies and for irregular breakfast consumption, regardless of rurality. Young people from rural areas have a healthier diet than those living in urban areas. The eating behaviours examined did not explain these differences. Future research should investigate why urban-rural differences exist for consumption frequencies of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' foods.

  20. The relationship between new media exposure and fast food consumption among Chinese children and adolescents in school: a rural-urban comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansstein, Francesca Valeria; Hong, Yu; Di, Chen

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, China has experienced an exponential growth in the number of internet users, especially among the youngest population, as well as a rapid proliferation of Western-type fast food restaurants. The health consequences of internet availability and fast food consumption among youth have been largely studied in Western countries, but few studies have focused on China. This paper has two goals. The first is to evaluate the differences in new media exposure and preferences for fast foods between rural and urban areas. The second goal is to test the association between new media exposure and fast food consumption. The targets of this analysis are Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-18 attending school at the time of the interview. Research hypotheses were tested using mean-groups comparisons for differences between rural urban sub-samples, and logistic regressions with odds ratios to estimate the relationship between media exposure and preferences towards fast foods. Cross-sectional data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey were employed. Watching online videos and playing computer games are behaviors associated with higher probabilities of eating at fast food restaurants in both rural and urban young residents, with higher odds in rural areas. Surfing the internet is associated with higher odds of being overweight in both rural and urban settings. Results also show that children living in rural areas spend significantly more time playing computer games, watching TV and videotapes, but less time doing homework than their urban peers. This paper suggests that monitoring the nutritional effects of new media exposure in China is of key importance in order to develop adequate health promotion policies, in both rural and urban areas.

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  2. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use Among Minority Urban Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse. PMID:18349344

  3. Influence of Mentoring on African American and Hispanic Males in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    The mixed method research study was designed to evaluate the effects on a mentoring initiative on 40 African American and Hispanic males in an urban high school. The study took place over a three-month period in a traditional public school with 2,000 students. Data collection methods used included individual interview with student mentees, surveys…

  4. Mothers' Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in a Low-Income, Urban Mexican American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongdo, Jennifer A.; Garcia, Jorge I. Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    The relation between adolescent-reported parenting behaviors and mother-reported youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors was examined among 91 Mexican American mother-adolescent (ages 13-17) dyads recruited from an immigrant enclave in a large midwestern metropolitan area. Two major dimensions of mothers' parenting emerged: supportive…

  5. Living Arrangements and Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents Who Migrate from Rural to Urban Schools: Mediating Effect of Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in living arrangements (from living with, or not living with family may affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL. This study aimed to investigate the impact of living arrangement on HRQoL among adolescents migrating from rural to urban schools, and whether social support, in addition to living with a family, had an impact. A cross-sectional survey of 459 school adolescents was carried out in two public schools in Guyuan County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China in 2015. The survey contained the following questionnaires: a self-designed questionnaire, the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12, and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS. Of the 459 adolescents sampled (aged 15.41 ± 1.07 years with range of 13 to 18, 61.7% were living with family, and 38.3% were not living with family. Those students not living with families had lower Mental Component Scale (MCS scores as well as less social support overall. Those students, who were not living with families, also reported more chronic health problems and more alcohol consumption compared to those students living with families. Social support was a statistically significant mediating factor on the effect of living arrangements on MCS. Our findings demonstrated that those students, who were not living with families, tended to have more health-related quality of life issues, but social support partially mediated the relationship between living arrangements and health.

  6. Living Arrangements and Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents Who Migrate from Rural to Urban Schools: Mediating Effect of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Wu, Shan; Wu, Haibo; Xia, Qiming; Li, Ningxiu

    2017-10-19

    Changes in living arrangements (from living with, or not living with family) may affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to investigate the impact of living arrangement on HRQoL among adolescents migrating from rural to urban schools, and whether social support, in addition to living with a family, had an impact. A cross-sectional survey of 459 school adolescents was carried out in two public schools in Guyuan County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China in 2015. The survey contained the following questionnaires: a self-designed questionnaire, the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). Of the 459 adolescents sampled (aged 15.41 ± 1.07 years with range of 13 to 18), 61.7% were living with family, and 38.3% were not living with family. Those students not living with families had lower Mental Component Scale (MCS) scores as well as less social support overall. Those students, who were not living with families, also reported more chronic health problems and more alcohol consumption compared to those students living with families. Social support was a statistically significant mediating factor on the effect of living arrangements on MCS. Our findings demonstrated that those students, who were not living with families, tended to have more health-related quality of life issues, but social support partially mediated the relationship between living arrangements and health.

  7. Determinants of sexual activities and contraceptive usage among adolescents in high schools in Ogbomoso, a semi-urban settlement in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owonikoko, Kola M; Bello-Ajao, Hajarah T; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Adeniji, Adetunji O

    2016-05-01

    Abortion complications constitute 13% of maternal deaths worldwide and 40% of maternal deaths in Nigeria, while 80% of patients with abortion complications are adolescents. Assessing the adolescents' knowledge and attitude and the determinants of their sexual activities and contraceptive usage. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among high school students of Ogbomoso - a semi-urban settlement. Stratified multistage randomization was used to select one high school from each of five local government areas of the study site. Students were interviewed with pretested questionnaire to sought information on demographic status, family type, knowledge of sexuality, and contraceptive usages. The age range of the respondents was 10-19 years with mean±SD age 13.7±1.9 years. Among them, 6.5% were sexually active. Of the respondents, 56.8% scored good knowledge about sexuality and contraception and 57.5% respondents had good attitude to contraception. Age (p=0.004) and father's education (p=0.001) were factors associated with knowledge about sexuality and contraception, while mothers' occupation (p=0.02) and fathers' occupation (p=0.001) and education (p=0.04) were significantly associated with positive attitude toward contraception. This study revealed that a significant percentage of the studied adolescents had poor knowledge and attitude toward contraception, and many of the sexually active respondents had inaccurate knowledge on the use of contraceptives and where it could be obtained.

  8. The effects of cumulative risks and promotive factors on urban adolescent alcohol and other drug use: a longitudinal study of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszewski, Krzysztof; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2006-12-01

    Resiliency theory provides a conceptual framework for studying why some youth exposed to risk factors do not develop the negative behaviors they predict. The purpose of this study was to test compensatory and protective models of resiliency in a longitudinal sample of urban adolescents (80% African American). The data were from Years 1 (9th grade) and 4 (12th grade). The study examined effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on adolescent polydrug use including alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. Cumulative measures of risk/promotive factors represented individual characteristics, peer influence, and parental/familial influences. After controlling for demographics, results of multiple regression of polydrug use support the compensatory model of resiliency both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Promotive factors were also found to have compensatory effects on change in adolescent polydrug use. The protective model of resiliency evidenced cross-sectionally was not supported in longitudinal analysis. The findings support resiliency theory and the use of cumulative risk/promotive measures in resiliency research. Implications focused on utilizing multiple assets and resources in prevention programming are discussed.

  9. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  10. Rural-Urban Differences in Perceptions of Child Overweight Among Children and Adolescents, Their Guardians and Health Care Professionals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Chen, Chen; Smalley, K Bryant; Warren, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents residing in rural environments with higher prevalence of an overweight population may develop inaccurate perceptions of a healthy weight. This study examines rural-urban differences in perceptions of child overweight among overweight (85 ≤ BMI percentile children (BMI percentile ≥ 95), their guardians and health care providers (HCPs), and children's concomitant weight control. The cross-sectional study was based on the 2005-2010 NHANES data (1,844 overweight and obese children and adolescents, aged 8-15 years). Rurality was defined using the 2003 RUCC. The weight status was based on the standardized measures of children's height and weight. Children reported whether they considered themselves overweight and whether they were trying to lose weight. Proxy respondents (ie, guardians) reported whether they considered their child to be overweight and whether an HCP had ever told them their child was overweight. Weighted percentages and predicted probabilities from multivariable logistic regressions were calculated, accounting for the complex, multistage, probability sampling design and nonresponse. Rural residents comprised 18.8% of the study population; 41.8% of them were overweight and 58.2% were obese compared to 46.7% and 53.3% of urban peers, respectively. Misperceptions of children's weight status were 11.3 and 6.0 percentage points higher in rural children and their guardians, respectively. Recall of an HCP identification of child overweight was 6.3 percentage points lower among rural versus urban guardians. Obesity prevention efforts may be fostered by improving accuracy of child overweight perceptions. This may be particularly impactful in rural settings, where weight misperceptions are high. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Adolescents as health agents and consumers: results of a pilot study of the health and health-related behaviors of adolescents living in a high-poverty urban neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Read, Nichole; Pittsley, Jerri; Hart, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Although there is a considerable literature on how adolescents make decisions which lead to risky behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use) and adversely affect the health and well-being of youth, little is known about the routine behaviors youth engage in which influence their health (e.g., having permanent teeth extracted, discontinuing antibiotics prematurely, delaying or going without treatment of subacute illnesses and minor injuries) and concomitantly the factors which influence these behaviors. In an effort to begin to fill this gap, we have undertaken a study of routine health behaviors and the factors which bear on them in adolescents from a high-poverty urban neighborhood. In this article, we present the results of the pilot phase of the study in which we documented the behavior of 10 adolescents from Camden, New Jersey, the fifth poorest city in the United States, and explored with them their perceptions of the decisions they made and the factors that gave rise to them. We found that participants had an insufficient understanding of their health problems and consequences of their health actions, problems in understanding and being understood by health care professionals, and reluctance to involve parents in routine health care decisions. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to improving the health of vulnerable youth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Examination of Culturally Relevant Stressors, Coping, Ethnic Identity, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…

  13. Majority Teachers' Perceptions of Urban Adolescents and Their Abilities: Probes from Self-Reflection and Teacher Autobiographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harushimana, Immaculee

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a small scale, qualitative study of nine majority alternate-route teachers and the perceptions they hold about themselves as urban educators and their urban students' academic abilities. Data for this study was collected through self-reflective, written interviews and meta-reflective responses to two published teacher…

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  15. Nutritional status of urban adolescents: individual, household and neighborhood factors based on data from The BH Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bispo, Stephanie; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The increasing prevalence of overweight in young people suggests that adolescent nutritional status is influenced by environmental factors. Using hierarchical modelling, this study aimed to analyse the association between individual, household and neighborhood factors and adolescent nutritional status and well-being. The study used data from a population-based household survey conducted in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Data w...

  16. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Eva I.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects' attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.

  17. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva I. Doyle

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.

  18. Cardiovascular risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Amy J; Gilbert, Lynn; Baramee, Julaluk; Granger, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Identifying risk factors early in life can facilitate use of preventive strategies to reduce risk and improve health status across the life span. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable (tobacco smoke exposure, physical inactivity, dietary fat intake, overweight, and high blood pressure [BP]) and nonmodifiable (family history, gender, and age) cardiovascular risk factors in low-income preschool children. Low-income preschool children (N = 205) 3-5 years old were recruited to participate. Parents completed a multigenerational cardiovascular health history form and a 24-hour dietary recall for themselves and their child. The children's height, weight, and BP were obtained. Of the 205 children, 61% reported ethnicity as Latino or Hispanic, 31.7% non-Hispanic White, 1% non-Hispanic Black, 3.9% Asian, and 2.4% mixed race. The number of males (50.7%) and females (49.3%) was similar. Only 22 (10.7%) children had no identified cardiovascular risk factors. At least one modifiable risk factor was present in 179 (87.3%) children. Fifty-two (25.5%) children had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 85th percentile for gender and age; 44 (22.3%) had a systolic or diastolic BP over the 90th percentile for gender, age, and height; 128 (66.3%) had a dietary fat intake of > 30%; 77 (37.6%) watched TV or played video games more than 2 hr/day; and 48 (23.4%) were exposed to passive tobacco smoke. The identification of cardiovascular risk factors in almost 90% of presumably healthy preschoolers provides evidence to support testing of interventions that can improve health behaviors and reduce risks.

  19. Nutritional status of urban adolescents: individual, household and neighborhood factors based on data from The BH Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bispo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing prevalence of overweight in young people suggests that adolescent nutritional status is influenced by environmental factors. Using hierarchical modelling, this study aimed to analyse the association between individual, household and neighborhood factors and adolescent nutritional status and well-being. The study used data from a population-based household survey conducted in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Data was obtained from an adult and adolescent in each household using a confidential questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Adolescent nutritional status was evaluated using multinomial regression analysis considering distal and proximal influences. The prevalence of overweight and thinness among the sample of 1,030 adolescents was 21.9% and 4.6%, respectively. Although variables from all blocks remained in the final model, head of household education level, family habits and family nutritional status were shown to strongly influence adolescent nutritional status. New approaches to public health are needed which focus on raising awareness and promoting health education targeting teenagers and their social context.

  20. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  1. Demographic Changes of Hispanic Populations and Hispanic Student Enrollment in Texas Community Colleges: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jack; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    In this literature review, Hispanic demographic changes in the United States and in Texas are examined. Hispanics have accounted for large changes in population, population change, and proportion of population. Accordingly, the literature was reviewed regarding Hispanic immigrants, both authorized and non-authorized immigrants. The issue of…

  2. Differences in Household Saving between Non-Hispanic White and Hispanic Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Patti J.; Hsu, Chungwen

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to empirically explore differences in saving behavior between Hispanic (N = 533) and non-Hispanic White (N = 2,473) households. The results of the logistic regression model show that self-employed Hispanics were more likely to save, while self-employment was not significant for Whites. Being…

  3. Patterns of Change in Adolescent Dating Victimization and Aggression During Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncy, Elizabeth A; Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N

    2018-03-01

    Although mounting evidence suggests dating victimization and aggression begin in early adolescence, little work has examined the pattern of these behaviors across this age. This longitudinal study examined trajectories of dating victimization and aggression across middle school using 12 waves of data. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1369, 52.3% girls; 83% African American; 15% Hispanic or Latino) residing in an urban, economically disadvantaged area participated in this study. Youth completed measures of dating victimization and aggression quarterly across the 3 years of middle school. Although results indicated a general trend of increasing dating victimization and aggression across middle school, variation existed for boys and girls. Specifically, girls showed increasing patterns of both, whereas boys remained relatively stable across time. Dating victimization and aggression were also highly correlated across time. These findings support the implementation and refinement of prevention programming aimed at preventing and reducing dating aggression and victimization in middle school.

  4. Reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a calcium food frequency questionnaire for use in Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette S; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2015-04-01

    A dietary assessment instrument designed for use in a nationally representative pediatric population was required to examine associations between calcium intake and bone mineral accrual in a large, multicenter study. To determine the reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a youth calcium food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multiracial/ethnic sample of children and adolescents. Reproducibility (n=69) and intermethod reliability (n=393) studies were conducted by administering repeat FFQs and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls to stratified random samples of individuals participating in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study. Children and adolescents ages 5 to 21 years. Calcium intake estimated from the FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls. Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intermethod reliability was assessed by deattenuated Pearson correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls. Attenuation factors and calibration corrected effect estimates for bone density were calculated to determine the potential influence of measurement error on associations with health outcomes. The ICC (0.61) for repeat administrations and deattenuated Pearson correlation between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls (r=0.60) for all subjects indicated reproducibility and intermethod reliability (Pearson r=0.50 to 0.74 across sex and age groups). Attenuation factors were ≤0.50 for all sex and age groups and lower for non-Hispanic blacks (λ=0.20) and Hispanics (λ=0.26) than for non-Hispanic whites (λ=0.42). The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study calcium FFQ appears to provide a useful tool for assessing calcium intake in children and adolescents drawn from multiracial/ethnic populations and/or spanning a wide age range. However, similar to other FFQs, attenuation factors were substantially <1, indicating the potential for appreciable measurement error bias. Calibration correction should be performed and racial/ethnic differences

  5. Diabetes in Hispanic American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577

  6. Urban-rural differences in childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James Allen; Johnson, Asal Mohamadi

    2015-06-01

    A systematic literature review and subsequent meta-analysis were performed to investigate differences in childhood obesity between urban and rural areas in the United States. A search of published studies comparing childhood obesity in urban and rural settings was undertaken by probing PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for articles that met predetermined inclusion criteria. A subsequent meta-analysis was conducted to determine the combined effect size and significance of differences in childhood obesity between urban and rural areas. Ten studies were identified for systematic review, five of which contributed to the meta-analysis. All but one study suggested that residence in rural areas was associated with higher prevalence or increased odds of childhood obesity, compared to children living in urban areas. A meta-analysis of 74,168 pooled participants ages 2-19 found that rural children have 26% greater odds of obesity, compared to urban children (odds ratio=1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32). Obesity rates are higher among rural children than urban children in the United States. To ensure successful targeted interventions and effective resource allocation, practitioners and policy makers alike should be cognizant of this disparity in childhood obesity.

  7. Factors associated with adherence to diabetes care recommendations among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a facility-based study in two urban diabetes clinics in Uganda

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    Kyokunzire C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Kyokunzire,1 Nicholas Matovu2,3 1Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Community Health, Division of Noncommunicable Diseases, Ministry of Health – Uganda, Kampala, Uganda; 3Global Health Corps Fellowship Program 2017/2018, New York, NY, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of adherence and the factors associated with adherence to diabetes care recommendations among type 1 diabetic children and adolescents at two urban diabetes clinics in Kampala, Uganda.Research design and methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at two major diabetes clinics in Kampala. Caretakers of the children and adolescents were interviewed using pretested questionnaires to provide information on sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes care, knowledge, attitudes, and adherence to diabetes care recommendations in type 1 diabetes. Prevalence rate ratios (PRRs at the 95% confidence interval (CI were used to establish the factors associated with adherence using modified Poisson regression, with robust standard errors. The data were analyzed by using STATA Version 13.0.Results: The overall prevalence of adherence to diabetes care recommendations was at 37%. However, evaluating adherence to specific treatment parameters showed that 52%, 76.5%, and 29.5% of the children and adolescents adhered to insulin, blood glucose monitoring, and dietary recommendations, respectively. In the final adjusted model, active diet monitoring (adjusted PRR [APRR]: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.78, being under care of a sibling (APRR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.61, 1.71, being under care of a married caretaker (APRR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14 and a separated or divorced caretaker (APRR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.27, taking three or less tests of blood glucose per day (APRR: 0

  8. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyang; Li, Shuting; Hu, Mingming; Dong, Dan; Tao, Sha

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred), psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development), and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14-20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive) and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  9. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred, psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development, and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14–20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  10. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Tyng Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods: Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Results: Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the

  11. Afra-Hispanic Writers and Feminist Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCosta-Willis, Miriam

    1993-01-01

    Explores Afra-Hispanic literature, the writing of black Spanish-speaking women of the Caribbean and Central and South America. The literary texts of Afra-Hispanic women reveal an emerging feminist consciousness. A more detailed analysis is given of the poetry of Virginia Brindis de Salas and Aida Cartagena Portalatin. (SLD)

  12. Outreach to Future Hispanic Educational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…

  13. The Meaning of Children for Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Gerardo; And Others

    A random sample of 100 Hispanic women waiting to receive birth control services at a low-cost community health center in East Los Angeles was interviewed to learn more about the fertility behavior, attitudes toward family size, and contraceptive use of barrio Hispanic women. The respondents were: young (averaging 27 years old), poorly educated…

  14. Recruitment of Hispanic Students into MIS Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaney, Roger; Martin, Dawne

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides several suggestions Hispanic student recruitment and retention in MIS or other business curricula. Cultural considerations like allocentrism and familialism are discussed along with the situation at K-State. It is believed that the recruitment and retention of Hispanic students can be influenced positively by considering…

  15. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  16. Hispanic Vocational Exploration Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro De La Comunidad, Inc., New London, CT.

    During its second year, the Hispanic Vocational Exploration Project recruited eighth and ninth grade Hispanic youth for a four-week cycle, after-school, career exploratory program at Southeastern Regional Vocational Technical School, Groton, Connecticut. A series of career education workshops was the other major project activity. Supportive…

  17. Effects of a cognitive dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program are similar for Asian American, Hispanic, and White participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2008-11-01

    This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women.

  18. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents' Substance Use and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai…

  19. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Tyng; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Haardörfer, Regine; Crawford, Natalie D; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old) and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old) from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source) compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT) and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the relationship between district-level violent

  20. Ethnic Differences in Peripheral Skeletal Development Among Urban South African Adolescents: A Ten-Year Longitudinal pQCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbuchner, Simon M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Prentice, Ann; Ward, Kate A

    2017-12-01

    There are no longitudinal pQCT data of bone growth and development from sub-Saharan Africa, where rapid environmental, societal, and economic transitions are occurring, and where fracture rates are predicted to rise. The aim of this study was to compare skeletal development in black and white South African adolescents using longitudinal data from the Birth to Twenty study. The Birth to Twenty Bone Health subcohort consisted of 543 adolescents (261 [178 black] girls, 282 [201 black] boys). Annual pQCT measurements of the radial and tibial metaphysis and diaphysis were obtained between ages 12 and 22 years (distal metaphysis: cross-sectional area [CSA] and trabecular bone mineral density [BMD]; diaphysis: total and cortical CSA, cortical BMD, and polar stress-strain index [SSIp]). Age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated to account for differences in maturational timing between ethnic groups and sexes. Mixed-effects models were used to describe trajectories for each pQCT outcome. Likelihood-ratio tests were used to summarize the overall difference in trajectories between black and white participants within each sex. APHV (mean ± SD years) was similar in black (11.8 ± 0.8) and white (12.2 ± 1.0) girls, but delayed in black (14.2 ± 1.0) relative to white boys (13.3 ± 0.8). By 4 years post-APHV, white adolescents had significantly greater cortical CSA and SSIp than black adolescents at the radius. There were no significant differences at the radial metaphysis but there was some divergence, such that black adolescents had greater radial trabecular BMD by the end of follow-up. At the tibia, white adolescents had lower diaphyseal CSA and SSIp, and greater metaphyseal CSA. There was no ethnic difference in tibial trabecular BMD. There are ethnic differences in bone growth and development, independent of maturation, in South African adolescents. This work gives new insights into the possible etiology of childhood fractures, which occur most

  1. Longitudinal Effects of Family Factors on Alcohol Use among African American and White Non-Hispanic Males during Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E. Gail; Gil, Andres

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of five family factors (familism, parent derogation, parent-child communication, family alcohol problems, and family drug problems) on intensity of alcohol use among a sample of 451 African American and White non-Hispanic males from early to mid-adolescence (sixth through eighth grades). Results…

  2. Frequency of Internet addiction and development of social skills in adolescents in an urban area of Lima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarra Zamalloa, Carlos Orlando; Cuba Fuentes, Maria Sofía

    2017-01-30

    To determine the frequency of Internet addiction and its relationship with the development of social skills in adolescents in the town of Condevilla, district of San Martin de Porres, Lima - Peru. The degree of social skills and level of internet use was evaluated in adolescents from 10 to 19 years of 5th to 11th grades in two secondary schools in the town of Condevilla. Classrooms were randomly selected, and the questionnaires were applied to all adolescents. Two questionnaires were applied: Scale for Internet Addiction of Lima to determine the extent of Internet use, and the Social Skills Test from the Ministry of Health of Peru, which evaluates self-esteem, assertiveness, communication and decision-making. The analyses by Chi2 test and Fisher's exact test, as well as a generalized linear model (GLM) were performed using the binomial family. Both questionnaires were applied to 179 adolescents, of whom 49.2% were male. The main age was 13 years, 78.8% of which were in secondary school. Internet addiction was found in 12.9% of respondents, of whom the majority were male (78.3%, p = 0.003) and had a higher prevalence of low social skills (21.7%, p = 0.45). In multivariate analysis, the independent factors associated with Internet addiction were gender (p = 0.016) and to have low social skills compared to high social skills (p = 0.004). In adolescents, there is a relationship between internet addiction and low social skills, among which the area of communication is statistically significant.

  3. Motivaciones para el consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes de un instituto urbano Motivations for tobacco consumption among adolescents in an urban high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez-Milena

    2012-02-01

    consumption among adolescents. Methods: This study was based on qualitative methodology using six 50-minute discussion groups with 6-8 adolescents per group during the 2008/09 school year. Purposive sampling was performed of 12-18 year-old adolescents attending a middle-class urban school (Jaén, Spain. The sample was stratified by educational level as the homogeneity criterion and gender and tobacco consumption as the heterogeneity criterion. Content analysis consisted of coding, triangulation of categories and obtaining and verifying the results. Results: There were 44 adolescents (54% male. The participants reported that smoking relaxed and improved self-image, providing security (boys and improving relations with the opposite sex, as well as weight control (girls. The family encouraged smoking by providing a model to imitate, although many adolescents hid their smoking from their families. Friends constituted a pressure group to start or continue smoking. Starting secondary school marked the beginning of experimental use. Society tended to accept consumption and buying tobacco was easy for minors. University students were a role model and were free to smoke. The adolescents looked to their parents and educators/health workers to provide a model of abstinence and reported that they were well informed but only remembered powerful messages. Participants unanimously indicated that tobacco causes addiction, but in proportion to the duration of consumption, and were concerned only with the immediate symptoms caused by smoking. Teenage smokers associated multiple drug use with leisure time. Conclusions: This study provides useful data on motivation that could be used to improve smoking prevention interventions among adolescents. The most important factors seem to be peer influence, parental attitudes, easy access to tobacco and symptoms of dependence.

  4. White-black and white-Hispanic differences on fluid and crystallized abilities by age across the 11- to 94-year range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J C; McLean, J E; Kaufman, A S; Kaufman, N L

    1994-12-01

    Standardization data for the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were used to examine white-black and white-Hispanic differences on the Horn-Cattell crystallized and fluid constructs at several age groups across the broad 11- to 94-year span. Samples included 1,547 white, 241 black, and 140 Hispanic persons. Multivariate analyses with educational attainment covaried yielded only one significant finding: the white-black difference on the Crystallized Famous Faces subtest became smaller with increasing age.

  5. Effectiveness of a citywide patient immunization navigator program on improving adolescent immunizations and preventive care visit rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G; Humiston, Sharon G; Gallivan, Sarah; Albertin, Christina; Sandler, Martha; Blumkin, Aaron

    2011-06-01

    To assess the impact of a tiered patient immunization navigator intervention (immunization tracking, reminder/recall, and outreach) on improving immunization and preventive care visit rates in urban adolescents. Randomized clinical trial allocating adolescents (aged 11-15 years) to intervention vs standard of care control. Eight primary care practices. Population-based sample of adolescents (N = 7546). Immunization navigators at each practice implemented a tiered protocol: immunization tracking, telephone or mail reminder/recall, and home visits if participants remained unimmunized or behind on preventive care visits. Immunization rates at study end. Secondary outcomes were preventive care visit rates during the previous 12 months and costs. The intervention and control groups were similar at baseline for demographics (mean age, 13.5 years; 63% black, 14% white, and 23% Hispanic adolescents; and 74% receiving Medicaid), immunization rates, and preventive care visit rates. Immunization rates at the end of the study were 44.7% for the intervention group and 32.4% for the control group (adjusted risk ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.5); preventive care visit rates were 68.0% for the intervention group and 55.2% for the control group (1.2; 1.2-1.3). Findings were similar across practices, sexes, ages, and insurance providers. The number needed to treat for immunizations and preventive care visits was 9. The intervention cost was $3.81 per adolescent per month; the cost per additional adolescent fully vaccinated was $465, and the cost per additional adolescent receiving a preventive care visit was $417. A tiered tracking, reminder/recall, and outreach intervention improved immunization and preventive care visit rates in urban adolescents. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00581347.

  6. Salt sensitivity: a review with a focus on non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Safiya I.; Freedman, Barry I.; Ellison, David H.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information regarding salt sensitivity particularly as it relates to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics and to clarify possible etiologies, especially those that might shed light on potential treatment options. In non-Hispanic blacks, there is evidence that endothelial dysfunction, reduced potassium intake, decreased urinary kallikrein excretion, upregulation of sodium channel activity, dysfunction in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) production, and APOL1 gene nephropathy risk variants may cause or contribute to salt sensitivity. Supported treatment avenues include diets high in potassium and soybean protein, the components of which stimulate nitric oxide production. Racial heterogeneity complicates the study of salt sensitivity in Hispanic populations. Caribbean Hispanics, who have a higher proportion of African ancestry, may respond to commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive agents in a way that is characteristic of non-Hispanic black hypertensives. The low-renin hypertensive phenotype commonly seen in non-Hispanic blacks has been linked to salt sensitivity and may indicate an increased risk for salt sensitivity in a portion of the Hispanic population. In conclusion, increased morbidity and mortality associated with salt sensitivity mandates further studies evaluating the efficacy of tailored dietary and pharmacologic treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and determining the prevalence of low renin hypertension and salt sensitivity within the various subgroups of Hispanic Americans. PMID:23428408

  7. Coping Styles of Adolescents Experiencing Multiple Forms of Discrimination and Bullying: Evidence from a Sample of Ethnically Diverse Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bernice R.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Williams, David R.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Background: We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to characterize coping styles of urban youth and examined if coping styles moderated the association between experiencing discrimination and bullying and depressive symptoms. Methods: The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, where students were asked to select 2 behaviors they do most often…

  8. Improving treatment in Hispanic/Latino patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Musi, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher in Hispanic/Latino individuals living in the United States compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Many factors contribute to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including biological characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural aspects. The contribution of genetics to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients is becoming increasingly clear, but this inherent risk factor cannot be modified. However, certain socioeconomic and cultural factors, such as reduced access to healthcare, language barriers, cultural beliefs, and lack of cultural competence by the healthcare provider, are modifiable and should be overcome in order to improve the management of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. At the healthcare system level, policies should be put into place to reduce disparities between Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites regarding health insurance coverage and access to healthcare. At the healthcare provider and patient level, cultural beliefs should be taken into consideration when selecting adequate treatment. Overall, type 2 diabetes management should be individualized by identifying the preferred language and level of acculturation for each patient. These considerations are necessary to further improve communication through culturally appropriate educational materials and programs. These strategies may help to overcome the barriers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dating Violence: Outcomes Following a Brief Motivational Interviewing Intervention Among At-risk Adolescents in an Urban Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Shope, Jean T.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Blow, Frederic C.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of the SafERteens intervention in reducing peer violence among adolescents presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this ED-based brief intervention (BI) on dating violence 1 year following the ED visit among the subsample of adolescents in the original randomized controlled trial reporting past-year dating violence. Methods Patients (aged 14 to 18 years) at an ED were eligible for inclusion if they had past-year violence and alcohol use. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions (BI delivered by a computer [CBI], BI delivered by a therapist and a computer (T+CBI), or control) and completed follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. In addition to content on alcohol misuse and peer violence, adolescents reporting dating violence received a tailored module on dating violence. The outcome of interest was frequency of moderate and severe dating violence victimization and aggression (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after ED visit). Results Among eligible adolescents, 55% (n = 397) reported dating violence and were included in these analyses. Compared to the control group (who received a resource brochure only), participants in the CBI showed reductions in moderate dating victimization at 3 months (inter-rater reliability [IRR] = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51 to 0.99; p dating victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.98; p dating violence victimization at 6 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.96; p dating violence victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.96; p dating violence) show promise for reducing moderate and severe dating victimization for up to 1 year following an ED visit. PMID:23758302

  10. Dating violence: outcomes following a brief motivational interviewing intervention among at-risk adolescents in an urban emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M; Whiteside, Lauren K; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Shope, Jean T; Bingham, C Raymond; Blow, Frederic C; Walton, Maureen A

    2013-06-01

    A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of the SafERteens intervention in reducing peer violence among adolescents presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this ED-based brief intervention (BI) on dating violence 1 year following the ED visit among the subsample of adolescents in the original randomized controlled trial reporting past-year dating violence. Patients (aged 14 to 18 years) at an ED were eligible for inclusion if they had past-year violence and alcohol use. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions (BI delivered by a computer [CBI], BI delivered by a therapist and a computer (T+CBI), or control) and completed follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. In addition to content on alcohol misuse and peer violence, adolescents reporting dating violence received a tailored module on dating violence. The outcome of interest was frequency of moderate and severe dating violence victimization and aggression (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after ED visit). Among eligible adolescents, 55% (n = 397) reported dating violence and were included in these analyses. Compared to the control group (who received a resource brochure only), participants in the CBI showed reductions in moderate dating victimization at 3 months (inter-rater reliability [IRR] = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51 to 0.99; p dating victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.98; p dating violence victimization at 6 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.96; p dating violence victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.96; p violence, alcohol use, and dating violence) show promise for reducing moderate and severe dating victimization for up to 1 year following an ED visit. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  11. The State of Hispanic Health, 1992. Facing the Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPIRA Association, Inc., Washington, DC. National Office.

    This publication offers an overview of the health of Hispanic Americans in the United States. Topics covered include the following: (1) Hispanic representation in health fields; (2) access to health care; (3) maternal and child health; (4) substance abuse; (5) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Hispanics; (6) Hispanic elderly; (7) migrant…

  12. An Analysis of Promotion and Retention Factors Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Marine Corps Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Square OPMEO Office of Diversity Management & Equal Opportunity PES Performance Evaluation System PI Performance Index PLC Platoon Leaders Class...to the Hispanic service members. According to U.S. census estimates, Hispanics or Latinos compose 16.9 percent of the total U.S. population and this...census estimates, Hispanics or Latinos compose 16.9 percent of the total U.S. population which accounted for half the U.S. population growth between

  13. Factors Affecting the Performance of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Marine Corps Enlistees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    NHSDG Non-High School Diploma Graduates OccFld Occupational Field OMB Office of Management and Budget OLS Ordinary Least Squares PC ASVAB Paragraph...and the te1m "Hispanic" be replaced by "Hispanic or Latino " (Federal Register, 1997). Although this changed how data was collected and stored, the...U.S. Census Bureau still uses the 1977 OMB definition of Hispanic or Latino (Humes et al., 2011). B. REPRESENTATION As indicated in Table 1, Panel 1

  14. Comparison of outcomes for African Americans, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites in the CATIE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Miller, Alexander L; Cañive, José M; Rosenheck, Robert A; Swartz, Marvin S; Mintz, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Medication outcome literature in schizophrenia across racial-ethnic groups is sparse, with inconsistent findings. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study provided an opportunity for exploratory analyses of racial-ethnic outcomes. The study objective was to examine race-ethnicity outcomes for CATIE's main outcome (study discontinuation) and secondary outcomes. CATIE participants included whites (non-Hispanic) (N=722), African Americans (N=506), and Hispanics (N=170). Survival analyses and mixed-effects regression modeling were conducted, with adjustment for baseline sociodemographic differences and baseline scores of the secondary outcomes. Racial-ethnic groups had unique patterns of outcomes. Hispanics were much more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy from perphenazine (64% versus 42% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans) and ziprasidone (71% versus 40% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans); Hispanics' quality of life also declined on these medications. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy in general (averaging olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone discontinuation rates). African Americans were less likely to continue after the first phase (32% continuing versus 40% for non-Hispanic whites and 41% Hispanics). Discontinuations were driven by research burden, personal issues, and unspecified loss to follow-up. Non-Hispanic whites had higher depression scores during the follow-up period. African Americans had fewer side effects. CATIE results did not show disparities favoring non-Hispanic whites. CATIE may have provided state-of-the-art treatment and thus reduced disparate treatments observed in community clinics. African Americans discontinued even after consideration of socioeconomic differences. Why perphenazine and ziprasidone may be less effective with Hispanics should be explored.

  15. Culture-bound syndromes in Hispanic primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Bryan P; Katerndahl, David A

    2009-01-01

    We sought to document Hispanic primary care patients' knowledge and experience of five culture-bound syndromes (CBS), as well as the basic socio-cultural correlates of these disorders. A convenience sample of 100 adult Hispanic patients presenting in an urban South Texas primary care clinic was recruited to complete a brief cross-sectional survey, presented in an oral format. Interviews sought information concerning five culture-bound syndromes--susto, empacho, nervios, mal de ojo, and ataques de nervios. Additional demographic, socio-economic, and acculturation data was collected. Descriptive and bivariate statistics (chi square, Fisher's) were used to assess relationships among variables and experience with each CBS. A multivariate logistic analysis was conducted to determine the possible contributions of age, gender, acculturation, and education to the personal experience of a culture-bound syndrome. Results indicate that 77% of respondents had knowledge of all five syndromes, with 42% reporting having personally experienced at least one CBS. Nervios was the most commonly suffered disorder, being reported by 30 respondents. This was followed, in declining order ofprevalence, by susto, mal de ojo, empacho, and ataques de nervios. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that higher education beyond high school was associated with a slightly decreased likelihood of reporting having suffered from any culture-bound syndrome. While co-occurrence among these disorders occurred, the patterns of predictors suggest that the co-occurrence is not a reflection of mislabeling of one common syndrome. Knowledge of and experience with culture-bound syndromes is common among Hispanic primary care patients in South Texas. Healthcare providers ought to consider discussing these illnesses in a non-judgmental manner with patients who present with symptoms that are consistent with these syndromes. Future studies, with larger sample sizes, are warranted to elucidate the nature

  16. Exploring opinions and beliefs about cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise

    2010-05-01

    Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.

  17. Associations between poor health and school-related behavior problems at the child and family levels: a cross-sectional study of migrant children and adolescents in southwest urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Li, Ning-Xiu; Liu, Chao-Jie

    2010-06-01

    Due to urbanization in China, the numbers of migrant children and adolescents in urban environments have increased. Previous studies have indicated that children and adolescents are more likely to suffer from health problems and poor school achievement. The present study identified associations between poor health and school-related behavior problems (ie, learning attitudes and learning disabilities [LL], antisocial behavior and risk behavior [AR], and social adaptation and role function [SR]) at the child and family levels. A cross-sectional design was used. Seven hundred and eighty-one participants were recruited in inclusive settings. Correlational analysis was conducted to assess the associations between demographic variables and the primary study variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which study factors were the strongest predictors of general health problems. School-aged migrants who had poorer health tended to be more likely to suffer from school-related behavior problems. Poor health was also found to hinder scholastic achievement in migrant children and adolescents through a higher prevalence of school-related behavior problems, including negative learning attitudes and learning disabilities, antisocial behavior and risk behavior, and social maladjustment. Health risk factors included inappropriate parental education methods, fewer classmates, and less social support. Health and individual risk factors should be explored further to determine their causal role in migrant children and adolescents with school-related behavior problems. These results have implications for future school health education for these students.

  18. A Study on the effect of iron folic acid supplementation and deworming among college going adolescent girls in urban Agra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratandeep Lamba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spaced IFA Supplementation is recognized as an efficacious public health program and effective preventive approach in combating anemia in adolescent girls, is cost effective and results in fewer side effects. Aim: To study the effect of: bi-weekly supplementation of IFA with and without Albendazole administration on the status of hemoglobin level in college going adolescent girls. Material and methods:  An interventional study was conducted among college going girls in Agra in the age group of 16-19 years (n=300 who were randomly selected. Their Hemoglobin levels were estimated before and after intervention by the Cynmeth-hemoglobin method using Drabkin’s solution. Three groups [two study A and B and one control] of hundred girls each were randomly constituted. To the study groups, supervised bi-weekly IFA with and without Albendazole were administered respectively for three months. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical tools. Results &Discussion: The overall prevalence of anemia was 65.3%.The initial prevalence in study group  reduced significantly from 80.7% to 35.5% whereas in study group B it reduced from 73.5% to 58.8% and in control it remained almost same 84.3% and 81.2% pre and post intervention respectively. The mean Hemoglobin rise observed in the study group A and B was 2.5gm/dl and 2.3 gm/dl respectively while in control group fall in the mean Hb was observed (0.1gm/dl. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls is high. Supervised IFA therapy twice a week is an effective strategy to lower the prevalence of anemia either combined or uncombined with Albendazole.

  19. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.

  20. Disparities in Infant Mortality by Race Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Whitney S; Goldfarb, Samantha S; Brisendine, Anne E; Burrows, Stevie; Wingate, Martha S

    2017-07-01

    U.S.-born Hispanic infants have a well-documented health advantage relative to other minority groups. However, little published research has examined racial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, in relation to health outcomes. The current study aims to explore possible implications of racial identification for the health of U.S. born Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic infants. Methods Data were drawn from 2007 to 2008 NCHS Cohort Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files, restricted to deliveries of Hispanic black, Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white mothers (NHW) (n = 7,901,858). Adjusted odds ratios for first week mortality, neonatal, postneonatal, and overall infant mortality were calculated for each group, using NHW as the reference group. A distinct health gradient was observed in which NHB infants (n = 1,250,222) had the highest risk of first week (aOR 2.29, CI 2.21-2.37), neonatal (aOR 2.23, CI 2.17-2.30), postneonatal (aOR 1.74, CI 1.68-1.81), and infant mortality (aOR 2.05, CI 2.00-2.10) compared to NHW infants (n = 4,578,150). Hispanic black infants (n = 84,377) also experienced higher risk of first-week (aOR 1.28 (1.12-1.47), neonatal (aOR .27, CI 1.13-1.44), postneonatal (aOR 1.34, CI 1.15-1.56), and infant mortality (aOR 1.30, CI 1.18-1.43) compared to both NHW and Hispanic white infants (n = 1,989,109). Conclusions for Practice: Risk of infant mortality varies among Hispanic infants by race, with poorer outcomes experienced by Hispanic black infants. Compared to non-Hispanic infants of the same race, Hispanic black infants experience a smaller health disadvantage and Hispanic white infants have better or similar infant health outcomes. Our findings suggest implications of racial heterogeneity on infant health outcomes, and provide insight into the role of race as a social construct.

  1. The Shape of Things to Come? Household Dependency Ratio and Adolescent Nutritional Status in Rural and Urban Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Craig; Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Tessema, Fasil

    2013-01-01

    Several related demographic trends are occurring in developing countries: youth comprise a large portion of populations, fertility rates are declining, and urban dwellers are increasing. As fertility rates decline and populations age, the decline in the ratio of young dependents to working age adults is expected to free up household resources, which can be invested in human capital, including youth nutritional wellbeing. We test this hypothesis in a sample of youth (n = 1,934) in Southwestern Ethiopia. Multiple measures of achieved growth and nutritional status are explored (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body mass index (BMI) and body mass index for age z-score (BMIZ), weight for age z-score (WAZ), and height for age z-score (HAZ)). In multivariable models controlling for the effects of income, age, gender, and youth is workloads, youth living in rural settings had significantly lower weight (1.24 kg lighter), MUAC (0.67 cm lower), BMI (0.45 BMI lower), BMIZ (0.27 lower), HAZ (0.14 HAZ lower), and WAZ (0.3 WAZ lower) than urban youth (all P dependency ratio households, results show that youth in households with the highest dependency ratios were estimated to be 1.3 kg lighter, have 0.67 cm smaller MUAC, and BMI that was 0.59 lower (all Pdependency. These results may point toward increasing levels of human capital investments in Ethiopian youth as fertility levels decline and populations urbanize. Am J Phys Anthropol 144:643–652, 2011. PMID:21404240

  2. A pre-Hispanic head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Bianucci

    Full Text Available This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability. Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS. This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.

  3. A pre-Hispanic head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Jeziorska, Maria; Lallo, Rudy; Mattutino, Grazia; Massimelli, Massimo; Phillips, Genevieve; Appenzeller, Otto

    2008-04-30

    This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS) compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability). Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury) incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS). This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.

  4. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (4) Prevalence and Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Urban School-age Children and Adolescents, 1985-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic

  5. Practices and perceptions of adolescent girls regarding the impact of dysmenorrhea on their routine life: a comparative study in the urban, rural, and slum areas of Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Amarjeet

    2016-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence, to compare the impact of dysmenorrhea on routine life among adolescent girls, to compare the practices and perceptions regarding Dysmenorrhea and to ascertain the reason for difference if any, a cross-sectional study was conducted in urban, rural and slum areas of Chandigarh, India. 300 girls in age group of 11-18 years, who had attained menarche were included in the study. A questionnaire including the Demographic and Family profile, menstrual history, Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea, Effect of pain on daily activities, Faces scale, Practices regarding Dysmenorrhea, Beliefs about menstruation was used. Analysis was done by percentage and chi square prevalance of dysmenorrhea was 61.33%. Sickness absenteeism due to dysmenorrhea was reported in 24.45% girls. Most common symptom experienced by the girls was stomach ache which was experienced by 139 girls; others symptoms experienced during menstruation were backache (107), and general body pain (80). Only 11.63% of the girls ever visited physician due to pain during menstruation. During menstruation only 10 girls use hot water bottle, 71 skip meal. Due to poor knowledge the practices were not optimal for pain management, which affected their school attendance. Formal as well as informal channels of communication, such as mothers and peers, need to be emphasized for the delivery of such information particularly linking instructions on menstrual hygiene to an expanded programme of health education in schools.

  6. Perceived discrimination and cancer screening behaviors in US Hispanics: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Cristina; Penedo, Frank J; Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Kaplan, Robert C; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Gonzalez, Patricia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Perreira, Krista; Salgado, Hugo; Simon, Melissa A; Wruck, Lisa M; Greenlee, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been associated with lower adherence to cancer screening guidelines. We examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with adherence to breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancer screening guidelines in US Hispanic/Latino adults. Data were obtained from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, including 5,313 Hispanic adults aged 18–74 from Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA, and those who were within appropriate age ranges for specific screening tests were included in the analysis. Cancer screening behaviors were assessed via self-report. Perceived discrimination was measured using the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire. Confounder-adjusted multivariable polytomous logistic regression models assessed the association between perceived discrimination and adherence to cancer screening guidelines. Among women eligible for screening, 72.1 % were adherent to cervical cancer screening guidelines and 71.3 %were adherent to breast cancer screening guidelines. In participants aged 50–74, 24.6 % of women and 27.0 % of men were adherent to fecal occult blood test guidelines; 43.5 % of women and 34.8 % of men were adherent to colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy guidelines; 41.0 % of men were adherent to prostate-specific antigen screening guidelines. Health insurance coverage, rather than perceived ethnic discrimination,was the variable most associated with receiving breast, cervical,colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. The influence of discrimination as a barrier to cancer screening may be modest among Hispanics/Latinos in urban US regions. Having health insurance facilitates cancer screening in this population. Efforts to increase cancer screening in Hispanics/Latinos should focus on increasing access to these services, especially among the uninsured.

  7. Cooperative Learning in Higher Education: Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Undergraduates' Reflections on Group Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bobbette M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to share reflections from 140 non-Hispanic undergraduate students and 83 Hispanic students who have participated in cooperative written examinations for group grades. Reflections are clustered by themes identified from the students' comments using Van Manen's (1990) hermeneutic phenomonological approach, which is how…

  8. American, Hispanic, Spanish-Speaking? Hispanic Immigrants and the Question of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores Hispanics' concepts of cultural and linguistic identity. It is based on the findings of a recent study conducted by the author in Iglesia hispana de Cristo, a Hispanic church community in Western New York. Data come from ethnographic interviews conducted with 48 participants aged 13 to 80 years and with church leaders and…

  9. Friendships Influence Hispanic Students' Implicit Attitudes toward White Non-Hispanics Relative to African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…

  10. Effect of air pollution and racism on ethnic differences in respiratory health among adolescents living in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitrow, Melissa J; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Harding, Seeromanie

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that stress can amplify the harm of air pollution. We examined whether experience of racism and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) had a synergistic influence on ethnic differences in asthma and lung function across adolescence. Analyses using multilevel models showed lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and lower rates of asthma among some ethnic minorities compared to Whites, but higher exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and racism. Racism appeared to amplify the relationship between asthma and air pollution for all ethnic groups, but did not explain ethnic differences in respiratory health. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term consequences of adolescent parenthood among African-American urban youth: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assini-Meytin, Luciana C; Green, Kerry M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of long-term socioeconomic consequences of teen parenting for men and women. Analysis is based on the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal study of an African-American cohort from a socially disadvantaged community in Chicago; data were collected at childhood (N = 1,242), adolescence (N = 705), young adulthood (age 32 years, N = 952), and midlife (age 42 years, N = 833). This analysis focused on the 1,050 individuals with data on teen parenting. We used propensity score matching to account for differences in background characteristics between teenage parents and their peers and used multiple imputation to account for differential attrition. The regression models after propensity score matching showed that at the age of 32 years, in comparison to nonteen mothers, teenage mothers were more likely to be unemployed, live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have earned a GED or completed high school compared to finishing college. At the age of 32 years, teen fathers were more likely to be without a job than nonteen fathers. At the age of 42 years, the effect of teen parenting for women remained statistically significant for education and income. There were no significant associations between teen parenting and outcomes for men at the age of 42 years. Socioeconomic consequences of teenage parenting among African-Americans from disadvantaged background seem to be primarily concentrated in women and persist throughout adulthood. In addition to promoting the delay of parenting after the teenage years, it is critical to provide programs at early stages in the life course to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of teenage motherhood as effects for women are broad. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. "I just start crying for no reason": the experience of stress and depression in pregnant, urban, African-American adolescents and their perception of yoga as a management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia; Masho, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal health disparities are of particular concern with pregnant, urban, African-American (AA) adolescents, who have high rates of stress and depression during pregnancy, higher rates of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, and many barriers to effective treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant, urban, AA teenagers' experience of stress and depression and examine their perceptions of adjunctive nonpharmacologic management strategies, such as yoga. This community-based, qualitative study used nontherapeutic focus groups to allow for exploration of attitudes, concerns, beliefs, and values regarding stress and depression in pregnancy and nonpharmacologic management approaches, such as mind-body therapies and other prenatal activities. The sample consisted of pregnant, AA, low-income adolescents (n=17) who resided in a large urban area in the United States. The themes that arose in the focus group discussions were that 1) stress and depression symptoms are pervasive in daily life, 2) participants felt a generalized sense of isolation, 3) stress/depression management techniques should be group based, interactive, and focused on the specific needs of teenagers, and 4) yoga is an appealing stress management technique to this population. Findings from this study suggest that pregnant, urban, adolescents are highly stressed; they interpret depression-like symptoms to be signs of stress; they desire group-based, interactive activities; and they are interested in yoga classes for stress/depression management and relationship building. It is imperative that health care providers and researchers focus on these needs, particularly when designing prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  14. Prevalence and Health Impact of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-partner Sexual Violence Among Female Adolescents Aged 15-19 Years in Vulnerable Urban Environments: A Multi-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Olumide, Adesola; Acharya, Rajib; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Covarrubias, Laura; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2014-12-01

    Globally, adolescent women are at risk for gender-based violence (GBV) including sexual violence and intimate partner violence (IPV). Those in economically distressed settings are considered uniquely vulnerable. Female adolescents aged 15-19 from Baltimore, Maryland, USA; New Delhi, India; Ibadan, Nigeria; Johannesburg, South Africa; and Shanghai, China (n = 1,112) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling to participate in a cross-sectional survey. We describe the prevalence of past-year physical and sexual IPV, and lifetime and past-year non-partner sexual violence. Logistic regression models evaluated associations of GBV with substance use, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, and self-rated health. Among ever-partnered women, past-year IPV prevalence ranged from 10.2% in Shanghai to 36.6% in Johannesburg. Lifetime non-partner sexual violence ranged from 1.2% in Shanghai to 12.6% in Johannesburg. Where sufficient cases allowed additional analyses (Baltimore and Johannesburg), both IPV and non-partner sexual violence were associated with poor health across domains of substance use, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, and self-rated health; associations varied across study sites. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the prevalence of IPV and non-partner sexual violence among adolescent women in economically distressed urban settings, with upwards of 25% of ever-partnered women experiencing past-year IPV in Baltimore, Ibadan, and Johannesburg, and more than 10% of adolescent women in Baltimore and Johannesburg reporting non-partner sexual violence. Findings affirm the negative health influence of GBV even in disadvantaged urban settings that present a range of competing health threats. A multisectoral response is needed to prevent GBV against young women, mitigate its health impact, and hold perpetrators accountable. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HISPANIC ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTREACH PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Puente

    1998-07-25

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics.

  16. HISPANIC ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTREACH PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian Puente

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics

  17. Comparisons in childhood obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors among urban Saudi Arab adolescents in 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, N M; Aljohani, N J; Al-Attas, O S; Al-Saleh, Y; Alnaami, A M; Sabico, S; Amer, O E; Alharbi, M; Kumar, S; Alokail, M S

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to compare the prevalence of childhood obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors from two independent cohorts (2008 and 2013) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 4549 adolescents aged 12-18 years [2454 boys, 2095 girls], taken from two independent cohorts, 5 years apart (2008 and 2013), were included. Anthropometrics were measured, and fasting blood samples were taken to ascertain glucose and lipid profile. The overall prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in 2013 [15.3 (95% confidence interval 13.7-16.9)] than 2008 [12.6 (11.3-13.9)] (P = 0.012). Stratified by sex, the prevalence of obesity among boys was significantly higher in 2013 than 2008 [2008 = 12.0 (10.3-13.7) versus 2013 = 17.4 (15.1-19.7); P childhood obesity in Saudi Arabia has increased in particular age groups (13-15 years) during a 5-year span. Special attention is warranted in these vulnerable age groups, particularly in boys, as cardiometabolic risk factors appear to worsen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Changes in dietary habits and eating practices in adolescents living in urban South Africa: the birth to twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Alison; Musenge, Eustasius; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2012-07-01

    To assess changes in the dietary habits and eating practices of a longitudinal cohort of adolescents over a 5-y period living in Soweto and Johannesburg. An interviewer-assisted questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary habits and eating practices across three environments: in the home, in the school, and in the community. Participants (n = 1451, 49.1% male, 89% black, and 11% with mixed ancestry) 13, 15, and 17 y old with complete data were included in the analyses. The weekday breakfast consumption decreased over the 5-y period, from 76% to 65% (P breakfast during the weekend more regularly but this also decreased with age. Snacking while watching television increased with age, from 3.6 ± 4.6 to 6.7 ± 5.9 snacks/week, with female subjects consistently consuming more snacks than male subjects (P portion/week over the 5 y and confectionery consumption stayed the same, around 9 items/week in male subjects and 10 items/week in female subjects (P < 0.02). Lunch box usage decreased with age; conversely, the number of tuck shop purchases increased. Poor eating habits in all three environments were found; the participants' propensity for foods that were energy dense and micronutrient poor was high. This study also found that dietary patterns are well established by 13 y of age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceived and Police-Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and body mass index (BMI). Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N = 2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 study. BMI was measured by research staff. Participants' mean age was 14.6 (standard deviation = 2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents' safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  1. Rural and Urban Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  2. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.

  3. Science Is "Ciencia": Meeting the Needs of Hispanic American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Bermudez, Andrea B.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews some of the factors known to influence the achievement and retention of Hispanic Americans in technologically related fields. Discusses directions in which research should focus to meet the needs of Hispanic-American students. (PR)

  4. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  5. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and oral parafunctions in urban Saudi arabian adolescents: a research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feteih Rabab M

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and oral parafunction habits among Saudi adolescents in the permanent dentition stage. Methods A total of 385 (230 females and 155 males school children age 12–16, completed a questionnaire and were examined clinically. A stratified selection technique was used for schools allocation. Results The results showed that 21.3% of the subjects exhibited at least one sign of TMD and females were generally more affected than males. Joint sounds were the most prevalent sign (13.5% followed by restricted opening (4.7% and opening deviation (3.9%. The amplitude of mouth opening, overbite taken into consideration, was 46.5 mm and 50.2 mm in females and males respectively. TMJ pain and muscle tenderness were rare (0.5%. Reported symptoms were 33%, headache being the most frequent symptom 22%, followed by pain during chewing 14% and hearing TMJ noises 8.7%. Difficulty during jaw opening and jaw locking were rare. Lip/cheek biting was the most common parafunction habit (41% with females significantly more than males, followed by nail biting (29%. Bruxism and thumb sucking were only 7.4% and 7.8% respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of TMD signs were 21.3% with joint sounds being the most prevalent sign. While TMD symptoms were found to be 33% as, with headache being the most prevalent. Among the oral parafunctions, lip/cheek biting was the most prevalent 41% followed by nail biting 29%.

  6. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  7. Can school income and racial/ethnic composition explain the racial/ethnic disparity in adolescent physical activity participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Hayward, Rodney A; Gahagan, Sheila; Field, Alison E; Heisler, Michele

    2006-06-01

    Our goal was to determine if racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent boys' and girls' physical activity participation exist and persist once the school attended is considered. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 17,007 teens in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Using multivariate linear regression, we examined the association between adolescent self-reported physical activity and individual race/ethnicity stratified by gender, controlling for a wide range of sociodemographic, attitudinal, behavioral, and health factors. We used multilevel analyses to determine if the relationship between race/ethnicity and physical activity varied by the school attended. Participants attended racially segregated schools; approximately 80% of Hispanic and black adolescent boys and girls attended schools with student populations that were schools that were >94% white. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported lower levels of physical activity than white adolescent girls. There were more similar levels of physical activity reported in adolescent boys, with black boys reporting slightly more activities. Although black and Hispanic adolescent girls were more likely to attend poorer schools with overall lower levels of physical activity in girls; there was no difference within schools between black, white, and Hispanic adolescent girls' physical activity levels. Within the same schools, both black and Hispanic adolescent boys had higher rates of physical activity when compared with white adolescent boys. In this nationally representative sample, lower physical activity levels in Hispanic and black adolescent girls were largely attributable to the schools they attended. In contrast, black and Hispanic males had higher activity levels than white males when attending the same schools. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which school environments contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical activity and will need to

  8. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99.Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  9. Predictors of Participation in Mammography Screening among non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Melvin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors influence women’s decisions to participate in guideline recommended screening mammography. We evaluated the influence of women’s socioeconomic characteristics, healthcare access, and cultural and psychological healthcare preferences on timely mammography screening participation.Materials and methods: A random digit dial survey of United States non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic women ages 40-75, from January-August 2009 determined self- reported time of most recent mammogram. Screening rates were assessed based on receipt of a screening mammogram within the prior 12 months, the interval recommended at the time by the American Cancer Society.Results: Thirty-nine percent of women reported not having a mammogram within the last 12 months. The odds of not having had a screening mammography was higher for non-Hispanic White women than for non-Hispanic Black (OR=2.16, 95% CI=0.26, 0.82, p=0.009 or Hispanic (OR=4.17, 95% CI=0.12, 0.48, p=0.01 women. Lack of health insurance (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.54, 6.73, p=0.002 and lack of usual source of medical care (OR=3.37, 95% CI=1.43, 7.94, p=0.01 were associated with not being screened as were lower self-efficacy to obtain screening (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.26, 4.73, p=0.01 and greater levels of religiosity and spirituality (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00, 2.00, p=0.05. Neither perceived risk nor present temporal orientation was significant.Discussion: Odds of not having a mammogram increased if women were uninsured, without medical care, non-Hispanic white, older in age, not confident in their ability to obtain screening, or held passive or external religious/spiritual values. Results are encouraging given racial disparities in healthcare participation and suggest that efforts to increase screening among minority women may be working.

  10. Hispanic Americans in the News in Two Southwestern Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Judy VanSlyke; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines how Hispanic Americans and Hispanic issues were covered by daily newspapers in New Mexico and Texas, two states where complaints relating to media coverage were investigated by state human rights commissions. Reports that Hispanics appear to be receiving ample and fair coverage in San Antonio, Texas, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. (MM)

  11. The Supply and Demand of High-Achieving Hispanic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurantz, Oded; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States, increasing almost six-fold from 1970 to 2014. Although Hispanics youth in the U.S. have traditionally had lower college attendance rates, some sources suggest a narrowing of the White-Hispanic postsecondary attendance gap over the last fifteen years. A key question is whether altering…

  12. Oklahoma City's Emerging Hispanic Community: New Partnerships, New Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinders, Mark A.; Pope, Myron L.

    2016-01-01

    The University of Central Oklahoma's new strategic plan sought to increase its connection to the emerging Hispanic community in Oklahoma City. Simultaneously, the Greater Oklahoma City Hispanic Chamber of Commerce was seeking a higher education partner. This case study describes resulting new programs for Hispanic students and businesses. The…

  13. Alternative Definitions of Hispanics: Consequences in a Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul

    1986-01-01

    Examines impact of different definitions of Hispanic ethnicity on sociodemographic characteristics, drinking patterns, and rate of alcohol problems among 1,453 Hispanic-American respondents. Defines Hispanic ethnicity by ethnicity of family of origin, national group, country most ancestors came from, and birthplace. Finds major differences between…

  14. Methadone-maintenance outcomes for Hispanic and African-American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, F D; Brown, L S; Alterman, A I; Sage, R E; Cnaan, A; Cacciola, J; Rutherford, M

    1999-03-01

    Six-month methadone-maintenance response and outcome were examined for African-American and Hispanic men and women in a large urban sample. A consistent pattern of improvement was indicated for both races and genders on the addiction severity index (ASI). There were virtually no statistically significant differences in ASI outcomes between Hispanics and African-Americans and men and women using conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. Results from an additional equivalence analysis, however, indicated that baseline to 6-month changes for the different groups were generally not similar enough to consider them equivalent. Urine toxicologies obtained during the 6-month treatment period were also not statistically equivalent by race and gender. Evaluating outcomes by gender and race are discussed, as are the implications of using equivalence tests when examining group differences.

  15. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  16. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  17. A Language Challenge to the Hispanic American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Miguel A.

    The Hispanic-American, because he or she is bilingual and bicultural, could play an important role in the future economic development of the United States. Declines in steel, automotive, and electronics industries due to foreign competition and market saturation have caused industrial displacement and unemployment. The Maquiladora or Twin Plant…

  18. The Hispanic Experience of Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, Peter L.

    This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…

  19. Predictors of College Adjustment among Hispanic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal and interpersonal predictors of college adjustment among a sample of 190 first-year Hispanic students. Specifically, we examined the extent to which personal factors such as self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity and interpersonal factors such as parental education and parental attachment…

  20. Charter Public Schools Serving Hispanic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The innovative and culturally responsive teaching practices provided in high-quality charter schools are not only providing Hispanic students with an excellent alternative to district public schools, but they are also yielding academic results that show neither race/ethnicity nor income level must determine a child's future. The compilation of…

  1. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  2. Media and Sex: Perspectives from Hispanic Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston Polacek, Georgia N. L.; Rojas, Viviana; Levitt, Steven; Mika, Virginia Seguin

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about Hispanic teens' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to media influences. Information about this relationship could contribute to an understanding of the early onset of sexual behavior and early teen pregnancy. This paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot project conducted to determine…

  3. Metabolic Syndrome in Hispanic Youth: Results from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Samantha A; Llabre, Maria M; Vidot, Denise C; Isasi, Carmen R; Perreira, Krista; Carnethon, Mercedes; Parrinello, Christina M; Gallo, Linda C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is being diagnosed in youth. Specific diagnostic criteria used to define MetS influence prevalence estimates and populations considered at risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) provide three MetS definitions used in medical research. This study examined concordance among these definitions in 1137 children 10-16 years of age, who participated in the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. Prevalence of MetS and of individual components was estimated using SAS. Mplus was used to test a single-factor model of MetS components (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and fasting glucose). The ATP definition identified most MetS cases in 10-15 (N = 19, 4.7%) and 16-year-old girls (N = 3, 7.3%). The IDF definition identified most cases of MetS in 10-15 (N = 16, 3.1%) and 16-year-old boys (N = 2, 2.8%). Fewest cases of MetS were identified with the WHO definition across age and sex groups. Only one participant was classified as having MetS across all three definitions. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated fasting glucose and systolic blood pressure did not reliably cluster with other risk factors that define MetS in Hispanic/Latino adolescents. We conclude that prevalence estimates of MetS in youth are unstable across current criteria, calling into question the accuracy of defining and diagnosing MetS in youth.

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Perception and Knowledge: A Comparison of Hispanic and White College Students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Shari; Cathorall, Michelle; Romero, Devan R.

    2007-01-01

    There are clear health conditions that disproportionately affect the Hispanic population. One hundred twenty-four (45%) Hispanic and 153 (55%) White college students completed a questionnaire on cardiovascular disease (CVD) awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of risk. Results indicated that Hispanic students rated themselves as poorer in health,…

  5. Perceived Self-Efficacy to Avoid Cigarette Smoking and Addiction: Differences between Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabogal, Fabio; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Finds that, among 263 Hispanic and 150 non-Hispanic White smokers, Hispanics smoked fewer cigarettes, had lower levels of perceived addiction to nicotine, and had higher perceived self-efficacy to avoid smoking, but these differences shrank with greater acculturation. Discusses implications for smoking cessation programs. Contains 27 references.…

  6. Rural versus Urban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøning, Signe Wedel

    and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....

  7. Physical activity in older, rural, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn J; Marshall, Julie A; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Baxter, Judith; Morgenstern, Nora

    2005-06-01

    Understanding variations in physical activity patterns is important for planning health interventions. This study describes age-related change in physical activity in 903 rural Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults age 55-80. The Physical Activity History assessed 13 categories of productive and recreational activity during the past year with up to four assessments per participant from 1987 to 1998. The most common activities were walking and home maintenance/gardening. Productive and recreational physical activity levels were lower in women than men (P productive activity steadily declined with age in NHW and Hispanics. Recreational activity increased slightly until age 63, then decreased after age 70. In women, productive activity initially stayed stable then decreased in NHW after age 63, and in Hispanics it decreased at younger ages before stabilizing after age 70. Recreational activity levels decreased steadily with age in all women, with a steeper rate of decline in NHW than Hispanics. In both ethnic groups, activity levels were lower in diabetics than nondiabetics, except for recreational activity in women where levels did not differ by diabetes status. The most common activities were similar to other studies of older adults, both recreational and productive activities contributed to total activity, and physical activity decreased in all gender-ethnic subgroups with age. Hispanic women reported the lowest activity levels. Interventions to maintain or increase recreational activity may need to target women at an earlier age than men.

  8. Attitudes and behaviors of Hispanic smokers: implications for cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, B V; Perez-Stable, E J; Marin, G; Sabogal, F; Otero-Sabogal, R

    1990-01-01

    The smoking behavior of Hispanics, especially Mexican Americans, has been reported to differ from that of non-Hispanic whites, in both large gender differences in prevalence as well as a lower self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day. This study compared the responses of a convenience sample of 263 Hispanic (44% Mexican American and 38% Central American) and 150 non-Hispanic white smokers, in order to identify other ethnic; gender, and acculturation differences in smoking behaviors. Hispanic women smoked fewer cigarettes and initiated smoking at a comparatively later age than Hispanic men; they were also less likely to smoke during pregnancy than non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics smoked more cigarettes on Saturday than other days, but this was not true for non-Hispanic whites. Will power (voluntad propia) and knowing the negative effects of smoking were considered the most helpful techniques for quitting by Hispanics. Considering that light smokers are able to quit with less intensive cessation techniques, these data suggest that a properly developed health education community intervention may have an impact on smoking rates among Hispanics.

  9. Hispanic Medical Organizations' Support for LGBT Health Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally.

  10. Cardiovascular mortality in Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the Hispanic paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Goel, Kashish; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Allison, Thomas; Somers, Virend K; Erwin, Patricia J; Sochor, Ondrej; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    Hispanics, the largest minority in the U.S., have a higher prevalence of several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than non-Hispanic whites (NHW). However, some studies have shown a paradoxical lower rate of CV events among Hispanics than NHW. To perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cohort studies comparing CV mortality and all-cause mortality between Hispanic and NHW populations in the U.S. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 1950 through May 2013, using terms related to Hispanic ethnicity, CV diseases and cohort studies. We pooled risk estimates using the least and most adjusted models of each publication. We found 341 publications of which 17 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; data represent 22,340,554 Hispanics and 88,824,618 NHW, collected from 1950 to 2009. Twelve of the studies stratified the analysis by gender, and one study stratified people by place of birth (e.g. U.S.-born, Mexican-born, and Central/South American-born). There was a statistically significant association between Hispanic ethnicity and lower CV mortality (OR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78; pvalue value 0.06. These results confirm the existence of a Hispanic paradox regarding CV mortality. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms mediating this protective CV effect in Hispanics. © 2013.

  11. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses

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    Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648 and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158. The participants (14–18 year-olds were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3% was significantly (p < 0.001 higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%. The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week. Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001 higher among Saudi adolescents (64% compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%. The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively. The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05 gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001 gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.

  12. Forging Hispanic communities in new destinations: A case study of Durham, NC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa A.; Parrado, Emilio A.

    2013-01-01

    The Chicago School of urban sociology and its extension in the spatial assimilation model have provided the dominant framework for understanding the interplay between immigrant social and spatial mobility. However, the main tenets of the theory were derived from the experience of pre-war, centralized cities; scholars falling under the umbrella of the Los Angeles school have recently challenged the extent to which they are applicable to the contemporary urban form, which is characterized by sprawling, decentralized, and multi-nucleated development. Indeed, new immigrant destinations, such as those scattered throughout the American Southeast, are both decentralized and lack prior experience with large scale immigration. Informed by this debate this paper traces the formation and early evolution of Hispanic neighborhoods in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. Using qualitative data we construct a social history of immigrant neighborhoods and apply survey and census information to examine the spatial pattern of neighborhood succession. We also model the sorting of immigrants across neighborhoods according to personal characteristics. Despite the many differences in urban form and experience with immigration, the main processes forging the early development of Hispanic neighborhoods in Durham are remarkably consistent with the spatial expectations from the Chicago School, though the sorting of immigrants across neighborhoods is more closely connected to family dynamics and political economy considerations than purely human capital attributes. PMID:24482612

  13. Forging Hispanic communities in new destinations: A case study of Durham, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa A; Parrado, Emilio A

    2012-03-01

    The Chicago School of urban sociology and its extension in the spatial assimilation model have provided the dominant framework for understanding the interplay between immigrant social and spatial mobility. However, the main tenets of the theory were derived from the experience of pre-war, centralized cities; scholars falling under the umbrella of the Los Angeles school have recently challenged the extent to which they are applicable to the contemporary urban form, which is characterized by sprawling, decentralized, and multi-nucleated development. Indeed, new immigrant destinations, such as those scattered throughout the American Southeast, are both decentralized and lack prior experience with large scale immigration. Informed by this debate this paper traces the formation and early evolution of Hispanic neighborhoods in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. Using qualitative data we construct a social history of immigrant neighborhoods and apply survey and census information to examine the spatial pattern of neighborhood succession. We also model the sorting of immigrants across neighborhoods according to personal characteristics. Despite the many differences in urban form and experience with immigration, the main processes forging the early development of Hispanic neighborhoods in Durham are remarkably consistent with the spatial expectations from the Chicago School, though the sorting of immigrants across neighborhoods is more closely connected to family dynamics and political economy considerations than purely human capital attributes.

  14. Association of Obesity, BMI, and Hispanic Ethnicity on Ambulatory Status in Children with Spinal Dysraphism followed near the California-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michelle L; Huang, Andy; Proudfoot, James A; Le, Joan T; Chiang, George J; Bush, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), overweight status (OW), or obesity (OB) and ambulatory status in a predominantly Hispanic population of children with spinal dysraphism (SD). Retrospective data were extracted from records of 272 children and youth aged 0-24 years with a diagnosis of SD. Body mass index (BMI) and OW / OB rates were calculated for children 0-3 years, 4-11 years, and adolescents older than 11. Ethnicity was predominantly Hispanic (65.4%). No difference in mean BMI or OW / OB rate was found between ambulation groups (p = .20; p = .72). Mean BMI and OW / OB rate increased with increasing age in all groups (p < .001; p = .02). Forty-four percent of patients were OW / OB, which was greater among Hispanics (48.2%) compared with non-Hispanics [(35.2%), p = .03]. Female gender was a risk factor for increased BMI among Hispanics (p = .00). Despite no difference in ambulatory status, increasing BMI and OW / OB are associated with Hispanic ethnicity and increasing age.

  15. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Prevalencia de consumo riesgoso y dañino de alcohol en adolescentes de una escuela preuniversitaria urbana de Morelia Prevalence of risky and harmful alcohol consumption in adolescents at an urban preuniversity institute of Morelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván A Sánchez Cortés

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La adolescencia es una etapa de cambios físicos y psicológicos, y en ella con frecuencia comienzan adicciones al tabaco y al alcohol. Este trabajo se realizó a fin de determinar la prevalencia de consumo riesgoso y dañino de alcohol en adolescentes de una escuela preuniversitaria urbana de México. MÉTODOS. Se aplicó el cuestionario AUDIT (The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test para conocer la prevalencia de consumo riesgoso y dañino de alcohol, y se investigaron los antecedentes de ingesta de alcohol y embriaguez en los padres de 315 adolescentes de una escuela preuniversitaria urbana. RESULTADOS. El 65,4 % del total de adolescentes correspondió al sexo femenino. La edad de inicio más frecuente en la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas fue los 12 años (46 de 315 adolescentes; 14,6 %. La cerveza fue la bebida más frecuentemente ingerida por los adolescentes que ingerían bebidas alcohólicas (86,4 %. Las categorías de nivel de consumo mostraron un consumo seguro en 255 adolescentes (81 %, consumo riesgoso en 54 (17,1 % y consumo dañino en 6 (1,9 %. Ochenta y cinco adolescentes manifestaron que alguno de sus padres ingería bebidas alcohólicas con frecuencia (27 % y 65 de ellos (20,6 % comentaron que estos llegaban hasta la embriaguez. CONCLUSIONES. La prevalencia de consumo de alcohol entre los jóvenes constituye un problema regional de salud. Es necesario desarrollar políticas y programas de salud específicos para disminuir su incidencia e impacto.INTRODUCTION. The adolescence is a stage of physical and psychological changes, which are frequently accompanied with addictions to tobacco and alcohol. This paper was aimed at determining the prevalence of risky and harmful alcohol consumption in adolescents from an urban preuniversity institute in Mexico. METHODS. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was applied to know the prevalence of risky and harmful alcohol consumption. The history of alcohol

  17. Pulmonary Disease and Age at Immigration among Hispanics. Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, R Graham; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M; Aldrich, Tom K; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G; Kaplan, Robert C; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S; Mendes, Eliana S; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J

    2016-02-15

    Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18-74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6-39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P immigration. Asthma was more prevalent among Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics born in the United States, and those who had immigrated as children than among other Hispanics. In contrast, the higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Puerto Ricans and Cubans was largely reflective of differential smoking patterns and asthma.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among reproductive-age women, yet the diagnosis may be overlooked during adolescence. Although the clinical and metabolic features are similar to those found in adult women, it can be difficult to distinguish the young woman with PCOS from a normal adolescent. Irregular menses, anovulatory cycles, and acne are not uncommon in adolescent women. Adolescents with a history of premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean-Hispanic and African-American ancestry, and/or obesity are at risk for PCOS and deserve close surveillance. The laboratory evaluation of the adolescent with suspected PCOS or hyperandrogenism should be individualized based on the history, symptoms, and examination findings. The cornerstone of management of PCOS in adolescence includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne, and various treatments for hair removal are dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. Healthy eating, regular exercise, and for the overweight adolescent, weight reduction, are encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have shown that weight loss and exercise decrease androgen levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and lead to the resumption of ovulation. Although initial studies suggest that Metformin may be particularly useful for treating the PCOS adolescent with insulin resistance and obesity, additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy and long-term outcome. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  19. An assessment of hospice bereavement programs for Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo; Martin, Shadi S; Csikai, Ellen L

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States, numbering over 42 million and comprising 15% of the total population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 ). Hispanics are a heterogeneous group that experience disparities in accessing health care, including at the end of life. Specific gaps can be identified in the care of bereaved Hispanic individuals and families. This exploratory study examined bereavement services available and perceived needs for Hispanics in Florida. Hospice bereavement coordinators indicated that limited services were available specifically for Spanish-speakers and that language and cultural barriers were challenges when communicating, offering, and delivering bereavement services to Hispanics. Implications for social workers include the need to increase access to and evaluate the effectiveness of bereavement services for Hispanics.

  20. Using a Modified Theory of Planned Behavior to Examine Adolescents' Workplace Safety and Health Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behavioral Intention: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Rebecca J; Toland, Michael D; Okun, Andrea H; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Bernard, Amy L

    2018-03-31

    Work, a defining feature of adolescence in the United States, has many benefits. Work also has risks, as adolescents experience a higher rate of serious job-related injuries compared to adults. Talking Safety, a free curriculum from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is one tool educators may adopt to provide teens with essential workplace safety and health education. Adolescents (N = 2503; female, 50.1%; Hispanic, 50.0%) in a large urban school district received Talking Safety from their eighth-grade science teachers. This study used a modified theory of planned behavior (which included a knowledge construct), to examine students' pre- and post-intervention scores on workplace safety and health knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention to enact job safety skills. The results from confirmatory factor analyses indicate three unique dimensions reflecting the theory, with a separate knowledge factor. Reliability estimates are ω ≥ .83. The findings from the structural equation models demonstrate that all paths, except pre- to posttest behavioral intention, are statistically significant. Self-efficacy is the largest contributor to the total effect of these associations. As hypothesized, knowledge has indirect effects on behavioral intention. Hispanic students scored lower at posttest on all but the behavioral intention measure, possibly suggesting the need for tailored materials to reach some teens. Overall the findings support the use of a modified theory of planned behavior to evaluate the effectiveness of a foundational workplace safety and health curriculum. This study may inform future efforts to ensure that safe and healthy work becomes integral to the adolescent experience.